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1

Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 2. The neurosurgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Advances in imaging, including multivoxel spectroscopy, tractography, functional MRI and positron emission spectroscopy, are being used by neurosurgeons to target aggressive areas in gliomas, and to help identify tumour boundaries, functional areas and tracts. Neuro-oncological surgeons need to understand these techniques to help maximise tumour resection, while minimising morbidity in an attempt to improve the quality of patient outcome. This article reviews the evidence for the practical use of multimodal imaging in modern glioma surgery.

Brodbelt, A

2011-01-01

2

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications  

PubMed Central

Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis

2013-01-01

3

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Investigation of Cardiovascular Disorders. Part 2: Emerging Applications  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a robust noninvasive technique for the investigation of cardiovascular disorders. The coming-of-age of cardiac magnetic resonance—and especially its widening span of applications—has generated both excitement and uncertainty in regard to its potential clinical use and its role vis-à-vis conventional imaging techniques. The purpose of this evidence-based review is to discuss some of these issues by highlighting the current (Part 1, previously published) and emerging (Part 2) applications of cardiac magnetic resonance. Familiarity with the versatile uses of cardiac magnetic resonance will facilitate its wider clinical acceptance for improving the management of patients with cardiovascular disorders.

Goenka, Ajit H.; Wang, Hui; Flamm, Scott D.

2014-01-01

4

Image registration by parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spite of the large number of different image registration techniques, most of these techniques use the correlation operation to match spatial image characteristics. Correlation is known to be one of the most computationally intensive operations and its computational needs grow rapidly with the increase in the image sizes. In this article, we show that, in many cases, it might be sufficient to determine image transformations by considering only one or several parts of the image rather than the entire image, which could result in substantial computational savings. This paper introduces the concept of registration by parts and investigates its viability. It describes alternative techniques for such image registration by parts and presents early empirical results that address the underlying trade-offs.

Chalermwat, Prachya; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

1997-01-01

5

Parts application handbook study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

1978-01-01

6

A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.  

PubMed

This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×?) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1). PMID:22840977

Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

2012-11-01

7

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

8

Spectral Imaging: Methods, Design, and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral imaging is a relatively new field in which the advantages of optical spectroscopy as an analytical tool are combined with the power of object visualization as obtained by optical imaging; it creates a three-dimensional data set that contains many images of the same object, where each one of them is measured at a different wavelength. Biomedical applications typically require collection of complex information from tissues with minimal invasion and risk at shorter times and lower costs. This chapter will discuss the principles of spectral imaging, various optical designs, and spectral imaging analysis, while a few of the algorithms will be discussed with emphasis on the usage for different experimental modes. Different methods used for spectral imaging systems will be described as well as their advantages, limitations, and possible applications. In addition, the conceptual parts of a spectral imaging system will be described combined with brief description of the major biomedical applications.

Garini, Yuval; Tauber, Elad

9

Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

2011-04-15

10

CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

11

Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Terahertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) results of different human tissue types. Our results are part of an initial study to explore the potential of TPI for biomedical applications. A survey of different tissue types has demonstrated the various contrast mechanisms that are available in TPI, allowing different tissue types to be readily identified. This encourages the pursuit of further studies of TPI for a variety of biomedical applications.

Ciesla, Craig M.; Arnone, Donald D.; Corchia, Alessandra; Crawley, David A.; Longbottom, Christopher; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pepper, Michael

2000-05-01

12

Applications of text-image editing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common approach to processing text which originates as a scanned document image is format conversion, in which procedures such as page segmentation and character recognition are used to convert the scanned text into a structured symbolic description which can be manipulated by a conventional text editor. While this approach is attractive in many respects, there are situations in which complete recognition and format conversion is either unnecessary or very difficult to achieve with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents several applications illustrating an alternative approach to scanned text processing in which document processing operations are performed on image elements extracted from the scanned document image. The central and novel insight is that many document processing operations may be implemented directly by geometrical operations on image blobs, without explicit knowledge of the symbolic character labels (that is, without automatic character recognition). The applications are implemented as part of image EMACS, an editor for binary document images, and include editing multilingual documents, reformatting text to a new column width, differential comparison of two versions of a document, and preprocessing an image prior to character recognition.

Bagley, Steven C.; Kopec, Gary E.

1991-08-01

13

Image wavelet decomposition and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

1989-01-01

14

Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipmen...

A. Mireshghi J. S. Drewery W. S. Hong T. Jing S. N. Kaplan

1994-01-01

15

20 CFR 801.3 - Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

20 Employees' Benefits 3 2009-04-01...2009-04-01 false Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. 801.3 Section 801.3... § 801.3 Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. Part 802 of title...

2009-04-01

16

20 CFR 801.3 - Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. 801.3 Section 801.3... § 801.3 Applicability of this part to 20 CFR part 802. Part 802 of title...

2010-04-01

17

Applications of multichannel imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The described system applies advanced Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings to provide a high-performance, line imaging / multichannel spectrometer. Specifically designed optics produces spectrally dispersed image of the input slit on a two dimensional array of photodetectors in such a way that the full width, half maximum (FWHM) of monochromatic image of each point of the slit is not larger than a single pixel at the detector end. Correcting for aberrations typical to most other multichannel spectrometers allows for the creation of an instrument with very high spatial and spectral resolutions. Appropriate selection of collection fibers arranged along an entrance slit of the spectrometer renders the system into a multichannel spectrometer, where the number of channels is determined by the number of fibers within an 8mm long slit and their separation. The superior performance of the instrument opens the door to numerous applications in technical and biomedical research, process control, homeland security and other application where high performance and/or simultaneous spectral measurement of UV/VIS/NIR radiation produced at multiple sites is required.

Pawluczyk, Olga; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2004-10-01

18

Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

1982-01-01

19

Planning applications in image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1994-01-01

20

Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

21

Summary of Nondestructive Testing Applications. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a bibliographical summary of NDT tasks. The bibliography is divided into three parts. The first part includes the titles and abstracts of technical and analysis reports of engineering and development efforts. The second part lists the...

R. H. Selner N. A. Tracy

1972-01-01

22

Submicron deformation field measurements: Part 2. Improved digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper in a series of three devoted to the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to mechanics problems. In this paper, improvements to the digital image correlation method are outlined, a technique that compares digital images of a specimen surface before and after deformation to deduce its two-dimensional surface displacement field and strains. The necessity of

G. Vendroux; W. G. Knauss

1998-01-01

23

GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

SIMOES, F. J. M.; YANG, C. T.

2008-01-01

24

Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

1975-01-01

25

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

26

Digital image processing for clinicians, part I: Basics of image formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Image formation is the part of digital image processing that creates the interface between the clinician and the computer.\\u000a Pixel depth, resolution, and the translation table used are all important factors affecting the final image.

Christopher L. Hansen

2002-01-01

27

Prototype Videodisk-Based Part-Task Thermal Imaging Trainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal images, or infrared images, are representations of the world based on heat, instead of visible light. Research has shown that the resulting thermal image results in perceptual differences leading to difficulties in interpretation (e.g., the determination of slope angle, concavity/convexity), or increased identification latencies. A joint research project between the United States (NASA and U.S. Army) and Israel (Ministry of Defense and Israel Air Force) has resulted in the development of a prototype part-task trainer for the acquisition of perceptual skills associated with thermal imaging usage. This prototype system is videodisk-based under computer control, using recordings of thermal images. A lesson section introduces declarative knowledge, in which the basic physics and heuristics of thermal imagery are taught. An exercise section teaches procedural knowledge, with the user viewing dynamic, actual imagery, with an interactive detection/location determination task. The general philosophy and design of the trainer will be demonstrated.

Brickner, Michael S.; Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

28

An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

2009-02-01

29

ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of

Mitsuharu Miwa; Takahiro Shikayama

2008-01-01

30

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program for...

2013-10-01

31

Status of polycrystalline-diamond-compact bits: Part 2 - Applications  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed the characteristics, development, and outlook for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. This second part treats applications of PDC bits, including suitable locations, types of hole, and uses.

Feenstra, R.

1988-06-01

32

49 CFR 1550.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT SECURITY UNDER GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES § 1550.1 Applicability of this part. This part applies to the operation of aircraft for which there are no...

2013-10-01

33

Applications of multichannel imaging spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The described system applies advanced Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings to provide a high-performance, line imaging \\/ multichannel spectrometer. Specifically designed optics produces spectrally dispersed image of the input slit on a two dimensional array of photodetectors in such a way that the full width, half maximum (FWHM) of monochromatic image of each point of the slit is not

Olga Pawluczyk; Romuald Pawluczyk

2004-01-01

34

PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation\\u000a of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application\\u000a for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric\\u000a neuroimaging. PET is considered

Sunhee Kim; Noriko Salamon; Hollie A. Jackson; Stefan Blüml; Ashok Panigrahy

2010-01-01

35

47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information...rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the...

2013-10-01

36

Application of Fine Ceramics to Wear Parts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the development of technology for applying sintered ceramics, the steel bonded with ceramics or coated with ceramics to wear parts, the development of zirconia-added alumina ceramics and the wear resistance of such ceramics, the develo...

Y. Hara H. Nagai T. Takahashi M. Akiyama

1988-01-01

37

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: part 2: digital image acquisition.  

PubMed

This is the second installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first article of the series, we reviewed the fundamentals of digital image architecture. In this article, we describe the ways that an author can import digital images to the computer desktop. We explore the modern imaging network and explain how to import picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) images to the desktop. Options and techniques for producing digital hard copy film are also presented. PMID:14605101

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-11-01

38

Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions.

Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

39

Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipments. An important component in the a-Si:H imager is the scintillator screen. A new approach for fabrication of high resolution CsI(Tl) scintillator layers, appropriate for coupling to a-Si:H arrays, are presented. For nuclear medicine applications, a new a-Si:H based gamma camera is introduced and Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate its performance.

Mireshghi, A.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.K.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1994-07-01

40

Lens-Free Imaging for Biological Applications  

PubMed Central

Lens-free (or lensless) imaging is emerging as a cost-effective, compact, and lightweight detection method that can serve numerous biological applications. Lens-free imaging can generate high-resolution images within a field-portable platform, which is ideal for affordable point-of-care devices aiming at resource-limited settings. In this mini-review, we first describe different modes of operation for lens-free imaging and then highlight several recent biological applications of this emerging platform technology.

Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Koo, Kyo-in; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

41

Application of Advanced Ceramics to Wear Parts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes technical development made for applying sintered ceramics, metals joined with sintered ceramics and metals coated with ceramics; development and wear resistance of zirconia-toughened alumina ceramics; development and application of alu...

Y. Hara T. Takahashi H. Nagai M. Akiyama

1989-01-01

42

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials cover aerospace fasteners and their specifications, including the specifics of bolts, nuts, rivets and their applications in the industry.

2011-11-16

43

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials focus on use of rivets in the aerospace industry, including their identification and installation, as well as basic aerospace fasteners applications. Testing and standardization of materials is also covered.

2011-11-16

44

Novel applications of image subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the optical image subtraction techniques can be used to implement two novel operations: firstly, to map the complex amplitude of the object into image irradiance, and in this way to obtain a square root operation; secondly, for pseudocoloring gray level information.

Ojeda-Castañeda, J.; Jara, E.; Ibarra, J.

1980-12-01

45

Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

1997-01-01

46

Laser imaging for clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical optical imaging (MOI) uses light emitted into opaque tissues in order to determine the interior structure and chemical content. These optical techniques have been developed in an attempt to prospectively identify impending brain injuries before they become irreversible, thus allowing injury to be avoided or minimized. Optical imaging and spectroscopy center around the simple idea that light passes through the body in small amounts, and emerges bearing clues about tissues through which it passed. Images can be reconstructed from such data, and this is the basis of optical tomography. Over the past few years, techniques have been developed to allow construction of images from such optical data at the bedside. We have used a time-of-flight system reported earlier to monitor oxygenation and image hemorrhage in neonatal brain. This article summarizes the problems that we believe can be addressed by such techniques, and reports on some of our early results.

van Houten, John P.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Kermit, Eben L.; King, Richard A.; Spilman, Stanley D.; Benaron, David A.

1995-03-01

47

Applications of hydroforming processes to automobile parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroforming process recently draws attention of automotive industries due to its advantages like the increased strength, weight reduction, improved quality and reduced tooling cost. This paper summarizes some of our experiences of tube and sheet hydroforming process design by simulation technique through actual tryout. Parts included in this paper are tie bar, subframe and engine mount bracket. The simulations for

Soo-Ik Oh; Byung-Hee Jeon; Hyun-Yong Kim; Jae-Bong Yang

2006-01-01

48

Image registration for luminescent paint applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

1993-01-01

49

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-01

50

Automatic Classification of Handsegmented Image Parts with Differential Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Differential Evolution, a version of an Evolutionary Algorithm, is used to perform automatic classification of handsegmented\\u000a image parts collected in a seven–class database. Our idea is to exploit it to find the positions of the class centroids in\\u000a the search space such that for any class the average distance of instances belonging to that class from the relative class\\u000a centroid

Ivanoe De Falco; Antonio Della Cioppa; Ernesto Tarantino

2006-01-01

51

Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.  

PubMed

Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes. PMID:24572884

Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

2014-03-01

52

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

Perkins, W. D.

1987-01-01

53

Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Ophthalmology – Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and its applications in ophthalmology. It is evident that drug delivery, gene therapy, implantable devices and regenerative medicine are some of the key areas of active research. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited review work on this subject area in the current literature. To assist the interested

Pho Nguyen; M. Meyyappan; Samuel C. Yiu

2010-01-01

54

Bedside ultrasonography: Applications in critical care: Part I  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians.

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

55

A THz imaging system for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging using the THz-range of the electro- magnetic spectrum is currently emerging as an interesting tool for security, safety, and biomedical applications. In this paper, a THz imaging system designed for biomedical analysis is described. The system consists of a pair of antennas operating in transmission mode at 335 GHz. During measurements the antennas are moved parallel to the sample

T. Rubaek; R. N. Dahlback; A. Fhager; J. Stake; M. Persson

2011-01-01

56

Thermosonic imaging of cracks: applications to teeth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel nondestructive imaging technique, thermosonics, which combines ultrasonic/sonic excitation and advanced infrared imaging, will be described. In this paper, the authors will illuminate the physical principles underlining this technique, and demonstrate its applications to detection of cracks in teeth.

Han, Xiaoyan; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

2001-10-01

57

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: Part 3: Digital image editing.  

PubMed

This is the final installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first two articles of the series, the fundamentals of digital image architecture were reviewed and methods of importing images to the computer desktop were described. In this article, techniques are presented for editing images in preparation for online submission. A step-by-step guide to basic editing with use of Adobe Photoshop is provided and the ethical implications of this activity are explored. PMID:14654480

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-12-01

58

Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation dose efficiency improvement in multi-energy photon-counting CT, and can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT in full-fan and half-fan modes.

Brunner, Stephen T.

59

Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application.

Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

2008-01-01

60

Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012

Kircher, Moritz F.

2012-01-01

61

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF SPECTRAL IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of remote sensing using spectral imaging is just being realized through the investigation to a wide variety of environmental issues. Improved spectral and spatial resolution is very important to the detection of effects once regarded as unobservable. A current researc...

62

Fundamentals and applications of magnetic particle imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique which performs a direct measurement of magnetic nanoparticles, also known as superparamagnetic iron oxide. MPI can acquire quantitative images of the local distribution of the magnetic material with high spatial and temporal resolution. Its sensitivity is well above that of other methods used for the detection and quantification of magnetic materials, for example, magnetic resonance imaging. On the basis of an intravenous injection of magnetic particles, MPI has the potential to play an important role in medical application areas such as cardiovascular, oncology, and also in exploratory fields such as cell labeling and tracking. Here, we present an introduction to the basic function principle of MPI, together with an estimation of the spatial resolution and the detection limit. Furthermore, the above-mentioned medical applications are discussed with respect to an applicability of MPI. PMID:22682260

Borgert, Jörn; Schmidt, Joachim D; Schmale, Ingo; Rahmer, Jürgen; Bontus, Claas; Gleich, Bernhard; David, Bernd; Eckart, Rainer; Woywode, Oliver; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Haegele, Julian; Vogt, Florian M; Barkhausen, Jörg

2012-01-01

63

Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging technique that has substantially affected the diagnosis of a multitude of diseases. It has become the imaging modality of choice for a number of pathologic processes, especially in the central nervous system. The authors discuss the clinical applications of MRI, its current status in radiologic investigations, and radiographic features of some of the common diseases of the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figures 12-13

Kumar, Alka; Montanera, Walter; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Willinsky, Robert; Fenton, Paul V.

1992-01-01

64

Nonnegative Factorization of Diffusion Tensor Images and Its Applications  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a novel method for computing linear basis images from tensor-valued image data. As a generalization of the nonnegative matrix factorization, the proposed method aims to approximate a collection of diffusion tensor images using nonnegative linear combinations of basis tensor images. An efficient iterative optimization algorithm is proposed to solve this factorization problem. We present two applications: the DTI segmentation problem and a novel approach to discover informative and common parts in a collection of diffusion tensor images. The proposed method has been validated using both synthetic and real data, and experimental results have shown that it offers a competitive alternative to current state-of-the-arts in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

Xie, Yuchen; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba C.

2011-01-01

65

Imaging applications in speech production research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary focus of speech production research is directed towards obtaining improved understanding and quantitative characterization of the articulatory dynamics, acoustics, and cognition of both normal and pathological human speech. Such efforts are, however, frequently challenged by the lack of appropriate physical and physiological data. A great deal of attention is, hence, given to the development of novel measurement/instrumentation techniques which are desirably non invasive, safe, and do not interfere with normal speech production. Several imaging techniques have been successfully employed for studying speech production. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the various imaging techniques used in speech research such as x-rays, ultrasound, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, glossometry, palatography, video fibroscopy and imaging is presented. In the second part of the paper, we describe the results of our efforts to understand and model speech production mechanisms of vowels, fricatives, and lateral and rhotic consonants based on MRI data.

Narayanan, Shrikanth; Alwan, Abeer

1996-04-01

66

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...rules governing: (a) The operation of airports regularly serving aircraft operations...in this part. (b) The operation of airport regularly serving foreign air...

2013-10-01

67

24 CFR 1.3 - Application of part 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of part 1. 1.3 Section 1.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development...

2013-04-01

68

Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ghost imaging owes its early popularity to experiments geared towards demonstrating novel physical principles in quantum optics, it has since developed into a viable structured-illumination imaging modality. As the fundamental physical principles that govern ghost imaging are now well-understood in terms of the coherence theory for classical and quantum light, more attention is being devoted to identifying suitable application areas. Here we report on the rigorous analysis of a ghost-imaging remote-sensing architecture that acquires the 2D spatial Fourier transform of the target object (which can be inverted to obtain a conventional image). We determine its image signature, resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of practical constraints, such as atmospheric turbulence, background radiation, and photodetector noise. We delineate the impact of turbulence on resolution, and discuss speckle correlography as a possible means of mitigation. Our analysis provides key insights into the performance differences between ghost imaging and conventional active imaging, and identifies scenarios in which ghost imaging --- theoretically --- yields performance superior to conventional active imagers.

Erkmen, B. I.

2011-05-01

69

Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

1976-01-01

70

Moment-based approaches in imaging part 3: computational considerations  

PubMed Central

Moment functions have been defined in [1] and important properties such as invariance and robustness to noise have been reviewed in the second paper [2]. Before addressing applications of moments, another feature has to be discussed, the computational load. The complexity of image analysis methods, in other words the number of operations they require to achieve a given task, iteratively or not, may lead to practical limitations when dealing with large data sets (2D or 3D image sequences) and time constraints. This issue is also of concern for moments in particular when high orders have to be computed. Special attention must therefore be paid to fast computation. The continuous-to-discrete transform may also affect the analytical properties we must preserve (i.e. invariance, orthogonality, etc.) by introducing numerical errors. The problem of accurate computation of moments should thus be addressed. These two aspects are examined in this third paper.

Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

2008-01-01

71

ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

2008-12-01

72

Biological applications of second harmonic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy dates back to 1974, but effective biological use of the technique has a history\\u000a of barely 10 years. It is now widely used to image collagen in many different applications, and is becoming useful for imaging\\u000a myosin and some polysaccharides. A separate line on research has focussed on SHG dyes, which can provide high-speed indication\\u000a of

Guy Cox

73

Color Image Sharpening and Application to Eye Fundus Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to build an algorithm to sharpen a color digital image based on S-CIELAB extension. We use this method to segment the optic cup inside the optic disc, and the optic disc from the rest of the eye fundus image of glaucomatous eyes. S-CIELAB involves a series of smoothing spatial filters in the opponent color space to approximate the contrast sensitivity functions of the human vision system. The filters are linear combinations of Gaussian masks. We combine these spatial filters with the Laplacian operator in each opponent channel to obtain the sharpened image. The resulting image is then subtracted from the original image in each opponent channel and back transformed to the device independent representation space (XYZ) to obtain the final sharpened image. The application developed to segment the optic cup and the optic disc is intended to give assistance in the cup to disc ratio estimation of glaucomatous eyes. Often the contours of both the optic cup and disc are faint and intersected by entangled veins that make it difficult to draw their silhouettes. The method is based on the information of color, the color differences between neighbor pixels and the geometry of the areas involved. It includes the spatial filtering proposed in the S-CIELAB extension and uses the color image sharpening algorithm.

Valencia, Edison; Millán, María S.

2008-04-01

74

Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields noninstrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usuallay MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the particle image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

1988-01-01

75

Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

1988-01-01

76

A Novel Algorithm for Identification of Body Parts in Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce an algorithm based on energy information obtained from Wavelet Transform for classification of\\u000a medical images according to imaging modalities and body parts. Various medical image retrieval systems are available today\\u000a that classify images according to imaging modalities, orientations, body parts or diseases. Generally these are limited to\\u000a either some specific body part or some specific

Jong-an Park; Gwangwon Kang; Sung Bum Pan; Pankoo Kim

2006-01-01

77

Imaging systems and applications: introduction to the feature.  

PubMed

Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from design of stimuli for human perception, optics applications, and image enhancement to novel imaging modalities in both color and infrared spectral imaging, gigapixel imaging as well as a systems perspective to imaging. PMID:24921894

Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Skauli, Torbjørn; Tominaga, Shoji; Zalevsky, Zeev

2014-05-01

78

Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification  

PubMed Central

Abstract. This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach.

Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Netz, Uwe J.; Blaschke, Sabine; Muller, Gerhard A.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2013-01-01

79

Medical imaging: examples of clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical routine is currently producing a multitude of diagnostic digital images but only a few are used in therapy planning and treatment. Medical imaging is involved in both diagnosis and therapy. Using a computer, existing 2D images can be transformed into interactive 3D volumes and results from different modalities can be merged. Furthermore, it is possible to calculate functional areas that were not visible in the primary images. This paper presents examples of clinical applications that are integrated into clinical routine and are based on medical imaging fundamentals. In liver surgery, the importance of virtual planning is increasing because surgery is still the only possible curative procedure. Visualisation and analysis of heart defects are also gaining in significance due to improved surgery techniques. Finally, an outlook is provided on future developments in medical imaging using navigation to support the surgeon's work. The paper intends to give an impression of the wide range of medical imaging that goes beyond the mere calculation of medical images.

Meinzer, H. P.; Thorn, M.; Vetter, M.; Hassenpflug, P.; Hastenteufel, M.; Wolf, I.

80

An imaging toolbox for smart phone applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a Digital Image Processing toolbox for cellular phones. It is intended for users dealing with imaging algorithms and allows the processing of real images taken by the camera phones. For example, users are able to analyze the images and selected regions of interest using different transforms including Discrete Fourier, Hartley, and Cosine Transforms. One can apply different filters such as median and moving average. Simple image enhancement techniques are also included in the toolbox. A handy user interface allows a suitable browsing through the images and operators. The toolbox is designed to be expandable and more operations will be included in the future targeting military and security applications. The toolbox is implemented using Series 60 Platform SDK for Symbiantm OS, for C++. It allows developers to quickly and efficiently run and test applications for devices that are compatible with the Series 60 Platform. The algorithms are first implemented on Series 60 Platform device emulator on the PC and then installed on the cell phone.

