Note: This page contains sample records for the topic imaging applications part from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Functional and structural MR imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, Part 1: imaging techniques and their application in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

During the past decade, the application of advanced MR imaging techniques in neuropsychiatric disorders has seen a rapid increase. Disease-specific alterations in brain function can be assessed by fMRI. Structural GM and WM properties are increasingly investigated by DTI and voxel-based approaches like VBM. These methods provide neurobiologic correlates for brain architecture and function, evaluation tools for therapeutic approaches, and potential early markers for diagnosis. The aim of this review was to provide insight into the principles of functional and structural imaging and to delineate major findings in MCI, AD (Part 1), autism, and schizophrenia (Part 2), which are common psychiatric disorders covering different stages of the life span. Part 2 will conclude by summarizing current applications, limitations, and future prospects in the field of MR imaging-based neuroimaging. PMID:22173754

Mueller, S; Keeser, D; Reiser, M F; Teipel, S; Meindl, T

2011-12-15

2

Image Restoration by the Method of Convex Projections: Part 2Applications and Numerical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better

M. I. Sezan; H. Stark

1982-01-01

3

Neutron Imaging and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Neutron Imaging and Applications offers an introduction to the basics of neutron beam production and instrumentation in addition to the wide scope of techniques that provide unique imaging capabilities over a broad and diverse range of applications. An instructional overview of neutron sources, optics and detectors, allows readers to delve more deeply into the discussions of radiography, tomography, phase contrast imaging and prospective applications using advanced neutron holography techniques and polarized beams. A section devoted to overviews in a growing range of applications describes imaging of fuel cells and hydrogen storage devices for a robust hydrogen economy; new directions in material science and engineering; the investigation of precious artifacts of cultural heritage importance; determination of plant physiology and growth processes; imaging of biological tissues and macromolecules, and the practical elements of neutron imaging for homeland security and contraband detection. Written by key experts in the field, researchers and engineers involved with imaging technologies will find Neutron Imaging and Applications a valuable reference.

Anderson, Ian S [ORNL; McGreevy, Robert L [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL

2009-04-01

4

Nuclear diagnostic imaging: Practical clinical applications  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of three parts, containing 14 chapters. The part headings are: Introductory Principles, Clinical Applications, and Additional Procedures. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiopharmaceuticals, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Endocrine Imaging, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Central Nervous System Imaging, and Other Useful Procedures and New Technology.

Not Available

1987-01-01

5

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers bolts, rivets, screws, studs, nuts and washers, including their types, applications and installation methods. Technical drawings and other illustrations are included in the presentation. This is part one of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

2011-11-16

6

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers solid rivets, including their identification, installation and how they are used in fuselage repair. Materials selection and testing of aerospace fasteners is also included, along with the basic applications and needs of aerospace fasteners. Illustrative drawings and photographs are included in the presentation. This is part two of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

2011-11-16

7

MULTISPECTRAL DETECTION OF FECAL CONTAMINATION ON APPLES BASED ON HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY: PART II. APPLICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic E. coli contamination in unpasteurized apple juice or cider is thought to originate from animal feces, and fecal contamination of apples has been recognized by the FDA as an important health issue. In a companion article, reflectance imaging techniques were shown inadequate for the detection of thin smears of feces applied to apples. The objective of this study was

M. S. Kim; A. M. Lefcourt; Y. R. Chen; I. Kim; D. E. Chan; K. Chao

8

CMOS imaging for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is devoted to CMOS imaging for automotive applications. It is shown that unlike CCD-based imaging, imaging based on CMOS-sensing meets adequately requirements posed by automotive vision applications. In addition, besides classical vision, CMOS imaging enables new applications like, e.g., occupancy sensing, rangefinding, and 3-D vision.

B. J. Hosticka; W. Brockherde; A. Bussmann; T. Heimann; R. Jeremias; A. Kemna; C. Nitta; O. Schrey

2003-01-01

9

Pediatric applications of abdominal vascular Doppler: Part II.  

PubMed

Ultrasound is a remarkably powerful and versatile modality for pediatric imaging, without requiring exposure to radiation or sedatives. By providing information on blood flow, Doppler sonography can reveal details about normal physiology and disease processes not discernable from gray-scale anatomic images alone. In part I, the basics of hemodynamics and effects on the Doppler waveform were discussed, along with clinical applications in hepatic disease. In part II, the application of Doppler in renal disease and in conditions affecting the deep abdominal vessels are discussed. The role of ultrasound contrast agents in pediatric Doppler imaging is briefly reviewed. PMID:15300339

Coley, Brian D

2004-08-05

10

Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

2011-04-15

11

Molecular Imaging Applications in Nanomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore how molecular imaging techniques can be used as useful adjunts in the development of “nanomedicine” and in personalizing treatment of patients. The discussion focuses on in vivo applications at the whole organism level even though imaging can also play an important role in research at the cellular and subcellular level.

King C. P. Li; Sunil D. Pandit; Samira Guccione; Mark D. Bednarski

2004-01-01

12

Imaging spectrometry for ecological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectrometry from aircraft or satellite borne sensors has many potential ecological applications. This paper reviews its use for the remote sensing of foliar biochemical concentration, as this is an ecological application of remote sensing that is unique to imaging spectrometry. Attention is focussed on the development of methodologies, drawing where relevant on theory and techniques from both outside and inside remote sensing. Examples from the fields of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and geological remote sensing, along with an extensive reference list, provide an introduction to some of the ecological opportunities offered by imaging spectrometry.

Curran, Paul J.

13

Application of panospheric imaging to a teleoperated lunar rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both vehicle teleoperation effectiveness and on-looker interest is enhanced through the availability of omnidirectional images. For the application of a lunar rover, panospheric imaging has advantages over traditional methods for acquiring a panoramic view. By eliminating moving parts, panospheric imaging and radial camera arrays are more reliable than pan\\/tilt or panoramic cameras. The wide field of view captured by panospheric

John R. Murphy

1995-01-01

14

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2004-01-01

15

From atom to brain: applications of molecular imaging to neurosurgery.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging is a field born out of the happy marriage of molecular biology and radiology. The first installment of this two-part series on molecular imaging demonstrated basic principles for practitioners in the field of the neurosciences. This installment seeks to provide some illustrative examples, insights, and specific applications to the neurosciences. The fields of functional neurosurgery including the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, novel treatments and imaging of tumors, neuroregenerative medicine, and nanotechnology in vascular disorders are covered. Finally, we give some parting thoughts on the future of molecular imaging, including advances in the imaging of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20920931

Taghva, Alexander; Khalessi, Alexander A; Kim, Paul E; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

2010-05-01

16

Color Image Segmentation for Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is crucial for multimedia applications. Multimedia databases utilize segmentation for the storage and indexing of images and video. Image segmentation is used for object tracking in the new MPEG-7 video compression standard. It is also used in video conferencing for compression and coding purposes. These are only some of the multimedia applications in image segmentation. It is usually

Nicolaos Ikonomakis; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

2000-01-01

17

Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried

Takane Yokoi; Kenji Suzuki; Koichiro Oba

1991-01-01

18

Entropy, information (and image), part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of entropy is introduced from its historical origins in physics: thermodynamics, statistical physics, quantum physics. Information theoretic versions of this concept are presented, along with mathematical attempts to build entropy on solid bases. This allows a convenient framework for the control of digital picture processing algorithm (to be presented in part 2) to be introduced.

Maitre, Henri

19

Image fusion for tactical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

1998-10-01

20

RNS Application for Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we carry out a study on the RNS (residue number system) application in digital image processing and propose a RNS image coding scheme that offers high-speed and low-power VLSI implementation for secure image processing. The proposed scheme is more efficient than the RNS image coding scheme of Ammar et al. (2001) in that the proposed method encrypts

Wei Wang; M. N. S. Swamy; M. Omair Ahmad

2004-01-01

21

Submicron deformation field measurements: Part 2. Improved digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper in a series of three devoted to the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to mechanics problems. In this paper, improvements to the digital image correlation method are outlined, a technique that compares digital images of a specimen surface before and after deformation to deduce its two-dimensional surface displacement field and strains. The necessity of

G. Vendroux; W. G. Knauss

1998-01-01

22

Summary of Nondestructive Testing Applications. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a bibliographical summary of NDT tasks. The bibliography is divided into three parts. The first part includes the titles and abstracts of technical and analysis reports of engineering and development efforts. The second part lists the...

R. H. Selner N. A. Tracy

1972-01-01

23

Ultrawideband radar imaging system for biomedical applications  

SciTech Connect

Ultrawideband (UWB) (3-10 GHz) radar imaging systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration and resolution characteristics. The underlying principle of UWB cancer detection is a significant contrast in dielectric properties, which is estimated to be greater than 2:1 between normal and cancerous tissue, compared to a few-percent contrast in radiographic density exploited by x rays. This article presents a feasibility study of the UWB imaging of liver cancer tumors, based on the frequency-dependent finite difference time domain method. The reflection, radiation, and scattering properties of UWB pulses as they propagate through the human body are studied. The reflected and back-scattered electromagnetic energies from cancer tumors inside the liver are also investigated. An optimized, ultrawideband antenna was designed for near field operation, allowing for the reduction of the air-skin interface. It will be placed on the fat-liver tissue phantom with a malignant tumor stimulant. By performing an incremental scan over the phantom and removing early time artifacts, including reflection from the antenna ends, images based on the back-scattered signal from the tumor can be constructed. This research is part of our effort to develop a UWB cancer detection system with good detection and localization properties.

Jafari, H.M.; Liu, W.; Hranilovic, S.; Deen, M.J. [ECE Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2006-05-15

24

Oncological Applications of FDG PET Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

echnical considerations, normal distributions of FDG and applications of FDG imaging using PET for brain tumors, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, lung can cer and head and neck cancer have been addressed previ ously. This article focuses on applications of FDG PET imaging for breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and other body tumors.

Dominique Delbeke

25

Interference imaging and it's application to material and medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently several new imaging modalities in the domain of x-rays have been invented that show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques, where the contrast is based on attenuation only. Their working principle is either interference between scattered wave fronts from a sample with a reference wave field or the selective measure of refraction properties of the sample utilizing a crystal analyzer. The first category includes multi energy x-ray holography (MEXH) and phase contrast imaging (PHC) while the latter includes diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The basic theory will be discussed and some recent applications in material science as well as medical imaging will be reviewed.

Menk, R. H.

1999-08-01

26

PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation\\u000a of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application\\u000a for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric\\u000a neuroimaging. PET is considered

Sunhee Kim; Noriko Salamon; Hollie A. Jackson; Stefan Blüml; Ashok Panigrahy

2010-01-01

27

Applications of condensed dynamic images  

SciTech Connect

In appropriate cases, information from a dynamic series of nuclear images may be condensed into a single image with one spatial and one temporal dimension. A useful elaboration of the method consists of the masking out of undesired spatial regions. The versatility of such condensed dynamic images is illustrated by examples derived from gastroesophageal and pulmonary studies. Advantages of the method include obviating the need to examine and comprehend multiple images as well as enabling economical archiving of image data. Its diagnostic potential is particularly evident in esophageal transit and infant gastroesophageal reflux studies.

Klein, H.A.

1986-03-01

28

Status of polycrystalline-diamond-compact bits: Part 2 - Applications  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed the characteristics, development, and outlook for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. This second part treats applications of PDC bits, including suitable locations, types of hole, and uses.

Feenstra, R.

1988-06-01

29

Status of Polycrystalline-Diamond-Compact Bits: Part 2Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part 1 discussed the characteristics, development, and outlook for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. This second part treats applications of PDC bits, including suitable locations, types of hole, and uses.

R. Feenstra

1988-01-01

30

49 CFR 1550.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT SECURITY UNDER GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES § 1550.1 Applicability of this part. This part applies to the operation of aircraft for which there are no...

2011-10-01

31

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging - Potential cardiac applications  

SciTech Connect

Potential clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging are discussed with particular emphasis on cardiac studies. The principles of NMR spectroscopy and the reconstruction of images from NMR data obtained in a magnetic field gradient are reviewed, and the sensitive point technique of Hinshaw et al. (1977) for producing three dimensional images is introduced. Possible uses of NMR imaging in the study of intact functional biological systems are then considered, including the differentiation of ischemic tissue areas including myocardial injuries by the proton NMR imaging of water, and metabolic studies of myocardial ischemia and infarction by P-31 imaging of ATP, creatine phosphate and inorganic phosphorus. Unresolved problems in the application of NMR imaging to clinical studies are pointed out, and possible solutions which would enable the development of the technique as a powerful aid in diagnosing disease are suggested.

Goldman, M.R.; Pohost, G.M.; Ingwall, J.S.; Fossel, E.T.

1980-12-18

32

Lens-Free Imaging for Biological Applications  

PubMed Central

Lens-free (or lensless) imaging is emerging as a cost-effective, compact, and lightweight detection method that can serve numerous biological applications. Lens-free imaging can generate high-resolution images within a field-portable platform, which is ideal for affordable point-of-care devices aiming at resource-limited settings. In this mini-review, we first describe different modes of operation for lens-free imaging and then highlight several recent biological applications of this emerging platform technology.

Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Koo, Kyo-in; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

33

Applications of complex image theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing the appropriate differential equations. In addi- During the past two decades, finitely conducting tion, the solutions obtained by the image method are earth image theory techniques have proved extremely relatively simple algebraic expressions that can gen- useful in determining simple form expressions for the erally be evaluated on a desk calculator, in contrast electric and magnetic fields produced by

Peter R. Bannister

1986-01-01

34

ESR Imaging and Its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electron spin resonance (ESR) image is a representation of the spatial distribution of the ESR signal intensity or other parameter in a heterogeneous sample as well as NMR imaging. ESR is a well-established method for the study of many properties of matter, and is currently applied in a variety of fields, even archaeology. Beyond the recent development of various

K. Ohno

1986-01-01

35

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

36

Applications based on restored satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellites orbit the earth and obtain imagery of the ground below. The quality of satellite images is affected by the properties of the atmospheric imaging path, which degrade the image by blurring it and reducing its contrast. Applications involving satellite images are many and varied. Imaging systems are also different technologically and in their physical and optical characteristics such as sensor types, resolution, field of view (FOV), spectral range of the acquiring channels - from the visible to the thermal IR (TIR), platforms (mobilization facilities; aircrafts and/or spacecrafts), altitude above ground surface etc. It is important to obtain good quality satellite images because of the variety of applications based on them. The more qualitative is the recorded image, the more information is yielded from the image. The restoration process is conditioned by gathering much data about the atmospheric medium and its characterization. In return, there is a contribution to the applications based on those restorations i.e., satellite communication, warfare against long distance missiles, geographical aspects, agricultural aspects, economical aspects, intelligence, security, military, etc. Several manners to use restored Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) satellite images are suggested and presented here. In particular, using the restoration results for few potential geographical applications such as color classification and mapping (roads and streets localization) methods.

Arbel, D.; Levin, S.; Nir, M.; Bhasteker, I.

2005-08-01

37

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.  

PubMed

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-04-25

38

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: part 2: digital image acquisition.  

PubMed

This is the second installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first article of the series, we reviewed the fundamentals of digital image architecture. In this article, we describe the ways that an author can import digital images to the computer desktop. We explore the modern imaging network and explain how to import picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) images to the desktop. Options and techniques for producing digital hard copy film are also presented. PMID:14605101

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-11-01

39

Image informatics in systems biology applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.

Wong, Stephen T. C.

2005-02-01

40

'. CEQe? PJW Assay, Biometric Imaging. Inc. Applicant ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... CEQe? PJW Assay, Biometric Imaging. Inc. Mav 1997 Applicant: Contact: Date Summary Prepared: Device Trade Name: Common Name: ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

41

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials cover aerospace fasteners and their specifications, including the specifics of bolts, nuts, rivets and their applications in the industry.

2011-11-16

42

Image mosaicing for tele-reality applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some techniques for automatically deriving realistic 2-D scenes and 3-D geometric models from video sequences. These techniques can be used to build environments and 3-D models for virtual reality application based on recreating a true scene, i.e., tele-reality applications. The fundamental technique used in this paper is image mosaicing, i.e., the automatic alignment of multiple images into

Richard Szeliski

1994-01-01

43

Instruction systolic array in image processing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISATEC parallel computer is the first implementation of an instruction systolic array for the commercial market. The goal i\\of integration of 1024 processors on an add-on-board for PCs has been achieved by the development of a low- power/low-area processor architecture whose instruction set is suited particularly for image processing applications. The paper introduces the concept of the instruction systolic array, its implementation and some application examples in the field of image processing.

Schimmler, Manfred; Lang, Hans-Werner

1996-08-01

44

Application of DSP in the image transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to realize static image and video code and decode based on TI DSP chip TMS320C6416 was proposed in this paper, and a reliable image transmission system was developed. According to the application demand, the software has six major modules: (1) initialization of DSP chip and other hardware; (2) video acquisition and input control program; (3) serial port communicating program; (4) RAM storage and communicating program that applies and releases the token-ring; (5) video reconstruct and output control; (6) the major parts of the software, encoding and decoding program, in which wavelet was applied first, then run length coding and Huffman coding were carried out, the image or video could had balance resolution and better visual effect by adaptive processing, in the decoding parts, the reverse operation were executed. After the system line up debugging was carried out, a satisfying result was reached: the comparatively high compression rate, preferable image quality and relatively real-time result.

Gui, Feng; Wei, LinQi

2006-06-01

45

CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.  

PubMed

Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4?5 ?m) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps). PMID:22389609

El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

2009-01-13

46

CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4?5 ?m) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M. Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

2009-01-01

47

Image processing applications in NDE  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

Morris, R.A.

1980-01-01

48

Optimal Distribution System Horizon Planning–Part II: Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a two-part paper in which application methods to enhance distribution horizon planning for a 20+ year period are described. The optimal horizon planning model encompasses all distribution design requirements for primary and secondary systems. The model formulation is described in the companion paper Part I. The model makes use of a generalized feeder layout

Robert H. Fletcher; Kai Strunz

2007-01-01

49

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment...Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5...

2013-07-01

50

Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried out under natural sunlight or room illuminations and the image data have to be processed to produce useful two-dimensional quantitative data. A new photocathode has been developed to meet these requirements. It is specially made of RbTe on a sapphire window and its quantum efficiency is as high as 20% with the solar blindness of 10,000. The tube is specially designed to meet UV light optics and to minimize image distortion. It has an invertor type image intensifier tube structure and intensifies the incident UV light up to approximately 10,000 times. The distortion of the output image is suppressed less than 1.8%, because of a specially designed electron optic lens system. The device has shown excellent results in the observation of such objects as fingerprints and footprints in forensic investigations, the Cherenkov light produced by the spent fuels stored in a cooling water pool in the nuclear power station, and UV laser beam path in excimer laser experiments. Furthermore, many other applications of the UV light imaging will be expected in various fields such as semiconductors, cosmetics, and electrical power.

Yokoi, Takane; Suzuki, Kenji; Oba, Koichiro

1991-06-01

51

Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Ophthalmology – Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and its applications in ophthalmology. It is evident that drug delivery, gene therapy, implantable devices and regenerative medicine are some of the key areas of active research. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited review work on this subject area in the current literature. To assist the interested

Pho Nguyen; M. Meyyappan; Samuel C. Yiu

2010-01-01

52

Novel applications of MOEMS display and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant progresses have been made in MOEMS for display, imaging, telecommunication, and bioinstrumentation applications. This talk will first provide an overview of the recent advances in micromirror technologies. Then it will discuss three novel applications using MEMS micromirrors. First, a large port count wavelength-selective switch using a one-dimensional array of two-axis analog micromirrors will be described. Then the fabrication and packaging of two-axis micromirrors for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging will be presented. Finally a new "optoelectronic tweezers" for manipulating microparticles and biological cells using direct images of MOEMS spatial light modulators will be described.

Wu, Ming C.

2005-01-01

53

Improving Stereolithography Part Accuracy for Industrial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dimensional accuracy and part stability are significant elements of the end product in rapid prototyping technology (RPT)\\u000a processes whether it is a component or a tool. However, in most cases, models built in acrylic-based resin in the stereolithography\\u000a (SL) process have not been of the desired quality and this has led to the use of more expensive resins that

S. O. Onuh; K. K. B. Hon

2001-01-01

54

A simple image display application for windows.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to develop a simple application for displaying low-to-moderate resolution digital images under the Windows operating environment. The display of scintigraphic images was of special interest, and for this reason the program was designed to show sequences of images and to account for broad ranges of pixel values. In order to function under a variety of Windows versions, the program was developed using the 16-bit Microsoft C +2 compiler and targeted for Windows 3.1 enhanced. It was tested with Trionix images for nuclear medicine and Siemens for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). The resulting application, called SID, successfully read Magnetom, Somatom, Trionix, and Interfile images of dimension 512 or less on Intel-based Windows PCs with 256 color SVGA-compatible (Super Video Graphics Adapters) video hardware. Early applications of the program included remote monitoring of image studies, resident review of teaching cases, review of research images, and preparation of educational materials. This article describes the features, operation, and potential applications of SID. PMID:9268906

Conrad, G R

1997-08-01

55

Fundamentals and applications of magnetic particle imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique which performs a direct measurement of magnetic nanoparticles, also known as superparamagnetic iron oxide. MPI can acquire quantitative images of the local distribution of the magnetic material with high spatial and temporal resolution. Its sensitivity is well above that of other methods used for the detection and quantification of magnetic materials, for example, magnetic resonance imaging. On the basis of an intravenous injection of magnetic particles, MPI has the potential to play an important role in medical application areas such as cardiovascular, oncology, and also in exploratory fields such as cell labeling and tracking. Here, we present an introduction to the basic function principle of MPI, together with an estimation of the spatial resolution and the detection limit. Furthermore, the above-mentioned medical applications are discussed with respect to an applicability of MPI. PMID:22682260

Borgert, Jörn; Schmidt, Joachim D; Schmale, Ingo; Rahmer, Jürgen; Bontus, Claas; Gleich, Bernhard; David, Bernd; Eckart, Rainer; Woywode, Oliver; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Haegele, Julian; Vogt, Florian M; Barkhausen, Jörg

2012-04-26

56

Single-image based dimensions inspection technology for planar industrial parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial parts' dimensions are the important characteristics for their eligibility evaluation; typically, the multiple cameras system is the preferred technology that fitting the inspection, especially for on-line testing, but the cameras calibration, images matching, etc. are necessary when put in practice, also, multiple cameras system is either too costly or impractical sometimes. A novel dimensions inspection technology based on single-image for planar industrial parts is presented. The technology described here uses single-image taken by a camera in arbitrary pose, and requires four scale-bars with known distances sticking on the planar industrial part, the four known distances are used to correct the single-image to normal, and the part's dimensions are obtained by triangulation comparability from the normal image. The utilities of this method are its low-cost, simplicity, ease of implementation and camera calibration needless. The technology is being used in the real-time inspection of precision machining for the evaporator tubes plate of nuclear boiler, applications show that the method is effective, and the typical dimensions accuracy is 0.05 mms if the testing range is about 0.5ms by 0.5ms per-time.

Chen, Ji-Hua; Jiang, Yan-Yun

2009-11-01

57

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: Part 3: Digital image editing.  

PubMed

This is the final installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first two articles of the series, the fundamentals of digital image architecture were reviewed and methods of importing images to the computer desktop were described. In this article, techniques are presented for editing images in preparation for online submission. A step-by-step guide to basic editing with use of Adobe Photoshop is provided and the ethical implications of this activity are explored. PMID:14654480

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-12-01

58

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF SPECTRAL IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of remote sensing using spectral imaging is just being realized through the investigation to a wide variety of environmental issues. Improved spectral and spatial resolution is very important to the detection of effects once regarded as unobservable. A current researc...

59

DIANE stationary neutron radiography system image quality and industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SODERN neutron radiography laboratory has operated since February 1993 using a sealed tube generator (GENIE 46). An experimental programme of characterization (dosimetry, spectroscopy) has confirmed the expected performances concerning: neutron flux intensity, neutron energy range, residual gamma flux. Results are given in a specific report [2]. This paper is devoted to the image performance reporting. ASTM and specific indicators have been used to test the image quality with various converters and films. The corresponding modulation transfer functions are to be determined from image processing. Some industrial applications have demonstrated the capabilities of the system: corrosion detection in aircraft parts, ammunitions filling testing, detection of polymer lacks in sandwich steel sheets, detection of moisture in a probe for geophysics, residual ceramic cores imaging in turbine blades. Various computerized electronic imaging systems will be tested to improve the industrial capabilities.

Cluzeau, S.; Huet, J.; Le Tourneur, P.

1994-05-01

60

Rotation covariant image processing for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences. PMID:23710255

Skibbe, Henrik; Reisert, Marco

2013-04-18

61

Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on ? therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

2005-06-17

62

Imaging applications in speech production research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary focus of speech production research is directed towards obtaining improved understanding and quantitative characterization of the articulatory dynamics, acoustics, and cognition of both normal and pathological human speech. Such efforts are, however, frequently challenged by the lack of appropriate physical and physiological data. A great deal of attention is, hence, given to the development of novel measurement/instrumentation techniques which are desirably non invasive, safe, and do not interfere with normal speech production. Several imaging techniques have been successfully employed for studying speech production. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the various imaging techniques used in speech research such as x-rays, ultrasound, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, glossometry, palatography, video fibroscopy and imaging is presented. In the second part of the paper, we describe the results of our efforts to understand and model speech production mechanisms of vowels, fricatives, and lateral and rhotic consonants based on MRI data.

Narayanan, Shrikanth; Alwan, Abeer

1996-04-01

63

Imaging DOAS for volcanological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous quantitative determination of two-dimensional bromine monoxide (BrO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic gas plumes is described. Measurements at the fumarolic field on the island Vulcano (autumn 2004)\\u000a and in the plume of Mt. Etna volcano (spring 2005) were carried out with an Imaging DOAS instrument. The SO2 fluxes of several fumaroles were estimated from two-dimensional distributions

Ilia Louban; Nicole Bobrowski; Dmitri Rouwet; Salvatore Inguaggiato; Ulrich Platt

2009-01-01

64

Nitric oxide release: part II. Therapeutic applications.  

PubMed

A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials has emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO's vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. In this tutorial review, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

Carpenter, Alexis W; Schoenfisch, Mark H

2012-02-24

65

Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing.

Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

2012-01-01

66

Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ghost imaging owes its early popularity to experiments geared towards demonstrating novel physical principles in quantum optics, it has since developed into a viable structured-illumination imaging modality. As the fundamental physical principles that govern ghost imaging are now well-understood in terms of the coherence theory for classical and quantum light, more attention is being devoted to identifying suitable application areas. Here we report on the rigorous analysis of a ghost-imaging remote-sensing architecture that acquires the 2D spatial Fourier transform of the target object (which can be inverted to obtain a conventional image). We determine its image signature, resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of practical constraints, such as atmospheric turbulence, background radiation, and photodetector noise. We delineate the impact of turbulence on resolution, and discuss speckle correlography as a possible means of mitigation. Our analysis provides key insights into the performance differences between ghost imaging and conventional active imaging, and identifies scenarios in which ghost imaging --- theoretically --- yields performance superior to conventional active imagers.

Erkmen, B. I.

2011-05-01

67

A single lens with no moving parts for rapid high-resolution 3D image capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many visual inspection and sensing applications where both a high resolution image and a depth-map of the imaged object are desirable at high speed. Presently available methods to capture 3D data (stereo cameras and structured illumination), are limited in speed, complexity, and transverse resolution. Additionally these techniques rely on a separated baseline for triangulation, precluding use in confined spaces. Typically, off the shelf lenses are implemented where performance in resolution, field-of-view, and depth of field are sacrificed in order to achieve a useful balance. Here we present a novel lens system with high-resolution and wide field-of-view for rapid 3D image capture. The design achieves this using a single lens with no moving parts. A depth-from-defocus algorithm is implemented to reconstruct 3D object point clouds and matched with a fused image to create a 3D rendered view.

Gray, Dan; Chen, Hongquiang; Czechowski, Joseph; Zhang, Kang; Tu, Jilin; Wheeler, Frederick; Yamada, Masako; Pablo Cilia, Juan; DeMuth, Russell; Heidari, Esmaeil; Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

2013-02-01

68

45 CFR 1615.3 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON ACTIONS COLLATERALLY ATTACKING CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS § 1615.3 Application of this part. This...assistanceâ (a) To challenge a conviction resulting from a criminal proceeding in which the defendant received...

2012-10-01

69

45 CFR 1615.3 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON ACTIONS COLLATERALLY ATTACKING CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS § 1615.3 Application of this part. This...assistanceâ (a) To challenge a conviction resulting from a criminal proceeding in which the defendant received...

2011-10-01

70

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN...Appendix A to Part 231âApplication for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523 Ref:...

2013-04-01

71

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 232 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, FOREIGN OPERATIONS, AND RELATED PROGRAMS... Appendix A to Part 232âApplication for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523 Ref:...

2013-04-01

72

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED...Appendix A to Part 230âApplication for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523 Ref:...

2009-04-01

73

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED...Appendix A to Part 230âApplication for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523 Ref:...

2013-04-01

74

A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup are briefly introduced. Some first imaging results showing the basic capabilities are illustrated. Possible error sources and their impacts are discussed by simulation and compared to the measured data.

Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

2010-04-01

75

Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.  

PubMed

Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity. PMID:24010245

Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

2013-03-01

76

Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications  

PubMed Central

Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields.

Nguyen, M. K.; Truong, T. T.; Morvidone, M.; Zaidi, H.

2011-01-01

77

Spaceborne imaging radar: geologic and oceanographic applications.  

PubMed

Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications. PMID:17841450

Elachi, C

1980-09-01

78

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2013-07-01

79

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent...

2013-07-01

80

A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

1990-09-06

81

Novel applications of MOEMS display and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progresses have been made in MOEMS for display, imaging, telecommunication, and bioinstrumentation applications. This talk will first provide an overview of the recent advances in micromirror technologies. Then it will discuss three novel applications using MEMS micromirrors. First, a large port count wavelength-selective switch using a one-dimensional array of two-axis analog micromirrors will be described. Then the fabrication and

Ming C. Wu

2005-01-01

82

An imaging toolbox for smart phone applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a Digital Image Processing toolbox for cellular phones. It is intended for users dealing with imaging algorithms and allows the processing of real images taken by the camera phones. For example, users are able to analyze the images and selected regions of interest using different transforms including Discrete Fourier, Hartley, and Cosine Transforms. One can apply different filters such as median and moving average. Simple image enhancement techniques are also included in the toolbox. A handy user interface allows a suitable browsing through the images and operators. The toolbox is designed to be expandable and more operations will be included in the future targeting military and security applications. The toolbox is implemented using Series 60 Platform SDK for Symbiantm OS, for C++. It allows developers to quickly and efficiently run and test applications for devices that are compatible with the Series 60 Platform. The algorithms are first implemented on Series 60 Platform device emulator on the PC and then installed on the cell phone.