Panchul, Alexandr; Bhupathiraju, Deepthi; Agaian, Sos; Akopian, David

2006-06-01

81

Multipurpose Image Watermarking Algorithms and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The rapid growth of digital multimedia and Internet technologies has made copyright notification, copyright protection, copy protection, integrity verification and multimedia retrieval to become important issues in the digital world. To solve these problems, digital watermarking technique and content based multimedia retrieval have been presented and widely researched. In this chapter, we consider the following three applications for images:

Zhe-ming Lu; Hans Burkhardt; Shu-chuan Chu

2007-01-01

82

Medical imaging applications of emerging broadband networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various existing or envisioned applications for so-called telemedicine networks are described. The current and future medical environments are examined with respect to the use of such networks. The characteristics of medical images that affect their transmission and storage are discussed. Medical communication field trials using the emerging broadband networks are described. Some service scenarios and concepts are presented

Jagdish Kohli

1989-01-01

83

75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 21 requirements to standard design certification or design certification rule (DCR) applicants...Division of Administrative Services, Office of Administration, U.S. Nuclear...Requirements to Applicants for Standard Design Certifications Addressees...

2010-03-24

84

Imaging heart failure: current and future applications.  

PubMed

A variety of cardiac imaging tests are used to help manage patients with heart failure (HF). This article reviews current and future HF applications for the major noninvasive imaging modalities: transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and computed tomography (CT). TTE is the primary imaging test used in the evaluation of patients with HF, given its widespread availability and reliability in assessing cardiac structure and function. Recent developments in myocardial strain, 3-dimensional TTE, and echo contrast appear to offer superior diagnostic and prognostic information. SPECT imaging is a common method employed to detect ischemia and viability in patients with HF; however, PET offers higher diagnostic accuracy for both. Ongoing study of sympathetic and molecular imaging techniques may enable early disease detection, better risk stratification, and ultimately targeted treatment interventions. CMR provides high-quality information on cardiac structure and function and allows the characterization of myocardial tissue. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement allows the determination of HF etiology and may predict patient outcomes and treatment response. Cardiac CT has become a reliable means for detecting coronary artery disease, and recent advances have enabled concurrent myocardial function, perfusion, and scar analyses. Overall, available imaging methods provide reliable measures of cardiac performance in HF, and recent advances will allow detection of subclinical disease. More data are needed demonstrating the specific clinical value of imaging methods and particularly subclinical disease detection in large-scale, clinical settings. PMID:23439018

Paterson, Ian; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; O'Meara, Eileen; So, Aaron; White, James A

2013-03-01

85

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2005-01-01

86

3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imaging laser radar can provide the capability of high resolution 3- D imaging at long ranges. In contrast to conventional passive imaging systems, such as CCD and infrared (IR) techniques, laser radar provides both intensity and range information which a...

D. Letalick H. Larsson T. Chevalier

2005-01-01

87

Uncertainty assessment of digital image correlation method in dynamic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though digital image correlation (DIC) is a widely used optical full field measurement method, it still needs further performance investigations, when it comes to dynamic conditions. Dealing with a moving target, causes a motion effect (i.e. blurring) on the acquired images. This factor is an important source of uncertainty that needs to be quantified. Therefore, the present study aims to perform a systematic uncertainty assessment of DIC method in general dynamic applications. The study focuses on 2D DIC. In the case of 3D DIC similar problems will arise and therefore, a complete understanding of two dimensional conditions will be of great help to further studies which deal with 3D conditions. The whole work can be divided in to two parts. In the first part, a method to simulate the motion effect on a reference image is proposed to be applied. This method allows simulating the acquired images in a real dynamic test and estimating the measurement uncertainty caused by the motion effect. Using this technique, the uncertainty of DIC measurement is estimated. The second part of the study aimed to validate the simulation technique. Therefore, several tests are conducted by imposing harmonic motion to a target, in different frequencies and amplitudes. The results show good agreement between the experiments and the simulations, proving the introduced technique to be an effective method for motion induced uncertainty estimation.

Zappa, Emanuele; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Matinmanesh, Ali

2014-05-01

88

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

89

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part I--Physical Principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most complex imaging technology available to clinicians. Whereas most imaging technologies depict differences in one, or occasionally two, tissue characteristics, MR imaging has five tissue variables—spin density, T1 and T2 relaxation times and flow and spectral shifts—from which to construct its images. These variables can be combined in various ways by selecting pulse sequences and pulse times to emphasize any desired combination of tissue characteristics in the image. This selection is determined by the user of the MR system before imaging data are collected. If the selection is not optimal, the imaging process must be repeated at a cost of time and resources. The optimal selection of MR imaging procedures and the proper interpretation of the resultant images require a thorough understanding of the basic principles of MR imaging. Included in this understanding should be at least the rudiments of how an MR imaging signal is produced and why it decays with time; the significance of relaxation constants; the principles of scanning methods such as saturation recovery, inversion recovery and spin echo; how data obtained by these methods are used to form an image, and how the imaging data are complied by multi-slice and volumetric processes. In selecting an MR imaging unit, information about different magnet designs (resistive, superconductive and permanent) is useful. Although no bioeffects are thought to be associated with an MR imaging examination, some knowledge of the attempts to identify bioeffects is helpful in alleviating concern in patients. Images

Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

1984-01-01

90

Image enhancement technology research for army applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared detector array and the sensitivity. Second, also the intervening atmosphere, in particular over longer ranges, has an impact on the image quality. It degrades the contrast, due to transmission effects, as well as it influences the resolution, due to turbulence blur, of the image. We present studies in the field of infrared image enhancement. Several techniques are described: noise reduction, super resolution, turbulence compensation, contrast enhancement, stabilization. These techniques operate in real-time on COTS/MOTS platforms. They are especially effective in the army theatre, where long horizontal paths, and short line-of-sight limited urban operations are both present. Application of these techniques on observation masts, such as on military camp sites, and on UAVs and moving ground vehicles are discussed. Examples will be presented from several trials in which these techniques were demonstrated, including the presentation of test results.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Schutte, Klamer

2013-06-01

91

Applications of RFID Technology and Smart Parts in Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, industrial and consumer applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) are explored. The state-of-the-art and development in RFID technology is reviewed. A currently operative smart parts based manufacturing system is described which uses RFID as the key technology. The role of RFID in the emerging Wireless Internet Manufacturing field is highlighted.

Gadh, Rajit; Prabhu, B. S. (Bantwal Srinivasa); Zhekun, Li

2009-11-25

92

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2013-04-01

93

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B, Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of the permit application for the WIPP facility. Appendices are presented on the following: the design validation final report; sampling of volatile organic compounds which may be emitted from waste binss, site supplementary roof support system, and studies on wind and tornado probabilities.

Not Available

1991-01-01

94

Designing tracking software for image-guided surgery applications: IGSTK experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery\\u000a Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical\\u000a images.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development\\u000a of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a

Andinet Enquobahrie; David Gobbi; Matthew W. Turek; Patrick Cheng; Ziv Yaniv; Frank Lindseth; Kevin Cleary

2008-01-01

95

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2010-07-01

96

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2009-07-01

97

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2013-07-01

98

Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

2004-07-01

99

Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications.  

PubMed

The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. Although the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, the same optics induce significant aberrations that obviate cellular-resolution imaging in most cases. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. When applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here, we review some of the advances that were made possible with AO imaging of the human retina and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging. PMID:21057346

Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L; Carroll, Joseph

2010-12-01

100

Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. While the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, these same optics induce significant aberrations that in most cases obviate cellular-resolution imaging. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. Applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, RPE cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here we review some of the advances made possible with AO imaging of the human retina, and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging.

Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M.; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.; Carroll, Joseph

2010-01-01

101

Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ~ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

Luukanen, A.; Leivo, M. M.; Rautiainen, A.; Grönholm, M.; Toivanen, H.; Grönberg, L.; Helistö, P.; Mäyrä, A.; Aikio, M.; Grossman, E. N.

2012-12-01

102

Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

Simonett, D. S.

1976-01-01

103

Fast Transforms for Acoustic Imaging—Part I: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical approach for acoustic imaging consists of beamforming, and produces the source distribution of interest convolved with the array point spread function. This convolution smears the image of interest, significantly reducing its effective resolution. Deconvolution methods have been proposed to enhance acoustic images and have produced significant improvements. Other proposals involve covariance fitting techniques, which avoid deconvolution altogether. However,

Flávio P. Ribeiro; Vitor H. Nascimento

2011-01-01

104

Regular wavelets: Application to fixed image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the effect of new mathematical properties brought by wavelet theory on subband coding, for still image compression problems, is addressed. Using a theoretical analysis of discrete time multiresolution decomposition, it is shown that, within the framework, the practical novelty of wavelets reduces to the 'regularity' property of octave band filter banks used in subband coding schemes. Tools which make a systematic study of regularity possible, for applications such as image compression, are derived. A mathematical study of the regularity property is investigated, in which optimal regularity estimation algorithms are derived. Several filter bank design algorithms are proposed, which can balance regularity against other filter properties (orthogonality, linear phase response, frequency selectivity, etc.) which are generally believed to be relevant for image coding. Fast algorithms are derived, for which substantial reduction of computational load required by octave band filter banks is possible. An experimental study of filter properties is carried out, for a simple still image compression scheme, in which the wavelet transform is separable. In this restricted framework, the potential interest of regularity is emphasized, in competition with other criteria such as frequency selectivity and linear phase.

Rioul, Olivier

105

Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

Prandtl, L

1923-01-01

106

A broadband imaging system for research applications  

PubMed Central

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7×1010 cm Hz1?2?W at a wavelength of 11.8 ?m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated.

Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.

2009-01-01

107

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

108

IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In the vidicon tube, IR radiation is sensed by a pyroelectric target such as triglycine sulfate (TGS), which is read out by scanning an electron beam across the surface (current modulation). The TGS single crystal sensors used in pyroelectric vidicon applications are extremely difficult to fabricate in thin section and can be easily damaged during operation due to their brittle nature. Thus, pyrolectric polymers offer several advantages over TGS sensors in these applications due to their low cost and robustness. However, the pyroelectric polymers traditionally have lower sensitivity. Therefore, we are investigating the pyroelectric performance of a family of copolymers based on poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in the compositional range 75/25 to 50/50 moleperformance and sensitivity of these copolymers were compared to that of TGS active sensor elements. Since the sensitivity of these IR sensors is related in part to material thickness, pyroelectric polymers were spin cast from solution to thicknesses <1 micrometer and subsequently used as free-standing thin films. By applying surface treatments and absorptive coatings to the as-cast pyrolectric polymer films, the temperature resolution has been improved to the point where differences between healthy and damaged tissue in the human body can now be distinguished. Examples of IR images of the human body using these pyroelectric polymer vidicon targets will be presented and will be used to provide a direct comparison between TGS and the pyroelectric copolymers in these imaging applications.

Gregory, Otto

2004-03-01

109

Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff

2013-02-01

110

Overlapping events with application to image sequences.  

PubMed

Counting spatially and temporally overlapping events in image sequences and estimating their shape-size and duration features are important issues in some applications. We propose a stochastic model, a particular case of the nonisotropic 3D Boolean model, for performing this analysis: the temporal Boolean model. Some probabilistic properties are derived and a methodology for parameter estimation from time-lapse image sequences is proposed using an explicit treatment of the temporal dimension. We estimate the mean number of germs per unit area and time, the mean grain size and the duration distribution. A wide simulation study in order to assess the proposed estimators showed promising results. The model was applied on biological image sequences of in-vivo cells in order to estimate new parameters such as the mean number and duration distribution of endocytic events. Our results show that the proposed temporal Boolean model is effective for obtaining information about dynamic processes which exhibit short-lived, but spatially and temporally overlapping events. PMID:16986551

Ayala, Guillermo; Sebastian, Rafael; Díaz, María Elena; Díaz, Ester; Zoncu, Roberto; Toomre, Derek

2006-10-01

111

Passive shortwave infrared technology and hyperspectral imaging for maritime applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present image data and discuss naval sensing applications of SWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR imaging in littoral and marine environments under various light conditions. These environments prove to be challenging for persistent surveillance applications as light levels may vary over several orders of magnitude within and from scene to scene. Additional difficulties include imaging over long water paths where marine

K. Peter Judd; James R. Waterman; J. M. Nichols

2010-01-01

112

Bioengineered iron-oxide nanocrystals: Applications in magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical and research applications, effectively increasing the imaging sensitivity of MRI. Current clinical MRI applications utilizing SPIO are limited to liver and gastrointestinal imaging, but further bioengineering will expand the capabilities of SPIO enhanced MRI. This thesis presents different methods of bioengineering SPIO contrast agents for

Brian A. Larsen

2008-01-01

113

Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: part I.  

PubMed

Interest in hot-melt extrusion techniques for pharmaceutical applications is growing rapidly with well over 100 papers published in the pharmaceutical scientific literature in the last 12 years. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) has been a widely applied technique in the plastics industry and has been demonstrated recently to be a viable method to prepare several types of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Hot-melt extruded dosage forms are complex mixtures of active medicaments, functional excipients, and processing aids. HME also offers several advantages over traditional pharmaceutical processing techniques including the absence of solvents, few processing steps, continuous operation, and the possibility of the formation of solid dispersions and improved bioavailability. This article, Part I, reviews the pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion, including equipment, principles of operation, and process technology. The raw materials processed using this technique are also detailed and the physicochemical properties of the resultant dosage forms are described. Part II of this review will focus on various applications of HME in drug delivery such as granules, pellets, immediate and modified release tablets, transmucosal and transdermal systems, and implants. PMID:17891577

Crowley, Michael M; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A; Thumma, Sridhar; Upadhye, Sampada B; Battu, Sunil Kumar; McGinity, James W; Martin, Charles

2007-09-01

114

[Biological Markers in Epidemiology: Concepts, applications, Perspectives (Part II)].  

PubMed

The first part of this paper outlined terms and definitions in the context of the application of biological markers in epidemiological studies. Cardiovascular epidemiology served as an example for their historical development. The second part focusses on DNA-based biomarkers, practical and methodological dimensions of the use of biomarkers in analytic epidemiological studies as well as requirements in respect of validity and quality assurance. Most genetic polymorphisms have no impact on health. However, some can be used as biomarkers for individual sensitvity to exposures and susceptibility for specific diseases. The Human Genome Project has brought about a quantum leap in the development of genetic markers. The practical implications cannot presently be assessed with certainty. However, present and future research programmes of gene-environment interactions depend on "traditional" epidemiological study designs, methods, and concepts. Ethical principles and data protection requirements apply equally to genetic and molecular epidemiology as do the "Guidelines for Good Epidemiological Practice". PMID:11904855

Hoffmann, W; Latza, U; Ahrens, W; Greiser, K H; Kroke, A; Nieters, A; Schulze, M B; Steiner, M; Terschüren, C; Wjst, M

2002-03-01

115

Qualitative part-based models in content-based image retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative, volumetric part-based model is proposed to improve the categorical invariance and viewpoint invariance in content-based\\u000a image retrieval, and a novel two-step part-categorization method is presented to build it. The method consists first in transforming\\u000a parts extracted from a segmented contour primitive map and then categorizing the transformed parts using interpretation rules.\\u000a The first step allows noisy extracted parts

Guillaume-alexandre Bilodeau; Robert Bergevin

2007-01-01

116

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-21

117

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-12

118

Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study).

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

119

Evaluation of polymethine dyes as potential probes for near infrared fluorescence imaging of tumors: part - 1.  

PubMed

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M(-1)cm(-1), ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

James, Nadine S; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

120

Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

1990-01-01

121

Image and video fingerprinting: forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fighting movie piracy often requires automatic content identification. The most common technique to achieve this uses watermarking, but not all copyrighted content is watermarked. Video fingerprinting is an efficient alternative solution to identify content, to manage multimedia files in UGC sites or P2P networks and to register pirated copies with master content. When registering by matching copy fingerprints with master ones, a model of distortion can be estimated. In case of in-theater piracy, the model of geometric distortion allows the estimation of the capture location. A step even further is to determine, from passive image analysis only, whether different pirated versions were captured with the same camcorder. In this paper we present three such fingerprinting-based forensic applications: UGC filtering, estimation of capture location and source identification.

Lefebvre, Frédéric; Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Diehl, Eric

2009-02-01

122

Two satellite image sets for the training and validation of image processing systems for defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many image processing algorithms utilize the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to provide efficient compression and near-perfect reconstruction of image data. Defense applications often require the transmission of data at high levels of compression over noisy channels. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been utilized to optimize image transform filters that outperform standard wavelets for bandwidth-constrained compression of satellite images. The optimization of these filters requires the use of training images appropriately chosen for the image processing system's intended applications. This paper presents two robust sets of fifty images each intended for the training and validation of satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance image processing algorithms. Each set consists of a diverse range of subjects consisting of cities, airports, military bases, and landmarks representative of the types of images that may be captured during reconnaissance missions. Optimized algorithms may be "overtrained" for a specific problem instance and thus exhibit poor performance over a general set of data. To reduce the risk of overtraining an image filter, we evaluate the suitability of each image as a training image. After evolving filters using each image, we assess the average compression performance of each filter across the entire set of images. We thus identify a small subset of images from each set that provide strong performance as training images for the image transform optimization problem. These images will also provide a suitable platform for the development of other algorithms for defense applications. The images are available upon request from the contact author.

Peterson, Michael R.; Aldridge, Shawn; Herzog, Britny; Moore, Frank

2010-04-01

123

New medium wave infrared stimulable phosphor for image intensifier applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort is presently being focused on developing high resolution, high sensitivity medium wavelength IR (MWIR) imaging systems for a variety of applications. These range from thermal imaging for industrial applications to military applications for detecting vehicles, missiles, etc. The present state-of-the-art method for MWIR imaging consists of fabricating linear and two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor detectors, such

Peter K. Soltani; Gregory Pierce; George M. Storti; Charles Y. Wrigley

1990-01-01

124

Imaging terahertz radar for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of concealed threats is a key issue in public security. In short range applications, passive imagers operating at millimeter wavelengths fulfill this task. However, for larger distances, they will suffer from limited spatial resolution. We will describe the design and performance of 0.8-THz imaging radar that is capable to detect concealed objects at a distance of more than 20 meter. The radar highlights the target with the built-in cw transmitter and analyses the returned signal making use of a heterodyne receiver with a single superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixer. With an integration time of 0.3 sec, the receiver distinguishes a temperature difference of 2 K at the 20 m distance. Both the transmitter and the receiver use the same modified Gregorian telescope consisting from two offset elliptic mirrors. The primary mirror defines limits the lateral resolution of the radar to 2 cm at 20 m distance. At this distance, the field of view of the radar has the diameter 0.5 m. It is sampled with a high-speed conical scanner that allows for a frame time less than 5 sec. The transmitter delivers to the target power with a density less than ten microwatt per squared centimeter, which is harmless for human beings. The radar implements a sensor fusion technique that greatly improves the ability to identify concealed objects.

Semenov, Alexei; Richter, Heiko; Böttger, Ute; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

2008-05-01

125

WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews.

Howarth, S.M.

1997-11-14

126

Numerical and Experimental Applications of TWIP Steel in Automotive Parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern automotive design has been faced with the weight reduction problem to meet the CO2 emissions standard while achieving high safety and compact design. Such being the case, most car makers want to use the ultra high strength steels (UHSS). But there are several problems when such steels are used, due to presumed lack of formability. Since the disadvantage such as above, it has been suggested that UHSS need special forming methods or it should be used only limited process like simple bending, by many automotive research institutes. To overcome these shortcomings, Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel for improved strength and formability has been developed by steel making company, including POSCO, Korea. Because of its characteristics, it is expected to be widely used in automotive parts. This paper aims at finding out several ways how to make effective use of TWIP steel in automotive parts. Especially, comprising about from 15 to 18% manganese and from 1.5 to 2% aluminum which was developed by POSCO for application of the automotive parts will be considered.

Lee, J. W.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, J. B.; Oh, P. Y.

2011-08-01

127

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: part 1: the fundamentals.  

PubMed

Online submission of manuscripts will be mandatory for most journals in the near future. To prepare authors for this requirement and to acquaint readers with this new development, herein the basics of digital image processing are described. From the fundamentals of digital image architecture, through acquisition, editing, and storage of digital images, the steps necessary to prepare an image for online submission are reviewed. In this article, the first of a three-part series, the structure of the digital image is described. In subsequent articles, the acquisition and editing of digital images will be reviewed. PMID:14551267

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-10-01

128

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

Deserno (ne Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (ne Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

129

Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy: Applications to Diseases Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Second Harmonic Generation microscopy has emerged as a powerful new optical imaging modality. This Feature describes its chemical and physical principles and highlights current applications in disease diagnostics.

Campagnola, Paul

2011-01-01

130

Neural Networks for Classifying Images of Wood Veneer. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision tree using smaller more specialised modular neural networks for the classification of wood veneer by an automatic\\u000a visual inspection system was presented in Part 1 [1]. A key process in the design of a modular neural network is the use of\\u000a \\

M. S. Packianather; P. R. Drake

2000-01-01

131

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications  

PubMed Central

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm.

Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2010-01-01

132

PET/MR imaging: technical aspects and potential clinical applications.  

PubMed

Instruments that combine positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have recently been assembled for use in humans, and may have diagnostic performance superior to that of PET/computed tomography (CT) for particular clinical and research applications. MR imaging has major strengths compared with CT, including superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, multiplanar image acquisition, and functional imaging capability through specialized techniques such as diffusion-tensor imaging, diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, functional MR imaging, MR elastography, MR spectroscopy, perfusion-weighted imaging, MR imaging with very short echo times, and the availability of some targeted MR imaging contrast agents. Furthermore, the lack of ionizing radiation from MR imaging is highly appealing, particularly when pediatric, young adult, or pregnant patients are to be imaged, and the safety profile of MR imaging contrast agents compares very favorably with iodinated CT contrast agents. MR imaging also can be used to guide PET image reconstruction, partial volume correction, and motion compensation for more accurate disease quantification and can improve anatomic localization of sites of radiotracer uptake, improve diagnostic performance, and provide for comprehensive regional and global structural, functional, and molecular assessment of various clinical disorders. In this review, we discuss the historical development, software-based registration, instrumentation and design, quantification issues, potential clinical applications, potential clinical roles of image segmentation and global disease assessment, and challenges related to PET/MR imaging. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121038/-/DC1. PMID:23525716

Torigian, Drew A; Zaidi, Habib; Kwee, Thomas C; Saboury, Babak; Udupa, Jayaram K; Cho, Zang-Hee; Alavi, Abass

2013-04-01

133

iImage: An Image Based Information Retrieval Application for the iPhone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image processing is a powerful technology that can be used to analyze an image for many useful purposes. However, software like this is often out of the typical user's reach, ilmage directly confronts this problem. The ilmage application takes the sophisticated technologies of image analysis and identification based on MPEG-7 image feature tools and makes them readily available on the

S. Bock; S. Newsome; Q. Wang; W. Zeng; X. Lin; J. Lu

2010-01-01

134

Image-Derived Prediction of Spectral Image Utility for Target Detection Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of an image is an attribute that describes the ability of that image to satisfy performance requirements for a particular application. Building on previous research that defines the assessment of the utility of a spectral image based on the detectability of subpixel targets, this paper examines the prediction of spectral image utility. It first reviews existing methods for

Marcus S. Stefanou; John P. Kerekes

2010-01-01

135

Infrared imaging technology and biological applications.  

PubMed

Temperature is the most frequently measured physical quantity, second only to time. Infrared (IR) technology has been utilized successfully in astronomy (for a summary,see Hermans-Killam, 2002b) and in industrial and research settings (Gruner, 2002; Madding, 1982, 1989; Wolfe & Zissis, 1993) for decades. However, fairly recent innovations have reduced costs, increased reliability, and resulted in noncontact IR sensors offering mobile, smaller units of measurement (EOI, 2002; Flir, 2000, 2001,2002). The advantages of using IR imaging are (1) rapidity in the millisecond range, facilitating measurement of moving targets, (2) noncontact procedures, allowing measurements of hazardous or physically inaccessible objects, (3) no interference and no energy lost from the target, (4) no risk of contamination, and (5) no mechanical effect on the surface of the object. All these factors have led to IR technology's becoming an area of interest for new kinds of applications and users. In both manufacturing and quality control, temperature plays an important role as an indicator of the condition of a product or a piece of machinery (EOI, 2002; Flir, 2000, 2001, 2002; Raytek, 2002). In medical and veterinary applications, IR thermometry is increasingly used in organ diagnostics, in the evaluation of sports injuries and the progression of therapy, in disease evaluation (e.g, breast cancer, arthritis, and SARS; Flir, 2003), and in injury and inflammation examinations in horses, livestock (Tivey & Banhazi, 2002), and zoo animals (Hermans-Killam, 2002a; Thiesbrummel, 2002). Lastly, physiological expressions of life processes in animals (Kastberger, Winder, & Steindl, 2001; Stabentheiner, Kovac, & Hagmüller, 1995; Stabentheiner, Kovac, & Schmaranzer, 2002; Stabentheiner & Schmarnzer, 1987) and plants (Bermadinger-Stabentheiner & Stabentheiner, 1995) can be monitored. The most recent field in which IR technology has been applied is animal behavior. This article focuses on the practical options for noncontact IR thermometry--in particular, in biological applications. PMID:14587551

Kastberger, Gerald; Stachl, Reinhold

2003-08-01

136

An imaging toolbox for smart phone applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a Digital Image Processing toolbox for cellular phones. It is intended for users dealing with imaging algorithms and allows the processing of real images taken by the camera phones. For example, users are able to analyze the images and selected regions of interest using different transforms including Discrete Fourier, Hartley, and Cosine Transforms. One can apply different

Alexandr Panchul; Deepthi Bhupathiraju; Sos Agaian; David Akopian

2006-01-01

137

Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

2011-10-01

138

Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting.

Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2010-01-01

139

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes....

2009-07-01

140

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes....

2010-07-01

141

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes....

2013-07-01

142

Perfusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the technique and application of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute stroke, 25 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner. The Data analysis was done with "3D Med System" developed by our Lab to process the data and obtain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, cerebral blood volume (CBV) map, cerebral blood flow (CBF) map as well as mean transit time (MTT) map. In accute stage of stroke, normal or slightly hypointensity in T1-, hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images were seen in the cerebral infarction areas. There were hypointensity in CBV map, CBF map and ADC map; and hyperintensity in MTT map that means this infarct area could be saved. If the hyperintensity area in MTT map was larger than the area in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the larger part was called penumbra and could be cured by an appropriate thrombolyitic or other therapy. The CBV, CBF and MTT maps are very important in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute especially hyperacute stroke. Comparing with DWI, we can easily know the situation of penumbra and the effect of curvative therapy. Besides, we can also make a differential diagnosis with this method.

Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Xingfeng; Zhu, Fuping

2003-05-01

143

Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications  

SciTech Connect

Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

Melcher, C. L. [Scintillation Materials Research Center, University of Tennessee (United States)

2013-02-05

144

Overview of the ISO/IEC programmer's imaging kernel system application program interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Programmer's Imaging Kernel System (PIKS) is an application program interface (API) for image processing. It is one of three parts of a standard for Image Processing and Interchange being developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper presents an overview of the API; companion papers discuss the imaging architecture and image interchange parts of the standard. PIKS contains a rich set of operators, tools, and utilities. PIKS operators are functional elements that perform manipulations of images or of data objects extracted from images in order to enhance, restore, or assist in the extraction of information from images. These operators range from primitive operators such as convolution and histogram generation to complex, higher level operators such as adaptive histogram equalization and texture feature extraction. PIKS tools are elements that create data objects to be used by PIKS operators, e.g., the generation of filter transfer functions. PIKS utilities are elements that perform basic mechanical implementation tasks such as extracting pixels from an image. PIKS provides a fundamental operator model that supports match point translation of images prior to processing, image-related region-of-interest processing control, image/operator coordinate index assignment, and the ability to define reusable chains of operators.

Pratt, William K.

1992-04-01

145

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

2010-05-01

146

Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications  

SciTech Connect

As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chung, H.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-11

147

BIOMEDICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS USING WAVELET TOOLS FOR EMERGENCY MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the analysis of 2D signals, especially emergency biomedical images are performed using the wavelet tools of MATLAB, has been presented for medical application. In terms of 2D signal analysis, an image is taken and added with different four types of noise (Salt and Peeper, Speckle, Gaussian and Poisson). After that all of the noisy images are de-noised

Fazlul Haque; Hanif Ali; M Adnan Kiber

2010-01-01

148

Application of Uncooled Monolithic Thermoelectric Linear Arrays to Imaging Radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Identification of Incipient Failure of Railcar Wheels Technical Description of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Performance of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Initial Application Summary Imaging Radiometer for Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Description Operation Specifications Summary References INDEX CONTENTS OF VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES

Kruse, Paul W.

149

Microscopic image analysis using mathematical morphology: Application to haematological cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical morphology is a non-linear image processing approach which is based on the application of lattice theory to spatial structures. This technique is proven to be a very powerful tool in microscopic image analysis. In this chapter, we present the architecture of a system of quantitative microscopy which yields an integrated platform for the morphological image analysis, pattern recognition,

Jesús Angulo; Georges Flandrin

150

New medium wave infrared stimulable phosphor for image intensifier applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of effort is presently being focused on developing high resolution, high sensitivity medium wavelength IR (MWIR) imaging systems for a variety of applications. These range from thermal imaging for industrial applications to military applications for detecting vehicles, missiles, etc. The present state-of-the-art method for MWIR imaging consists of fabricating linear and two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor detectors, such as HgCdTe, InSb, etc., and incorporating these into an appropriate optical imaging system. However, such devices are difficult to make and are very expensive. A new detector medium is described which can be fabricated at low cost for use in MWIR imaging. Specifically, the new medium is an electron trapping material capable of up-converting MWIR to visible wavelengths, which can be easily detected with a commercial camera system. This paper will describe the specific performance characteristics of the new phosphor material and its application in MWIR imaging.

Soltani, Peter K.; Pierce, Gregory; Storti, George M.; Wrigley, Charles Y.

1990-07-01

151

Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.  

PubMed

In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation. PMID:24815619

Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

2014-06-01

152

Applications of Digital Image Processing 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique, digital image velocimetry, is proposed for the measurement of instantaneous velocity fields of time dependent flows. A time sequence of single-exposure images of seed particles are captured with a high-speed camera, and a finite number of the single-exposure images are sampled within a prescribed period in time. The sampled images are then digitized on an image processor, enhanced, and superimposed to construct an image which is equivalent to a multiple exposure image used in both laser speckle velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The superimposed image and a single-exposure Image are digitally Fourier transformed for extraction of information on the velocity field. A great enhancement of the dynamic range of the velocity measurement is accomplished through the new technique by manipulating the Fourier transform of both the single-exposure image and the superimposed image. Also the direction of the velocity vector is unequivocally determined. With the use of a high-speed video camera, the whole process from image acquisition to velocity determination can be carried out electronically; thus this technique can be developed into a real-time capability.

Cho, Y. -C.

1988-01-01

153

HTSC Microbolometer for Passive MMW Imaging Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature superconductor (HTSC) microbolometers are highly sensitive thermal detectors that can be miniaturized for affordable passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging. When coupled to a micro-antenna and built into an imaging system, they are most pr...

D. Potrepka D. Wikner E. Zakar M. Dubey S. Tidrow

2006-01-01

154

Part-Based 3D Descriptions of Complex Objects from a Single Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volumetric, 3D, part-based descriptions of complex objects in a scene can be highly beneficial for many tasks such as generic object recognition, navigation, and manipulation. However, it has been difficult to derive such descriptions from image data. There has been some progress in getting such descriptions from range data or from perfect contours, but analysis of a real intensity image

Mourad Zerroug; Ramakant Nevatia

1999-01-01

155

Autoradiographic image intensification - Applications in medical radiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image of an 80 to 90 percent underexposed medical radiograph can be increased to readable density and contrast by autoradiographic image intensification. The technique consists of combining the image silver of the radiograph with a radioactive compound, thiourea labeled with sulfur-35, and then making an autoradiograph from the activated negative.

Askins, B. S.

1978-01-01

156

Theory of Adaptive Mechanisms. Part III. Applications of the Iterative Array Computer Radciac Part IV. A Supplement to Radical Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part III - The report presents the following applications of the Iterative Array Computer RADCIAC: (1) Simulation of Analog Computers on an Iterative Array Computer, (2) Firing Squad Simulation Program, (3) Matrix Multiplication on an Iterative Array, and...

K . Arimot F. R. Moore R. G. Cantarella

1967-01-01

157

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Diagnostic and Interventional Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The advent of ultra-fast imaging techniques has extended the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a static and\\u000a purely diagnostic status to an imaging modality ideally suited for a number of therapeutic applications. These advances—along\\u000a with the recent development and refinement of miniature intravascular imaging catheters and MRI-compatible guidewires, balloon\\u000a catheters, and radiofrequency ablation catheters—have created an exciting

Albert C. Lardo

2000-01-01

158

Applications of Imaging Technology in Radiation Research  

PubMed Central

Imaging research and advances in systems engineering have enabled the transition of medical imaging from a means for accomplishing traditional anatomic visualization (i.e., orthopedic planar film X ray) to a means for noninvasively assessing a variety of functional measures. Perfusion imaging is one of the major highlights in functional imaging. In this work, various methods for measuring perfusion using widely-available commercial imaging modalities and contrast agents, specifically X ray and MR (magnetic resonance), will be described. The first section reviews general methods used for perfusion imaging, and the second section provides modality-specific information, focusing on the contrast mechanisms used to calculate perfusion-related parameters. The goal of these descriptions is to illustrate how perfusion imaging can be applied to radiation biology research.

Lin, MingDe; Jackson, Edward F.

2012-01-01

159

The use of multisensor images for Earth Science applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of more than one remote sensing technique is particularly important for Earth Science applications because of the compositional and textural information derivable from the images. The ability to simultaneously analyze images acquired by different sensors requires coregistration of the multisensor image data sets. In order to insure pixel to pixel registration in areas of high relief, images must be rectified to eliminate topographic distortions. Coregistered images can be analyzed using a variety of multidimensional techniques and the acquired knowledge of topographic effects in the images can be used in photogeologic interpretations.

Evans, D.; Stromberg, B.

1983-01-01

160

Interactive image processing as learning by doing component of a WBT application.  

PubMed

Web Based Training (WBT) is of increasing importance [1][2]. In [5] the main author has presented and discussed an overall approach to WBT for medical image processing. In the present contribution the interactive part of the approach is discussed in detail and its prototypical realisation in the framework of a client server teaching application is presented. PMID:15460651

Horsch, Alexander; Nätscher, Catharina; Tobman, Matvei; Balbach, Thomas; Danninger, Maria; Schulz, Steffi; Stapf, Daniel

2002-01-01

161

Active contour models: application to oral lesion detection in color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of oral lesions in medical color images acquired from the visual part of the light spectrum. The aim is to assist the clinical expert in locating potentially cancerous cases for further analysis (e.g. classification of cancerous vs. non-cancerous lesions). In order to apply the conventional Snake formulation,

Ghassan Hamarneh; Artur Chodorowski; Tomas Gustavssoni

2000-01-01

162

Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 2: multimodality imaging approach for assessment of complications.  

PubMed

Radiologists frequently encounter studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation, or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. It is important for the reporting radiologist to identify potential complications of commonly used spinal implants. Part 1 of this review examined both the surgical approaches used and the normal appearances of these spinal implants and bone grafting techniques. This second part of the review will focus on the multimodal imaging strategy adopted in the assessment of the instrumented spine and the demonstration of imaging findings of common postoperative complications. PMID:22726526

Allouni, A K; Davis, W; Mankad, K; Rankine, J; Davagnanam, I

2013-01-01

163

The Fringe-Imaging Skin Friction Technique PC Application User's Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personal computer application (CXWIN4G) has been written which greatly simplifies the task of extracting skin friction measurements from interferograms of oil flows on the surface of wind tunnel models. Images are first calibrated, using a novel approach to one-camera photogrammetry, to obtain accurate spatial information on surfaces with curvature. As part of the image calibration process, an auxiliary file containing the wind tunnel model geometry is used in conjunction with a two-dimensional direct linear transformation to relate the image plane to the physical (model) coordinates. The application then applies a nonlinear regression model to accurately determine the fringe spacing from interferometric intensity records as required by the Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) technique. The skin friction is found through application of a simple expression that makes use of lubrication theory to relate fringe spacing to skin friction.

Zilliac, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

164

Multiresolution image fusion and its NDT application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data fusion is to integrate the complementary components or information from multiple resources. This will lead to a better and comprehensive understanding of the objects. Although there are all kinds of methodologies for the fusion purpose, multiresolution analysis method is usually adopted for the pixel-level image fusion, i.e., an image-in-image-out procedure. And there are several choices available. In this paper, we present the fusion results of a pair of standard images (simulated multi-focus image) and multi-frequency eddy current C-scan data respectively. The results are achieved by applying the wavelet and the steerable pyramid methods. The fusion result of standard image is evaluated by the standard deviation criteria. The eddy current one is by the signal to noise ratio. .

Liu, Z.; Tsukada, K.; Hanasaki, K.

2000-05-01

165

Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part I. Performance analysis  

SciTech Connect

Research work in smart, unmanned limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications performed during the latter part of FY76 and FY76T by the Special Studies Group of the LLL Physics Department for the Office of Naval Research is reported. Smart water-traversing limbed remotely navigated vehicles are interesting because: they are the only viable small vehicle usable in high sea states; they are small and work on the ocean surface, they are much harder to detect than any other conventional craft; they have no human pilot, are capable of high-g evasion, and will continue to operate after direct hits that would have crippled a human crew; they have the prospect of providing surface platforms possessing unprecedented speed and maneuverability; unlike manned information-gathering craft, they impose almost no penalty for missions in excess of 10 hours (no need to rotate shifts of crewmen, no food/lavatory requirements, etc.) and, in their ''loitering mode'', waterbugs could perhaps perform their missions for days to weeks; they are cheap enough to use for one-way missions; they are mass-producible; they are inherently reliable--almost impossible to sink and, in the event of in-use failure, the vehicle will not be destroyed; they maximally exploit continuing technological asymmetries between the U.S. and its potential opponents; and they are economically highly cost-effective for a wide spectrum of Navy missions. (TFD)

Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

1976-09-30

166

Stem cells in dentistry--Part II: Clinical applications.  

PubMed

New technologies that facilitate solid alveolar ridge augmentation are receiving considerable attention in the field of prosthodontics because of the growing requirement for esthetic and functional reconstruction by dental implant treatments. Recently, several studies have demonstrated potential advantages for stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are now an excellent candidate for tissue replacement therapies, and tissue engineering approaches and chair-side cellular grafting approaches using autologous MSCs represent the clinical state of the art for stem-cell-based alveolar bone regeneration. Basic studies have revealed that crosstalk between implanted donor cells and recipient immune cells plays a key role in determining clinical success that may involve the recently observed immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Part II of this review first overviews progress in regenerative dentistry to consider the implications of the stem cell technology in dentistry and then highlights cutting-edge stem-cell-based alveolar bone regenerative therapies. Factors that affect stem-cell-based bone regeneration as related to the local immune response are then discussed. Additionally, pre-clinical stem cell studies for the regeneration of teeth and other oral organs as well as possible applications of MSC-based immunotherapy in dentistry are outlined. Finally, the marketing of stem cell technology in dental stem cell banks with a view toward future regenerative therapies is introduced. PMID:23137671

Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

2012-10-01

167

Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

Tilton, James C.

1988-01-01

168

BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

Planinsic, Gorazd

2011-09-01

169

Zernike moment-based image shape analysis and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel pattern recognition application, the application in agronomy and proposes a roundness measurement concept to analyze the roundness of rose flower shapes for the new application. The rationality of this concept is theoretically analyzed and its mathematical definition is given. Experiment results show that this measurement is an efficient parameter for image shape analysis.

Zhenjiang Miao

2000-01-01

170

Imaging the lymphatic system: possibilities and clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphatic system is anatomically complex and difficult to image. Lymph ducts are responsible for the drainage of part of the body’s interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes account for the enrichment of lymph fluid, and can be involved in a large variety of diseases, especially cancer. For a long time, lymphatic imaging was limited to the sole use of conventional lymphography

Olivier Clément; Alain Luciani

2004-01-01

171

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

172

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

M. L. Simpson; D. P. Hutchinson; R. K. Richards; C. A. Bennett

1997-01-01

173

Retinal image analysis: Concepts, applications and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it

Niall Patton; Tariq M. Aslam; Thomas MacGillivray; Ian J. Deary; Baljean Dhillon; Robert H. Eikelboom; Kanagasingam Yogesan; Ian J. Constable

2006-01-01

174

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

1997-04-01

175

Palliative wound care, part 2: application of principles.  

PubMed

In part 1 of this 2-part series, we discussed principles of palliative care to help understand the goals of treatment in developing a plan of care. This article, Part 2, aims to provide knowledge of practical topical wound management by common wound etiologies and symptoms among persons who would benefit from palliative wound care. PMID:24685751

Emmons, Kevin R; Dale, Barbara; Crouch, Cathy

2014-04-01

176

High-resolution crosswell imaging of a west Texas carbonate reservoir. Part 4: Reflection imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable crosswell reflection imaging is a challenging task, even after the data have been wavefield-separated in the time domain. Residual, strong coherent noise is still present in the data. Stacking is complicated by the wide range of reflection incidence angles available for imaging. With wavelengths of a few feet, small misalignments as a result of velocity or geometric errors produce

Spyros K. Lazaratos; Jerry M. Harris; M. Van Schaack; J. W. Rector

1995-01-01

177

Imaging 'the lost tribe': a review of adolescent cancer imaging. Part 1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although a small proportion of all cancer registrations, malignancy in adolescence and young adulthood remains the most common natural cause of death in this age group. Advances in the management and outcomes of childhood cancer have not been matched within the adolescent population, with increasing incidence and poorer survival seen amongst teenagers with cancer compared with other populations. There have been increasing moves towards specific adolescent oncology centres, with the aim of centralising expertise, however, ‘adolescent imaging’ does not exist as a speciality in the same way that paediatric imaging does, with responsibility for imaging adolescent patients sometimes falling to paediatric radiologists and sometimes to ‘adult’ radiologists, usually with a specific interest in a tumour type or body system. In this article, imaging of the more common malignancies, encountered in adolescent patients is reviewed. Complications of treatment are reviewed in another article to give an overview of adolescent oncology imaging practice.

Zerizer, I.

2009-01-01

178

Short-lag spatial coherence imaging on matrix arrays, Part 1: Beamforming methods and simulation studies.  

PubMed

Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 x 8 elements in size on a 64 × 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 x 8, 4 x 4, and 2 x 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming. PMID:24960700

Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy

2014-07-01

179

Image Deblurring Using Derivative Compressed Sensing for Optical Imaging Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstruction of multidimensional signals from the samples of their partial derivatives is known to be a standard problem in inverse theory. Such and similar problems routinely arise in numerous areas of applied sciences, including optical imaging, laser interferometry, computer vision, remote sensing and control. Though being ill-posed in nature, the above problem can be solved in a unique and stable manner, provided proper regularization and relevant boundary conditions. In this paper, however, a more challenging setup is addressed, in which one has to recover an image of interest from its noisy and blurry version, while the only information available about the imaging system at hand is the amplitude of the generalized pupil function (GPF) along with partial observations of the gradient of GPF's phase. In this case, the phase-related information is collected using a simplified version of the Shack-Hartmann interferometer, followed by recovering the entire phase by means of derivative compressed sensing. Subsequently, the estimated phase can be combined with the amplitude of the GPF to produce an estimate of the point spread function (PSF), whose knowledge is essential for subsequent image deconvolution. In summary, the principal contribution of this work is twofold. First, we demonstrate how to simplify the construction of the Shack-Hartmann interferometer so as to make it less expensive and hence more accessible. Second, it is shown by means of numerical experiments that the above simplification and its associated solution scheme produce image reconstructions of the quality comparable to those obtained using dense sampling of the GPF phase.

Rostami, Mohammad; Michailovich, Oleg; Wang, Zhou

2012-07-01

180

25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants A Appendix A to Part 276 Indians...UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS Pt. 276, App. A Appendix A to Part...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants part iâgeneral A. Purpose and...

2010-04-01

181

25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants A Appendix A to Part 276 Indians...UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS Pt. 276, App. A Appendix A to Part...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants part iâgeneral A. Purpose and...

2009-04-01

182

40 CFR 91.903 - Applicability to part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability to part 85, subpart T. 91.903 Section 91.903 Protection...903 Applicability to part 85, subpart T. (a) Marine SI engines subject to...requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 85, subpart T, except for the items set forth in...

2013-07-01

183

40 CFR 89.803 - Applicability of part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability of part 85, subpart T. 89.803 Section 89.803 Protection...803 Applicability of part 85, subpart T. (a) Nonroad engines subject to provisions...requirements specified in part 85, subpart T of this chapter, except for the items...

2013-07-01

184

Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology  

PubMed Central

The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

2012-01-01

185

Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d'imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

2012-10-15

186

Application of ASAP in integral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral imaging (II) is a technique that is capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. At present Integral Imaging is a popular three-dimensional imaging technology. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. The micro-lens array is used in recording and replaying 3D scene information in this technique with true color, simply reconstruction and non-relevant light source. In order to research really many precision instrument are required. But the price is too high to set up a complicated authentic imaging system. In the same time the imaging condition is very difficult to satisfy. ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) is an advanced imitates optical software to solve reality optical questions. It is used in many research territories. In this paper the ASAP software is proposed to simulate and model the micro-lens array sheet. The ray tracing and energy distribution is completed. According to the study results we can optimum lens designing through modifying the focal length, aperture size and imaging position. We hope the study cost can be reduced and the efficiency can be improved through the use of simulation method to optical design software ASAP.

Wang, Hong-xia; Xu, Zhi-li; Wen, Shao-jie; Wu, Chun-hong

2012-10-01

187

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

PubMed Central

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis

2013-01-01

188

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

SciTech Connect

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2013-01-15

189

Application of fractal encoding techniques for image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal encoding is the first step in fractal based image compression techniques, but this technique can also be useful outside the image compression field. This paper discusses a fractal encoding technique and some of its variations adapted to the concept of segmenting anomalous regions within an image. The primary goal of this paper is to provide background information on fractal encoding and show application examples to equip the researcher with enough knowledge to apply this technique to other image segmentation applications. After a brief overview of the algorithm, important parameters for successful implementation of fractal encoding are discussed. Included in the discussion is the impact of image characteristics on various parameters or algorithm implementation choices in the context of two applications that have been successfully implemented.

Ferrell, Regina K.; Gleason, Shaun S.; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.

2003-04-01

190

Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of the diver's depth based on the IR surface manifestation. To reduce the impact of measurement and data processing errors in this natural very noisy environment, a computer based analysis process was developed and optimized for this very specific application. Based on its assessment previous contradictions in the bubble growth could be resolved.

Zeng, Debing

191

TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

1984-01-01

192

The Computer Image Generation Applications Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer Image Generation (CIG) systems in flight simulation are evaluated and future trends discussed as they pertain to full mission simulation. Primary consideration is given to the research and development environment, secondary to the training enviro...

R. K. Gullen C. S. Cattell R. K. Overton

1980-01-01

193

Quantum Imaging: New Methods and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports the results obtained in a five-year research program aimed at developing new imaging methods based on the quantum statistical properties of light fields. Significant results obtained in the life of the program include (1) demonstrati...

R. W. Boyd

2012-01-01

194

Applications of Optoacoustic and Photothermal Imaging and Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanned imaging and microscopy based on optoacoustic or photothermal detection can reveal thermal sample structures far beyond the optical penetration depth of the radiation used. Applications are demonstrated to inspection of metals, integrated circuits, and biological material.

Gerd Busse; Hochschule der Bundeswehr Yunchen; Zentrale W. E. Physik

1980-01-01

195

Intensified UV imager for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intensified UV imaging system covering the wavelength range of 120-330 nm is described. Included in the system are digitized electronics, associated memory, and a microprocessor controlled AGC system. Through the use of the AGC and ND1 filter, the dynamic range of the system exceeds 10 to the 7th. Possible modifications that could improve the imager design or give it more flexibility are discussed.

Fort, D. E.; Cohn, R. F.; Fowler, K. R.; Harris, T. J.; King, E. C.

1988-01-01

196

Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spectroscopy is a tool that has been used for decades to identify, understand, and quantify solid, liquid, or gaseous materials, especially in the laboratory. In disciplines ranging from astronomy to chemistry, spectroscopic measurements are used to detect absorption and emission features due to specific chemical bonds, and detailed analyses are used to determine the abundance and physical state of the detected absorbing/emitting species. Spectroscopic measurements have a long history in the study of the Earth and planets. Up to the 1990s remote spectroscopic measurements of Earth and planets were dominated by multispectral imaging experiments that collect high-quality images in a few, usually broad, spectral bands or with point spectrometers that obtained good spectral resolution but at only a few spatial positions. However, a new generation of sensors is now available that combines imaging with spectroscopy to create the new discipline of imaging spectroscopy. Imaging spectrometers acquire data with enough spectral range, resolution, and sampling at every pixel in a raster image so that individual absorption features can be identified and spatially mapped (Goetz et al., 1985).

Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Mustard, J.; Kruse, F.; Ong, C.; Pieters, C.; Swayze, G. A.

2006-01-01

197

Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

1994-09-28

198

Molecular Imaging of Cancer: Applications of Magnetic Resonance Methods  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a complex disease exhibiting a host of phenotypic diversities. Noninvasive multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provide an array of capabilities to characterize and understand several of the vascular, metabolic, and physiological characteristics unique to cancer. The availability of targeted contrast agents has widened the scope of MR techniques to include the detection of receptor and gene expression. In this paper, we have highlighted the application of several MR techniques in imaging and understanding cancer.