Panchul, Alexandr; Bhupathiraju, Deepthi; Agaian, Sos; Akopian, David

2006-06-01

83

Image fusion techniques for remote sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion refers to the acquisition, processing andsynergistic combination of information providedby various sensors or by the same sensor in many measuring contexts. The aim of this survey paper is to describe three typical applications of data fusion in remote sensing. The first study case considers the problem of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, where a pair of antennas

G. Simone; Alfonso Farina; Francesco Carlo Morabito; Sebastiano B. Serpico; Lorenzo Bruzzone

2002-01-01

84

Imaging device for radiation treatment applications  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radiotherapy clinical treatment machine is described having a rotatable gantry and an imaging device with articulating robotic arms to provide variable positioning and clearance for radiation treatment applications. According to one aspect of the invention, a first and a second robotic arms are pivotally coupled to the rotatable gantry, allowing the robotic arms to maneuver independently from the rotatable gantry.

Mansfield; Stan (Sunnyvale, CA); Kopels; Robert (Cupertino, CA); Graf; Ulrich Martin (Mettmenstetten, CH)

2010-02-02

85

Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification.  

PubMed

This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach. PMID:23856916

Montejo, Ludguier D; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K; Netz, Uwe J; Blaschke, Sabine; Müller, Gerhard A; Hielscher, Andreas H

2013-07-01

86

Imaging spectrometer for process industry applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an imaging spectrometer principle based on a novel prism-grating-prism (PGP) element as the dispersive component and advanced camera solutions for on-line applications. The PGP element uses a volume type holographic plane transmission grating made of dichromated gelatin (DCG). Currently, spectrographs have been realized for the 400 - 1050 nm region but the applicable spectral region of the PGP is 380 - 1800 nm. Spectral resolution is typically between 1.5 and 5 nm. The on-axis optical configuration and simple rugged tubular optomechanical construction of the spectrograph provide a good image quality and resistance to harsh environmental conditions. Spectrograph optics are designed to be interfaced to any standard CCD camera. Special camera structures and operating modes can be used for applications requiring on-line data interpretation and process control.

Herrala, Esko; Okkonen, Jukka T.; Hyvarinen, Timo S.; Aikio, Mauri; Lammasniemi, Jorma

1994-11-01

87

Texture function application for wood ultrastructure description. Part 2: Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical application of the orientation distribution function (ODF), being the three-dimensional representation of the\\u000a texture function, was presented. The investigations of the crystallograpically organized regions of wood were performed. The\\u000a experimental methods of the X-ray diffraction were discussed in detail. The incomplete pole figures were measured in order\\u000a to calculate the ODF. The dominant components of the crystallographical texture

Wies?aw Olek; Jan Bonarski

2006-01-01

88

Imaging of subsurface lineaments in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin from gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear anomalies, as an indicator of the structural features of some geological bodies, are very important for the interpretation of gravity and magnetic data. In this study, an image processing technique known as the Hough transform (HT) algorithm is described for determining invisible boundaries and extensions in gravity anomaly maps. The Hough function implements the Hough transform used to extract straight lines or circles within two-dimensional potential field images. It is defined as image and Hough space. In the Hough domain, this function transforms each nonzero point in the parameter domain to a sinusoid. In the image space, each point in the Hough space is transformed to a straight line or circle. Lineaments are depicted from these straight lines which are transformed in the image domain. An application of the Hough transform to the Bouguer anomaly map of the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey, shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Based on geological data and gravity data, the structural features in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin are investigated by applying the proposed approach and the Blakely and Simpson method. Lineaments identified by these approaches are generally in good accordance with previously-mapped surface faults.

Aydogan, D.; Pinar, A.; Elmas, A.; Tarhan Bal, O.; Yuksel, S.

2013-04-01

89

Image processing applications for geologic mapping  

SciTech Connect

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.

1985-03-01

90

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2005-01-01

91

Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field.

Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

92

Image and Video Processing for Affective Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in the research area of affective computing have broadened the range of application areas of its findings,\\u000a and additionally, as the state of the art advances in affective computing, other related research areas (computer vision,\\u000a pattern recognition, etc.) discover new challenges that are related to image and video processing related to the task of automatic\\u000a affective analysis. Although

Maja Pantic; George Caridakis

93

Design of image sensors for hyperspectral applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensor design for Hyperspectral observation is significantly different to many other imaging applications and the various requirements are discussed. An early programme is the MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on ENVISAT, which has been producing high quality Hyperspectral images for the last 7 years. The requirements for MERIS originally led to the development at e2v of both back-thinning technology, to meet the spectral requirements, and the manufacture of devices with a graded antireflection coating, to fully optimize the QE at every spectral band. A number of other hyperspectral missions are being planned or in preparation. For example Sentinel 3 is to be an almost direct repeat of the MERIS instrument and will be followed by Sentinel 4 and 5. In the future as the technology matures it is likely that Hyperspectral missions will tend to use CMOS sensors rather than CCD. CMOS sensors have a number of potential advantages for Hyperspectral imaging and if these can be successfully exploited then enhanced performance would result. The design of a CMOS sensor is discussed that is targeted at Hyperspectral application to give fully optimized performance at all spectral bands.

Jerram, Paul; Burt, David; Morris, David; Eaton, Tim; Fryer, Martin

2009-09-01

94

Applications of RFID Technology and Smart Parts in Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, industrial and consumer applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) are explored. The state-of-the-art and development in RFID technology is reviewed. A currently operative smart parts based manufacturing system is described which uses RFID as the key technology. The role of RFID in the emerging Wireless Internet Manufacturing field is highlighted.

Gadh, Rajit; Zhekun, Li; Prabhu, B. S. (Bantwal Srinivasa)

2009-11-25

95

Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing

Ming-Hong Chen; Guo-Ping Zhang; Hongxing Xia

2009-01-01

96

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2010-07-01

97

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2009-07-01

98

Learning to Detect Objects in Images via a Sparse, Part-Based Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of detecting objects in still, grayscale images. Our primary focus is development of a learning-based approach to the problem, that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; im- ages are then represented using parts from

Shivani Agarwal; Aatif Awan; Dan Roth

2004-01-01

99

Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of insecticides in biological tissues. Finally, in the microscale level, the penetration of household insecticides through different types of textiles fabrics. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectra, SFC and SEM showed that cotton-polyester (twill), cotton, wool and cotton thermal underwear were the least penetrable materials for the aerosols. On the other hand, acrylic and artificial silk (rayon) were the most penetrable cloth types. The most protective form of clothing will be more than one layer e.g. cotton/polyester type of clothing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

El-Demerdash, Aref M.

100

Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications.

Marcu, Constantin B.; Beek, Aernout M.; van Rossum, Albert C.

2006-01-01

101

A broadband imaging system for research applications  

PubMed Central

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7×1010 cm Hz1?2?W at a wavelength of 11.8 ?m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated.

Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.

2009-01-01

102

A broadband imaging system for research applications.  

PubMed

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7x10(10) cm Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 11.8 microm. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

Yefremenko, V; Gordiyenko, E; Shustakova, G; Fomenko, Yu; Datesman, A; Wang, G; Pearson, J; Cohen, E E W; Novosad, V

2009-05-01

103

Elastic LADAR Modeling for Synthetic Imaging Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is a synthetic imagery generation model developed at the Center for Imaging Science (CIS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). It is a quantitative first principle based model that calculates the sensor reaching radiance from the visible through to the long wave infrared on a spectral basis. DIRSIG generates a very accurate representation of what a sensor would see by modeling all the processes involved in the imaging chain. Currently, DIRSIG only models passive sources such as the sun and blackbody radiation due to the temperature of an object. Active systems have the benefit of the user being able to control the illumination source and tailor it for specific applications. Remote sensing Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) systems that utilize a laser as the active source have been in existence for over 30 years. Recent advances in tunable lasers and infrared detectors have allowed much more sophisticated and accurate work to be done, but a comprehensive spectral LADAR model has yet to be developed. In order to provide a tool to assist in LADAR development, this research incorporates a first principle based elastic LADAR model into DIRSIG. It calculates the irradiance onto the focal plane on a spectral basis for both the atmospheric and topographic return, based on the system characteristics and the assumed atmosphere. The geometrical form factor, a measure of the overlap between the sensor and receiver field-of-view, is carefully accounted for in both the monostatic and bistatic cases. The model includes the effect of multiple bounces from topographical targets. Currently, only direct detection systems will be modeled. Several sources of noise are extensively modeled, such as speckle from rough surfaces. Additionally, atmospheric turbulence effects including scintillation, beam effects, and image effects are accounted for. To allow for future growth, the model and coding are modular and anticipate the inclusion of advanced sensor modules and inelastic scattering.

Burton, Robin R.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.

2002-09-01

104

Multianode photomultiplier tube studies for imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient and position sensitive photon detection is essential in a variety of applications from particle identification in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, to radionuclide imaging in healthcare. Due to their position sensitivity and high packing fraction, the Hamamatsu H8500 and H9500 multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) are promising candidates for such applications and have thus been studied through precision laser scans at several light intensities. This has revealed signal and crosstalk dependencies upon constructional features of the MAPMTs. Both MAPMTs feature a common last dynode output signal, which can be used for self-triggering. The strength and timing of this signal have been investigated for the H8500 MAPMT, yielding similar dependencies upon MAPMT construction and standard deviation time resolutions of 67.5 ps and 154.4 ps for 20 and single photoelectron signals respectively.

Montgomery, R. A.; Cowie, E. N.; Hoek, M.; Keri, T.; Seitz, B.

2012-12-01

105

[Technique and application of cell image processing].  

PubMed

Digital image processing is widely used in medical image. Segmentation is one of the important step in computer image processing. The essay introduces the procedure and effect of cell image segmentation by watershed algorithm. PMID:23461119

Qian, Mingli; Huang, Xin

2012-11-01

106

Body image and comprehension of body part names  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between awareness of body topology and auditory comprehension of body part names was studied in 22 aphasic subjects. Two nonverbal tasks—human figure drawing and placement of individual body parts in relation to a drawn face—were compared with two auditory tests of body part comprehension. The two nonverbal and the two verbal tasks were closely correlated with each other,

Maria-Jesus Benedet; Harold Goodglass

1989-01-01

107

Compressed Sensing and its Applications in Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressed sensing is a new sampling theory which allows reconstructing signals using sub-Nyquist measurements/sampling. This can significantly reduce the computation required for image/video acquisition/encoding, at least at the sensor end. Compressed sensing works on the concept of sparsity of the signal in some known domain, which is incoherent with the measurement domain. We exploit this technique to build a single pixel camera based on an optical modulator and a single photosensor. Random projections of the signal (image) are taken by optical modulator, which has random matrix displayed on it, corresponding to the measurement domain (random noise). This randomly projected signal is collected on the photosensor and later used for reconstructing the signal. In this scheme we are making a tradeoff between the spatial extent of sampling array and a sequential sampling over time with a single detector. In addition to this method, we will also demonstrate a new design which overcomes this shortcoming by parallel collection of many random projections simultaneously. Applications of this technique in hyperspectral and infrared imaging will be discussed.

Takhar, Dharmpal; Sun, Ting; Laska, Jason; Duarte, Marco; Baraniuk, Richard; Kelly, Kevin

2008-03-01

108

[Application of objective image quality measures on CT image].  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is an essential imaging modality. To solve the problem caused by increasing radiation exposure from CT scanner and to elevate the image quality, we aimed to apply the general objective image quality methods in CT image quality evaluation. After analyzing the perceptual features of CT image, we tested several popular objective image quality metrics, which focus on the similar perceptual features, on the CT image of phantom and animals. Experiments for verifying the feasibility were carried out. Compared with the subjective ratings from two professional radiation physicians, the complex wavelet-based structural similarity metric presents the better prediction results of the image quality. PMID:21604502

Liu, Mingna; Wang, Qian; Yang, Xin; Zhn, Ming

2011-04-01

109

Arithmetic of five-part of leukocytes based on image process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper apply computer image processing and pattern recognizition methods to solve the problem of auto classification and counting of leukocytes (white blood cell) in peripheral blood. In this paper a new leukocyte arithmetic of five-part based on image process and pattern recognizition is presented, which relized auto classify of leukocyte. The first aim is detect the leukocytes . A major requirement of the whole system is to classify these leukocytes to 5 classes. This arithmetic bases on notability mechanism of eyes, process image by sequence, divides up leukocytes and pick up characters. Using the prior kwonledge of cells and image shape information, this arithmetic divides up the probable shape of Leukocyte first by a new method based on Chamfer and then gets the detail characters. It can reduce the mistake judge rate and the calculation greatly. It also has the learning fuction. This paper also presented a new measurement of karyon's shape which can provide more accurate information. This algorithm has great application value in clinical blood test .

Li, Yian; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

2007-11-01

110

Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

Kean, D.; Smith, M.

1986-01-01

111

Beyond MusclesUnexplored Parts of Men's Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus far the study of men's body image has been largely restricted to the dimensions of adiposity and muscularity. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way multiple aspects of men's body images, in particular, head hair, body hair, height and penis size, in addition to body weight and muscularity. Questionnaires were completed online by 200

Marika Tiggemann; Yolanda Martins; Libby Churchett

2008-01-01

112

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window"…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

113

Still Image Segmentation Tools for Content-based Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel color image segmentation algo- rithm and a novel approach to large-format image seg- mentation are presented, both focused on usage for image segmentation in content-based multimedia applications. The novel color image segmentation algorithm uses the Discrete Wavelet Frames decomposition to extract tex- ture features and performs pixel classification using a novel initial clustering procedure and

Vasileios Mezaris; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Michael G. Strintzis

2002-01-01

114

Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: part III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a status report on recent scientific CMOS imager developments since when previous publications were written. Focus today is being given on CMOS design and process optimization because fundamental problems affecting performance are now reasonably well understood. Topics found in this paper include discussions on a low cost custom scientific CMOS fabrication approach, substrate bias for deep depletion imagers, near IR and x-ray point-spread performance, custom fabricated high resisitivity epitaxial and SOI silicon wafers for backside illuminated imagers, buried channel MOSFETs for ultra low noise performance, 1 e- charge transfer imagers, high speed transfer pixels, RTS/ flicker noise versus MOSFET geometry, pixel offset and gain non uniformity measurements, high S/N dCDS/aCDS signal processors, pixel thermal dark current sources, radiation damage topics, CCDs fabricated in CMOS and future large CMOS imagers planned at Sarnoff.

Janesick, James; Pinter, Jeff; Potter, Robert; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Cheng, John; Bishop, Jeanne

2009-08-01

115

Seeded image segmentation for content-based image retrieval application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeded image growing (SRG) algorithm is very attractive for semantic image segmentation but it also suffer from the problems of pixel sorting orders for labeling and automatic seed selection. We design an automatic SRG algorithm, along with a boundary-oriented parallel pixel labeling technique and an automatic seed selection method. In order to support more efficient image access over large-scale database, we suggest a multi-level image database management structure. This framework also supports a concept-oriented image classification via a probabilistic approach. Hierarchical image indexing and summarization are also discussed.

Fan, Jianping; Body, Mathurin; Zhu, Xingquan; Hacid, Mohand-Said; El-Kwae, Essam A.