Gimi, Barjor; Pathak, Arvind P.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Glunde, Kristine; Artemov, Dmitri; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

2009-01-01

199

Application of Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy to Radiation Biology  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging and spectroscopy is a diverse field that has been of critical importance in a wide range of areas in radiation research. It is capable of spanning a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and has the sensitivity and specificity needed for molecular and functional imaging. This review will describe the basic principles of optical imaging and spectroscopy, highlighting a few relevant applications to radiation research.

Palmer, Gregory M.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Dewhirst, Mark W.

2013-01-01

200

Application of electrical capacitance tomography for imaging industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical tomography is, in certain cases, the most attractive method for real imaging of industrial processes, because of\\u000a its inherent simplicity, rugged construction of the tomographer and high-speed capability. This paper presents examples illustrating\\u000a applications of electrical tomography for imaging fluidized beds, bubble columns and pneumatic conveyors. Electrical tomography\\u000a opens up new ways for processing, imaging and modelling multi-phase flows

Dyakowski Tom

2005-01-01

201

Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

2007-05-01

202

On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

2014-04-01

203

The application of high-speed digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method of using digital images to calculate two-dimensional displacement and deformation or for stereo systems three-dimensional shape, displacement, and deformation. While almost any imaging system can be used with DIC, there are some important challenges when working with the technique in high- and ultra-high-speed applications. This article discusses three of these challenges: camera sensor

Phillip L. Reu; Timothy J. Miller

2008-01-01

204

Application of optical imaging and spectroscopy to radiation biology.  

PubMed

Optical imaging and spectroscopy is a diverse field that has been of critical importance in a wide range of areas in radiation research. It is capable of spanning a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and has the sensitivity and specificity needed for molecular and functional imaging. This review will describe the basic principles of optical imaging and spectroscopy, highlighting a few relevant applications to radiation research. PMID:22360397

Palmer, Gregory M; Vishwanath, Karthik; Dewhirst, Mark W

2012-04-01

205

Content-based image retrieval in medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of content-based access to medical images is fre- quently reported but existing systems are designed for only a particular modality or context of diagnosis. Contrarily, our concept of image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) aims at a general structure for semantic content analysis that is suitable for numerous applications in case-based reasoning or evidence-based medicine. Within IRMA, stepwise

TM Lehmann; Mark O. Güld; Christian Thies; Bartosz Plodowski; Daniel Keysers; Bastian Ott; Henning Schubert

206

Single-Photon Imaging for Astronomy and Aerospace Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Even with the use of powerful optical systems, astronomy and space imaging applications have often to deal with a very limited\\u000a amount of photons. Despite major achievements brought to these applications by CCD and hybrid narrow gap semiconductor detectors\\u000a technologies, and as illustrated by large focal planes used in ground based telescopes, the detection limit of classical solid\\u000a state imaging

Pierre Magnan

207

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

208

A benchtop, ultrafast infrared spectroscopic imaging system for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the potential biomedical applications for a novel infrared spectroscopic microimaging system. A tunable, table top solid-state laser has been coupled to a commercial infrared microscope, fitted with a modified high resolution infrared camera, to create a unique tool for midinfrared imaging. The system is capable of performing broadband imaging at a diffraction-limited spatial resolution, as is demonstrated here

Hemmel Amrania; Andrew McCrow; Chris Phillips

2009-01-01

209

A single-channel THz imaging system for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to technological advances, imaging in the THz-range of the electromagnetic spectrum is currently emerging as an interesting tool for security, safety, and biomedical applications. In this paper, a THz imaging system designed for biomedical analysis is described. The system consists of a pair of antennas operating in transmission mode at 335 GHz. The antennas can be moved independently of

Tonny Rubdok; Robin N. Dahlback; Andreas Fhager; Mikael Persson; Jan Stake

2011-01-01

210

Tomographic Imaging based on Capacitance Measurement and Industrial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitance-based tomographic imaging, which is commonly called electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), has been developed for two decades. This paper briefly introduces ECT sensors, capacitance measuring circuits, image reconstruction algorithms, and a wide range of challenging applications, including multi-phase measurement of oil pipelines, wet gas pipelines, wet gas separators, milk production lines, pneumatic conveyors, cyclone separators and fluidized beds. A recent

Wuqiang Yang

2007-01-01

211

Gravitational Transform for Data Clustering - Application to Multicomponent Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we introduce the concept of gravitational transform, with application to multicomponent image classification. This general concept, from which many settings can be implemented, takes into account both feature sets extracted from the image and the spatial distance between pixels in order to improve the further classification, and thus the partitioning into homogeneous regions. Examples of classification and

C. Cariou; K. Chehdi; A. Nagle

2005-01-01

212

Morphological grayscale reconstruction in image analysis: applications and efficient algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different formal definitions of gray-scale reconstruction are presented. The use of gray-scale reconstruction in various image processing applications discussed to illustrate the usefulness of this transformation for image filtering and segmentation tasks. The standard parallel and sequential approaches to reconstruction are reviewed. It is shown that their common drawback is their inefficiency on conventional computers. To improve this situation,

Luc Vincent

1993-01-01

213

Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging

Burton D. Figler

2001-01-01

214

Improving the performance of acousto-optic tunable filters in imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) can be used as spectral filters for the implementation of multispectral imaging systems. However, obtaining quality images is challenging. In this work, we propose several improvements that enable the use of these systems in quantitative spectroscopic imaging applications. The improvements are based on three pillars: 1. a finer spectral bandpass shaping by dynamically optimizing the radio frequency (rf) driving signal, 2. an extensive calibration process, and 3. careful image preprocessing that uses calibration data to correct some well known AOTF issues in imaging applications. A novel multispectral imaging instrument is built using commercial off-the-shelf components. The instrument includes an Isomet (Springfield, New Jersey) AOTF working in the visible and near-infrared range, and a new concept of rf generator based on a high-speed digital-to-analog converter that allows the generation of multiband signals. The ancillary control software performs the main part of the image optimization process: an initial calibration, a dynamic adjustment of the rf driving signal power and exposure time, and finally the radiometric preprocessing of the acquired multispectral images. Finally, some results of the instrument performance are presented that show the achieved spectral and spatial resolution on different imaging scenarios.

Vila-Francés, Joan; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Amorós-López, Julia

2010-10-01

215

Novel observations and potential applications using digital infrared iris imaging.  

PubMed

Digital infrared iris photography using a modified digital camera system was performed on approximately 300 subjects seen during routine clinical care and research at one facility. Because this image database offered an opportunity to gain new insight into the potential utility of infrared iris imaging, it was surveyed for unique image patterns. Then, a selection of photographs was compiled that would illustrate the spectrum of this imaging experience. Potentially informative image patterns were observed in subjects with cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, Posner-Schlossman syndrome, iridociliary cysts, long anterior lens zonules, nevi, oculocutaneous albinism, pigment dispersion syndrome, pseudophakia, suspected vascular anomaly, and trauma. Image patterns were often unanticipated regardless of preexisting information and suggest that infrared iris imaging may have numerous potential clinical and research applications, some of which may still not be recognized. These observations suggest further development and study of this technology. PMID:19320317

Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana S; Yang, Yongyi; Moroi, Sayoko E; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

2009-01-01

216

Neural networks: Application to medical imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

Clarke, Laurence P.

1994-01-01

217

Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurement for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data are used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

2006-06-01

218

Application of reinforcement learning for segmentation of transrectal ultrasound images  

PubMed Central

Background Among different medical image modalities, ultrasound imaging has a very widespread clinical use. But, due to some factors, such as poor image contrast, noise and missing or diffuse boundaries, the ultrasound images are inherently difficult to segment. An important application is estimation of the location and volume of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. For this purpose, manual segmentation is a tedious and time consuming procedure. Methods We introduce a new method for the segmentation of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound images, using a reinforcement learning scheme. This algorithm is used to find the appropriate local values for sub-images and to extract the prostate. It contains an offline stage, where the reinforcement learning agent uses some images and manually segmented versions of these images to learn from. The reinforcement agent is provided with reward/punishment, determined objectively to explore/exploit the solution space. After this stage, the agent has acquired knowledge stored in the Q-matrix. The agent can then use this knowledge for new input images to extract a coarse version of the prostate. Results We have carried out experiments to segment TRUS images. The results demonstrate the potential of this approach in the field of medical image segmentation. Conclusion By using the proposed method, we can find the appropriate local values and segment the prostate. This approach can be used for segmentation tasks containing one object of interest. To improve this prototype, more investigations are needed.

Sahba, Farhang; Tizhoosh, Hamid R; Salama, Magdy MA

2008-01-01

219

Providing image management and communication functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective delivery of health care has become increasingly dependent on a wide range of medical data which includes a variety of images. Manual and computer-based medical records ordinarily do not contain image data, leaving the physician to deal with a fragmented patient record widely scattered throughout the hospital. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is currently installing a prototype hospital information system (HIS) workstation network to demonstrate the feasibility of providing image management and communications (IMAC) functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system. The core of this system is a database management system adapted to handle images as a new data type. A general model for this integration is discussed and specifics of the hospital-wide network of image display workstations are given.

Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.

1990-08-01

220

Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Simulation Technology Research Dept.

1997-09-01

221

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

222

A novel collector for imaging detector applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this preliminary study, the design of a novel collector for semiconductor imaging devices is presented The novelty of the collector relies on geometrical and physical parameters, which add to the collector enhanced “Frisch-grid” capabilities. As a result, the proposed technology provides an effective mode to shield the electron-collecting electrode from the charge induced on it from moving positive ions

George C. Giakos

1999-01-01

223

Quad Tree Structures for Image Compression Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a class of distortion controlled vector quantizers that are capable of compressing images so they comply with certain distortion requirements. Highlights include tree-structured vector quantizers; multiresolution vector quantization; error coding vector quantizer; error coding multiresolution algorithm; and Huffman coding of the quad-tree…

Markas, Tassos; Reif, John

1992-01-01

224

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are des...

M. L. Simpson D. P. Hutchinson R. K. Richards C. A. Bennett

1997-01-01

225

Infrared scanning images: An archeological application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

Schaber, G. G.; Gumerman, G. J.

1969-01-01

226

CAVASS: a framework for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer Aided Visualization and Analysis Software System (CAVASS) is an open-source software system that is being developed by the Medical Image Processing Group (MIPG) at the University of Pennsylvania. CAVASS is freely available, open source, integrated with popular toolkits, and runs on Windows, Unix, Linux, and Mac OS. It includes extremely efficient of the most commonly used image display, manipulation, and processing operations. Parallel implementations of computationally demanding tasks such as deformable registration are provided as well using the inexpensive COW (Cluster of Workstations) model. CAVASS also seamlessly integrates and interfaces with ITK and provides a graphical user interface for ITK as well. CAVASS can easily interface with a PACS by directly reading and writing medical images in the industry standard DICOM format and can also input and output other common image formats as well. We describe the key features, general software architecture, interface with ITK, parallel architecture, and the CAVASS build and test environment. New stereo rendering capabilities are described as well.

Grevera, George; Udupa, Jayaram; Odhner, Dewey

2009-10-01

227

Applications of Wavelets in Digital Image Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into a host digital content. It is a proven method used for copyright protection and digital rights management. This paper discusses the concept of multi channel digital image watermarking. It discusses how transforms in general and wavelet decomposition in particular help in maximizing the tradeoff between capacity and robustness of multi-channel digital

VYAGHRESWARA RAO NAMUDURI; S. N. NARAHARI PANDIT; KALYAN KOTHINTI; KAMESH NAMUDURI

228

Geologic applications of thermal infrared images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal infrared images provide information about the near-surface physical state of geologic materials, particularly, the density, water content, and heat transfer. Nonterrestrial planetary studies, conducted at fairly coarse resolution, have been useful primarily in determining the distribution of rock fragments. Terrestrial studies, conducted from satellite and aircraft at coarse to fine resolutions, have been successful for monitoring effusive volcanism, delineating

KENNETH WATSON

1975-01-01

229

Simultaneous image fusion and reconstruction using wavelets: Applications to SPOT + LANDSAT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a technique, based on multiresolution wavelet decomposition, for the merging and data fusion of two images. The images to merge are a high-resolution panchromatic image and a low-resolution multispectral image. The method consists of adding the wavelet coefficients of the high-resolution image to the multispectral (low-resolution) data. We applied the method to merge SPOT and LANDSAT (TM) images. The current data fusion methods may not be satisfying because they can distort the spectral characteristics of the multispectral data. The technique presented here is clearly better than the standard IHS and LHS mergers in preserving both spectral and spatial information. The fusion of reconstructed images and the application of the technique to astronomical images are commented on.

Núñez, Jorge; Otazu, Xavier; Fors, Octavi; Prades, Albert

230

Preclinical Whole-body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence sampling of cellular function is widely used in all aspects of biology, allowing the visualization of cellular and sub-cellular biological processes with spatial resolutions in the range from nanometers up to centimeters. Imaging of fluorescence in vivo has become the most commonly used radiological tool in all pre-clinical work. In the last decade, full-body pre-clinical imaging systems have emerged with a wide range of utilities and niche application areas. The range of fluorescent probes that can be excited in the visible to near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum continues to expand, with the most value for in vivo use being beyond the 630 nm wavelength, because the absorption of light sharply decreases. Whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging has not yet reached a state of maturity that allows its routine use in the scope of large-scale pre-clinical studies. This is in part due to an incomplete understanding of what the actual fundamental capabilities and limitations of this imaging modality are. However, progress is continuously being made in research laboratories pushing the limits of the approach to consistently improve its performance in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification. This paper reviews this imaging technology with a particular emphasis on its potential uses and limitations, the required instrumentation, and the possible imaging geometries and applications. A detailed account of the main commercially available systems is provided as well as some perspective relating to the future of the technology development. Although the vast majority of applications of in vivo small animal imaging are based on epi-illumination planar imaging, the future success of the method relies heavily on the design of novel imaging systems based on state-of-the-art optical technology used in conjunction with high spatial resolution structural modalities such as MRI, CT or ultra-sound.

Leblond, Frederic; Davis, Scott C.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Pogue, Brain W.

2013-01-01

231

Applications of digital image correlation to biological tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical methods are becoming commonplace in investiga- tions of the physical and mechanical behavior of biological tissues. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a versatile optical method that shows tremendous promise for applications involving biological tis- sues and biomaterials. We present the fundamentals of DIC with an emphasis on the application to biological materials. An approach for surface preparation is described

Dongsheng Zhang; Dwayne D. Arola

2004-01-01

232

A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

2003-01-01

233

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2011-07-01

234

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2010-07-01

235

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2008-07-01

236

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2006-07-01

237

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2012-07-01

238

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs means those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond which are listed under appendix III to this part. (b) Hazardous constituent or constituents means those...

2009-07-01

239

Applications of magnetic resonance image segmentation in neurology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the introduction of digital imagin devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical modes, 3D visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In this research project several PC based software were developed in order to segment medical images, to visualize raw and segmented images in 3D, and to produce EEG brain maps in which MR images and EEG signals were integrated. The software package was tested and validated in numerous clinical research projects in hospital environment.

Heinonen, Tomi; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Laarne, Paeivi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Laasonen, Erkki; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

1999-05-01

240

Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Imaging in Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively short wavelength of mm-wave and THz radiation coupled with good transmission through many dielectric materials allows images to be formed of concealed objects. This chapter gives an overview of the detectors, their associated circuitry, and system developments over the past 10 years, focussing on personnel security screening. We will discuss the phenomenology of imaging at these wavelengths, introduce the reader to the basic architectures being used and developed for image forming instruments, show examples of systems, and also discuss the feasibility of spectroscopic THz imaging for security screening applications.

Luukanen, Arttu; Appleby, Roger; Kemp, Mike; Salmon, Neil

241

NMR imaging of components and materials for DOE application  

SciTech Connect

The suitability for using NMR imaging to characterize liquid, polymeric, and solid materials was reviewed. The most attractive applications for NMR imaging appear to be liquid-filled porous samples, partially cured polymers, adhesives, and potting compounds, and composite polymers/high explosives containing components with widely varying thermal properties. Solid-state NMR line-narrowing and signal-enhancing markedly improve the imaging possibilities of true solid and materials. These techniques provide unique elemental and chemical shift information for highly complex materials and complement images with similar spatial resolution, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT).

Richardson, B.R.

1993-12-01

242

Fast sensors for time-of-flight imaging applications.  

PubMed

The development of sensors capable of detecting particles and radiation with both high time and high positional resolution is key to improving our understanding in many areas of science. Example applications of such sensors range from fundamental scattering studies of chemical reaction mechanisms through to imaging mass spectrometry of surfaces, neutron scattering studies aimed at probing the structure of materials, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements to elucidate the structure and function of biomolecules. In addition to improved throughput resulting from parallelisation of data collection - imaging of multiple different fragments in velocity-map imaging studies, for example - fast image sensors also offer a number of fundamentally new capabilities in areas such as coincidence detection. In this Perspective, we review recent developments in fast image sensor technology, provide examples of their implementation in a range of different experimental contexts, and discuss potential future developments and applications. PMID:24002354

Vallance, Claire; Brouard, Mark; Lauer, Alexandra; Slater, Craig S; Halford, Edward; Winter, Benjamin; King, Simon J; Lee, Jason W L; Pooley, Daniel E; Sedgwick, Iain; Turchetta, Renato; Nomerotski, Andrei; John, Jaya John; Hill, Laura

2014-01-14

243

Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty.

Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

2013-01-01

244

An open source application framework for astronomical imaging pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST Data Management System is built on an open source software framework that has middleware and application layers. The middleware layer provides capabilities to construct, configure, and manage pipelines on clusters of processing nodes, and to manage the data the pipelines consume and produce. It is not in any way specific to astronomical applications. The complementary application layer provides the building blocks for constructing pipelines that process astronomical data, both in image and catalog forms. The application layer does not directly depend upon the LSST middleware, and can readily be used with other middleware implementations. Both layers have object oriented designs that make the creation of more specialized capabilities relatively easy through class inheritance. This paper outlines the structure of the LSST application framework and explores its usefulness for constructing pipelines outside of the LSST context, two examples of which are discussed. The classes that the framework provides are related within a domain model that is applicable to any astronomical pipeline that processes imaging data. Specifically modeled are mosaic imaging sensors; the images from these sensors and the transformations that result as they are processed from raw sensor readouts to final calibrated science products; and the wide variety of catalogs that are produced by detecting and measuring astronomical objects in a stream of such images. The classes are implemented in C++ with Python bindings provided so that pipelines can be constructed in any desired mixture of C++ and Python.

Axelrod, T.; Kantor, J.; Lupton, R. H.; Pierfederici, F.

2010-07-01

245

New dimensions in endodontic imaging: Part 2. Cone beam computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patel S. New dimensions in endodontic imaging: part 2. Cone beam computed tomography. International Endodontic Journal. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been specifically designed to produce undistorted three- dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a significantly lower effective radiation dose compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). Periapi- cal disease may be

S. Patel

2009-01-01

246

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-02-01

247

Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted.

Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huxford-Phillips, Rachel C.

2013-01-01

248

Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source—Part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) Facility will provide synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes one of the BMIT beamlines: the bend magnet (BM) beamline 05B1-1. It plays a complementary role to the insertion device (ID) beamline 051D-2 and allows either monochromatic or filtered white beam to be used in the experimental hutch. The monochromatic spectral range will span 8-40 keV, and the beam is more than 200 mm wide in the experimental hutch for imaging studies of small and medium-size animals (up to sheep size). The experimental hutch will have a positioning system that will allow imaging (computed tomography and planar imaging) as well as radiation therapy applications with both filtered white and monochromatic X-ray beams and will handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different focal plane detectors (cameras) will be available with resolutions ranging from 10 to 150 ?m.

Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Chapman, Dean; Adams, Gregg; Renier, Michel; Suortti, Pekka; Thomlinson, William

2007-11-01

249

Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)  

SciTech Connect

Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

Van Dort, M.E.

1983-01-01

250

Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance. PMID:24521904

Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

2014-01-01

251

Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized

M. Pesenson; W. Roby; G. Helou; B. McCollum; L. Ly; X. Wu; S. Laine; B. Hartley

2008-01-01

252

Uncooled thermal imaging sensor for UAV applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research by DERA aimed at unmanned air vehicle (UAV) size reduction and control automation has led to a unique solution for a short range reconnaissance UAV system. Known as OBSERVER, the UAV conventionally carries a lightweight visible band sensor payload producing imagery with a large 40°x90° field of regard (FOR) to maximize spatial awareness and target detection ranges. Images taken from three CCD camera units set at elevations from plan view and up to the near horizon and are 'stitched' together to produce the large contiguous sensor footprint. This paper describes the design of a thermal imaging (TI) sensor which has been developed to be compatible with the OBSERVER UAV system. The sensor is based on UK uncooled thermal imaging technology research and offers a compact and lightweight solution operating in the 8-12 ?m waveband without the need for cryogenic cooling. Infra-red radiation is gathered using two lead scandium tantalate (PST) hybrid thermal detectors each with a 384 X 288 pixel resolution, known as the Very Large Array (VLA). The TI system is designed to maintain the imaging format with that of the visible band sensor. In order to practically achieve this with adequate resolution performance, a dual field of view (FOV) optical system is used within a pitchable gimbal. This combines the advantages of a wide angle 40°x30° FOV for target detection and a narrow angle 13°x10° FOV 'foveal patch' to improve target recognition ranges. The gimbal system can be steered in elevation to give the full 90° coverage as with the visible band sensor footprint. The concept of operation is that targets can be detected over the large FOV and then the air vehicle is maneuvered so as to bring the target into the foveal patch view for recognition at an acceptable stand-off range.

Cochrane, Derick M.; Manning, Paul A.; Wyllie, Tim A.

2001-10-01

253

State-of-the-art aortic imaging: part I - fundamentals and perspectives of CT and MRI.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, imaging of the aorta has undergone a clinically relevant change. As part of the change non-invasive imaging techniques have replaced invasive intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography as the former imaging gold standard for aortic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the backbone of pre- and postoperative aortic imaging because they allow for imaging of the entire aorta and its branches. The first part of this review article describes the imaging principles of CT and MRI with regard to aortic disease, shows how both technologies can be applied in every day clinical practice, offering exciting perspectives. Recent CT scanner generations deliver excellent image quality with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Technical developments have resulted in CT scan performed within a few seconds for the entire aorta. Therefore, CT angiography (CTA) is the imaging technology of choice for evaluating acute aortic syndromes, for diagnosis of most aortic pathologies, preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up after endovascular aortic repair. However, radiation dose and the risk of contrast induced nephropathy are major downsides of CTA. Optimisation of scan protocols and contrast media administration can help to reduce the required radiation dose and contrast media. MR angiography (MRA) is an excellent alternative to CTA for both diagnosis of aortic pathologies and postoperative follow-up. The lack of radiation is particularly beneficial for younger patients. A potential side effect of gadolinium contrast agents is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In patients with high risk of NSF unenhanced MRA can be performed with both ECG- and breath-gating techniques. Additionally, MRI provides the possibility to visualise and measure both dynamic and flow information. PMID:24220116

Rengier, Fabian; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Karmonik, Christof; Schoenhagen, Paul; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Partovi, Sasan

2013-11-01

254

Satellite Image Processing Applications in MedioGRID  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high level architectural specification of MedioGRID, a research project aiming at implementing a real-time satellite image processing system for extracting relevant environmental and meteorological parameters on a grid system. The presentation focuses on the key architectural decisions of the GRID-aware satellite image processing system, highlighting the technologies for each of the major components. An essential part

Ovidiu Muresan; textbfFlorin Pop; Dorian Gorgan; Valentin Cristea

2006-01-01

255

Retinal image analysis: Concepts,applications and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop,so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing,analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science,and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology,as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it is the only part

Niall Pattona; Tariq M. Aslam; Thomas MacGillivray; Ian J. Deary; Robert H. Eikelboom; Kanagasingam Yogesan; Ian J. Constable

256

Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II).  