2001-12-01

116

[Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

Three types of researches have been carried out on brain-mind relationships: 1. researches on anatomical correlates of special talents (for example, perfect pitch) or deficits (for example, dyslexia), 2. researches to examine the relationship between a given cognitive syndrome and the site of brain damage, 3. researches to localize human cognitive function in the brain in vivo using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). fMRI is a particularly important because it is noninvasive. A tutorial covering basic aspects of this methodology is presented, along with a survey of recent fMRI data related to clinical application. Future investigations of the three types enumerated above are expected to further clarify brain-mind relationships. PMID:11905006

Sugishita, Morihiro

2002-03-01

117

Modular hyperspectral imager enables multiple research applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MR-i spectroradiometer can support a wide range of applications from its architecture suited to multiple configurations. Its modular 4-port FTIR spectroradiometer architecture allows the simultaneous use of two different detector modules, direct or differential input(s) and multiple telescopes. In a given configuration, MR-i can combine a MWIR focal plane array and a LWIR focal plane array to provide an extended spectral range from the two imaging sensors. The two detector array modules are imaging the same scene allowing synchronized pixel-to-pixel spectral range combination. In another configuration, MR-i can combine two identical focal plane arrays with different attenuation factors and two interleaved integration times per detector array. This configuration generates four sets of hyperspectral data cubes with different dynamic ranges that can be combined to produce a single hyperspectral cube with unmatched dynamic range. This configuration is particularly well suited for high-speed, high-dynamic range characterization of targets such as aircrafts, flares, and explosions. In a third configuration, named iCATSI, the spectroradiometer is used in differential input configuration to provide efficient optical background subtraction. The iCATSI configuration features an MCT detectors array with spectral cutoff near 14 µm. This extended spectral range and high sensitivity allows the detection and identification of a wide range of chemicals.

Hô, Nicolas; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Dubé, Denis; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Vallières, Christian; Roy, Claude

2012-09-01

118

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

Deserno (ne Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (ne Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

119

Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy: Applications to Diseases Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Second Harmonic Generation microscopy has emerged as a powerful new optical imaging modality. This Feature describes its chemical and physical principles and highlights current applications in disease diagnostics.

Campagnola, Paul

2011-01-01

120

Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study).

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

121

Optical imaging techniques in microfluidics and their applications.  

PubMed

Microfluidic devices have undergone rapid development in recent years and provide a lab-on-a-chip solution for many biomedical and chemical applications. Optical imaging techniques are essential in microfluidics for observing and extracting information from biological or chemical samples. Traditionally, imaging in microfluidics is achieved by bench-top conventional microscopes or other bulky imaging systems. More recently, many novel compact microscopic techniques have been developed to provide a low-cost and portable solution. In this review, we provide an overview of optical imaging techniques used in microfluidics followed with their applications. We first discuss bulky imaging systems including microscopes and interferometer-based techniques, then we focus on compact imaging systems that can be better integrated with microfluidic devices, including digital in-line holography and scanning-based imaging techniques. The applications in biomedicine or chemistry are also discussed along with the specific imaging techniques. PMID:22878811

Wu, Jigang; Zheng, Guoan; Lee, Lap Man

2012-10-01

122

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications.  

PubMed

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 x 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

Kester, Robert T; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

2010-04-01

123

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: part 1: the fundamentals.  

PubMed

Online submission of manuscripts will be mandatory for most journals in the near future. To prepare authors for this requirement and to acquaint readers with this new development, herein the basics of digital image processing are described. From the fundamentals of digital image architecture, through acquisition, editing, and storage of digital images, the steps necessary to prepare an image for online submission are reviewed. In this article, the first of a three-part series, the structure of the digital image is described. In subsequent articles, the acquisition and editing of digital images will be reviewed. PMID:14551267

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-10-01

124

Numerical and Experimental Applications of TWIP Steel in Automotive Parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern automotive design has been faced with the weight reduction problem to meet the CO2 emissions standard while achieving high safety and compact design. Such being the case, most car makers want to use the ultra high strength steels (UHSS). But there are several problems when such steels are used, due to presumed lack of formability. Since the disadvantage such as above, it has been suggested that UHSS need special forming methods or it should be used only limited process like simple bending, by many automotive research institutes. To overcome these shortcomings, Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel for improved strength and formability has been developed by steel making company, including POSCO, Korea. Because of its characteristics, it is expected to be widely used in automotive parts. This paper aims at finding out several ways how to make effective use of TWIP steel in automotive parts. Especially, comprising about from 15 to 18% manganese and from 1.5 to 2% aluminum which was developed by POSCO for application of the automotive parts will be considered.

Lee, J. W.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, J. B.; Oh, P. Y.

2011-08-01

125

New applications of nanoparticles in cardiovascular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology involves working at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular levels including imaging. Recently, four areas have emerged in cardiovascular imaging: 1. Targeted therapeutics to deliver cardioprotective drugs at the target sites they are needed; 2. Myocardial tissue engineering to replace the defective valves, damaged heart muscle, clogged blood vessels and myocardium; 3. Molecular imaging using “smart” imaging agents in targeted

Rakesh Sharma; Soonjo Kwon

2007-01-01

126

Matching stereoscopic SAR images for radargrammetric applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present our studies about extraction of 3D information from radar images. Several radargrammetric methods allow DEM (digital elevation model) generation from SAR images and we take a special interest to stereoscopic method. The main idea is to match image stereo pairs, to create a disparity map from one image to the other and

Franck Fayard; Stéphane Méric; Eric Pottier

2007-01-01

127

A backscattered x-ray imager for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional X-ray radiographic systems rely on transmitted photons for the production of images. Backscatter imaging makes use of the more abundant scattered photons for image formation. Specifically, incoherently (Compton) scattered X-ray photons are detected and used for image formation in this modality of medical imaging. However, additional information is obtained when the transmitted X-ray photons are also detected and used. Transmission radiography produces a two-dimensional image of a three dimensional system, therefore image information from a shallower object is often contaminated by image information from underlying objects. Backscattered x-ray imaging largely overcomes this deficiency by imaging depth selectively, which reduces corruption of shallow imaging information by information from deeper objects lying under it. Backscattered x-ray imaging may be particularly useful for examining anatomical structures at shallow depths beneath the skin. Some typical applications for such imaging might be breast imaging, middle ear imaging, imaging of skin melanomas, etc. Previous investigations, by way of theoretical calculations and computational simulations into the feasibility of this kind of imaging have uncovered high-contrast and SNR parameters. Simulations indicate that this method can be used for imaging relatively high-density objects at depths of up to approximately five centimeters below the surface. This paper presents both theoretical and experimental SNR results on this new medical imaging modality.

Morris, Eric Jude L.; Dibianca, Frank A.; Shukla, Hemant; Gulabani, Daya

2005-04-01

128

Karhunen-Loeve multispectral image restoration, part I: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of optimal image restoration is well established for monochrome imagery. However, a variety of sensors acquire multi-spectral or polychrome imagery. The restoration of multispectral imagery by optimal (Wiener) methods is developed in this paper. It is shown that optimal restoration must take place in the Karhunen-Loeve domain. It is further shown that high quality approximate multispectral restorations must

B. Hunt; O. Kubler

1984-01-01

129

Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

2011-10-01

130

Perfusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the technique and application of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute stroke, 25 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner. The Data analysis was done with "3D Med System" developed by our Lab to process the data and obtain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, cerebral blood volume (CBV) map, cerebral blood flow (CBF) map as well as mean transit time (MTT) map. In accute stage of stroke, normal or slightly hypointensity in T1-, hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images were seen in the cerebral infarction areas. There were hypointensity in CBV map, CBF map and ADC map; and hyperintensity in MTT map that means this infarct area could be saved. If the hyperintensity area in MTT map was larger than the area in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the larger part was called penumbra and could be cured by an appropriate thrombolyitic or other therapy. The CBV, CBF and MTT maps are very important in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute especially hyperacute stroke. Comparing with DWI, we can easily know the situation of penumbra and the effect of curvative therapy. Besides, we can also make a differential diagnosis with this method.

Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Xingfeng; Zhu, Fuping

2003-05-01

131

Solid state modulator for thermal imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The staring array is the basis of many modern thermal imaging systems, cooled and uncooled. A major drawback in all staring array thermal imaging systems is the need to provide thermal referencing in order that the non-uniformity inherent in all IR detector technologies can be corrected. A common approach is to use a mechanical shutter operated intermittently, typical of uncooled resistance bolometers and cooled photon detectors, or a rotating chopper, typical of ferroelectric uncooled bolometers. Although these methods are inexpensive and consume little power, they are inappropriate to environments where high g-forces or shock loads are encountered. This paper describes a solid state modulator operating on the 8-12micrometers band. The modulation mechanism is induced absorption in high-purity intrinsic germanium. Electron-hole pairs are created in the germanium modulator; the electrons are weak absorbers but the holes absorb strongly by means of the light-hole/heavy-hole inter-sub-band transition. The transmission of the modulator can thus be varied by varying the hole concentration, for example by illuminating the modulator with near IR light. Very good modulation depth (5% to 90% transmission) has been measured, at optical power densities of approximately 10 W/cm2. Switching speeds are controlled by the carrier lifetime, and are a few milliseconds in our prototype device. The high power requirement rules out this approach for hand-held applications. However for intermittent use, or where the environmental constraints are dominant, this technology offers a potentially robust 8-12micrometers modulator.

Manning, Paul A.; Fairley, Peter

2000-12-01

132

Design with part behaviors: behavior model, representation and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part is primarily characterized by its ‘function(s)’. The function of the part is achieved through its ‘interactions’ with other parts in an assembly under a set of operating conditions. These ‘interactions’ constitute the ‘behavior’ of the part. The ‘part behavior’ is achieved through a set of spatial and design functional relationships between the interacting surfaces of the parts. The

Utpal Roy; Balaji Bharadwaj

2002-01-01

133

[Image post-processing, part 1: visualization and segmentation].  

PubMed

Image post-processing of large thin-slice radiological datasets relies on increasingly diverse and complex algorithms. Basic techniques of visualization, segmentation and data analysis will be presented in this article focusing on methods which are integrated into the majority of current viewing and reporting tools, such as multiplanar reformation, volume rendering or basic segmentation. Subsequently, more complex methods and a possible role of post-processing algorithms in the radiology of the future will be discussed. PMID:23754573

Baumann, T; Langer, M

2013-09-01

134

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

2010-05-01

135

Image Segmentation: Algorithms and their Applications to Visual Size Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk focuses on our recent research in developing image segmentation algorithms for identifying and measuring the sizes of objects in static images or a video sequence. Such a capability is essential in a variety of applications including medical imaging, remote sensing and, in our case, monitoring the industrial process of ore-crushing. Specifically, this talk will overview our novel solutions

Hong Zhang

2007-01-01

136

Application of Image SIFT Features to the Context of CBIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is mainly concerned with the application of a kind of distinctive local invariant feature i.e. Lowe's SIFT feature for the purpose of CBIR, instead of the usually used global feature and local statistical feature based on image segmentation. In our CBIR system, the visual contents of the query image and the database images are extracted and described by

Xu Wangming; Wu Jin; Liu Xinhai; Zhu Lei; Shi Gang

2008-01-01

137

Efficient image segmentation and its application to motion estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new concept is introduced for economy image segmentation applicable in an earlier designed object based motion estimation algorithm. The image segmentation is based on simple features, like average grayscale within a segment, and uses spatial-temporal predictions in order to economize the segmentation procedure. Focus is on the segmentation process and the robust application of a non-perfect

R. B. Wittebrood; G. de Haan

138

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides\\/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low

Hâkan Svedhem; Detlef Koschny

2010-01-01

139

Applications of nanobiotechnology in ophthalmology--Part I.  

PubMed

Much progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and its applications in ophthalmology. It is evident that drug delivery, gene therapy, implantable devices and regenerative medicine are some of the key areas of active research. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited review work on this subject area in the current literature. To assist the interested clinicians and scientists, this bipartite commentary will focus the discussion on emerging researches in nano-ophthalmology and other enabling technologies that soon may be available in the clinician's armamentarium to maintain and restore eye sight. This installment will focus on recent discoveries in drug delivery, gene therapy, imaging and visual prostheses; the second installment will discuss the impact of nanotechnology on artificial environment, cell-nanostructure interaction, other enabling nano-ophthalmic technologies, and safety and biocompatibility of nanostructures. We will take this opportunity to introduce some exciting nano-ophthalmic applications under investigation in our laboratory. The accomplishments by the scientific community are tremendous and the future prospects are wide open. PMID:20130441

Nguyen, Pho; Meyyappan, M; Yiu, Samuel C

2010-02-03

140

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. 4290.1940 Section...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. (a) Intergovernmental...the National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in...

2013-01-01

141

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes....

2009-07-01

142

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes....

2010-07-01

143

REVIEW ARTICLE: Terahertz-wave sources and imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given on the field of the terahertz-frequency electromagnetic waves, their properties and emerging applications. Some widespread sources with their advantages and drawbacks are presented; an emphasis is placed on the parametric generation sources that we build and use in our research. Several applications are then described: imaging techniques based on transmission, reflection and scattering, results in chemical imaging and electric field imaging, as well as linear scanning and the measurement of optical properties of highly-absorbing liquids.

Dobroiu, Adrian; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

2006-11-01

144

Neural Networks: Application to Medical Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive non...

L. P. Clarke

1994-01-01

145

Division of Medical Imaging Products Transfer Applications  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Division of Medical Imaging Products INDs to DMIP ... 018058 Page 2. Division of Medical Imaging Products INDs to ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/aboutfda/centersoffices

146

Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images (l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

2011-09-01

147

Robust hand image processing for biometric application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for both hand image segmentation and feature extraction is described. The main advantage of this approach,\\u000a namely its robustness to low quality images, is illustrated through verification experiments with two public databases: one\\u000a with scanned images from 50 subjects and another one with low-quality images acquired from 23 subjects, from a conventional\\u000a webcam. In both cases, features

Jugurta MontalvaoLucas Molina; Lucas Molina; Jânio Canuto

2010-01-01

148

Using stereoscopic imaging for visualization applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of scientific visualization is to simplify the analysis of numerical data by rendering the information as an image. Even when the image is familiar, as in the case of terrain data, preconceptions about what the image should look like and decep...

S. J. Adelson

1994-01-01

149

Applications of imaging radar to geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tone, texture, and features imaged by radars were studied. A variety of computer image processing techniques were developed to reveal characteristics of these scences. Field checking of sites suggests links between the geology and the images. Tonal studies examine the effects of varying frequency polarization, and illumination geometry. Most surficial geologic units in Death Valley, California, are distinguishable by use

M. I. Daily

1985-01-01

150

67 FR 76684 - Medicare Program; Application of Inherent Reasonableness to All Medicare Part B Services (Other...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application of Inherent Reasonableness to All Medicare Part B Services (Other Than Physician...realistic and equitable payment amount for all Medicare Part B services (other than physician...inherent reasonableness provisions apply to all Part B services, except physician...

2002-12-13

151

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Diagnostic and Interventional Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The advent of ultra-fast imaging techniques has extended the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a static and\\u000a purely diagnostic status to an imaging modality ideally suited for a number of therapeutic applications. These advances—along\\u000a with the recent development and refinement of miniature intravascular imaging catheters and MRI-compatible guidewires, balloon\\u000a catheters, and radiofrequency ablation catheters—have created an exciting

Albert C. Lardo

2000-01-01

152

Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications  

SciTech Connect

As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chung, H.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-11

153

Algorithms for radiological image registration and their clinical application  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent work in radiological image registration and provides a classification of image registration by type of transformation and by methods employed to compute the transformation. The former includes transformation of 2D images to 2D images of the same individual, transformation of 3D images to 3D images of the same individual, transformation of images to an atlas or model, transformation of images acquired from a number of individuals, transformations for image guided interventions including 2D to 3D registration and finally tissue deformation in image guided interventions. Recent work on computing transformations for registration using corresponding landmark based registration, surface based registration and voxel similarity measures, including entropy based measures, are reviewed and compared. Recently fully automated algorithms based on voxel similarity measures and, in particular, mutual information have been shown to be accurate and robust at registering images of the head when the rigid body assumption is valid. Two approaches to modelling soft tissue deformation for applications in image guided interventions are described. Validation of complex processing tasks such as image registration is vital if these algorithms are to be used in clinical practice. Three alternative validation strategies are presented. These methods are finding application outside the original domain of radiological imaging.

HAWKES, D. J.