PubMed

This paper reviews applications of laser-based techniques to the fabrication of microfluidic devices for biochips and addresses some of the challenges associated with the manufacture of these devices. Special emphasis is placed on the use of lasers for the rapid prototyping and production of biochips, in particular for applications in which silicon is not the preferred material base. This review addresses applications and devices based on ablation using femtosecond lasers, infrared lasers as well as laser-induced micro-joining, and the laser-assisted generation of micro-replication tools, for subsequent replication of polymeric chips with a technique like laser LIGA. PMID:16773302

Khan Malek, Chantal G

2006-08-01

257

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

258

Spaceborne synthetic-aperture imaging radars - Applications, techniques, and technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 1978, the Seasat satellite was placed into orbit around the earth with a synthetic-aperture imaging radar (SAR) as one of the payload sensors. The Seasat SAR provided, for the first time, synoptic radar images of the earth's surface with a resolution of 25 m. In November 1981, the second imaging radar was successfully operated from space on the Shuttle. The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A acquired images over a variety of regions around the world with an imaging geometry different from the one used by the Seasat SAR. The spaceborne SAR principle is discussed, taking into account ambiguities, orbital and environmental factors, range curvature and range walk, surface interaction mechanisms, thermal and speckle noise, key tradeoff parameters, and nonconventional SAR systems. Attention is also given to spaceborne SAR sensors, the digital processing of spaceborne SAR data, the optical processing of spaceborne SAR data, postimage formation processing, data interpretation techniques and applications, and the next decade.

Elachi, C.; Bicknell, T.; Jordan, R. L.; Wu, C.

1982-01-01

259

Robust 3D part extraction from range images with deformable superquadric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of 3-D geometric primitives is an important issue in model-based computer vision. The reliability of the primitives extraction is vital for further object recognition processing. In this paper, we develop a robust 3-D part extraction system. The deformable superquadrics are selected as 3-D part primitives, and a robust superquadric extraction method is developed. First, we introduce a novel adaptive weighted partial data minimization algorithm which can robustly extract superquadric from data containing both Gaussian and random noise. The convergence and the efficiency of the algorithm are discussed. The fuzzy logic techniques are introduced to further improve the algorithm to handle input containing multiple objects. Finally, a range image processing system is developed based on robust superquadric extraction method. This system can efficiently extract 3-D parts from range images. The testing results using both synthetic and real data are presented.

Hu, Yong-Lin; Wee, William G.

1995-07-01

260

Application of the real-time Retinex image enhancement for endoscopic images.  

PubMed

This paper presents a real-time image enhancement technique for gastric endoscopy, which is based on the variational approach of the Retinex theory. In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost required for image enhancement, processing layers and repeat counts of iterations are determined in accordance with software evaluation result, and as for processing architecture, the pipelining architecture can handle high resolution pictures in real-time. To show its potential, performance comparison between with and without the proposed image enhancement technique is shown using several video images obtained by endoscopy for different parts of digestive organ. PMID:24110460

Okuhata, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hajime; Hara, Shinsuke; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Onoye, Takao

2013-01-01

261

17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ACT § 287.1 Applicability...Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank...

2009-04-01

262

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1987-01-01

263

Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV–Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban

F. R. Martins; R. Rüther; E. B. Pereira; S. L. Abreu

2008-01-01

264

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-08-15

265

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110âApplication of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2013-07-01

266

Value Engineering: Application to the Procurement of Spare Parts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to determine how and to what extent the Department of Defense Value Engineering (VE) effort can be utilized to improve the procurement of spare parts. An in-depth research effort was undertaken in this area. Interviews were c...

M. D. Pockette

1993-01-01

267

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2...property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property...facility located wholly or in part of the space. [29 FR 16293, Dec. 4, 1964,...

2010-10-01

268

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2...property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property...facility located wholly or in part of the space. [29 FR 16293, Dec. 4, 1964,...

2009-10-01

269

Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang

2003-05-01

270

A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

2011-09-01

271

Applications for breast magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

This article reviews the relevant data on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use in screening, the short-term surgical outcomes and long-term cancer outcomes associated with the use of MRI in breast cancer staging, the use of MRI in occult primary breast cancer, as well as MRI to assess eligibility for accelerated partial breast irradiation and to evaluate tumor response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. MRI for screening is supported in specific high-risk populations, namely, women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, a family history suggesting a hereditary breast cancer syndrome, or a history of chest wall radiation. PMID:24882343

Pilewskie, Melissa; Morrow, Monica

2014-07-01

272

Development of prototype shielded cervical intracavitary brachytherapy applicators compatible with CT and MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is an integral part of the treatment regimen for cervical cancer and, generally, outcome in terms of local disease control and complications is a function of dose to the disease bed and critical structures, respectively. Therefore, it is paramount to accurately determine the dose given via ICBT to the tumor bed as well as critical structures. This is greatly facilitated through the use of advanced three-dimensional imaging modalities, such as CT and MR, to delineate critical and target structures with an ICBT applicator inserted in vivo. These methods are not possible when using a shielded applicator due to the image artifacts generated by interovoid shielding. The authors present two prototype shielded ICBT applicators that can be utilized for artifact-free CT image acquisition. They also investigate the MR amenability and dosimetry of a novel tungsten-alloy shielding material to extend the functionality of these devices. Methods: To accomplish artifact-free CT image acquisition, a ''step-and-shoot'' (S and S) methodology was utilized, which exploits the prototype applicators movable interovoid shielding. Both prototypes were placed in imaging phantoms that positioned the applicators in clinically applicable orientations. CT image sets were acquired of the prototype applicators as well as a shielded Fletcher-Williamson (sFW) ovoid. Artifacts present in each CT image set were qualitatively compared for each prototype applicator following the S and S methodology and the sFW. To test the novel tungsten-alloy shielding material's MR amenability, they constructed a phantom applicator that mimics the basic components of an ICBT ovoid. This phantom applicator positions the MR-compatible shields in orientations equivalent to the sFW bladder and rectal shields. MR images were acquired within a gadopentetate dimeglumine-doped water tank using standard pulse sequences and examined for artifacts. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to match the attenuation due to the thickness of this new shield type with current, clinically utilized ovoid shields and a {sup 192}Ir HDR/PDR source. Results: Artifact-free CT images could be acquired of both generation applicators in a clinically applicable geometry using the S and S method. MR images were acquired of the phantom applicator containing shields, which contained minimal, clinically relevant artifacts. The thickness required to match the dosimetry of the MR-compatible and sFW rectal shields was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusions: Utilizing a S and S imaging method in conjunction with prototype applicators that feature movable interovoid shields, they were able to acquire artifact-free CT image sets in a clinically applicable geometry. MR images were acquired of a phantom applicator that contained shields composed of a novel tungsten alloy. Artifacts were largely limited to regions within the ovoid cap and are of no clinical interest. The second generation A{sup 3} utilizes this material for interovoid shielding.

Price, Michael J.; Jackson, Edward F.; Gifford, Kent A.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); and Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2009-12-15

273

A CMOS image sensor with optical and potential dual imaging function for on-chip bioscientific applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical and potential dual imaging CMOS sensor for bioscientific applications was proposed and fabricated. The CMOS image sensor has the capability to simultaneously capture optical and on-chip potential images. The sensor is designed with target applications of on-chip DNA (or protein) microarray analysis and on-chip neural imaging. A potential imaging function was implemented onto a CMOS image sensor with

Takashi Tokuda; Akio Yamamoto; Keiichiro Kagawa; Masahiro Nunoshita; Jun Ohta

2006-01-01

274

Passive shortwave infrared technology and hyperspectral imaging for maritime applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present image data and discuss naval sensing applications of SWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR imaging in littoral and marine environments under various light conditions. These environments prove to be challenging for persistent surveillance applications as light levels may vary over several orders of magnitude within and from scene to scene. Additional difficulties include imaging over long water paths where marine haze and turbulence tend to degrade radiation transmission, and discrimination of low contrast objects under low-light and night imaging. Image data obtained from two separate passive sensor systems, both of which are built around an RVS large format (1280 x 1024) InGaAs FPA with high dynamic range and low noise electronics, are presented. The SWIR camera imager is equipped with a custom 300 mm focal length f/2 narrow field-of-view (6° diagonal) refractive telescope. The Hyperspectral imager has a custom selectable 900/1800 mm focal length telescope with corresponding 1.55°/0.79° field-of-view and fnumbers of 3/6 respectively. The sensor uses 1280 pixels in the spatial direction and a window of 192 are used for the spectral and operates at a nominal frame rate of 120 Hz. To assess field performance of the SWIR/Hyperspectral imagers, comparison is made to output from a scientific grade VNIR camera and two state-of-the-art low-light sensors.

Judd, K. Peter; Waterman, James R.; Nichols, J. M.

2010-04-01

275

Lanthanide-functionalized nanoparticles as MRI and luminescent probes for sensing and/or imaging applications.  

PubMed

The combination of lanthanides and nanoparticles to develop new hybrid nanomaterials has become a highly topical area of research in the field of sensing, biomedical imaging, drug delivery, etc. However, these novel nanomaterials have to be carefully designed to ensure that the unique properties conveyed by each component, i.e., lanthanide ions and nanoparticles, are maximized and not negatively affected by one another. In this Forum Article, the main advances in the design of lanthanide-based nanoparticles will be discussed, with the first part focusing on the design of gadolinium(III)-based nanoparticles and their use as magnetic resonance imaging agents. The second part will then describe the main and most recent designs of luminescent lanthanide-based nanoparticles and their applications as sensors or imaging agents, with a special emphasis on our contribution to this area. PMID:24354305

Comby, Steve; Surender, Esther M; Kotova, Oxana; Truman, Laura K; Molloy, Jennifer K; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

2014-02-17

276

Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

In the following review we discuss several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also discusses factors influencing nanoparticle imaging and uptake in live cells in vitro. Due to their unique size-dependent properties nanoparticles offer numerous advantages over traditional dyes and proteins. For example, the photostability, narrow emission peak, and ability to rationally modify both the size and surface chemistry of Quantum Dots allow for simultaneous analyses of multiple targets within the same cell. On the other hand, the surface characteristics of nanometer sized TiO2allow efficient conjugation to nucleic acids which enables their retention in specific subcellular compartments. We discuss cellular uptake mechanisms for the internalization of nanoparticles and studies showing the influence of nanoparticle size and charge and the cell type targeted on nanoparticle uptake. The predominant nanoparticle uptake mechanisms include clathrin-dependent mechanisms, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis.

2007-01-01

277

The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce  

PubMed Central

Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

278

The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.  

PubMed

Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

279

Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

2013-03-01

280

Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

281

The application of image processing techniques and technology for security and surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The range and scope of EO/IR sensor systems within security and surveillance applications is growing, and this places a corresponding demand on the image processing functionality required to meet the end-users' needs and requirements. Within this paper, the application of different image processing architectures and techniques is reviewed in terms of situational awareness criteria and is illustrated through specific system applications. The concepts and benefits of multimodal and distributed sensor systems are also considered together with the attendant data registration and fusion techniques. Finally, the exploitation of a priori information within the integrated security and surveillance picture is considered from both a processing technology and image display perspective.

Smith, Moira I.; Hickman, Duncan

2007-05-01

282

Design and applications of bispecific heterodimers: molecular imaging and beyond.  

PubMed

Ligand-based molecular imaging probes have been designed with high affinity and specificity for monitoring biological process and responses. Single-target recognition by traditional probes can limit their applicability for disease detection and therapy because synergistic action between disease mediators and different receptors is often involved in disease progression. Consequently, probes that can recognize multiple targets should demonstrate higher targeting efficacy and specificity than their monospecific peers. This concept has been validated by multiple bispecific heterodimer-based imaging probes that have demonstrated promising results in several animal models. This review summarizes the design strategies for bispecific peptide- and antibody-based heterodimers and their applications in molecular targeting and imaging. The design and application of bispecific heterodimer-conjugated nanomaterials are also discussed. PMID:24738564

Luo, Haiming; Hong, Hao; Yang, Sarah P; Cai, Weibo

2014-06-01

283

The application of high-speed digital image correlation.  

SciTech Connect

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method of using digital images to calculate two-dimensional displacement and deformation or for stereo systems three-dimensional shape, displacement, and deformation. While almost any imaging system can be used with DIC, there are some important challenges when working with the technique in high- and ultra-high-speed applications. This article discusses three of these challenges: camera sensor technology, camera frame rate, and camera motion mitigation. Potential solutions are treated via three demonstration experiments showing the successful application of high-speed DIC for dynamic events. The application and practice of DIC at high speeds, rather than the experimental results themselves, provide the main thrust of the discussion.

Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

2008-02-01

284

New Regions of Interest Image Coding Using Up-Down Bitplanes Shift for Network Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Regions Of Interest (ROI) image coding is one of the most significant features in JPEG2000 for network applications. In this\\u000a paper, a new approach for ROI coding so-call Up-Down Bitplanes Shift (UDBShift) is presented. This new method separates all\\u000a bitplanes into three parts: Important Significant Bitplanes (ISB), General Significant Bitplanes (GSB) and Least Sig-nificant\\u000a Bitplanes (LSB). The certain number bitplanes

Li-bao Zhang; Ke Wang

2004-01-01

285

Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

Wood, L.L.

1993-06-07

286

An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

Wong, Wallace K.

1995-01-01

287

A martian case study of segmenting images automatically for granulometry and sedimentology, Part 1: Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary exploration, delineating individual grains in images via segmentation is a key path to sedimentological comparisons with the extensive terrestrial literature. Samples that contain a substantial fine grain component, common at Meridiani and Gusev at Mars, would involve prohibitive effort if attempted manually. Unavailability of physical samples also precludes standard terrestrial methods such as sieving. Furthermore, planetary scientists have been thwarted by the dearth of segmentation algorithms customized for planetary applications, including Mars, and often rely on sub-optimal solutions adapted from medical software. We address this with an original algorithm optimized to segment whole images from the Microscopic Imager of the Mars Exploration Rovers. While our code operates with minimal human guidance, its default parameters can be modified easily for different geologic settings and imagers on Earth and other planets, such as the Curiosity Rover's Mars Hand Lens Instrument. We assess the algorithm's robustness in a companion work.

Karunatillake, Suniti; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Husch, Jonathan M.; Hardgrove, Craig; Skok, J. R.

2014-02-01

288

X-ray characterization of CMOS imaging detector with high resolution for fluoroscopic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS)-based X-ray imaging detectors with high spatial resolution for medical imaging application. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS imaging sensor has been fabricated by using a 0.35 µm 1 Poly 4 Metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 µm×100 µm and the pixel array format is 24×96 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 9.6 mm×2.4 mm. The 14.3-bit extend counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. Both thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were used as converters for incident X-rays to visible light photons. The optical property and X-ray imaging characterization such as X-ray to light response as a function of incident X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution and X-ray images of objects were measured under different X-ray energy conditions. The measured results suggest that our developed CMOS-based X-ray imaging detector has the potential for fluoroscopic imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging applications.

Cha, Bo Kyung; Kim, Cho Rong; Jeon, Seongchae; Kim, Ryun Kyung; Seo, Chang-Woo; Yang, Keedong; Heo, Duchang; Lee, Tae-Bum; Shin, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Boo; Kwon, Oh-Kyung

2013-12-01

289

Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The combination of detection and tracking processing with image fusion is discussed and assessed. Finally, a number of specific examples are presented which include land, air, and sea applications.

Riley, Tom; Smith, Moira

2006-10-01

290

X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications  

SciTech Connect

Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

Shedlock, Daniel [Nucsafe, Inc., 601 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Edwards, Talion [Boeing Research and Technology, 5775 Campus Parkway, Hazelwood, MO 63042 (United States); Toh, Chin [Boeing Research and Technology, 2201 Seal Beach Blvd, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

2011-06-23

291

Monitoring image quality for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is focusing on the definition of a procedure for the qualification of coding schemes for video surveillance applications. It consists in developing and benchmarking tools that learn from the expertise of police and security department. This expertise is intended to be modeled thanks to a campaign of subjective measurement allowing to analyze the way they are using in performing the security tasks like face or license plate recognition, event detection and so on. The results of the previous test are used will be used to tune and to construct a hybrid metric based on basic artifacts detection due to compression and transmission.

Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Nicholson, Didier

2011-01-01

292

Fast-scanning THz medical imaging system for clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for terahertz (THz) medical imaging have proliferated over the past few years due to advancements in source/detector technology and vigorous application development. While considerable effort has been applied to improving source output power and detector sensitivity, significantly less work has been devoted to improving image acquisition method and time. The majority of THz medical imaging systems in the literature typically acquire pixels by translating the target of interest beneath a fixed illumination beam. While this single-pixel whiskbroom methodology is appropriate for in vitro models, it is unsuitable for in vivo large animal and patient imaging due to practical constraints. This paper presents a scanned beam imaging system based on prior work that enables for reduced image acquisition time while allowing the source, target and detector to remain stationary. The system employs a spinning polygonal mirror and a set of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) objective lenses, and operates at a center illumination frequency of 525GHz with ~125GHz of 3dB bandwidth. The system achieves a focused beam diameter of 1.66mm and a large depth of field of <25 mm. Images of characterization targets and ex vivo tissue samples are presented and compared to results obtained with conventional fixed beam scanning systems.

Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Fokwa, Nuhba; Tewari, Priyamvada; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Nowroozi, Bryan; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

2012-10-01

293

A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

Grossmann, Christoph M.

2010-02-01

294

Study on superconducting basic technology for space application, part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feasibility studies on application of superconductivity to the space technology have been made for three years, since FY (Fiscal Year) 1988. In FY 1991, three basic technology, i.e., SIS (Superconductor Insulator Superconductor) mixer, microwave circuit element and superconductive magnetic bearing, are selected as potential technology in the space, and the following further studies were performed: (1) a review of current R & D (Research and Development) status on the technology; (2) a survey on potential use in the space; (3) a survey on the required features of the technology in space use; and (4) a preliminary design study of the devices and/or systems used by the technology, applicable on a satellite. Review works have also made on the current status of R and D programs of superconductive material processing test in the micro gravity environment, and ASTROMAG (Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility) project.

1993-03-01

295

A fast subpixel edge detection method for image of micro-part  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to quickly and exactly detect the subpixel image edge of micro-part, a fast subpixel edge detection method based on the property of Gaussian blurred edge model is proposed. Firstly, the approximate positioning of edge point was extracted by double-threshold segmentation; secondly a Zernike moment operator with a mask size of 5×5 was used to get rid of false edge points and relocate the edge with subpixel accuracy. Experiment results show that the subpixel accuracy and the running time of the method are 0.16 pixel and 0.94s. Therefore, the method is suitable for online threedimensional size detection of micro-part.

Zeng, Tao; Shi, Gengchen; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Fang

2013-03-01

296

[Bayesian statistics in medicine -- part II: main applications and inference].  

PubMed

Bayesian statistics is not only used when one is dealing with 2-way tables, but it can be used for inferential purposes. Using the basic concepts presented in the first part, this paper aims to give a simple overview of Bayesian methods by introducing its foundation (Bayes' theorem) and then applying this rule to a very simple practical example; whenever possible, the elementary processes at the basis of analysis are compared to those of frequentist (classical) statistical analysis. The Bayesian reasoning is naturally connected to medical activity, since it appears to be quite similar to a diagnostic process. PMID:18663689

Montomoli, C; Nichelatti, M

2008-01-01

297

New developments and application of the UPRM MATLAB hyperspectral image analysis toolbox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hyperspectral Image Analysis Toolbox (HIAT) is a collection of algorithms that extend the capability of the MATLAB numerical computing environment for the processing of hyperspectral and multispectral imagery. The purpose the Toolbox is to provide a suite of information extraction algorithms to users of hyperspectral and multispectral imagery. HIAT has been developed as part of the NSF Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging (CenSSIS) Solutionware that seeks to develop a repository of reliable and reusable software tools that can be shared by researchers across research domains. HIAT provides easy access to feature extraction/selection, supervised and unsupervised classification algorithms, unmixing and visualization developed at Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Image Processing (LARSIP). This paper presents an overview of the tools, application available in HIAT using as example an AVIRIS image. In addition, we present the new HIAT developments, unmixing, new oversampling algorithm, true color visualization, crop tool and GUI enhancement.

Rosario-Torres, Samuel; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Hunt, Shawn D.; Jiménez, Luis O.

2007-04-01

298

Mosaic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-speed passive FTIR imaging spectrometer has been developed and tested in airborne flight tests on both fixed wing and helicopter platforms. This sensor was developed and flown from 2000 to 2005 in conjunction with various organizations, and is known as the Turbo FT. The Turbo FT is a laser-less rotary high speed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer capable of very high speed, spectral resolution to 1 cm-1, and operation in rugged environments. For these tests, the sensor was run at 8 cm-1 resolution and 50-100 scans per second with either a single element or a 2x8 element LWIR detector. An on-board auto-calibrating blackbody accessory was developed and automated chemical detection software was developed. These features allow in-flight calibration, facilitated detection of target gas clouds, and reported detections to an on-board targeting computer. This paper will discuss the system specifications, sensor performance, and field results from various experiments. Current work on development of an 8x8 pixel Turbo FT system will also be presented.

Wadsworth, Winthrop; Dybwad, Jens Peter; Stone, Drew

2005-06-01

299

Applications of digital image acquisition in anthropometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a video kinesimeter, a device for the automatic real-time collection of kinematic and dynamic data. Based on the detection of a single bright spot by three TV cameras, the system provides automatic real-time recording of three-dimensional position and force data. It comprises three cameras, two incandescent lights, a voltage comparator circuit, a central control unit, and a mass storage device. The control unit determines the signal threshold for each camera before testing, sequences the lights, synchronizes and analyzes the scan voltages from the three cameras, digitizes force from a dynamometer, and codes the data for transmission to a floppy disk for recording. Two of the three cameras face each other along the 'X' axis; the third camera, which faces the center of the line between the first two, defines the 'Y' axis. An image from the 'Y' camera and either 'X' camera is necessary for determining the three-dimensional coordinates of the point.

Woolford, B.; Lewis, J. L.

1981-01-01

300

Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II  

PubMed Central

Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice – in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

301

Parallelism and Scalability in an Image Processing Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent trends in processor architecture show that parallel processing is moving into new areas of computing in the form\\u000a of many-core desktop processors and multi-processor system-on-chips. This means that parallel processing is required in application\\u000a areas that traditionally have not used parallel programs. This paper investigates parallelism and scalability of an embedded\\u000a image processing application. The major challenges faced

Morten S. Rasmussen; Matthias B. Stuart; Sven Karlsson

2009-01-01

302

Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Terahertz (THz) imaging,is being adopted for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications in aerospace and other government,and industrial settings [1-3]. NASA is currently employing ,THz reflection NDE to examine ,the space shuttle external tank sprayed on foam insulation (SOFI) for voids and disbonds. Homeland security applications such as the inspection of personnel[2], the detection of concealed explosives[2], biological agents, chemical weapons,

David Zimdars; Jeffrey S. White; G. stuk; A. chernovsky; G. Fichter; S. Williamson

2006-01-01

303

All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1\\/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1\\/2. For

Karsten J. Siebert; Torsten Löffler; Holger Quast; Mark Thomson; Tobias Bauer; Rainer Leonhardt; Stephanie Czasch; Hartmut G. Roskos

2002-01-01

304

The selected examples of the application of computer image analysis in the assessment of environmental quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental monitoring (EM) is an essential part of protection of the environment, most of the methods of environmental protection based on visual techniques or physico-chemical and biochemical measurements. The automation of traditional methods proceeds at an accelerating rate, modern laboratories prefer this type of tools to conduct a more comprehensive assessment and online monitoring. The application of computer image analysis methods in biomonitoring brings to this discipline the opportunity to develop innovative tools that allow for more precise sensitive and quantified assessment of monitored processes. The application of techniques based on computer image processing technology will dominate in the future and very comfortable and intuitive tool for researchers in the study of the components of the environment quality. The article presents some methods of automation the acute toxicity bioassay based on the application of computational methods.

Janczak, Damian; Lewicki, Piotr; Mazur, Robert; Boniecki, Piotr; Dach, Jacek; Przybyl, Jacek; Pawlak, Maciej; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Czekala, Wojciech

2013-07-01

305

Bioengineered iron-oxide nanocrystals: Applications in magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical and research applications, effectively increasing the imaging sensitivity of MRI. Current clinical MRI applications utilizing SPIO are limited to liver and gastrointestinal imaging, but further bioengineering will expand the capabilities of SPIO enhanced MRI. This thesis presents different methods of bioengineering SPIO contrast agents for MRI applications. In particular, chemical methods are developed to manipulate contrast agent size via aggregation, modify contrast agent surface encapsulation, and biofunctionalize contrast agents for new applications. Contrast agent sizes from 15 nm to 100 nm are synthesized by nanoparticle aggregation, yielding a new method to incrementally size contrast agent sizing for specific applications. Mono- and Diethoxy silane surface chemistries are applied to SPIO to develop quasi-monolayer biocompatible contrast agent surface encapsulations. Finally, biofunctionalization enables two new applications of SPIO contrast agents, as a new MRI-based method to detect inflammation in vivo, and as a bifunctional MRI contrast agent and nanoparticle antigen delivery system.

Larsen, Brian A.

306

Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed according to a specification which defines the metrics levels to reach, such as the local contrast ?TRSS (NVESD metric), the Signal to Clutter Ratio, or the masking ratio target/mask. An integrated calibrated sensor model simulates the sensor degradations by using the pre and post-filter MTF, and the 3D noise parameters of the camera. The image generation comes with the construction of a ground truth file which indicates all the parameter values defining the image scenario. A large quantity of images can be generated accordingly, leading to a meaningful statistical evaluation. A key feature is that this technique allows to build learning and testing databases with comparable difficulty, in the sense of the chosen image metrics. The theoretical interest of this technique is presented in the paper, compared to the classical ones which use real or simulated data. An application is also presented, within the CALADIOM project (terrestrial target detection with programmable artificial IR retina combined with IR ATR system). Over 38,000 images were processed by this ATR for training and testing, involving seven armored vehicles as targets.

Landeau, Stéphane; Dagobert, Tristan

2006-06-01

307

Image PSF-matching and subtraction: a powerful astronomical technique and its application to industrial imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a family of difficult image-processing scenarios which involve seeking out and quantifying minute changes within a sequence of near-identical images. Traditionally these have been dealt with by carefully registering the images in terms of position, orientiation and intensity, and subtracting them from some template image. However, for critical measurements, this approach breaks down if the point-spread-functions (PSFs) vary even slightly from image to image. Subtraction of registered images whose PSFs are not matched leads to considerable residual structure, which may be mistakenly interpreted as real features rather than processing artefacts. In astronomy, software known as ISIS has been developed to fully PSF-match image sequences and to facilitate their analysis. We show here the tremendous improvement in detection rates and measurement accuracy which ISIS has afforded in our program for the study of rare variable stars in dense, globular star clusters. We discuss the genesis from this work of our new program to use ISIS to search for extra-solar planets in transit across the face of stars in such clusters. Finally we illustrate an application of ISIS in the industrial imaging sector, showing how it can be used to detect minute faults in images of products.

Butler, Raymond F.; O'Tuairisg, Seathrun; Shearer, Andrew; Golden, Aaron

2003-03-01

308

Speed loop cancellation governor for hydrogenerators - Part II: Application  

SciTech Connect

The essential dynamics for a hydrogenerator supplying a large grid may be represented by two control loops: the first for power and the second for speed. Part One of this work develops a governor design intended to neutralize the speed loop's destabilizing effects while tuning for improved load tracking. This paper considers the practical implementation of such a controller by computer. An approximate system is used to develop analytical expressions for the control parameters. These parameters are functions of load level throughout the operating range and may be computed in real time. The effectiveness of the approximate-system-derived control is verified by simulation. Computed transients are indistinguishable from transients for the optimally tuned control.

Filbert, T.L.; Wozniak, L.

1988-03-01

309

Object density-based image segmentation and its applications in biomedical image analysis.  

PubMed

In many applications of medical image analysis, the density of an object is the most important feature for isolating an area of interest (image segmentation). In this research, an object density-based image segmentation methodology is developed, which incorporates intensity-based, edge-based and texture-based segmentation techniques. The proposed method consists of three main stages: preprocessing, object segmentation and final segmentation. Image enhancement, noise reduction and layer-of-interest extraction are several subtasks of preprocessing. Object segmentation utilizes a marker-controlled watershed technique to identify each object of interest (OI) from the background. A marker estimation method is proposed to minimize over-segmentation resulting from the watershed algorithm. Object segmentation provides an accurate density estimation of OI which is used to guide the subsequent segmentation steps. The final stage converts the distribution of OI into textural energy by using fractal dimension analysis. An energy-driven active contour procedure is designed to delineate the area with desired object density. Experimental results show that the proposed method is 98% accurate in segmenting synthetic images. Segmentation of microscopic images and ultrasound images shows the potential utility of the proposed method in different applications of medical image processing. PMID:19473717

Yu, Jinhua; Tan, Jinglu

2009-12-01

310

Hematopoietic growth factors: overview and clinical applications, Part II.  

PubMed

The growth and differentiation of blood cells is regulated by a group of at least 12 glycoproteins, collectively known as hematopoietic growth factors. Advances in protein biochemistry and molecular genetics have provided the tools for the bulk production of these hormones for clinical application. Clinical trials of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 have all demonstrated significant effects on the peripheral blood counts of the recipients. The clinical usefulness of at least two of these agents in ameliorating post-chemotherapy myelosuppression, in the treatment of other cytopenias, and in enhancing engraftment after bone marrow transplantation has already been demonstrated. Potential applications to the therapy and diagnosis of other clinical disorders is under study. The history of the elucidation of these growth factors, our current understanding of their properties, interactions, and clinical effects, and the potential prospects for their future use in the manipulation of human blood cell production are the subject of this review. PMID:1701070

Robinson, B E; Quesenberry, P J

1990-10-01

311

Hematopoietic growth factors: overview and clinical applications, Part III.  

PubMed

The growth and differentiation of blood cells is regulated by a group of at least 12 glycoproteins, collectively known as hematopoietic growth factors. Advances in protein biochemistry and molecular genetics have provided the tools for the bulk production of these hormones for clinical application. Clinical trials of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 have all demonstrated significant effects on the peripheral blood counts of the recipients. The clinical usefulness of at least two of these agents in ameliorating post-chemotherapy myelosuppression, in the treatment of other cytopenias, and in enhancing engraftment after bone marrow transplantation has already been demonstrated. Potential applications to the therapy and diagnosis of other clinical disorders is under study. The history of the elucidation of these growth factors, our current understanding of their properties, interactions, and clinical effects, and the potential prospects for their future use in the manipulation of human blood cell production are the subject of this review. PMID:1700606

Robinson, B E; Quesenberry, P J

1990-11-01

312

Hematopoietic growth factors: overview and clinical applications, Part I.  

PubMed

The growth and differentiation of blood cells is regulated by a group of at least 12 glycoproteins, collectively known as hematopoietic growth factors. Advances in protein biochemistry and molecular genetics have provided the tools for the bulk production of these hormones for clinical application. Clinical trials of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 have all demonstrated significant effects on the peripheral blood counts of the recipients. The clinical usefulness of these agents in ameliorating post-chemotherapy myelosuppression, in the treatment of other cytopenias, and in enhancing engraftment after bone marrow transplantation has already been demonstrated. Potential applications to the therapy and diagnosis of other clinical disorders is under study. The history of the elucidation of these growth factors, our current understanding of their properties, interactions, and clinical effects, and the potential prospects for their future use in the manipulation of human blood cell production are the subject of this review. PMID:2240007

Robinson, B E; Quesenberry, P J

1990-09-01

313

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

314

Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

2014-03-01

315

Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines. PMID:23901144

Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

2014-02-01

316

Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

2004-06-01

317

Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

2004-11-01

318

Information system modeling for biomedical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information system modeling has historically been relegated to a low priority among the designers of information systems. Often times, there is a rush to design and implement hardware and software solutions after only the briefest assessments of the domain requirements. Although this process results in a rapid development cycle, the system usually does not satisfy the needs of the users and the developers are forced to re-program certain aspects of the system. It would be much better to create an accurate model of the system based on the domain needs so that the implementation of the solution satisfies the needs of the users immediately. It would also be advantageous to build extensibility into the model so that updates to the system could be carried out in an organized fashion. The significance of this research is the development of a new formal framework for the construction of a multimedia medical information system. This formal framework is constructed using visual modeling which provides a way of thinking about problems using models organized around real- world ideas. These models provide an abstract way to view complex problems, making them easier for one to understand. The formal framework is the result of an object-oriented analysis and design process that translates the systems requirements and functionality into software models. The usefulness of this information framework is demonstrated with two different applications in epilepsy research and care, i.e., surgical planning of epilepsy and decision threshold determination.

Hoo, Kent S.; Wong, Stephen T.

1999-07-01

319

Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

Radparvar, M.

1995-06-06

320

Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

2005-01-01

321

CASpatch: A SAR image simulation code to support ATR applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, A SAR image simulation code of 3D complex targets named CASpatch is introduced. This code is based on the high frequency technique of shooting and bouncing rays (SBR). The original purpose to design the code is for SAR automatic target recognition (ATR) applications, but it can also be used for RCS prediction and high resolution range profile

Rui Zhang; Jun Hong; Feng Ming

2009-01-01

322

Boolean Derivatives With Application to Edge Detection for Imaging Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new concept of Boolean derivatives as a fusion of partial derivatives of Boolean functions (PDBFs). Three efficient algorithms for the calculation of PDBFs are presented. It is shown that Boolean function derivatives are useful for the application of identifying the location of edge pixels in binary images. The same concept is extended to the development of

Sos S. Agaian; Karen A. Panetta; Shahan C. Nercessian; Ethan E. Danahy

2010-01-01

323

Feature Extraction System for Contextual Classification within Security Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout security imaging applications, there is a persistent need for accurate contextual classification of objects within the scene so proper subsequent decisions can be made. To generate a set of scene attributes necessary for this analysis, this paper presents a novel feature extraction system composed of three divisions: an edge detection system, a segmentation system, and a recognition system. System

E. E. Danahy; K. A. Panetta; S. S. Agaian

2007-01-01

324

Application of Multiple-Instance Learning for Hyperspectral Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-instance learning (MIL) is a learning paradigm used for learning a target concept in the presence of noise or with an uncertainty in target information including class labels. Due to the difficult situations in which hyperspectral images (HSIs) are collected, research in this area is extremely relevant and directly applicable. In the following, an MIL framework is proposed for target

Jeremy Bolton; Paul Gader

2011-01-01

325

ANALYSIS OF CACHE MEMORY STRATEGIES FOR SOME IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks and image processing algorithms typically use very large amounts of data and usually this data is processed itera- tively. Hence, the issue of cache memories for enhancing the pro- cessing speed is important. A particularly important model that fits these applications is the simple loop model. Here, the exact solution for the cache memory simple loop model under

B. Cernuschi-Fr ´ õas; J. L. Hamkalo; J. D. Pfefferman; H. J. Gonz

326

Multianode microchannel array detectors for Space Shuttle imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs) are a family of photoelectric, photoncounting array detectors that have been developed and qualified specifically for use in space. MAMA detectors with formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels are now in use or under construction for a variety of imaging and tracking applications. These photo-emissive detectors can be operated in a windowless configuration

J. G. Timothy; R. L. Bybee

1981-01-01

327

Application of tomographic particle image velocimetry to complex (dusty) plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to obtain detailed measurements of the thermal and transport properties of weakly-coupled dusty plasmas. This paper reports on the application of an extension of these techniques, tomographic PIV (tom-PIV), which provides an instantaneous volumetric measurement of the particle transport.

Williams, Jeremiah [Department of Physics, 225 N. Fountain Avenue, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH 45504 (United States)

2011-11-29

328

Crosshole IP imaging for engineering and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced polarization (IP) imaging is a promising tool in engineering and environmental studies. Application of this technique for near-surface investigations has pre- viously been limited by incomplete understanding of the physicochemical controls on the IP response, together with a lack of appropriate methods for data inversion. As laboratory studies have shown, description of IP in terms of complex electrical conductivity

Andreas Kemna; Andrew Binley; Lee Slater

2004-01-01

329

Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain: review of clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the theoretical background to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and some of its commoner clinical applications, such as cerebral ischemia, brain maturation and traumatic brain injury. We also review its potential use in diseases such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The value of DTI in the investigation of brain tumors and metabolic disorders is assessed.

P. C. Sundgren; Q. Dong; D. Gómez-Hassan; S. K. Mukherji; P. Maly; R. Welsh

2004-01-01

330

GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

YANG, C. T.; SIMOES, F. J. M.

2008-01-01

331

Spectral Geometry Image: Image Based 3D Models for Digital Broadcasting Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3D models for progressive transmission and broadcasting applications is an interesting challenge due to the nature and complexity of such content. In this paper, a new image format for the representation of 3D progressive model is proposed. The powerful spectral analysis is combined with the state of art Ge- ometry Image(GI) to encode static 3D models into

Boon-Seng Chew; Lap-Pui Chau; Ying He; Dayong Wang; Steven C. H. Hoi

2011-01-01

332

Optimization and continuous casting: Part II. Application to industrial casters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of the operation and design of continuous casters is formulated and solved using a nonlinear programing (NLP) strategy. Using objective and constraint functions that relate to casting performance and steel quality, the optimization is performed using a successive quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm applied to a heat flow model. Theoretical development for this approach was presented in Part I of this study.[2] In this article, we present the results of this approach for 12 casting cases. Here, billet and slab caster models were considered for rate maximization, rate minimization, and maximization of enthalpy at the.cutoff point. Both of these are two-dimensional heat flow models based on industrial continuous casters. The results show that optimization is a viable and effective tool for developing operating strategies for casters. Moreover, many of the optimal solutions are not likely to be discovered through normal operating practice or case study. For example, spray heat-transfer coefficients need not be in decreasing order, and the maximum casting rate may be slightly different from the case for maximum enthalpy in the strand.

Lally, B.; Biegler, L. T.; Henein, H.

1991-10-01

333

A geometrical defect detection method for non-silicon MEMS part based on HU moment invariants of skeleton image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the accuracy of geometrical defect detection, this paper presented a method based on HU moment invariants of skeleton image. This method have four steps: first of all, grayscale images of non-silicon MEMS parts are collected and converted into binary images, secondly, skeletons of binary images are extracted using medialaxis- transform method, and then HU moment invariants of skeleton images are calculated, finally, differences of HU moment invariants between measured parts and qualified parts are obtained to determine whether there are geometrical defects. To demonstrate the availability of this method, experiments were carried out between skeleton images and grayscale images, and results show that: when defects of non-silicon MEMS part are the same, HU moment invariants of skeleton images are more sensitive than that of grayscale images, and detection accuracy is higher. Therefore, this method can more accurately determine whether non-silicon MEMS parts qualified or not, and can be applied to nonsilicon MEMS part detection system.

Cheng, Xu; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhijing; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

334

In vivo 783-channel diffuse reflectance imaging system and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber-based reflectance imaging system was constructed to produce in vivo absorption spectroscopic images of biological tissues with diffuse light in the cw domain. The principal part of this system is the 783-channel fiber probe, composed of 253 illumination fibers and 530 detection fibers distributed in a 20×20 mm square region. During illumination with the 253 illumination fibers, diffuse reflected lights are collected by the 530 detection fibers and recorded simultaneously as an image with an electron multiplying CCD camera for fast data acquisition. After signal acquisition, a diffuse reflectance image was reconstructed by applying the spectral normalization method we devised. To test the applicability of the spectral normalization, we conducted two phantom experiments with chicken breast tissue and white Delrin resin by using animal blood as an optical inhomogeneity. In the Delrin phantom experiment, we present images produced by two methods, spectral normalization and reference signal normalization, along with a comparison of the two. To show the feasibility of our system for biomedical applications, we took images of a human vein in vivo with the spectral normalization method.

Yang, Joon-Mo; Han, Yong-Hui; Yoon, Gilwon; Ahn, Byung Soo; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2007-08-01

335

Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

1985-12-01

336

Fast imaging applications in the Nuclear Test Program  

SciTech Connect

Applications of fast imaging employ both streak cameras and fast framing techniques. Image intensifier tubes are gated to provide fast two-dimensional shutters of 2 to 3 ns duration with shatter ratios of greater than 10/sup 6/ and resolution greater than 10/sup 4/ pixels. Shutters of less than 1 ns have been achieved with experimental tubes. Characterization data demonstrate the importance of tube and pulser design. Streak cameras are used to simultaneously record temporal and intensity information from up to 200 spatial points. Streak cameras are combined with remote readout for downhole uses and are coupled to fiber optic cables for uphole uses. Optical wavelength multiplexing is being studied as a means of compressing additional image data onto optical fibers. Performance data demonstrate trade-offs between image resolution and system sensitivity.

Lear, R.

1983-10-14

337

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo.

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

2014-01-01

338

Clinical applications of Scheimpflug imaging in cataract surgery  

PubMed Central

Since the Scheimpflug principle was first described over a century ago, there has been a great interest among ophthalmologists for the use of Scheimpflug camera in anterior segment imaging. Scheimpflug imaging has since advanced significantly and modern day instruments provide comprehensive imaging and topographic data of the anterior segment. In this article the clinical applications and limitations of Scheimpflug imaging in modern cataract surgery patients are discussed. This article reviews recent work on assessment of lens transparency for cataract grading and integrity, using preoperative lens density measurements to help predict phacoemulsification parameters, its utility in challenging situations like capsular bag distension syndrome and traumatic cataract and assessment of density of the posterior capsule for objectively quantifying posterior-capsule opacification.

Grewal, Dilraj Singh; Grewal, Satinder Pal Singh

2011-01-01

339

Boolean derivatives with application to edge detection for imaging systems.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a new concept of Boolean derivatives as a fusion of partial derivatives of Boolean functions (PDBFs). Three efficient algorithms for the calculation of PDBFs are presented. It is shown that Boolean function derivatives are useful for the application of identifying the location of edge pixels in binary images. The same concept is extended to the development of a new edge detection algorithm for grayscale images, which yields competitive results, compared with those of traditional methods. Furthermore, a new measure is introduced to automatically determine the parameter values used in the thresholding portion of the binarization procedure. Through computer simulations, demonstrations of Boolean derivatives and the effectiveness of the presented edge detection algorithm, compared with traditional edge detection algorithms, are shown using several synthetic and natural test images. In order to make quantitative comparisons, two quantitative measures are used: one based on the recovery of the original image from the output edge map and the Pratt's figure of merit. PMID:19884097

Agaian, Sos S; Panetta, Karen A; Nercessian, Shahan C; Danahy, Ethan E

2010-04-01

340

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H; Jabbour, Joey M; Maitland, Kristen C; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A

2014-03-01

341

Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

Tilton, James C.

2010-01-01

342

Advanced infrared detectors for multimode active and passive imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called laser-gated imaging (LGI) or burst-illumination LIDAR (BIL). The SELEX solid state detector is based on an array of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes, and a custom-designed CMOS multiplexer to perform the fast gating and photon signal capture. This paper describes two recent developments. The first is aimed at reducing the size, weight, power and cost of steerable platforms which often have to contain a large number of electrooptic tools such as lasers, range finders, BIL, thermal imaging and visible cameras. A dual-mode infrared detector has been developed with the aim of shrinking the system to one camera. The detector can be switched to operate as a passive thermal imager, a laser-gated imager or a solar flux imager. The detector produces a sensitivity in the MW thermal band of 16-18mK and a sensitivity in the BIL mode as low as 10 photons rms, in other words close to the performance of dedicated imagers. A second development was to extend the current BIL capability to 3D. In complex scenes, with camouflage and concealment, the ability to generate 3D images provides a signal-to-clutter advantage. Also in airborne applications, especially, it is useful to have 3D information to provide agile, feedback control of the range gating in a dynamic environment. This report describes the development of the 3D detector and camera, and the results of field trials using a prototype system.

Baker, Ian; Owton, Daniel; Trundle, Keith; Thorne, Peter; Storie, Kevin; Oakley, Philip; Copley, Jeremy

2008-05-01

343

Nanostructured surfaces for biomedical applications. Part I: nanotopography.  

PubMed

The natural cell environment provides a variety of chemical, topographical and mechanical stimuli that contribute in regulating cell behavior and function. If considerable effort has been traditionally dedicated to exploring the chemical side of cell regulation, it was more recently demonstrated that topographic cues might be equally important. Cell substratum interactions are particularly crucial in determining the reaction of cells to biomaterials, which was also shown to be strongly determined by topographical cues. A significant acceleration in investigating this aspect came from the availability of techniques for microstructured surfaces, and is now well known that cells can react to topographical features at their own scale (1-100 micron). Nevertheless, cells possess many nanoscaled features such as filopodia and a cytoskeleton, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) itself possess quite a few nanoscale details. Therefore, the capability of controlling the surface structure of materials in the nanoscale has offered the possibility of adding another level in the hierarchical understanding of cell/biomaterial interactions. Nanofabrication methods, mainly developed out of the semiconductor industries, are a technological driver for addressing the nanotopography related aspects of cell behavior. General concepts regarding some of the more widely utilized techniques that enable the achievement of ordered and well-defined nanoscale features for the investigation of cell reaction to topography are presented together with a few examples of the practical applications available in the literature. PMID:20799175

Draghi, L; Cigada, A

2007-01-01

344

34 CFR 303.2 - Eligible recipients of an award and applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations...children referred to the part C program, including infants and toddlers with disabilities consistent with the definitions in §§...

2013-07-01

345

13 CFR 107.1920 - Licensee's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 107.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2006-01-01 2006-01-01 false Licensee's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 107. 107.1920 Section 107.1920 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

2006-01-01

346

13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Credit and Assistance 1 2006-01-01 2006-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

2006-01-01

347

78 FR 63501 - Request To Submit a Two-Part Application-Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Two-Part Application--Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...2013, letter from Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC (NWMI). In this letter, NWMI...medicine procedures. Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC, has proposed to submit an...

2013-10-24

348

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-012010-07-01false Primary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO) Application...CONTINUED)AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERSPt. 57, App. AAppendix A to Part 57âPrimary Nonferrous Smelter Order (NSO)...

2010-07-01

349

Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2014-01-01

350

Exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses of diesel engine powered cogeneration: Part 2 – Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is Part 2 of the study on the exergetic and thermoeconomic analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration (DEPC) systems. In Part 1, formulations and procedure for such a comprehensive analysis are provided while this paper provides an application of the developed formulation that considers an actual DEPC plant installed in Gaziantep, Turkey. The plant has a total installed

Aysegul Abusoglu; Mehmet Kanoglu

2009-01-01

351

Interpretation of Medical Imaging Data with a Mobile Application: A Mobile Digital Imaging Processing Environment  

PubMed Central

Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users’ expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J.; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; Janke, Andrew L.

2013-01-01

352

Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.  

PubMed

Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services. PMID:23847587

Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

2013-01-01

353

Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

1982-01-01

354

Guided wave imaging of part-thickness defects in large structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed guided ultrasonic wave array systems allow for the efficient structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures, such as aircraft or ship hulls. Permanently attached sensor arrays have been applied for the detection and imaging of corrosion and fatigue damage. A hybrid model has been developed for the efficient prediction of the sensitivity of guided wave array systems to detect through thickness and part-through fatigue cracks in plate structures. The influence of the orientation of the crack relative to the transducer elements had been predicted from localized 3D Finite Element simulations and verified experimentally. Using the hybrid model, detection and imaging capabilities can be predicted for various defect depths, and the sensor layout and signal processing optimized. This has been demonstrated from laboratory experiments. Part-thickness notches and holes of increasing depth were machined into an aluminum plate and imaged using distributed sensors for the A0 Lamb wave mode. Based on the model predictions the sensitivity for shallow defects can be optimized. The influence of the scattering characteristics on the minimum defect depth that can be imagined has been discussed.

Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

355

RDTC optimized compression of image-based scene representations (Part II): practical coding.  

PubMed

Interactive streaming of compressed image-based scene representations requires random access to the reference image data. The degree of interframe dependencies exploited during encoding has an impact on the transmission and decoding time and, at the same time, delimits the (storage) rate-distortion (RD) tradeoff that can be achieved. The transmission data rate and the decoding complexity at the client have received attention in the literature, but their incorporation into the optimization procedure for compression and streaming is missing. If scenario-specific measures are considered, the traditional RD optimization can be extended to a tradeoff between the (storage) rate (R), distortion (D), transmission data rate (T), and decoding complexity (C). In the first part of this sequel of papers, we have theoretically analyzed the RDTC space for the compression of densely sampled image-based scene representations. In this second part, we consider practical RDTC optimization. We propose a modeling and encoding parameter selection procedure that allows us to adapt the compression to scenario-specific properties. The impact of client side caching is considered and evaluated using an experimental testbed. Our results show a significant reduction of the user perceived delay, memory consumption or required minimum channel and storage bitrate for RDTC optimized streams compared to classical RD optimized or independently encoded scene representations. PMID:18390377

Bauermann, Ingo; Steinbach, Eckehard

2008-05-01

356

Clinical applications of spectral molecular imaging: potential and challenges.  

PubMed

Spectral molecular imaging is a new X-ray-based imaging technology providing highly specific 3D imaging at high spatial resolution that has the potential to measure disease activity and response to treatment noninvasively. The ability to identify and quantify components of tissue and biomarkers of disease activity derive from the properties of the photon-processing detector. Multiple narrow sections of the energy spectrum are sampled simultaneously, providing a range of energy dependent Hounsfield units. As each material has a specific measurable X-ray spectrum, spectroscopic imaging allows for multiple materials to be quantified and differentiated from each other simultaneously. The technology, currently in its infancy, is set to grow rapidly, much as magnetic resonance did. The critical clinical applications have not yet been established, but it is likely to play a major role in identifying and directing treatment for unstable atherosclerotic plaque, assessing activity and response to treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases, and monitoring biomarkers of cancer and its treatment. If combined with Positron-emission tomography (PET), spectral molecular imaging could have a far greater effective role in cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring than PET-CT does at present. It is currently used for small animal and specimen imaging. There are many challenges to be overcome before spectral imaging can be introduced into clinical medicine - these include technological improvements to detector design, bonding to the semiconductor layer, image reconstruction and display software, identifying which biomarkers are of most relevance to the disease in question, and accelerating drug discovery enabled by the new capabilities provided by spectral imaging. PMID:24470290

Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P

2014-01-01

357

Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.