1998-01-01

154

An image denoising application using shearlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical imaging is a multidisciplinary field related to computer science, electrical/electronic engineering, physics, mathematics and medicine. There has been dramatic increase in variety, availability and resolution of medical imaging devices for the last half century. For proper medical imaging highly trained technicians and clinicians are needed to pull out clinically pertinent information from medical data correctly. Artificial systems must be designed to analyze medical data sets either in a partially or even a fully automatic manner to fulfil the need. For this purpose there has been numerous ongoing research for finding optimal representations in image processing and computer vision [1, 18]. Medical images almost always contain artefacts and it is crucial to remove these artefacts to obtain healthy results. Out of many methods for denoising images, in this paper, two denoising methods, wavelets and shearlets, have been applied to mammography images. Comparing these two methods, shearlets give better results for denoising such data.

Sevindir, Hulya Kodal; Yazici, Cuneyt

2013-10-01

155

Molecular imaging, part 1: apertures into the landscape of genomic medicine.  

PubMed

Conventional imaging paradigms rely on the detection of anatomical changes in disease that are preceded by molecular genetic changes that go otherwise undetected. With the advent of molecular imaging, it will be possible to detect these changes prior to the manifestation of disease. Molecular imaging is the amalgamation of molecular biology and imaging technology that was spawned by parallel advances in the two fields. Fundamental to this technique is the ability to directly image biological processes that precede the anatomical changes detected by conventional imaging techniques. The two main strategies for imaging of biologic processes are direct and indirect imaging techniques. Direct techniques use molecules that have specific affinities for targets of interest that can be radiolabeled or otherwise detected on imaging. Indirect imaging uses reporter genes that are coexpressed with therapeutic proteins or other proteins of interest to image vector-transfected cells. Optical imaging and nanotechnology paradigms will also prove to be important additions to the imaging armamentarium. The first installment of this two-part series on molecular imaging seeks to demonstrate basic principles and illustrative examples for the uninitiated neophyte to this field. PMID:20849785

Taghva, Alexander; Kim, Paul E; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

2010-04-01

156

47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices...and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices...of terminal equipment to the telephone network. (j) Part 101 . This part...

2012-10-01

157

Advanced Artificial Dielectric Materials for Millimeter Wavelength Applications. Part A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Part A of a two-part Final Technical Report and is restricted to essentially non-magnetic composite dielectrics. Part B, which contains classified material, treats magneto-dielectric composites. We study the electromagnetic properties (permeabilit...

I. S. Jacobs

1989-01-01

158

Robust image modeling technique with a bioluminescence image segmentation application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust pattern classifier algorithm for the variable symmetric plane model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is developed. The veracity and high-speed performance of the pattern recognition algorithm is proved. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has recently gained wide acceptance in the field of in vivo small animal molecular imaging. So that it is very important for BLT to how to acquire the highprecision region of interest in a bioluminescence image (BLI) in order to decrease loss of the customers because of inaccuracy in quantitative analysis. An algorithm in the mode is developed to improve operation speed, which estimates parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the noise corrupted image derived from the BLT optical hardware system. The focus pixel value is obtained from the symmetric plane according to a more realistic assumption for the noise sequence in the restored image. The size of neighborhood is adaptive and small. What's more, the classifier function is base on the statistic features. If the qualifications for the classifier are satisfied, the focus pixel intensity is setup as the largest value in the neighborhood.Otherwise, it will be zeros.Finally,pseudo-color is added up to the result of the bioluminescence segmented image. The whole process has been implemented in our 2D BLT optical system platform and the model is proved.

Zhong, Jianghong; Wang, Ruiping; Tian, Jie

2009-02-01

159

Applications of imaging radar to geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tone, texture, and features imaged by radars were studied. A variety of computer image processing techniques were developed to reveal characteristics of these scences. Field checking of sites suggests links between the geology and the images. Tonal studies examine the effects of varying frequency polarization, and illumination geometry. Most surficial geologic units in Death Valley, California, are distinguishable by use of multifrequency, multipolarization radar data. Quaternary basalt flows in Idaho are separable by changing illumination geometry in the vertical plane, whereas desert fans and dunes show little tonal variation as function of changing illumination aximuth. Topographic texture is strongly enhanced by radar's unusual imaging physics computer image processing techniques prove useful in classifying and enhancing image texture. The classification technique, yield results in good agreement with those of human interpreters. The enhancement technique resolves a plunging anticline that was not evident on unprocessed imagery. Identification of features such as lineaments and large topographic highs is critically dependent on radar system parameters. A mathematical model of topography-induced distortion provides insight into the relationship between a radar image and the illuminated terrain. Imaging radar is shown to be a useful sensor for geologic mapping, especially when complementary data are present. Careful image processing, field checking of interpretations, and an understanding of radar imaging physics are critical to effective utilization of this unusual sensor.

Daily, M. I.

160

Terahertz imaging technique and application in large scale integrated circuit failure inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz ray, as a new style optic source, usually means the electromagnetic whose frequencies lies in between 0.1THz~10THz, the waveband region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies in the gap between microwaves and infrared ray. With the development of laser techniques, quantum trap techniques and compound semiconductor techniques, many new terahertz techniques have been pioneered, motivated in part by the vast range of possible applications for terahertz imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. THz imaging technique was introduced, and THz imaging can give us not only the density picture but also the phase information within frequency domain. Consequently, images of suspicious objects such as concealed metallic or metal weapons are much sharper and more readily identified when imaged with THz imaging scanners. On the base of these, the application of THz imaging in nondestructive examination, more concretely in large scale circuit failure inspection was illuminated, and the important techniques of this application were introduced, also future prospects were discussed. With the development of correlative technology of THz, we can draw a conclusion that THz imaging technology will have nice application foreground.

di, Zhi-Gang; Yao, Jian-Quan; Jia, Chun-Rong; Xu, De-Gang; Bing, Pi-Bin; Yang, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Yi-Bo

2010-11-01

161

Perceived Image Quality Improvements from the Application of Image Deconvolution to Retinal Images from an Adaptive Optics Fundus Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: The objective of this project was to apply an image restoration methodology based on wavefront measurements obtained with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and evaluating the restored image quality based on medical criteria.Methods: Implementing an adaptive optics (AO) technique, a fundus imager was used to achieve low-order correction to images of the retina. The high-order correction was provided by deconvolution. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measures aberrations. The wavefront measurement is the basis for activating a deformable mirror. Image restoration to remove remaining aberrations is achieved by direct deconvolution using the point spread function (PSF) or a blind deconvolution. The PSF is estimated using measured wavefront aberrations. Direct application of classical deconvolution methods such as inverse filtering, Wiener filtering or iterative blind deconvolution (IBD) to the AO retinal images obtained from the adaptive optical imaging system is not satisfactory because of the very large image size, dificulty in modeling the system noise, and inaccuracy in PSF estimation. Our approach combines direct and blind deconvolution to exploit available system information, avoid non-convergence, and time-consuming iterative processes. Results: The deconvolution was applied to human subject data and resulting restored images compared by a trained ophthalmic researcher. Qualitative analysis showed significant improvements. Neovascularization can be visualized with the adaptive optics device that cannot be resolved with the standard fundus camera. The individual nerve fiber bundles are easily resolved as are melanin structures in the choroid. Conclusion: This project demonstrated that computer-enhanced, adaptive optic images have greater detail of anatomical and pathological structures.

Soliz, P.; Nemeth, S. C.; Erry, G. R. G.; Otten, L. J.; Yang, S. Y.

162

BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

Planinsic, Gorazd

2011-09-01

163

Advanced Artificial Dielectric Materials for Millimeter Wavelength Applications. Part A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is Part A of a two-part Annual Report. (Part B, dealing with magneto-dielectrics, is classified.) This part describes a continuation of work on artificial dielectric composites based on a polymeric binder and alloy powder particles that are oxide-coa...

I. S. Jacobs

1985-01-01

164

A novel method of testing image randomness with applications to image shuffling and encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the problem of testing the degree of randomness within an image, particularly for a shuffled or encrypted image. Its key contributions are: 1) a mathematical model of perfectly shuffled images; 2) the derivation of the theoretical distribution of pixel differences; 3) new hypothesis tests based approach to differentiate whether or not a test image is perfectly shuffled; and 4) a randomized algorithm to unbiasedly evaluate the degree of image randomness. Simulation results show that the proposed method is robust and effective in evaluating the degree of image randomness, and may often be more suitable for image applications than commonly used testing schemes designed for binary data like NIST 800-22 test suites. The developed method may be also useful as a first step to determine whether or not an image shuffling or encryption scheme is suitable for a particular cryptographic application.

Wu, Yue; Agaian, Sos; Noonan, Joseph P.

2013-05-01

165

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

1997-04-01

166

Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14

Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

167

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING APPLICATION FOR FOOD SAFETY ENGINEERING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system including area scan camera, prism-grating-prism spectrograph, quartz halogen lighting, motorized lens control, and a hyperspectral image processing software was developed for detection of fecal and ingesta contamination of poultry carcasses. A calibration mo...

168

Digital Imaging Research for Meteorological Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planning for this joint research on digital imaging by electrical engineers and atmospheric scientists began in early 1976. At that time the use of digital solid state memory under small computer control to refresh a CRT to produce a 'digital image' was i...

T. A. Brubaker T. H. Vonder Haar G. C. Smith M. Brown

1980-01-01

169

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

170

Multispectral Thermal Imager: Mission and Applications Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite is a research and development project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary mission is to demonstrate advanced multispectral and thermal imaging from a satellite, including new technologies, data processing, and analysis techniques and validation by reference to ground truth. The MTI builds on the efforts of a number of earlier efforts,

John J. Szymanski; Paul G. Weber

2005-01-01

171

Retinal image analysis: Concepts, applications and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it

Niall Patton; Tariq M. Aslam; Thomas MacGillivray; Ian J. Deary; Baljean Dhillon; Robert H. Eikelboom; Kanagasingam Yogesan; Ian J. Constable

2006-01-01

172

Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging  

PubMed Central

We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast.

Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

173

In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

Cote, Daniel

2010-08-01

174

Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology  

PubMed Central

The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

2012-01-01

175

Image Deblurring Using Derivative Compressed Sensing for Optical Imaging Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of multidimensional signals from the samples of their partial derivatives is known to be a standard problem in inverse theory. Such and similar problems routinely arise in numerous areas of applied sciences, including optical imaging, laser interferometry, computer vision, remote sensing and control. Though being ill-posed in nature, the above problem can be solved in a unique and stable

Mohammad Rostami; Oleg Michailovich; Zhou Wang

2011-01-01

176

Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d'imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

2012-10-15

177

Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. Methods IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. Results The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. Conclusion With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community.

Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

2009-01-01

178

40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part. When used in this part the following terms have the meanings given below: (a) Halogenated organic compounds or HOCs...268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and radioactive lead solids; process residuals such as smelter...

2013-07-01

179

47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Frequency Allocations and special requirements in international...and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency...including satellite DARS. (k) Part 51. This part contains...experimental radio, auxiliary, special broadcast and other...

2011-10-01

180

47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Frequency Allocations and special requirements in international...and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency...including satellite DARS. (k) Part 51. This part contains...experimental radio, auxiliary, special broadcast and other...

2012-10-01

181

47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...part also contains standards and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining...administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate...

2011-10-01

182

Superhigh-definition image communication: an application perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital imaging systems have been deployed in many scientific and military applications such as space research, aerial photography, weather forecasting, and CAD/CAM. More recently, because of price/performance improvement in many technologies, digital imaging systems are finding more applications in many commercial/business environments such as banking, insurance, legal, and the health care industry. Image capture, processing, compression, storage, display, and transport--all these constitute important elements of emerging imaging systems. These elements can be assembled to build systems meeting appropriate end-user requirements. During the past three to four years, the investment in imaging systems in the U.S. has increased at an annual rate of over 30 percent, both in the public and private sectors. The business of imaging is relatively new; it can grow many-fold in existing markets as well as create new market opportunities.

Kohli, Jagdish C.

1991-11-01

183

Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have been the main design goals of the two programs. In particular the NH90 TTH Thermal Imager is a compact camera operating in the 8 divided by 12 micrometers bandwidth with a single wide field of view. The thermal imager developed for the ATR42 MPA features a three remotely switchable fields of view objective equipped with diffractive optics. Performance goals, innovative design aspects and test results of these two thermal imagers are reported.

Uda, Gianni; Livi, Massimo; Olivieri, Monica; Sabatini, Maurizio; Torrini, Daniele; Baldini, Stefano; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Falli, Pietro; Maestrini, Mauro

1999-07-01

184

Quantum Imaging: New Methods and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports the results obtained in a five-year research program aimed at developing new imaging methods based on the quantum statistical properties of light fields. Significant results obtained in the life of the program include (1) demonstrati...

R. W. Boyd

2012-01-01

185

Application Oriented Brokering in Medical Imaging: Algorithms and Software Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes algorithms and software architecture of a resource broker designed in the context of MedIGrid, a medical\\u000a imaging application for the management, visualization and reconstruction on grids of medical images produced by PET\\/SPECT\\u000a medical instruments. The broker allows the discovery and selection of suitable clusters of workstations for the execution\\u000a of parallel image reconstruction algorithms. The proposed algorithms

Mario R. Guarracino; Giuliano Laccetti; Almerico Murli

2005-01-01

186

[Application possibilities of chemical imaging in pharmaceutical technology].  

PubMed

Chemical imaging is a novel analytical method that simultaneously delivers spatial, chemical, structural, and functional information on the dosage forms. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging may serve as useful nondestructive analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical product development and quality control. Most important application possibilities are reviewed and some studies demonstrate the advantages of the structure exploration. Raman imaging is suitable to understand and control the quality attributes of different dosage forms. PMID:20169866

Vajna, Balázs; Nagy, Zsombor; Patyi, Gergo; Zsigmond, Zsolt; Antal, István; Marosi, György

2009-01-01

187

FPGA based stereo imaging system with applications in computer gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time stereo imaging system is described. It incorporates dual image acquisition chains on a single FPGA device and is able to provide real-time synchronized video output from twin CMOS imaging sensors. The platform is designed to provide hardware support for future implementations of advanced face analysis algorithms. In the context of computer gaming applications this system can provide real-time

I. Andorko; P. M. Corcoran; P. Bigioi

2009-01-01

188

Content-based image retrieval in medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of content-based access to medical images is fre- quently reported but existing systems are designed for only a particular modality or context of diagnosis. Contrarily, our concept of image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) aims at a general structure for semantic content analysis that is suitable for numerous applications in case-based reasoning or evidence-based medicine. Within IRMA, stepwise

TM Lehmann; Mark O. Güld; Christian Thies; Bartosz Plodowski; Daniel Keysers; Bastian Ott; Henning Schubert

189

Application of MATLAB image processing technology in sewage monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward the application of Matlab image processing technology in sewage monitoring system. The percentage of the bubbles on the surface of the water can be got by using some functions in the image processing toolbox of MATLAB, such as binaryzation, dilating, erosion and so on. The automatic alarm will be raised when the percentage of the bubbles

Huidan Cao; Yuming Shen

2009-01-01

190

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features of one

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2001-01-01

191

An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

192

Time-dependent optical spectroscopy and imaging for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of optical spectroscopy and imaging in living tissue is complicated by multiple scattering of light. In spectroscopy, this scattering causes uncertainty in the pathlength traveled by photons in the tissue, while images suffer reduced resolution and contrast. Picosecond light sources and fast detectors have made it possible to address these problems by direct measurement of the photon time-of-flight.