Antcliffe, G. A.

1975-01-01

358

Narrow band imaging: application for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasia.  

PubMed

Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an imaging technique for endoscopy using optical filters to narrow the bandwidth of spectral transmittance. Through this narrow spectrum, NBI contrasts surface structure and microvascular architecture of various lesions. In this article we focus on the application of NBI for early-stage neoplasia in the esophagus, stomach and colon with a three-step strategy of endoscopic diagnosis: (i) the detection of abnormality; (ii) the differentiation between non-neoplasia and neoplasia; and (iii) staging for tumor extension and depth of invasion. PMID:24868598

Zhu, Ling Yin; Li, Xiao Bo

2014-05-01

359

Novel applications of thermal imaging in the steel industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) thermal imaging using Si CCD cameras is a cost-effective technique for generating thermographs of hot objects having temperatures above 350 degree(s)C. The relatively low cost and the favorable performance of the technique makes it the preferred thermal imaging technology for solving many measurement problems in the steel industry. In recent years, a number of systems have been developed by BHP Research and installed within BHP's steelworks to fulfill various measurement tasks. This paper provides an overview of the technique together with a description of several industrial applications that BHP Research has developed.

Chen, John; Barrow, Ross

1995-03-01

360

Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery, 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several areas of applications of image processing to astronomy were identified and discussed. These areas include: (1) deconvolution for atmospheric seeing compensation; a comparison between maximum entropy and conventional Wiener algorithms; (2) polarization in galaxies from photographic plates; (3) time changes in M87 and methods of displaying these changes; (4) comparing emission line images in planetary nebulae; and (5) log intensity, hue saturation intensity, and principal component color enhancements of M82. Examples are presented of these techniques applied to a variety of objects.

Lorre, J. J.

1979-01-01

361

Improved tensor scale computation with application to medical image interpolation.  

PubMed

Tensor scale (t-scale) is a parametric representation of local structure morphology that simultaneously describes its orientation, shape and isotropic scale. At any image location, t-scale represents the largest ellipse (an ellipsoid in three dimensions) centered at that location and contained in the same homogeneous region. Here, we present an improved algorithm for t-scale computation and study its application to image interpolation. Specifically, the t-scale computation algorithm is improved by: (1) enhancing the accuracy of identifying local structure boundary and (2) combining both algebraic and geometric approaches in ellipse fitting. In the context of interpolation, a closed form solution is presented to determine the interpolation line at each image location in a gray level image using t-scale information of adjacent slices. At each location on an image slice, the method derives normal vector from its t-scale that yields trans-orientation of the local structure and points to the closest edge point. Normal vectors at the matching two-dimensional locations on two adjacent slices are used to compute the interpolation line using a closed form equation. The method has been applied to BrainWeb data sets and to several other images from clinical applications and its accuracy and response to noise and other image-degrading factors have been examined and compared with those of current state-of-the-art interpolation methods. Experimental results have established the superiority of the new t-scale based interpolation method as compared to existing interpolation algorithms. Also, a quantitative analysis based on the paired t-test of residual errors has ascertained that the improvements observed using the t-scale based interpolation are statistically significant. PMID:20961733

Xu, Ziyue; Sonka, Milan; Saha, Punam K

2011-01-01

362

Application of holographic particle image velocimetry in bubbly flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the velocity field of a bubbly flow is of major importance in many industrial applications like, bubble column reactors. Traditional PIV setup is limited to single plane measurements. The present study involved extension of the existing holographic PIV method to two-phase flow velocimetry. The objective of the present study was to conduct velocity measurements using in-line holographic microscopy arrangement to analyze a flow consisting of an air bubble rising through stagnant water in a rectangular column. Neutrally buoyant 8 microm sized hollow glass spheres are scattered uniformly in the continuous phase and are used as seed particles for image analysis. Double-pulsed hologram is taken with a 2K by 2K pixels CCD sensor with 200micros in between the two frames, which allows only a small movement of both the particles (in the continuous phase) and that of the dispersed phase itself. Holograms are reconstructed at different distances to produce images at every millimeter of the measurement volume. An averaging technique is developed to process the images to reduce the noise in reconstructed holographic images and make it useful for cross-correlation analysis. The image pairs are cross correlated and velocity vectors are obtained for the continuous phase. The dispersed phase velocity is measured using the shift in the center of the bubble. After analyses of all the image pairs throughout the measurement volume, a two component three dimensional velocity field is produced for the two-phase flow.

Banerjee, Atanu

363

Spatial analysis of image registration methodologies for fusion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data registration is the foundational step for fusion applications such as change detection, data conflation, ATR, and automated feature extraction. The efficacy of data fusion products can be limited by inadequate selection of the transformation model, or characterization of uncertainty in the registration process. In this paper, three components of image-to-image registration are investigated: 1) image correspondence via feature matching, 2) selection of a transformation function, and 3) estimation of uncertainty. Experimental results are presented for photogrammetric versus non-photogrammetric transfer of point features for four different sensor types and imaging geometries. The results demonstrate that a photogrammetric transfer model is generally more accurate at point transfer. Moreover, photogrammetric methods provide a reliable estimation of accuracy through the process of error propagation. Reliable local uncertainty derived from the registration process is particularly desirable information to have for subsequent fusion processes. To that end, uncertainty maps are generated to demonstrate global trends across the test images. Recommendations for extending this methodology to non-image data types are provided.

Doucette, Peter J.; Theiss, Henry J.; Mikhail, Edward M.; Motsko, Dennis J.

2011-05-01

364

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Arising from the Kidney: Imaging and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an extremely rare malignant soft tissue sarcoma primarily affecting young patients. It usually occurs in the lower extremities, although it can occur in soft tissue anywhere in the body. However, to our knowledge, there has been no case of primary ASPS originating from the kidney in the literature. We herein present the imaging and clinical features of an ASPS which occurred in a 16-year-old male presented as a palpable mass in the left side of the abdomen.

Kim, Jung Myung; Oh, Soon Nam; Chung, Nak Gyun

2014-01-01

365

40 CFR 350.3 - Applicability of subpart; priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2. 350.3 Section...priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2. (a) Applicability...under that statutory authority. (c) Interaction with 40 CFR part 2, EPA's...

2009-07-01

366

40 CFR 350.3 - Applicability of subpart; priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2. 350.3 Section...priority where provisions conflict; interaction with 40 CFR part 2. (a) Applicability...under that statutory authority. (c) Interaction with 40 CFR part 2, EPA's...

2010-07-01

367

Application of superhigh-definition images to teleradiology and telepathology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recognized early on that the digitization of medical information would advance the efficiency of diagnostic technology. However, the digitization of image data, which makes up the majority of medical information, is dependent on advances in technologies such as input, processing, transmission, storage, and display. Insufficient advances in such technologies has effectively limited the digitization of image data for medical use. The result of this has been non-networked systems or LANs confined to a single hospital. Such isolated systems integrate only portions of digital medical images such as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and computed radiography (CR). Fortunately, recent advances in the areas of super high definition image I/O, high-quality encoding, ATM-based high speed transmission, and high-capacity storage has turned the tide in favor of the digitization and networking of all medical information. This paper focuses on the digitization and networking of medical image information used within hospitals and provides a multifaceted study of the technologies necessary for these advances. This allows us to discuss the present state of related technical developments and the level that has been attained so far. In addition, we have targeted image information that demands the highest level of quality (radiological and pathological images) for application in medical diagnosis using super high definition images, which have a spatial resolution of at least 2048 by 2048 pixels and a temporal resolution of at least 60 frames per second with progressive scanning. We cover the concrete issues and approaches to solutions that must be investigated when building and networking a digital system.

Suzuki, Junji

1996-09-01

368

Application of image processing techniques to fluid flow data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of color coding techniques used in processing remote sensing imagery to analyze and display fluid flow data is discussed. A minicomputer based color film recording and color CRT display system is described. High quality, high resolution images of two-dimensional data are produced on the film recorder. Three dimensional data, in large volume, are used to generate color motion pictures in which time is used to represent the third dimension. Several applications and examples are presented. System hardware and software is described.

Giamati, C. C.

1981-01-01

369

Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in food science.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical changes that occur in foods during growth, harvest, processing, storage, preparation, and consumption are often very difficult to measure and quantify. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a pioneering technology, originally developed in the medical field, that is now being used in a large number of disciplines to study a wide variety of materials and processes. In food science, MRI techniques allow the interior of foods to be imaged noninvasively and nondestructively. These images can then be quantified to yield information about several processes and material properties, such as mass and heat transfer, fat and ice crystallization, gelation, water mobidity, composition and volume changes, food stability and maturation, flow behavior, and temperature. This article introduces the fundamental principles of MRI, presents some of the recent advances in MRI technology, and reviews some of the current applications of MRI in food science research. PMID:8740439

Schmidt, S J; Sun, X; Litchfield, J B

1996-04-01

370

Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.  

SciTech Connect

The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

2004-11-01

371

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities.

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

372

Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

Valdivia, F.; Crépeault, B.; Duchesne, S.

2012-02-01

373

Applications of NMR imaging on solid rocket motor materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effort has been made to ascertain the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to the inspection of solid rocket motors with graphite fiber-reinforced composite casings. The spatial resolution for small samples was about 100 cu microns. The graphite fibers were found to dramatically reduce the NMRI signal intensity; this effect was partially compensated for by using a probe inserted within the motor's bore as the receiver.

Vanderheiden, E. J.

374

Analysis of cache memory strategies for some image processing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Neural networks,and image,processing algorithms typically use very large amounts,of data and usually this data is processed iteratively. Hence, the issue of cache memories for enhancing the processing speed is important. A particularly important model,that fits these applications is the simple loop model. Here, the exact solution for the cache memory,simple loop model,under random replacement is given using an urn

Bruno Cernuschi-frías; José Luis Hamkalo; Jonás D. Pfefferman; Hernán Gonzalez

2001-01-01

375

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x

Martin Wäny; Stephan Voltz; Fabio Gaspar; Lei Chen

2009-01-01

376

Case studies - Applications of laser systems for cutting and welding aerospace parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents three case studies of current industrial applications of laser systems, showing that multiaxis laser machining systems are satisfying demands for reduced part-production costs, higher quality, greater flexibility, and faster turnaround on prototype and production aerospace parts. For example, laser cutting has replaced milling for trimming a deep-drawn gas turbine part and increased throughput from 18 pieces per day to 18 pieces in 30 minutes. The case studies described include that of a job shop supplying aircraft engine parts, and those of two aircraft manufacturers.

Vanderwert, Terry L.

377

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

378

Recent applications of ATR FTIR spectroscopy and imaging to proteins.  

PubMed

Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a label-free, non-destructive analytical technique that can be used extensively to study a wide variety of different molecules in a range of different conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss and highlight the recent advances in the applications of ATR FTIR spectroscopic imaging to proteins. It briefly covers the basic principles of ATR FTIR spectroscopy and ATR FTIR spectroscopic imaging as well as their advantages to the study of proteins compared to other techniques and other forms of FTIR spectroscopy. It will then go on to examine the advances that have been made within the field over the last several years, particularly the use of ATR FTIR spectroscopy for the understanding and development of protein interaction with surfaces. Additionally, the growing potential of Surface Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy (SEIRAS) within this area of applications will be discussed. The review includes the applications of ATR FTIR imaging to protein crystallisation and for high-throughput studies, highlighting the future potential of the technology within the field of protein structural studies and beyond. PMID:23928299

Glassford, Stefanie E; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G

2013-12-01

379

[Application of nanophosphors with near infrared excitation for biomedical imaging].  

PubMed

Fluorescence bioimaging is an inevitable method for biological, medical and pharmaceutical sciences to visualize substances in biological objects in a highly sensitive, multicolor and dynamic way. Recently, elongation of the fluorescence wavelength is a trend used in this imaging to suppress scattering, which limits the imaging depth to within several millimeters. It has been known that the so-called "biological window" with low loss for a biological tissue has been known to lie in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range between 1000 and 1700 nm. The use of fluorescence in the over-1000-nm (OTN) NIR can deepen the observation to several centimeters. The use of imaging devices based on semiconductor silicon has limited the wavelength of the fluorescence bioimaging to less than 1000 nm. However, the appearance of InGaAs CCD on the market, to allow for imaging of the OTN-NIR light, is now changing the situation. On the other hand, rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors (RED-CNP) can emit efficient fluorescence in the OTN-NIR wavelength range. The author's group has applied the RED-CNP to OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging by hybridizing the RED-CNP with various polymers or molecules. The present paper will review the development of the materials and systems for this OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging, together with some applications of the imaging method for biological research and a medical surgery. PMID:23449415

Soga, Kohei

2013-01-01

380

Graphene electrically reconfigurable patterns for THz imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz waves are attractive for several imaging applications, since they can propagate through non metallic media such as paper, cloth, plastics, and ceramics, and do not scatter over nano-scale defects or ionize the material under imaging -as might shorter wavelengths do- while offering an image resolution similar to that of the human eye. In this work we propose and experimentally demonstrate electrically reconfigurable patterns for single-pixel terahertz imaging based on arrays of graphene THz electro-absorption modulators. In an optical setup, in conjunction with mirrors, the modulator array can transform the output radiation from a CW THz source into a pixelated and collimated beam of illumination. Single-atom-thick graphene is employed as the active element of these modulators, achieving a modulation of the THz wave reflectance 50% with a potential modulation depth approaching 100% (i.e. each region of the pixelated collimated beam can be potentially completely turned-off). Although the proof-of-concept device here discussed only consists of 4x4 elements, we foresee that this technology can enable low-cost video rate THz imaging systems.

Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Rafique, Subrina; Yan, Rusen; Zhu, Mingda; Protasenko, Vladimir; Jena, Debdeep; Liu, Lei; Xing, Huili Grace

2013-03-01

381

New technology of functional infrared imaging and its clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With improvements in infrared camera technology, the promise of reduced costs and noninvasive character, infrared thermal imaging resurges in medicine. The paper introduces a new technology of functional infrared imaging, thermal texture maps (TTM), which is not only an apparatus for thermal radiation imaging but also a new method for revealing the relationship between the temperature distribution of the skin surface and the emission field inside body. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Any disease in the body is associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of human body. Infrared thermography is noninvasive, so it is the best choice for studying the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with diseases. Reading and extracting information from the thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerized techniques. Through image processing and measurement technology, surface or internal radiation sources can be non-invasively distinguished through extrapolation. We discuss the principle, the evaluation procedure and the effectiveness of TTM technology in the clinical detection and diagnosis of cancers, especially in their early stages and other diseases by comparing with other imaging technologies, such as ultrasound. Several study cases are given to show the effectiveness of this method. At last, we point out the applications of TTM technology in the research field of traditional medicine.

Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Lu, Zukang; Liu, Zhongqi

2006-01-01

382

Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 ?m × 60 ?m pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc. PMID:24670045

Feng, Baosheng; Zhang, Jialing; Chang, Cuilan; Li, Liping; Li, Min; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Tang, Fei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

2014-05-01

383

Application of spatial frequency response as a criterion for evaluating thermal imaging camera performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating spatial resolution using an application of Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) calculations for thermal imaging. According to ISO 12233, the SFR is defined as the integrated area below the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) curve derived from the discrete Fourier transform of a camera image representing a knife-edge target. This concept is modified slightly for use as a quantitative analysis of the camera's performance by integrating the area between the MTF curve and the camera's characteristic nonuniformity, or noise floor, determined at room temperature. The resulting value, which is termed the Effective SFR, can then be compared with a spatial resolution value obtained from human perception testing of task specific situations to determine the acceptability of the performance of thermal imaging cameras. The testing procedures described herein are being developed as part of a suite of tests for possible inclusion into a performance standard on thermal imaging cameras for first responders.

Lock, Andrew; Amon, Francine

2008-05-01

384

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 21 - Application of Part 21 to Certain Federal Financial Assistance of the Department of Transportation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Application of Part 21 to Certain Federal Financial Assistance...Transportation C Appendix C to Part 21 Transportation Office of the Secretary...VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 21, App. C Appendix C to Part...

2010-10-01

385

49 CFR Appendix C to Part 21 - Application of Part 21 to Certain Federal Financial Assistance of the Department of Transportation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Application of Part 21 to Certain Federal Financial Assistance...Transportation C Appendix C to Part 21 Transportation Office of the Secretary...VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 21, App. C Appendix C to Part...

2009-10-01

386

HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

2004-08-01

387

Comparametric equations with practical applications in quantigraphic image processing.  

PubMed

It is argued that, hidden within the flow of signals from typical cameras, through image processing, to display media, is a homomorphic filter. While homomorphic filtering is often desirable, there are some occasions where it is not. Thus, cancellation of this implicit homomorphic filter is proposed, through the introduction of an antihomomorphic filter. This concept gives rise to the principle of quantigraphic image processing, wherein it is argued that most cameras can be modeled as an array of idealized light meters each linearly responsive to a semi-monotonic function of the quantity of light received, integrated over a fixed spectral response profile. This quantity depends only on the spectral response of the sensor elements in the camera. A particular class of functional equations, called comparametric equations, is introduced as a basis for quantigraphic image processing. These are fundamental to the analysis and processing of multiple images differing only in exposure. The "gamma correction" of an image is presented as a simple example of a comparametric equation, for which it is shown that the underlying quantigraphic function does not pass through the origin. Thus, it is argued that exposure adjustment by gamma correction is inherently flawed, and alternatives are provided. These alternatives, when applied to a plurality of images that differ only in exposure, give rise to a new kind of processing in the "amplitude domain". The theoretical framework presented in this paper is applicable to the processing of images from nearly all types of modern cameras. This paper is a much revised draft of a 1992 peer-reviewed but unpublished report by the author, entitled "Lightspace and the Wyckoff principle." PMID:18262976

Mann, S

2000-01-01

388

Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for security applications for a number of years. It utilizes the unique optical properties of submillimeter waves and promises an alternative to millimeter-wave and X-ray backscattering portals for personal security screening in particular. Possible application scenarios demand sensitive, fast, and flexible high-quality imaging techniques. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. The cameras utilize arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), i. e. cryogenic microbolometers, as radiation detectors. The TES are operated at temperatures below 1 K, cooled by a closed-cycle cooling system, and coupled to superconducting readout electronics. By this means, background limited photometry (BLIP) mode is achieved providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a pixel NETD well below 1K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 3-10 m, a field of view up to 2m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable frame rates up to 25 frames per second. Both spiraliform and linear scanning schemes have been developed. Several electronic and software components are used for system control, signal amplification, and data processing. Our objective is the design of an application-ready and user-friendly imaging system. For application in real world security screening scenarios, it can be extended using image processing and automated threat detection software.

Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Brömel, Anika; Anders, Solveig; Zakosarenko, Vyacheslav; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, André; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2012-10-01

389

Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence  

SciTech Connect

The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized CdS monocrystals. Aggregates of nanospheres were bathed in imaging solution, and ATP bioluminescence was monitored to investigated the release kinetics of the nanosphere drug delivery systems. Addition of disulfide bond-cleaving molecules induced uncapping of the nanospheres and subsequently, the release of ATP. Increasing the concentration of the uncapping molecule decreased the temporal maximum and increased the magnitude of release of encapsulated ATP from the nanospheres. Furthermore, the release kinetics from the nanospheres varied with the size of the particle aggregates.

Jason Alan Gruenhagen

2003-12-12

390

Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

Figler, Burton D.

2001-09-01

391

Optical-parametric-amplification applications to complex images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast optical pulses have many useful features. One in particular is their ability to exploit nonlinear processes due to their extremely short durations. We have used ultrafast optical pulses, primarily focused on the nonlinear processes of Polarization Gating and of Optical Parametric Amplification, one for measurement and the other for imaging purposes. For measurement, we have demonstrated a robust method of measurement to simultaneously measure both optical pulses used in a pump-probe type configuration. In these measurements, no initial information beyond the nonlinear interaction between the pulses is required. We refer to this method of pulse measurement as Double-Blind Polarization Gating FROG[1]. We have demonstrated this single-shot method for measuring two unknown pulses using one device. We have demonstrated this technique on three separate pulse pairs. We measured two Gaussian pulses with different amounts of chirp. We measured two double pulses with different pulse separations, and we have measured two extremely different pulses, where one was simple Gaussian and the other was a pulse train produced by an etalon. This method has no non-trivial ambiguities, has a reliable algorithm, and is automatically phase matched for all spectral bandwidths. In simulations[2], this method has proven to be extremely robust, measuring very complicated pulses with TBPs of ˜100 even in the presence of noise. In addition to pulse measurement, we have demonstrated the processes of Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) applicability to imaging of complex objects[3]. We have done this where the Fourier transform plane is used during the interaction. We have amplified and wavelength converted a complex image. We report imaging of spatial features from 1.1 to 10.1 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) in the vertical dimension and from 2.0 to 16.0 lp/mm in the horizontal dimension. We observe a gain of ˜100, and, although our images were averaged over many shots, we used a single-shot geometry, capable of true single-shot OPA imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first Fourier-plane OPA imaging of more than a single spatial-frequency component of an image. We observe more than 30 distinct spatial frequency components in both our amplified image and our wavelength shifted image. The two-dimensional SBP for our Fourier-plane OPA imaging system was ˜46,000. We have demonstrated all-optical spatial filtering for these complex images[4]. We have demonstrated that direct Fourier filtering of spatial features is possible by using a shaped pump beam. We have simply used a line shaped pump beam generated by a use of cylindrical lens. Further, the phase matching leads to interesting image-processing results, which are controlled by rotation of the crystal angle. The phase matching condition acts like a ring-shaped physical aperture on the image. We can isolate certain portions of the image simply by rotating the crystal. The Fourier plane of interaction allows for both spatial-frequency and spatial-feature filtering, with wide latitude available in the spatial-frequency transfer function through the use of exotic shaped pump beams.

Vaughan, Peter M.

392

Adaptation of web pages and images for mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce our new visualization service which presents web pages and images on arbitrary devices with differing display resolutions. We analyze the layout of a web page and simplify its structure and formatting rules. The small screen of a mobile device is used much better this way. Our new image adaptation service combines several techniques. In a first step, border regions which do not contain relevant semantic content are identified. Cropping is used to remove these regions. Attention objects are identified in a second step. We use face detection, text detection and contrast based saliency maps to identify these objects and combine them into a region of interest. Optionally, the seam carving technique can be used to remove inner parts of an image. Additionally, we have developed a software tool to validate, add, delete, or modify all automatically extracted data. This tool also simulates different mobile devices, so that the user gets a feeling of how an adapted web page will look like. We have performed user studies to evaluate our web and image adaptation approach. Questions regarding software ergonomics, quality of the adapted content, and perceived benefit of the adaptation were asked.

Kopf, Stephan; Guthier, Benjamin; Lemelson, Hendrik; Effelsberg, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

393

Parallel Algorithms and Software for Nuclear, Energy, and Environmental Applications. Part II: Multiphysics Software  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.

Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson

2012-09-01

394

Indocyanine Green Loaded Nanoconstructs for Optical Imaging and Phototherapeutic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Optically active nanoparticles are widely pursued as exogenous chromophores in diagnostic imaging and phototherapeutic applications. However, the blood circulation time of nanoparticles remains limited due to the rapid clearance of the nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Coating with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a strategy to extend the circulation time of nanoparticles. Here, we report PEGylation of polymeric-based nanocapsules loaded with Indocyanine green (ICG) and effect of PEG's molecular weight on the uptake of these nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages and hepatocytes using flow cytometry. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging in mice and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG. Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents using surface modified nanovectors has been explored immensely in recent years. The growing demand for site-specific and efficient delivery of nanovectors entails stable surface conjugation of targeting moieties. Our ICG-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) have potential for covalent coupling of various targeting moieties and materials due to presence of amine groups on the surface. Here, we covalently bioconjugate PEG-coated ICG-NCs with monoclonal anti- HER2 through reductive amination-mediated procedures. The targeting abilities of HER2 functionalized ICG-NCs toward ovarian cancer was investigated in-vitro. Since these functionalized nanoconstructs have potential applications in laser-induced photodestruction of ovarian cancer cells, we studies NIR laser induced phototherapy of ovarian cancer cells in-vitro. Other than polymeric theranostic nano-constructs, here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate ICG. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions.