BRIAN C. WILSON; EVA M. SEVICK; M. S. Patterson; BRITTON CHANCE

1992-01-01

193

Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous

D. Cammoun; W. R. Hendee; K. A. Davis

1985-01-01

194

Application of image analysis for variety testing of mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of image analysis for variety testing of mushrooms to grant plant breeders' rights was investigated. The measurements of length, width and a range of several other more or less complex shape descriptors determined by means of image analysis were statistically analyzed. A total of 460 observations were used in this experiment. Distinction between 80% of the cultivars in

J. G. Vooren; G. Polder; G. W. A. M. Heijden

1991-01-01

195

Application of contourlet transform in infrared image denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet threshold denoising is widely used in the denoising of the infrared image for its simplicity and effectiveness in application. However, there has been a growing awareness to the observation that wavelets may not be the best choice for describing infrared images. This observation is due to the fact that wavelets are blind to the smoothness along the edges commonly

Yuchi Lin; Xin Zhou; Le Song; Yinguo Huang

2008-01-01

196

Learning to detect objects in images via a sparse, part-based representation.  

PubMed

We study the problem of detecting objects in still, gray-scale images. Our primary focus is the development of a learning-based approach to the problem that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; images are then represented using parts from this vocabulary, together with spatial relations observed among the parts. Based on this representation, a learning algorithm is used to automatically learn to detect instances of the object class in new images. The approach can be applied to any object with distinguishable parts in a relatively fixed spatial configuration; it is evaluated here on difficult sets of real-world images containing side views of cars, and is seen to successfully detect objects in varying conditions amidst background clutter and mild occlusion. In evaluating object detection approaches, several important methodological issues arise that have not been satisfactorily addressed in previous work. A secondary focus of this paper is to highlight these issues and to develop rigorous evaluation standards for the object detection problem. A critical evaluation of our approach under the proposed standards is presented. PMID:15521495

Agarwal, Shivani; Awan, Aatif; Roth, Dan

2004-11-01

197

25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants A Appendix A to Part 276 Indians...UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS Pt. 276, App. A Appendix A to Part...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants part iâgeneral A. Purpose and...

2009-04-01

198

25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants A Appendix A to Part 276 Indians...UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS Pt. 276, App. A Appendix A to Part...Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants part iâgeneral A. Purpose and...

2010-04-01

199

Semiadaptive vector quantization and its application in medical image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce a semi-adaptive vector quantization (SAVQ) method, which is a combination of the traditional VQ scheme using a fixed code book and the locally adaptive VQ (LAVQ) method which dynamically constructs a code book according to the input data stream. The code book in SAVQ consists of two parts: a fixed part that is designed based on certain training signals as in VQ, and an adaptive part that it updated based on the input vectors to be compressed. The proposed method is more effective than VQ and LAVQ for semi-stationary signals that have patterns common over different images as well as features specific to a particular image. Such is the case with medical images, which have similar tissue characteristics over different images, as well as with local variations that are patient and pathology dependent. The SAVQ as well as VQ and LAVQ methods have been applied to multispectral magnetic resonance brain images. The SAVQ has achieved higher compression ratios than the VQ and LAVQ methods over a wide range of reproduction quality, with more significant improvement in the mid to high quality range. Furthermore, under the same quality criterion, SAVQ requires a much smaller code book than VQ, making the former less time and memory demanding. Readings by neuroradiologists have suggested that images produced by SAVQ at compression ratios up to 40 (for MRI data with 3 or 4 images/set, 256 X 256 pixels/image, and 16 bits/pixel) are acceptable for primary reading.

Hu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Yao; Cahill, Patrick

1993-10-01

200

Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

2008-08-01

201

A fuzzy image metric with application to fractal coding.  

PubMed

Image quality assessment is an important issue addressed in various image processing applications such as image/video compression and image reconstruction. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) with the L(2)-metric is commonly used in objective image quality assessment. However, the measure does not agree very well with the human visual perception in many cases. A fuzzy image metric (FIM) is defined based on Sugeno's (1977) fuzzy integral. This new objective image metric, which is to some extent a proper evaluation from the viewpoint of the judgment procedure, is closely approximates the subjective mean opinion score (MOS) with a correlation coefficient of about 0.94, as compared to 0.82 obtained using the PSNR. Compared to the L(2)-metric, we demonstrate that a better performance can be achieved in fractal coding by using the proposed FIM. PMID:18244662

Li, Junli; Chen, Gang; Chi, Zheru

2002-01-01

202

Multimodality Image Fusion Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications  

PubMed Central

Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care; Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization, and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. PET, MRI and contrast enhanced CT may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image guided procedures such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

2012-01-01

203

All-digital holography and application in digital image hiding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is presented here that the all-digital holography is applied to the digital image hiding. Computer Generated Hologram is generated and reconstructed by numerical method. The secret message and the host message are all still gray-images. The secret image is first transformed into a hologram (CGH), which is called holographic transform and then Arnold transform is performed. DCT is applied in the host image. Then the secret image is embedded into the DCT middle coefficients. The application of the holographic transform improves the transparency of the secret image; by controlling the parameter of the hologram the secrecy of the image is enhanced and add another key to have invisibility and certain robust.

Zhao, Yajing; Zhong, Jingang

2005-02-01

204

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

205

Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10

Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

1999-01-01

206

Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurement for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data are used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

2006-06-01

207

Application of reinforcement learning for segmentation of transrectal ultrasound images  

PubMed Central

Background Among different medical image modalities, ultrasound imaging has a very widespread clinical use. But, due to some factors, such as poor image contrast, noise and missing or diffuse boundaries, the ultrasound images are inherently difficult to segment. An important application is estimation of the location and volume of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. For this purpose, manual segmentation is a tedious and time consuming procedure. Methods We introduce a new method for the segmentation of the prostate in transrectal ultrasound images, using a reinforcement learning scheme. This algorithm is used to find the appropriate local values for sub-images and to extract the prostate. It contains an offline stage, where the reinforcement learning agent uses some images and manually segmented versions of these images to learn from. The reinforcement agent is provided with reward/punishment, determined objectively to explore/exploit the solution space. After this stage, the agent has acquired knowledge stored in the Q-matrix. The agent can then use this knowledge for new input images to extract a coarse version of the prostate. Results We have carried out experiments to segment TRUS images. The results demonstrate the potential of this approach in the field of medical image segmentation. Conclusion By using the proposed method, we can find the appropriate local values and segment the prostate. This approach can be used for segmentation tasks containing one object of interest. To improve this prototype, more investigations are needed.

Sahba, Farhang; Tizhoosh, Hamid R; Salama, Magdy MA

2008-01-01

208

Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

1987-01-01

209

New applications with a SWIR imager employing long wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWIR imagers can operate at near room temperature with cut-off wavelengths that extended from 1.7?m (for InP lattice matched InGaAs) to beyond 2.0?m with strained InGaAs epitaxial growth on InP substrate. A leading application in the SWIR band - Night vision, requires very low dark current levels, whereas the dark current increases as the cutoff wavelength increases. We demonstrate imaging applications made possible by utilization of dark current reduction, and the physics of background and objects radiance. A newly built imager is presented.

Tidhar, Gil A.; Segal, Ram

2011-05-01

210

Uncooled thermal imaging sensors for unattended sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

320×240 and 640×480 small pixel uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays have been developed that reduce overall sensor size, weight, power consumption, and cost. At the same time, these sensors still provide the high quality image resolution needed for target recognition and identification. These newly developed small uncooled thermal imaging sensors are being demonstrated in several attended and unattended sensor applications that include Unattended Ground Sensors, Micro Air Vehicles, and Infrared Helmet Sights. This paper describes recent developments at BAE SYSTEMS in uncooled microbolometer sensor technology for unattended sensor applications and presents the latest performance and image data for our 2nd generation systems.

Kohin, Margaret; Figler, Burton D.; Blackwell, Richard J.; Butler, Neal R.; Backer, Brian S.; Gurnee, Mark N.; Murphy, Bob H.

2002-08-01

211

Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

Wood, C.C.

1997-10-01

212

Karman vortex street parametrization with image processing application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The karman vortex street phenomenon is applied in the vortex flowmeter. Application of various methods of investigations is necessary in the course of getting increased knowledge of the phenomenon. Flow visualization being the leading method of aero- and hydrodynamic phenomena investigations enables qualitative evaluation in micro-scale. Due to the image processing application in analysis of flow visualization pictures, calculation of

Grzegorz Pankanin; Artur Kulinczak; Jerzy Berlinski

2003-01-01

213

Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design

L. J. Jr. Lorence; D. E. Beutler

1997-01-01

214

Radiation Transport Phenomena and Modeling Part A: Codes Part B: Applications and Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEENuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on ApplyingComputer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discussesthe physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and varioustypes of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how thesecodes can be used to design experiments whose results can be

L. J. Lorence; D. E. Beutler

1997-01-01

215

NMR imaging of components and materials for DOE application  

SciTech Connect

The suitability for using NMR imaging to characterize liquid, polymeric, and solid materials was reviewed. The most attractive applications for NMR imaging appear to be liquid-filled porous samples, partially cured polymers, adhesives, and potting compounds, and composite polymers/high explosives containing components with widely varying thermal properties. Solid-state NMR line-narrowing and signal-enhancing markedly improve the imaging possibilities of true solid and materials. These techniques provide unique elemental and chemical shift information for highly complex materials and complement images with similar spatial resolution, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT).

Richardson, B.R.

1993-12-01

216

Review of polarization imaging for international military application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization is a primary characteristic of electromagnetic wave. Polarization is another field of the light except the intensity, wavelength, and coherence. Polarization can indicate the different attributions that decided by objects, such as surface features, roughness, shading, shape and so on. Polarization Imaging is a useful complement to traditional intensity and spectral imaging methods with great potential in many application fields. In the future war, the advantages of polarization are significant for target detection and recognition in the increasingly complicated battlefield environment. In this paper, the research progress is generally introduced in military application in four fields: 1) target polarization characteristics and simulationenhance contrast, distinguish the target and background; 2) polarization transmission characteristics- observe target through the smoke and fog of War; 3) polarization imaging detection methods- improve the imaging quality, enhance the information available; 4) polarization image processing- improve detection and tracking performance.

Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Mo, Chunhe; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Dan

2013-08-01

217

Handheld thermal imaging for law enforcement and counterdrug applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the potential benefits of infrared imaging systems in law enforcement applications have been apparent for many years, budget and technology constraints have prevented their widespread deployment. Recent technology improvements and cost reductions, however, have made the routine use of handheld thermal imagers practical for the law enforcement community. This effort involved both an analysis of operational and technical requirements associated with law enforcement use as well as a comprehensive review of commercially available handheld infrared imaging systems. The use of handheld infrared systems in the counterdrug environment is also addressed, including the results of an analysis of proven applications, a review of training requirements, and a summary of legal issues associated with infrared surveillance. Results generated by the NVTHERM infrared sensor model are also shown for one handheld imager to provide representative information regarding low-cost thermal imager performance.

Haran, Terence L.; Higgins, Melinda K.; Thomas, Michael L.

2004-09-01

218

Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

Bisbee, T.L.

1997-06-01

219

Application of Tissue Doppler Imaging in Cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a new echocardiographic technique employing the Doppler principle to measure the velocity of myocardial segments and other cardiac structures. It is well suited for the measurement of long-axis ventricular function. Impairment of longitudinal myocardial fiber motion is a sensitive marker of early myocardial dysfunction and ischaemia, and TDI might therefore become an important tool in

Nikolay P. Nikitin; Klaus K. A. Witte

2004-01-01

220

Applications of Vector Fields to Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use rotational and curvature properties of vector fields to identify critical features of an image. Using vector analysis and dif-ferential geometry, we establish the properties needed, and then use these properties in three ways. First, our results make it theoretically possible to identify extremal edges of an intensity function f(x, y) of two variables by considering the gradient vector

Raul Machuca; Keith Phillips

1983-01-01

221

Application of Particle Filtering to Image Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this report we propose a novel - assumption-free on the noise model - technique based on random,walks for image enhancement. Our method explores multiple neighbors sets (or hypotheses) that can be used for pixel denoising, through a particle filtering approach. This approach associates weights for each hypotheses according to its relevance and its contribution in the denoising process.

Noura Azzabou; Nikos Paragios; Frederic Guichard

222

Thermoelectric infrared imager and automotive applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a newly developed thermoelectric infrared imager having a 48 X 32 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) and an experimental vehicle featuring a blind spot pedestrian warning system, which employs four infrared imagers. The imager measures 100 mm in width, 60 mm in height and 80 mm in depth, weighs 400 g, and has an overall field of view (FOV) of 40 deg X 20 deg. The power consumption of the imager is 3 W. The pedestrian detection program is stored in a CPU chip on a printed circuit board (PCB). The FPA provides high responsivity of 2,100 V/W, a time constant of 25 msec, and a low cost potential. Each element has external dimensions of 190 micrometer X 190 micrometer, and consists of six pairs of thermocouples and an Au-black absorber that is precisely patterned by low-pressure evaporation and lift-off technologies. The experimental vehicle is called the Nissan ASV-2 (Advanced Safety Vehicle-2), which incorporates a wide range of integrated technologies aimed at reducing traffic accidents. The blind spot pedestrian warning system alerts the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person's body. This system also prevents the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian.

Hirota, Masaki; Satou, Fuminori; Saito, Masanori; Kishi, Youichi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Makato

2001-10-01

223

Infrared scanning images: An archeological application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

Schaber, G. G.; Gumerman, G. J.

1969-01-01

224

Surface-Sensitive Mechanical Behavior. Part II: Mechanisms and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first part of this article, brief reviews were given of the atomic-scale mechanisms by which crystalline solids deform and the nature of the interface between such solids and their environment. In this part, the mechanisms of a representative range of surface and environment sensitive mechanical phenomena are explained. (Author/CP)

Macmillan, Norman H.; Latanision, R. M.

1976-01-01

225

An in-line optical image translator with applications in x-ray videography.  

PubMed

Many applications in radiography require, or would benefit from, the ability to translate, i.e. move, an optical image in the detector plane. In this paper, we describe the design and characterization of a prism-based optical image translator for insertion into existing XRII-video imaging systems. A pair of prisms rotatable about the optical axis form a very compact in-line optical image translator for installation in the parallel light path between an x-ray image intensifier and its video camera. Rotation of the prisms translates the XRII optical image on the camera target. With the addition of x-ray and light collimators to limit the image to a single video line, x-ray streak images may be acquired. By rotating an object in the x-ray beam during a streak, a complete computed tomography (CT) data set may be acquired. This image translator can translate an image anywhere in the focal plane of a 50-mm-output lens within a 40-mm-diam circle. The prisms have an aperture of 50 mm, permitting an optical speed of F/2 with a 50-mm output lens. The design is insensitive to angular alignment errors. This image translator is achromatic, since the spectral width of the output phosphorus of image intensifiers is sufficient to introduce blurring in a nonacrhomatic design. A prism-based image translator introduces image distortion, since the prisms do not operate at minimum deviation. The distortion is less than 4% over all parts of a typical detector area, and less than 1% in the central region of the image.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2280741

Picot, P A; Cardinal, H N; Fenster, A

226

Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted.

Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huxford-Phillips, Rachel C.

2013-01-01

227

Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part I. Technical characterization of the systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many European countries, image quality for digital x-ray systems used in screening mammography is currently specified using a threshold-detail detectability method. This is a two-part study that proposes an alternative method based on calculated detectability for a model observer: the first part of the work presents a characterization of the systems. Eleven digital mammography systems were included in the

N. W. Marshall; P. Monnin; H. Bosmans; F. O. Bochud; F. R. Verdun

2011-01-01

228

29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Applicability...contains a collection of information which has been...

2013-07-01

229

A High Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor for Scientific Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high dynamic range CMOS image sensor that utilizes a combined linear-logarithmic readout scheme with built-in linear-logarithmic switching point detection for scientific imaging applications. The proposed readout architecture adjusts each individual pixel to operate in either linear or logarithmic readout mode according to the input illumination level. This realizes direct high-throughput image reconstruction enabling a hybrid combination

Jian Guo; Sameer Sonkusale

2009-01-01

230

Application of Digital Image Processing Methods for Portal Image Quality Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The different processing methods which could increase the contrast (unsharp mask, histogram equalization, and deconvolution) and reduce noise (median filter) were analysed. An application which allows the importation of BeamView files (ACR-NEMA 2.0 format) and the application of the above mentioned methods were developed. The main objective was to obtain the most accurate comparison of Beamview images with Digitally Received Radiograms. The preliminary results of image processing methods are presented.

Gorlachev, G. E. [Radiology Department, N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kosyrev, D. S. [Radiology Department, N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Medical Physics Department, Moscow Engineering Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-11-26

231

Mean–Standard Deviation Representation of Sonar Images for Echo Detection: Application to SAS Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the detection of underwater mines echoes with application to synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imaging. A detection method based on local first- and second-order statistical properties of the sonar images is proposed. It consists of mapping the data onto the mean-standard deviation plane highlighting these properties. With this representation, an adaptive thresholding of the data enables the separation

Jocelyn Chanussot; Alain Hétet; Maud Amate

2007-01-01

232

System for Verifiable CT Radiation Dose Optimization Based on Image Quality. Part I. Optimization Model.  

PubMed

Purpose: To develop and validate a mathematical radiation dose optimization model for computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Materials and Methods: This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. A model for measuring water-equivalent diameter (DW) based on the topogram was developed and validated on each axial section in eight CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis (500 images). A model for estimating image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) using image and metadata was developed and validated in 16 examinations of anthropomorphic phantoms. A model to quantify radiologist image quality preferences was developed and applied to evaluations of 32 CT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis by 10 radiologists. The scanners' dose modulation algorithms were modeled and incorporated into an application capable of prediction of image noise and SSDE over a range of patient sizes. With use of the application, protocol techniques were recommended to achieve specific image noise targets. Comparisons were evaluated by using two-tailed nonpaired and paired t tests. Results: The mean difference between topogram- and axial-based DW estimates was -3.5% ± 2.2 (standard deviation). The mean difference between estimated and measured image noise and volume CT dose index on the anthropomorphic phantoms was -6.9% ± 5.5 and 0.8% ± 1.8, respectively. A three-dimensional radiologist image quality preference model was developed. For the prediction model validation studies, mean differences between predicted and actual effective tube current-time product, SSDE, and estimated image noise were -0.9% ± 9.3, -1.8% ± 10.6, and -0.5% ± 4.4, respectively. Conclusion: CT image quality and radiation dose can be mathematically predicted and optimized on the basis of patient size and radiologist-specific image noise target curves. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122320/-/DC1. PMID:23784878

Larson, David B; Wang, Lily L; Podberesky, Daniel J; Goske, Marilyn J

2013-06-19

233

Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in rad...

L. J. Lorence D. E. Beutler

1997-01-01

234

Mosaic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed passive FTIR imaging spectrometer has been developed and tested in airborne flight tests on both fixed wing and helicopter platforms. This sensor was developed and flown from 2000 to 2005 in conjunction with various organizations, and is known as the Turbo FT. The Turbo FT is a laser-less rotary high speed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer capable of

Winthrop Wadsworth; Jens Peter Dybwad; Drew Stone

2005-01-01

235

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last\\u000a decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging\\u000a in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted\\u000a by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion,

M. Donald Blaufox; Valery Kalika; Stephen Scharf; David Milstein

1982-01-01

236

Retinal image analysis: Concepts,applications and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop,so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing,analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science,and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology,as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it is the only part

Niall Pattona; Tariq M. Aslam; Thomas MacGillivray; Ian J. Deary; Robert H. Eikelboom; Kanagasingam Yogesan; Ian J. Constable

237

Satellite Image Processing Applications in MedioGRID  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high level architectural specification of MedioGRID, a research project aiming at implementing a real-time satellite image processing system for extracting relevant environmental and meteorological parameters on a grid system. The presentation focuses on the key architectural decisions of the GRID-aware satellite image processing system, highlighting the technologies for each of the major components. An essential part

Ovidiu Muresan; textbfFlorin Pop; Dorian Gorgan; Valentin Cristea

2006-01-01

238

Distributed computing in image analysis using open source frameworks and application to image sharpness assessment of histological whole slide images  

PubMed Central

Background Automated image analysis on virtual slides is evolving rapidly and will play an important role in the future of digital pathology. Due to the image size, the computational cost of processing whole slide images (WSIs) in full resolution is immense. Moreover, image analysis requires well focused images in high magnification. Methods We present a system that merges virtual microscopy techniques, open source image analysis software, and distributed parallel processing. We have integrated the parallel processing framework JPPF, so batch processing can be performed distributed and in parallel. All resulting meta data and image data are collected and merged. As an example the system is applied to the specific task of image sharpness assessment. ImageJ is an open source image editing and processing framework developed at the NIH having a large user community that contributes image processing algorithms wrapped as plug-ins in a wide field of life science applications. We developed an ImageJ plug-in that supports both basic interactive virtual microscope and batch processing functionality. For the application of sharpness inspection we employ an approach with non-overlapping tiles. Compute nodes retrieve image tiles of moderate size from the streaming server and compute the focus measure. Each tile is divided into small sub images to calculate an edge based sharpness criterion which is used for classification. The results are aggregated in a sharpness map. Results Based on the system we calculate a sharpness measure and classify virtual slides into one of the following categories - excellent, okay, review and defective. Generating a scaled sharpness map enables the user to evaluate sharpness of WSIs and shows overall quality at a glance thus reducing tedious assessment work. Conclusions Using sharpness assessment as an example, the introduced system can be used to process, analyze and parallelize analysis of whole slide images based on open source software.

2011-01-01

239

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized unitary interstate exchange access rate of return and individual rates of return for the interstate exchange access rates of certain carriers pursuant to § 65.102. This part shall apply...

2011-10-01

240

Advanced artificial dielectric materials for millimeter wavelength applications. Part A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is Part A of a two-part Annual Report. (Part B, dealing with magneto-dielectrics, is classified.) This part describes a continuation of work on artificial dielectric composites based on a polymeric binder and alloy powder particles that are oxide-coated for isolation and ferromagnetic below room temperature for packing determination. Characterization studies show the surface oxide on the alloy powder. Microstructural study of the composites shows wide variations in local packing density, characteristic of random loading. Permittivity measurements extended to 35 GHz correlate qualitatively with modern theories of heterogeneous media but evidence deviations that may arise from the observed clumping. Higher frequency measurements of permittivity and induced permeability are under way. An alternative inorganic binder material and process (with higher dielectric constant) has been developed with properties suitable for the morphological, electromagnetic, and mechanical requirements.

Jacobs, I. S.

1985-12-01

241

The Effect Of Drag Reducing Additives On Fluid Flows And Their Industrial Applications Part 2: Present Applications And Future Proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This state of-the-art review is published in two parts: Part 1 has already appeared and deals with basic aspects of the subject, while this part sets out details of specific drag reduction applications. These include oil pipelines, oil well fracturing, sewers, open channels, hydropower penstocks and culverts, the hydrotransport of pulverised solids, the effect of drag reducing additives on fluid

R. H. J. Sellin; J. W. Hoyt; J. Poliert; O. Scrivener

1982-01-01

242

A CMOS image sensor with optical and potential dual imaging function for on-chip bioscientific applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical and potential dual imaging CMOS sensor for bioscientific applications was proposed and fabricated. The CMOS image sensor has the capability to simultaneously capture optical and on-chip potential images. The sensor is designed with target applications of on-chip DNA (or protein) microarray analysis and on-chip neural imaging. A potential imaging function was implemented onto a CMOS image sensor with

Takashi Tokuda; Akio Yamamoto; Keiichiro Kagawa; Masahiro Nunoshita; Jun Ohta

2006-01-01

243

Development of prototype shielded cervical intracavitary brachytherapy applicators compatible with CT and MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is an integral part of the treatment regimen for cervical cancer and, generally, outcome in terms of local disease control and complications is a function of dose to the disease bed and critical structures, respectively. Therefore, it is paramount to accurately determine the dose given via ICBT to the tumor bed as well as critical structures. This is greatly facilitated through the use of advanced three-dimensional imaging modalities, such as CT and MR, to delineate critical and target structures with an ICBT applicator inserted in vivo. These methods are not possible when using a shielded applicator due to the image artifacts generated by interovoid shielding. The authors present two prototype shielded ICBT applicators that can be utilized for artifact-free CT image acquisition. They also investigate the MR amenability and dosimetry of a novel tungsten-alloy shielding material to extend the functionality of these devices. Methods: To accomplish artifact-free CT image acquisition, a ''step-and-shoot'' (S and S) methodology was utilized, which exploits the prototype applicators movable interovoid shielding. Both prototypes were placed in imaging phantoms that positioned the applicators in clinically applicable orientations. CT image sets were acquired of the prototype applicators as well as a shielded Fletcher-Williamson (sFW) ovoid. Artifacts present in each CT image set were qualitatively compared for each prototype applicator following the S and S methodology and the sFW. To test the novel tungsten-alloy shielding material's MR amenability, they constructed a phantom applicator that mimics the basic components of an ICBT ovoid. This phantom applicator positions the MR-compatible shields in orientations equivalent to the sFW bladder and rectal shields. MR images were acquired within a gadopentetate dimeglumine-doped water tank using standard pulse sequences and examined for artifacts. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to match the attenuation due to the thickness of this new shield type with current, clinically utilized ovoid shields and a {sup 192}Ir HDR/PDR source. Results: Artifact-free CT images could be acquired of both generation applicators in a clinically applicable geometry using the S and S method. MR images were acquired of the phantom applicator containing shields, which contained minimal, clinically relevant artifacts. The thickness required to match the dosimetry of the MR-compatible and sFW rectal shields was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusions: Utilizing a S and S imaging method in conjunction with prototype applicators that feature movable interovoid shields, they were able to acquire artifact-free CT image sets in a clinically applicable geometry. MR images were acquired of a phantom applicator that contained shields composed of a novel tungsten alloy. Artifacts were largely limited to regions within the ovoid cap and are of no clinical interest. The second generation A{sup 3} utilizes this material for interovoid shielding.

Price, Michael J.; Jackson, Edward F.; Gifford, Kent A.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); and Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2009-12-15

244

Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

In the following review we discuss several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also discusses factors influencing nanoparticle imaging and uptake in live cells in vitro. Due to their unique size-dependent properties nanoparticles offer numerous advantages over traditional dyes and proteins. For example, the photostability, narrow emission peak, and ability to rationally modify both the size and surface chemistry of Quantum Dots allow for simultaneous analyses of multiple targets within the same cell. On the other hand, the surface characteristics of nanometer sized TiO2allow efficient conjugation to nucleic acids which enables their retention in specific subcellular compartments. We discuss cellular uptake mechanisms for the internalization of nanoparticles and studies showing the influence of nanoparticle size and charge and the cell type targeted on nanoparticle uptake. The predominant nanoparticle uptake mechanisms include clathrin-dependent mechanisms, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis.

2007-01-01

245

NonCarbon Nanotubes (Review). Part 3. Properties and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic, quantum, thermodynamic, mechanical, phonon, superconducting and other properties of non-carbon nanotubes and their promising applications are reviewed. A number of layered compounds is proposed as a basis for the synthesis of new non-carbon nanotubes.

Vladimir V. Pokropivnyi

2002-01-01

246

Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review.  

PubMed

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum spans the frequency range between the infrared and the microwave. Traditionally the exploitation of this spectral region has been difficult owing to the lack of suitable source and detector. Over the last ten years or so, terahertz technology has advanced considerably with both terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS) and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) instruments now commercially available. This review outlines some of the recent pharmaceutical applications of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging. The following application areas are highlighted: (1) discrimination and quantification of polymorphs/hydrates, (2) analysis of solid form transformation dynamics, (3) quantitative characterisation of tablet coatings: off-line and on-line, (4) tablet coating and dissolution, (5) spectroscopic imaging and chemical mapping. This review does not attempt to offer an exhaustive assessment of all anticipated pharmaceutical applications; rather it is an attempt to raise the awareness of the emerging opportunities and usefulness offered by this exciting technology. PMID:21237260

Shen, Yao-Chun

2011-01-13

247

The application of high-speed digital image correlation.  

SciTech Connect

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method of using digital images to calculate two-dimensional displacement and deformation or for stereo systems three-dimensional shape, displacement, and deformation. While almost any imaging system can be used with DIC, there are some important challenges when working with the technique in high- and ultra-high-speed applications. This article discusses three of these challenges: camera sensor technology, camera frame rate, and camera motion mitigation. Potential solutions are treated via three demonstration experiments showing the successful application of high-speed DIC for dynamic events. The application and practice of DIC at high speeds, rather than the experimental results themselves, provide the main thrust of the discussion.

Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

2008-02-01

248

Application of Neural Networks In Image Processing and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are supporting tools for image processing, even if currently they are no longer considered\\u000a as the default best solution to any classification or regression problem. ANNs conserve their role as non-parametric classifiers,\\u000a non-linear regression operators, or (un)supervised feature extractors. The chapter reviews the applications of ANN methodology\\u000a in all the steps of the image processing chain,

Paul Dan Cristea

249

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast neutron resonance radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a two-dimensional (2-D) elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images, taken at different neutron energies and chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2002-01-01

250

Hyperspectral Image Processing for Automatic Target Detection Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

? This article presents an overview of the theoretical and practical issues associated with the development, analysis, and application of detection algorithms to exploit hyperspectral imaging data. We focus on techniques that exploit spectral information exclusively to make decisions regarding the type of each pixel—target or nontarget—on a pixel-by-pixel basis in an image. First we describe the fundamental structure of

Dimitris Manolakis; David Marden; Gary A. Shaw

2003-01-01

251

Pipe line pigs have varied applications in operations. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

In the early days of pipelining, it was discovered that running a swab equipped with leather disks through the line removed paraffin deposited on the pipe wall increasing the flow without increasing the power input. Blades were added to the device later to improve the efficiency of wax removal, which also decreased the number of runs and the cost of pigging. Pig developers learned from their successes as well as their failures. Part 1 of this work focused on the construction and kaliper pigs, and the second part describes the general form and function of the different operational pigs, i.e., calipers, cleaners, and spheres.

Vernooy, B.

1980-10-01

252

THz parametric sources and imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying several novel steps toward real-life applications of terahertz waves, such as: i) palmtop terahertz-wave parametric generators; ii) printable terahertz sensors using metal mesh; iii) noninvasive detection of concealed drugs using terahertz wave scattering; iv) observation of MOSFET chips using an infrared laser THz emission microscope; and v) monolithic Fabry-Perot resonator for the measurement of optical constants in

K. Kawase; Y. Ogawa; M. Yamashita; C. Otani

2005-01-01

253

32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 855 - Landing Permit Application Instructions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Landing Permit Application Instructions 3 Attachment 3 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense...OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 855âLanding Permit Application...

2010-07-01

254

24 CFR 2002.1 - Scope of the part and applicability of other HUD regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Scope of the part and applicability of other HUD regulations. 2002.1 Section 2002...Scope of the part and applicability of other HUD regulations. (a) General...S.C. 552?; § 15.108âWhat are HUD's policies concerning designating...

2013-04-01

255

77 FR 22789 - Withdrawal of Approval of Part of a New Animal Drug Application; Tiamulin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part of a New Animal Drug Application; Tiamulin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article that pertain...parts of NADA 139-472 for DENAGARD (tiamulin) Type A medicated article...

2012-04-17

256

Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

Wood, L.L.