Bahmani, Baharak

395

Design and Applications of a Multimodality Image Data Warehouse Framework  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications—namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains.

Wong, Stephen T.C.; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A.; Dillon, William P.; Arenson, Ronald L.

2002-01-01

396

Prototype fiber optic imaging system for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cameras provide excellent in situ coverage of many events of interest in current state-of-the-art aerospace systems. From departing earth footage to booster separation events, cameras provide the eyes in the skies for real-time situational awareness on the ground. One of the principal challenges of using cameras on high-speed aerospace vehicles is designing the necessary environmental protection systems to isolate the cameras from the harsh aerothermal environment. An established approach uses an external fairing or aeropod to provide the requisite isolation. The camera is located within the aeropod, and the image data are sent electrically from the aeropod to the telemetry system. While this approach has been successfully demonstrated on numerous platforms, there are advantages to moving the camera into the interior of the vehicle and reducing the size of the imaging hardware within the aeropod. If the size of the pod hardware can be reduced, multiple imaging sensors can be fit within the same aeropod. Alternatively, a smaller sensor can allow for a reduced aeropod size with commensurate reduced drag and aerothermal heating. A prototype fiber optic imaging system was developed for aerospace applications by combining a modified medical endoscope with a ruggedized camera. With this new configuration, a significantly smaller aeropod can be used to protect only the distal tip of the endoscope in lieu of the entire camera assembly. The data are acquired through a small lens at the distal tip and transmitted optically through a coherent imaging fiber bundle to a camera located within the vehicle. Data from the prototype fiber optic imaging system are compared with data acquired by a standard ruggedized camera. Results of these tests are reported in this paper.

Gauthier, L. R., Jr.; Hahn, D. V.; Harold, M. J.; Meyer, J. R.

2010-04-01

397

Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results to baseline data using F-statistics. Self-parings over time are also useful. Special and common causes are identified apart from aging in applying the statistical methods. In the future, implementation of imaging measurement methods by research staff, doctors, and concerned patient partners result in improved health diagnosis, reporting, and cause determination. The long-term prospects for quantified measurements are better quality in imaging analysis with applications of higher utility for health care providers.

Hoeller, Timothy L.

2009-02-01

398

Part 1. Characterization of roadway asphalts by solubility studies. Part 2. Development of concrete applicant organo-functional silanes  

SciTech Connect

Part 1. Solubility profiles describe the chemical constitution of asphalt in terms of internal solubility phenomena. In this study the solubility parameter (r) which is related to hydrogen bonding or associative interactions and the volume dependent solubility parameter (V) which is related to London dispersion forces (non-polar interactions) and the dipole-dipole polar interactions. The plot by the solubility coordinates (r, V) of the solvents and the solubility of the asphalt is termed the solubility profile. Solubility profile data can be related to roadway performance. Roadway asphalt aging can be followed visually and mathematically by the detailed analysis of time-lapsed solubility profiles of roadway core asphalts. The profiles can be used to describe the gross chemical changes without the need to identify or isolate pure substances. This report investigates thirty-two roadway projects constructed between February 1983 and August 1987 which have been monitored for condition and followed by a series of solubility profiles for up to 60 months. Part 2. A variety of organosilanes have been used as applicants to roadway surfaces thereby extending the life or service of the roadway. The aim of this research project is to synthesize and characterize several organosilane compounds with potential concrete roadway applications. Alkyltrialkoxysilanes can be used to stop salt from penetrating concrete and resultant rebar corrosion. The first area this project deals with the optimization of the catalytic synthesis of n-octyltrichloro-and n-decyltrichlorosilane and their alkoxy derivatives. The investigation includes a study of the type and amount of catalyst and a study of varying reaction conditions. The second area of research involves the synthesis and characterization of a set of UV-absorbing/VIS-emitting organosiloxanes. These compounds have potential use as roadway delineation or roadway obstruction demarkation product enhancements.

Lee, W.D.

1993-01-01

399

Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results. PMID:20648125

Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas

2010-07-01

400

Nanostructure-based optical filters for multispectral imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral imaging technologies rely on interference-based optical filters or grating structures that add cost, size and weight to multispectral camera systems. Nanostructures offer an attractive alternative since their optical properties can be specified precisely during fabrication and nanostructures are suitable for integration into present camera technologies. However, nanostructure-based optical filters have broad-band transmission properties and poor out-of-band blocking that reduce their spectroscopic performance and therefore limit their usefulness in multispectral imaging applications. In an attempt to break through these barriers, our group has developed a series of nanostructure-based optical filters with progressively improved optical transmission properties. The devices rely on the principle of index matching to reduce the transmission bandwidth and improve the out-of-band blocking. We have investigated the effect of packing the optical filters in proximity to one another, as well as the use of a tiled arrangement of several thousand optical filters for snapshot multispectral imaging in chemical analysis. Based on these studies, we conclude that nanostructure-based optical filters are suitable for multispectral imaging in the near infrared. In the future, nanostructure-based optical filters may be useful for integration into diagnostic instrumentation.

Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena

2014-03-01

401

Prewarping techniques in imaging: applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all imaging systems, the underlying process introduces undesirable distortions that cause the output signal to be a warped version of the input. When the input to such systems can be controlled, pre-warping techniques can be employed which consist of systematically modifying the input such that it cancels out (or compensates for) the process losses. In this paper, we focus on the mask (reticle) design problem for 'optical micro-lithography', a process similar to photographic printing used for transferring binary circuit patterns onto silicon wafers. We use a pixel-based mask representation and model the above process as a cascade of convolution (aerial image formation) and thresholding (high-contrast recording) operations. The pre-distorted mask is obtained by minimizing the norm of the difference between the 'desired' output image and the 'reproduced' output image. We employ the regularization framework to ensure that the resulting masks are close-to-binary as well as simple and easy to fabricate. Finally, we provide insight into two additional applications of pre-warping techniques. First is 'e-beam lithography', used for fabricating nano-scale structures, and second is 'electronic visual prosthesis' which aims at providing limited vision to the blind by using a prosthetic retinally implanted chip capable of electrically stimulating the retinal neuron cells.

Poonawala, Amyn; Milanfar, Peyman

2005-03-01

402

[Lossless compression of hyperspectral image for space-borne application].  

PubMed

In order to resolve the difficulty in hardware implementation, lower compression ratio and time consuming for the whole hyperspectral image lossless compression algorithm based on the prediction, transform, vector quantization and their combination, a hyperspectral image lossless compression algorithm for space-borne application was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, intra-band prediction is used only for the first image along the spectral line using a median predictor. And inter- band prediction is applied to other band images. A two-step and bidirectional prediction algorithm is proposed for the inter-band prediction. In the first step prediction, a bidirectional and second order predictor proposed is used to obtain a prediction reference value. And a improved LUT prediction algorithm proposed is used to obtain four values of LUT prediction. Then the final prediction is obtained through comparison between them and the prediction reference. Finally, the verification experiments for the compression algorithm proposed using compression system test equipment of XX-X space hyperspectral camera were carried out. The experiment results showed that compression system can be fast and stable work. The average compression ratio reached 3.05 bpp. Compared with traditional approaches, the proposed method could improve the average compression ratio by 0.14-2.94 bpp. They effectively improve the lossless compression ratio and solve the difficulty of hardware implementation of the whole wavelet-based compression scheme. PMID:23156795

Li, Jin; Jin, Long-xu; Li, Guo-ning

2012-08-01

403

Advances in myelin imaging with potential clinical application to pediatric imaging  

PubMed Central

White matter development and myelination are critical processes in neurodevelopment. Myelinated white matter facilitates the rapid and coordinated brain messaging required for higher-order cognitive and behavioral processing. Whereas several neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis are associated with gross white matter damage and demyelination, other disorders such as epilepsy may involve altered myelination in the efferent or afferent white matter pathways adjoining epileptic foci. Current MRI techniques including T1 weighting, T2 weighting, FLAIR, diffusion tensor imaging, and MR spectroscopy permit visualization of gross white matter abnormalities and evaluation of underlying white matter fiber architecture and integrity, but they provide only qualitative information regarding myelin content. Quantification of these myelin changes could provide new insight into disease severity and prognosis, reveal information regarding spatial location of foci or lesions and the associated affected neural systems, and create a metric to evaluate treatment efficacy. Multicomponent analysis of T1 and T2 relaxation data, or multicomponent relaxometry (MCR), is a quantitative imaging technique that is sensitive and specific to myelin content alteration. In the past, MCR has been associated with lengthy imaging times, but a new, faster MCR technique (mcDESPOT) has made quantitative analysis of myelin content more accessible for clinical research applications. The authors briefly summarize traditional white matter imaging techniques, describe MCR and mcDESPOT, and discuss current and future clinical applications of MCR, with a particular focus on pediatric epilepsy.

Spader, Heather S.; Ellermeier, Anna; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean, Douglas C.; Dirks, Holly; Boxerman, Jerrold L.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Deoni, Sean C. L.

2013-01-01

404

Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and 192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a measured air-kerma rate. Conclusions: The novel output verification methods described in this work will reduce uncertainties in dose delivery for treatments with these kinds of surface applicators, ultimately improving patient care.

Fulkerson, Regina K.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

2014-01-01

405

Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.  

PubMed

Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner. PMID:24051776

Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

2013-12-01

406

The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: application of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology.  

PubMed

This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse turnover and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse turnover costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse turnover that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention. PMID:15647669

Jones, Cheryl Bland

2005-01-01

407

Clinical Application of Image-Based CFD for Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the convergence of medical imaging and computational modeling technologies has enabled tremendous progress in the development and application of image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling of patient-specific blood flows. These techniques have been used for studying the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases, for studying possible ways to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of patients by incorporating hemodynamics information to the anatomical data typically available, and for the development of computational tools that can be used to improve surgical and endovascular treatment planning. However, before these technologies can have a significant impact on the routine clinical practice, it is still necessary to demonstrate the connection between the extra information provided by the models and the natural progression of vascular diseases and the outcome of interventions. This paper summarizes some of our contributions in this direction, focusing in particular on cerebral aneurysms.

Cebral, JR; Mut, F; Sforza, D; Lohner, R; Scrivano, E; Lylyk, P; Putman, CM

2010-01-01

408

JADE: A Graphical Tool for Fast Development of Imaging Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel graphic tool to develop imaging applications. Users interact with this tool by means of constructing a DIP graph, which is a series of nodes and edges indicating the processing flow of the images to be analyzed. Solutions created using our tool can run inside the developing environment and also we can get the equivalent Java source code; so that, we can reused the code in other platforms. Another advantage of our software tool is the fact that users can easily propose and construct new algorithms following the Java beans rules. Our proposal can be seen as a DIP compiler because our tool produces fullfunctional Java programs that can solve an specific problem. The program specification is not a text based one, but a graphic specification and that is one of the main contributions of this work.

Chávez-Aragón, J. A.; Flores-Pulido, L.; Portilla-Flores, E. A.; Starostenko, O.; Rodríguez-Gómez, G.

409

A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

Siegel, Peter H.

2004-01-01

410

Uncooled MEMS-based detector arrays for THz imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental results on recently developed MEMS-based, uncooled THz detectors and imaging applications for linear focal plane arrays constructed from them. The detector incorporates a broadband micro-antenna coupled to an impedance-matched microbridge. Micro-antennas were fabricated having cut-on frequencies of 500GHz, 650GHz, and 1.5THz, each with bandwidth of several hundred GHz. Sensitivity and frequency response of the detectors is predicted to be ~6pW/?Hz (with backplane) and 7kHz, respectively, and supporting measurements of the first devices will be presented. Fully integrated 1x8 linear focal plane arrays have been assembled and will be used in on-going imaging demonstrations.

Cox, J. Allen; Higashi, R.; Nusseibeh, F.; Newstrom-Peitso, K.; Zins, C.; Osiander, R.; Lehtonen, J.; Dodson, E.

2009-05-01

411

Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images  

PubMed Central

Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

Benameur, S.; Mignotte, M.; Meunier, J.; Soucy, J. -P.

2009-01-01

412

Beam Combination for Stellar Imager and its Application to Full-Aperture Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and discarding most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

2007-01-01

413

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x 3um covered with RGB filters in Bayer pattern. The sensor operates fully autonomous, controlled by an on chip ring oscillator and readout state machine, which controls integration AD conversion and data transmission, thus the sensor only requires 4 pin's for power supply and data communication. The sensor provides a frame rate of 40Frames per second over a LVDS serial data link. The endoscopic application requires that the sensor must work without any local power decoupling capacitances at the end of up to 2m cabling and be able to sustain data communication over the same wire length without deteriorating image quality. This has been achieved by implementation of a current mode successive approximation ADC and current steering LVDS data transmission. An band gap circuit with -40dB PSRR at the data frequency was implemented as on chip reference to improve robustness against power supply ringing due to the high series inductance of the long cables. The B&W versions of the sensor provides a conversion gain of 30DN/nJ/cm2 at 550nm with a read noise in dark of 1.2DN when operated at 2m cable. Using the photon transfer method according to EMVA1288 standard the full well capacity was determined to be 18ke-. According to our knowledge the presented work is the currently world smallest fully digital image sensor. The chip was designed along with a aspheric single surface lens to assemble on the chip without increasing the form factor. The extremely small form factor of the resulting camera permit's to provide visualization with much higher than state of the art spatial resolution in sub 1mm endoscopic applications, where so far only optical fiber bundles providing 1k - 3k image points could be used. In many applications, such as guide wires and locater devices the small form factor permits to implement visualization for the first time.

Wäny, Martin; Voltz, Stephan; Gaspar, Fabio; Chen, Lei

2009-02-01

414

Calibration of Small Plastic Scintillators for Imaging Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications. The scintillator is equivalent to a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator. A gamma calibration is presented to determine the voltage to be applied on each detector to ensure uniform detector operation. Time of flight measurements performed with a Cf-252 source are also presented. Comparisons between experimental data and data from the Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement for time lags of 0 to 70 ns.

Pozzi, S.

2005-01-19

415

Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Rafecas, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular Y Nuclear, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Stankova, V.; Solaz, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Bisogni, M. G.; Del Guerra, A. [Universite di Pisa, INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

2011-07-01

416

Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel: Digital image processing, part 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of digital image processing techniques and processing systems for aerodynamic images has been conducted. These images covered many types of flows and were generated by many types of flow diagnostics. These include laser vapor screens, infrared cameras, laser holographic interferometry, Schlieren, and luminescent paints. Some general digital image processing systems, imaging networks, optical sensors, and image computing chips were briefly reviewed. Possible digital imaging network systems for the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel were explored.

Lee, George

1993-01-01

417

The Monterey Formation of the Santa Ynez Unit, Part II: Fractures, borehole images, and production  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Ynez Unit (SYU), operated by Exxon, USA, comprises sixteen Federal OCS leases in the western portion of the Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California. The three accumulations, Hondo, Pescado, and Sacate Fields, are trapped in a large complex of east-west trending anticlines. The Hondo and Harmony platforms produce from the Hondo structure, and the Heritage platform produces from the Pescado structure. Hondo platform production began in 1981, and approximately 130 MBO and 200 BCF have been produced. Drilling began from Harmony and Heritage platforms in 1993. The primary reservoir is the Miocene Monterey Formation, consisting of very thin interbeds of fine-grained siliceous mudstones, charts, porcelanites, and carbonate rocks. The majority of the recoverable reserves are contained in and produced from the extensive, high-permeability fracture network. Part of our formation evaluation program emphasizes fracture characterization and quantification by integrating a number of new technologies. We have calibrated borehole images to approximately 1000 feet of continuous cores from the main producing zones. This enables us to quantify levels of fracturing in wells without core, and to develop strategies for selective perforation of the most highly-productive intervals. Production logs and wireline formation tests provide valuable information about the relation between fluid entry to the well bore and fracture distribution. Borehole images also provide valuable information about fracture orientations, bed orientations, locally-developed chert folds, and lithofacies.

Lockman, D.F.; Schwalbach, J.R. (Exxon, USA, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

418

RDTC optimized compression of image-based scene representations (Part I): modeling and theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

Rendering of virtual views in interactive streaming of compressed image-based scene representations requires random access to arbitrary parts of the reference image data. The degree of interframe dependencies exploited during encoding has an impact on the transmission and decoding time and, at the same time, delimits the (storage) rate-distortion (RD) tradeoff that can be achieved. In this work, we extend the classical RD optimization approach using hybrid video coding concepts to a tradeoff between the storage rate (R), distortion (D), transmission data rate (T), and decoding complexity (C). We present a theoretical model for this RDTC space with a focus on the decoding complexity and, in addition, the impact of client side caching on the RDTC measures is considered and evaluated. Experimental results qualitatively match those predicted by our theoretical models and show that an adaptation of the encoding process to scenario specific parameters like computational power of the receiver and channel throughput can significantly reduce the user-perceived delay or required storage for RDTC optimized streams compared to RD optimized or independently encoded scene representations. PMID:18390376

Bauermann, Ingo; Steinbach, Eckehard

2008-05-01

419

Deep Emission-Line Imaging of Local Galactic Winds with NEWFIRM: Part II.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic winds are the primary mechanism by which energy and metals are recycled in galaxies and deposited into the IGM. New observations are revealing the ubiquity of this process, particularly at high redshift. Measurements have shown that winds contain cool (molecular/neutral), warm (partly ionized), and hot (fully ionized) gases. Though most of the wind mass is likely contained in the dusty molecular gas, very little is known about this component. However, our recent observations of M 82 with NEWFIRM on the Mayall 4-m show that H_2 emission can be used as a sensitive tracer of the cool molecular wind component. We propose to use NEWFIRM to study the NIR emission- line properties of a small but representative set of local wind galaxies. Deep images of these objects will be obtained at H_2 2.122 (micron) and [Fe II] 1.644 (micron) and combined with existing optical emission-line maps to (1) constrain the importance of molecular gas in the energetics of these winds and (2) determine the nature of the interaction between the central energy injection zone and the wind material. 5 nights were allocated for this program in 10B; we now request to observe the rest of the sample. These data will complement an approved Spitzer program to constrain the hot dust content of these winds, and likely become part of A. McCormick's PhD thesis.

Veilleux, Sylvain; Trippe, Margaret; Swaters, Rob; Rupke, David; McCormick, Alex

2010-08-01

420

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to this part. 6. Copies of documents referred to in the...true and correct to the best of the individual's knowledge and belief) of the applicant or other persons...have attached a duly executed power of attorney or other...

2013-07-01

421

Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern. Part II. Application  

SciTech Connect

A model based on mosaic pattern analysis is shown to have the potential to describe the complex shapes and spatial distribution of phases in the microstructures of multiphase materials. Several characteristics of both micrographs of portland cement pastes and images generated using the few parameters of the model are determined and, for the most part, agreement is good. The advantage is that spatial features of the microstructures can be captured by a few parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

Tennis, P.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Xi, Y. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Jennings, H.M. [Department of Civil Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

1997-07-01

422

Advanced multifunctional detectors for laser-gated imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid pace of development in the field of long-range imaging is illustrated by two new detector technologies for passive and active imaging. Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called burst-illumination LIDAR or BIL. The SELEX solid state detector is based on two major components: an array of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes, and a custom-designed CMOS multiplexer to perform the fast gating and photon signal capture. These hybrid arrays produce sensitivities as low as 10 photons rms, due largely to very high, almost noise-free avalanche gain in the HgCdTe diodes. The sensitivity, dynamic range and image quality is now such that the camera performance is usually limited by coherence and scintillation effects in the scene. With this strong sensor capability, it has been possible to launch the next generation of multiplexers to satisfy systems of the future. For instance, most laser-gated imaging systems use a suite of passive infrared and visible cameras to complement the BIL channel. It is highly advantageous to combine these functions into one electro-optic system, leading to a simpler, smaller, lower power and lower cost system. The key technical steps are to find solutions for the difficult multifunctional detector and the dual-wavelength optic. A detector has been developed to image passively in the medium and short wavebands, and actively in BIL mode. The performance of the detector and optic is described. Another major systems enhancement is to be able to generate 3D images, particularly in complex scenes, to further improve background clutter rejection and provide agile, feedback control of the range gating in a dynamic environment. Here the detector senses the range, as well as the laser pulse intensity, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, providing depth context for each laser pulse. A prototype detector has been successfully demonstrated and shown to provide good quality 2D and 3D data for each laser pulse.

Baker, Ian; Thorne, Peter; Henderson, James; Copley, Jeremy; Humphreys, David; Millar, Alasdair

2006-06-01

423

Application of Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry to Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) is a powerful measurement technique, which can be used as an alternative or complementary approach to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) in a wide range of research applications. The instantaneous planar velocity measurements obtained with PIV make it an attractive technique for use in the study of the complex flow fields encountered in turbomachinery. Many of the same issues encountered in the application of LDV to rotating machinery apply in the application of PIV. Techniques for optical access, light sheet delivery, CCD camera technology and particulate seeding are discussed. Results from the successful application of the PIV technique to both the blade passage region of a transonic axial compressor and the diffuser region of a high speed centrifugal compressor are presented. Both instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields were obtained. The 95% confidence intervals for the time-averaged velocity estimates were also determined. Results from the use of PIV to study surge in a centrifugal compressor are discussed. In addition, combined correlation/particle tracking results yielding super-resolution velocity measurements are presented.

Wernet, Mark P.

1999-01-01

424

[Remote control for magnetic resonance imaging as a part of daily routine examinations].  

PubMed

Continuous improvements in MR technology have lead to an increased number of clinical indications, such as whole-body MRI, as well as demanding examination protocols. A remote control (syngo Expert-i, Siemens Medical Solutions) allows radiologists and other experts to support the scan at any time without being physically present at the MR site. Consequently a high level of expertise is available for every exam. The radiologist can simply log on from any networked PC and a full-screen display with total mouse control within the MR console's user interface is provided. A local user can be advised with respect to the imaging strategy while the patient is still inside the scanner, thus resulting in a more time-efficient high-quality examination protocol. This paper provides an account of our initial experiences using the remote control and describes practical future applications. PMID:17492538

Kramer, U; Schlemmer, H-P

2007-07-01

425

Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

2008-12-01

426

NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

2011-02-01

427

Application of sonic IR imaging in civil structure health assurance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic Infrared (Sonic IR) Imaging is a novel NDE technology. It employs an ultrasonic transducer to excite samples with a short pulse of 15 - 40 kHz sound. This short pulse of high power sound will excite the crack and cause the crack surfaces to rub and generate heat. An Infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change caused by the friction heating and therefore 'sees' the crack. We have seen promising results with Sonic IR imaging on both metal and composite structures including turbine discs, turbine blades and airplane fuselage panels. We have also explored new applications with Sonic IR technology. In this paper, the authors present the results of Sonic IR imaging technology applied on large size civil engineering structures. Results from multiple experiments have also shown the potential of Sonic IR technology as a future tool of structure health monitoring (SHM). With further development, Sonic IR could play an important role as a SHM tool for civil infrastructure health assurance [1].

He, Qi; Han, Xiaoyan

2012-05-01

428

Algorithms and programming tools for image processing on the MPP, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of algorithms were developed for image warping and pyramid image filtering. Techniques were investigated for the parallel processing of a large number of independent irregular shaped regions on the MPP. In addition some utilities for dealing with very long vectors and for sorting were developed. Documentation pages for the algorithms which are available for distribution are given. The performance of the MPP for a number of basic data manipulations was determined. From these results it is possible to predict the efficiency of the MPP for a number of algorithms and applications. The Parallel Pascal development system, which is a portable programming environment for the MPP, was improved and better documentation including a tutorial was written. This environment allows programs for the MPP to be developed on any conventional computer system; it consists of a set of system programs and a library of general purpose Parallel Pascal functions. The algorithms were tested on the MPP and a presentation on the development system was made to the MPP users group. The UNIX version of the Parallel Pascal System was distributed to a number of new sites.

Reeves, Anthony P.

1986-01-01

429

An application of fuzzy morphology for enhancement of aerial images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach for structure based separation of image objects using fuzzy morphology for aerial images. With set operators in fuzzy context, we apply an adaptive alpha-cut morphological processing for edge detection and image enhancement. A Top-hat transform is first applied to the input image and the resulting image is thresholded to a binary form. The image is

Atif Bin Mansoor; Zohaib Khan; Adil Khan

2008-01-01

430

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

Brunner, Robert

2013-12-01

431

High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off-the-shelf item utilization, developed from Marshall Work Instruction MWI8060.1 OFF-THE-SHELF HARDWARE UTILIZATION IN FLIGHT HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTwas found to provide guidance for including commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware for use in critical applications.

Griffin, Trent; Young, David

2011-01-01

432

Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24