1993-06-07

257

Application of whole blood image speckle analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When coherent light is incident upon an optically thick biological fluid having scattering centers (SC) in suspension, like whole blood, the backscattered light can be recorded, resulting an image speckle. A program was written to extract the time series from each pixel of the CDD conversion matrix. The autocorrelation time of the series was calculated and the autocorrelation time was determined on blood samples from different human subjects. The autocorrelation time was analyzed and compared with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measured during a standard laboratory test using the modified Westergren method. A different procedure to record the time series, using a detector and a data acquisition system was used as well and the autocorrelation time was calculated for the time series recorded using this procedure. The results of the work performed so far indicate that the two properties appear to be slightly correlated. A fast procedure for assessing the ESR is suggested.

Chicea, Dan

2008-05-01

258

49 CFR 821.2 - Applicability and description of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...part also govern all proceedings on appeal from an order of the Administrator imposing a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot or repairman, or a person acting in such capacity. All proceedings on appeal to the Board from any initial...

2012-10-01

259

49 CFR 821.2 - Applicability and description of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...part also govern all proceedings on appeal from an order of the Administrator imposing a civil penalty on a flight engineer, mechanic, pilot or repairman, or a person acting in such capacity. All proceedings on appeal to the Board from any initial...

2011-10-01

260

Advanced artificial dielectric materials for millimeter wavelength applications, part A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is Part A of a two-part Final Technical Report and is restricted to essentially non-magnetic composite dielectrics. Part B, which contains classified material, treats magneto-dielectric composites. We study the electromagnetic properties (permeability and permittivity) of artificial dielectrics with metal particles (1 micrometer to 37 micrometers) randomly loaded into both polymeric and inorganic binders. The alloy powder particles are oxide-coated for isolation (non-percolating) and ferromagnetic only below room temperature for volume loading determination, p. Samples with p from 0.1 to 0.4 for various size fractions, were examined from about 1 GHz to 20 GHz, and for selected samples at 35 GHz and 90 GHz. The complex permeability results are in very good agreement with calculations of induced magnetic dipole effects as functions of frequency and particle diameter. Permittivity results (real parts) are independent of particle diameter and essentially constant with frequency. Their dependence on loading is compared to the Clausius-Mossotti dipolar calculation, to the lattice array models with higher-order multipole interactions pioneered by Rayleigh, as well as to a pair-interaction model developed in this study; and also to an empirical curve obtained from several remarkably ideal experiments. The latter two comparisons are rather successful when the particles are closely spherical.

Jacobs, Israel S.

1989-11-01

261

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151 et seq. ). National Environmental Policy...1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. ), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented...Control Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. ); Executive Order 11738,...

2013-01-01

262

Construction of Periodic Timetables. Part 2. An Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a follow up of 'Construction of Periodic Timetables - Part I: A Cutting Plane Algorithm' (PB95-215141) and addresses the problem of quickly generating many periodic timetables for train arrivals and departures at railway stations. With thes...

M. A. Odijk

1994-01-01

263

Application of digital image processing method for fish age estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the study results on the fish age estimation issues, as an application of the method of digital image processing, presented by analysis from otolith image. First, a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Pulse- coupled Neural Networks (PCNN), is proposed, and used to identify the different summer or winter year-rings patterns. Second, a well-founded approach, using morphological features, is brought forwand to automatically detect the nucleus within the otolith images. Finally, the Morphological Method is used to deduce the fish's age. The results of this paper maybe significant in fishery research, and the methods can be used in other biologic features identify fields.

Wu, Ting-wan; Hong, Jian-hua

2008-10-01

264

X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications  

SciTech Connect

Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

Shedlock, Daniel [Nucsafe, Inc., 601 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Edwards, Talion [Boeing Research and Technology, 5775 Campus Parkway, Hazelwood, MO 63042 (United States); Toh, Chin [Boeing Research and Technology, 2201 Seal Beach Blvd, Seal Beach, CA 90740 (United States)

2011-06-23

265

Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The combination of detection and tracking processing with image fusion is discussed and assessed. Finally, a number of specific examples are presented which include land, air, and sea applications.

Riley, Tom; Smith, Moira

2006-10-01

266

Applications of swept light sources in imaging, sensor, and tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A swept light source is a type of light source whose wavelength can be quickly tuned . Typically, a swept light source is composed of a high optical gain-medium such as a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) or optical gain module and a wavelength selective component. Inphenix has developed swept light sources that cover from 800nm to 1550nm wavelengths and are cost effective, highly linear and ideal for medical imaging and industrial measurement applications. Applications of swept light sources have been widely investigated in real time optical imaging, optical fiber sensor interrogator and optical component testing.

Li, Tongning; Tang, Yibing; Xu, Wenchao; Qi, Qinian; Eu, David

2007-11-01

267

Performance and application of real-time hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral imaging is the latest advent in imaging technology, providing the potential to extract information about the objects in a scene that is unavailable to panchromatic imagers. This increased utility, however, comes at the cost of tremendously increased data. The ultimate utility of hyperspectral imagery is in the information that can be gleaned from the spectral dimension, rather than in the hyperspectral imagery itself. To have the broadest range of applications, extraction of this information must occur in real-time. Attempting to produce and exploit complete cubes of hyperspectral imagery at video rates, however, present unique problems for both the imager and the processor, since data rates are scaled by the number of spectral planes in the cube. MIDIS, the Multi-band Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer, allows both real-time here are the major design innovations associated with producing high-speed, high-sensitivity hyperspectral imagers operating in the SWIR and LWIR, and of the electronics capable of handling data rates up to 160 megapixels per second, continuously. Discussion of real-time algorithms capable of exploiting the spectral dimension of the imagery is also included. Beyond design and performance issues associated with producing and processing hyperspectral imagery at such high speeds, this paper also discusses applications of real-time hyperspectral imaging technology. Example imagery includes such problems as detecting counterfeit money, inspecting surfaces, and countering CCD.

Dombrowski, Mark S.; Willson, Paul; Labaw, Clayton C.

1998-10-01

268

Camera Models and Optical Systems Used in Computer Graphics: Part II, Image-Based Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our companion paper (5), we described the optics under- lying camera models that have been used in computer graphics, and presented object space techniques for rendering with those models. In this paper, we survey image space techniques to simulate these models, and address topics including linear flltering, ray distribution bufiers, light flelds, and simulation techniques for interactive applications.

Brian A. Barsky; Daniel R. Horn; Stanley A. Klein; Jeffrey A. Pang; Meng Yu

2003-01-01

269

Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 {degrees}C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Perkins, D.E.

1992-09-01

270

Relativistic Stellar Dynamics on the Computer - Part Two - Physical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of a series of papers on the numerical solution of Einstein's equations for the dynamical evolution of a collisionless gas of particles in general relativity. This paper deals mainly with applications to spherical star clusters. Previous studies were restricted to static equilibria and linear perturbations. We bring together the tools of numerical relativity and N-body particle

S. L. Shapiro; S. A. Teukolsky

1985-01-01

271

Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Terahertz (THz) imaging,is being adopted for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications in aerospace and other government,and industrial settings [1-3]. NASA is currently employing ,THz reflection NDE to examine ,the space shuttle external tank sprayed on foam insulation (SOFI) for voids and disbonds. Homeland security applications such as the inspection of personnel[2], the detection of concealed explosives[2], biological agents, chemical weapons,

David Zimdars; Jeffrey S. White; G. stuk; A. chernovsky; G. Fichter; S. Williamson

2006-01-01

272

Mechanical parts range-image segmentation by locating critical points of one-dimensional curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified edge-based segmentation algorithm specially designed for mechanical parts is proposed. The technique used is based on a concept of 3-views of engineering drawings and is a partial parallel algorithm. Mechanical parts considered here are composed of planes, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. At first, a set of critical points is extracted from each row and column of range image by one dimensional curves' segmentation technique. Edge linking process is performed on the map of critical points by morphological dilation, thinning and edge tracking. After that, a connected component labeling procedure is done and all pixels belonging to the same 4-connected region are assigned a unique label. An efficient run-length implementation of local table method is used to do the connected components' analysis. Finally, a robust least squares surface fitting is employed for each label to accommodate the error of previous steps, and outliers are discarded according to errors. Experiments are presented for numerous scenes of both real and synthetic range images of mechanical parts including concave and convex surfaces, noiseless and noisy. The results show that the proposed one dimensional critical point locating method segments the range image of mechanical parts fast and accurately.

Lee, Ji-Chun; Fan, Kuang-Chao

1996-02-01

273

Mosaic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-speed passive FTIR imaging spectrometer has been developed and tested in airborne flight tests on both fixed wing and helicopter platforms. This sensor was developed and flown from 2000 to 2005 in conjunction with various organizations, and is known as the Turbo FT. The Turbo FT is a laser-less rotary high speed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer capable of very high speed, spectral resolution to 1 cm-1, and operation in rugged environments. For these tests, the sensor was run at 8 cm-1 resolution and 50-100 scans per second with either a single element or a 2x8 element LWIR detector. An on-board auto-calibrating blackbody accessory was developed and automated chemical detection software was developed. These features allow in-flight calibration, facilitated detection of target gas clouds, and reported detections to an on-board targeting computer. This paper will discuss the system specifications, sensor performance, and field results from various experiments. Current work on development of an 8x8 pixel Turbo FT system will also be presented.

Wadsworth, Winthrop; Dybwad, Jens Peter; Stone, Drew

2005-06-01

274

[Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].  

PubMed

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest further use for CFR-PEEK composites, such as the construction of articulating liners for total shoulder joint replacement, particularly in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:21223826

Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

2010-01-01

275

Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed according to a specification which defines the metrics levels to reach, such as the local contrast ?TRSS (NVESD metric), the Signal to Clutter Ratio, or the masking ratio target/mask. An integrated calibrated sensor model simulates the sensor degradations by using the pre and post-filter MTF, and the 3D noise parameters of the camera. The image generation comes with the construction of a ground truth file which indicates all the parameter values defining the image scenario. A large quantity of images can be generated accordingly, leading to a meaningful statistical evaluation. A key feature is that this technique allows to build learning and testing databases with comparable difficulty, in the sense of the chosen image metrics. The theoretical interest of this technique is presented in the paper, compared to the classical ones which use real or simulated data. An application is also presented, within the CALADIOM project (terrestrial target detection with programmable artificial IR retina combined with IR ATR system). Over 38,000 images were processed by this ATR for training and testing, involving seven armored vehicles as targets.

Landeau, Stéphane; Dagobert, Tristan

2006-06-01

276

A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

Grossmann, Christoph M.

2010-02-01

277

Driving micro-optical imaging systems towards miniature camera applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, multi channel imaging systems have been increasingly studied and approached from various directions in the academic domain due to their promising large field of view at small system thickness. However, specific drawbacks of each of the solutions prevented the diffusion into corresponding markets so far. Most severe problems are a low image resolution and a low sensitivity compared to a conventional single aperture lens besides the lack of a cost-efficient method of fabrication and assembly. We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated modules achieve a VGA resolution with 700x550 pixels within an optical package of 6.8mm x 5.2mm and a total track length of 1.4mm. The partial images that are separately recorded within different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. These software tools allow to correct the distortion of the individual partial images so that the final image is also free of distortion. The so-called electronic cluster eyes are realized by state-of-the-art microoptical fabrication techniques and offer a resolution and sensitivity potential that makes them suitable for consumer, machine vision and medical imaging applications.

Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Leitel, Robert; Bräuer, Andreas

2010-04-01

278

Study on superconducting basic technology for space application, part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feasibility studies on application of superconductivity to the space technology have been made for three years, since FY (Fiscal Year) 1988. In FY 1991, three basic technology, i.e., SIS (Superconductor Insulator Superconductor) mixer, microwave circuit element and superconductive magnetic bearing, are selected as potential technology in the space, and the following further studies were performed: (1) a review of current R & D (Research and Development) status on the technology; (2) a survey on potential use in the space; (3) a survey on the required features of the technology in space use; and (4) a preliminary design study of the devices and/or systems used by the technology, applicable on a satellite. Review works have also made on the current status of R and D programs of superconductive material processing test in the micro gravity environment, and ASTROMAG (Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility) project.

1993-03-01

279

Fundamentals and applications of solar energy. Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of techniques of chemical engineering to the development of materials, production methods, and performance optimization and evaluation of solar energy systems are discussed. Solar thermal storage systems using phase change materials, liquid phase Diels-Alder reactions, aquifers, and hydrocarbon oil were examined. Solar electric systems were explored in terms of a chlorophyll solar cell, the nonequilibrium electric field effects developed at photoelectrode/electrolyte interfaces, and designs for commercial scale processing of solar cells using continuous thin-film coating production methods. Solar coal gasification processes were considered, along with multilayer absorber coatings for solar concentrator receivers, solar thermal industrial applications, the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of crop residues to produce methane, and a procedure for developing a computer simulation of a solar cooling system.

Faraq, I. H.; Melsheimer, S. S.

280

Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

2011-09-01

281

Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain: review of clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the theoretical background to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and some of its commoner clinical applications, such as cerebral ischemia, brain maturation and traumatic brain injury. We also review its potential use in diseases such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The value of DTI in the investigation of brain tumors and metabolic disorders is assessed.

P. C. Sundgren; Q. Dong; D. Gómez-Hassan; S. K. Mukherji; P. Maly; R. Welsh

2004-01-01

282

Spectral imaging and its applications in live cell microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biological microscopy, the ever expanding range of applications requires quantitative approaches that analyze several distinct fluorescent molecules at the same time in the same sample. However, the spectral properties of the fluorescent proteins and dyes presently available set an upper limit to the number of molecules that can be detected simultaneously with common microscopy methods. Spectral imaging and linear

Timo Zimmermann; Jens Rietdorf; Rainer Pepperkok

2003-01-01

283

Flash lamp planar imaging for high speed flow applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash lamp planar imaging system used for near sonic flows is discussed. The technique tailors light from an arc lamp to form a filament which is then spread making a light lamina. The 1-microsec pulse duration and estimated 250-watt intensity level permit visualization of transient gas jet phenomena. The method is illustrated by application to atmospheric gas discharges at

A. J. Saber

1989-01-01

284

New high sensitivity silicon photodetectors for medical imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new silicon photodiode design that reduces the dark current and can improve the sensitivity of low noise silicon photodetector arrays for medical imaging applications. The reduction in dark current eliminates the need for cooling, which facilitates the mechanical design and allows for the optimum performance of the scintillators that are coupled to the photodiodes. The photodetectors

C. R. Tull; J. S. Iwanczyk; B. E. Patt; G. Vilkelis; V. Eremin; E. Verbitskaya; N. Strokan; I. Il'Yashenko; A. Ivanov; A. Sidorov; N. Egorov; S. Golubkov; K. Kon'kov

2003-01-01

285

Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

2005-01-01

286

A discrete universal denoiser and its application to binary images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a discrete universal denoiser for two dimensional data and also presents an experimental results of its application to noisy binary images. A discrete universal denoiser (DUDE) is introduced for recovering a signal with finite-valued components corrupted by finite-valued, uncorrelated noise. The DUDE is asymptotically optimal and universal, in the sense of asymptotically achieving, without access to any

Erik Ordentlich; Gadiel Seroussi; Sergio Verdú; Marcelo J. Weinberger; Tsachy Weissman

2003-01-01

287

Crosshole IP imaging for engineering and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced polarization (IP) imaging is a promising tool in engineering and environmental studies. Application of this technique for near-surface investigations has pre- viously been limited by incomplete understanding of the physicochemical controls on the IP response, together with a lack of appropriate methods for data inversion. As laboratory studies have shown, description of IP in terms of complex electrical conductivity

Andreas Kemna; Andrew Binley; Lee Slater

2004-01-01

288

Imaging Applications of the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geant4 is a toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. While Geant4 was originally developed for High Energy Physics (HEP), applications now include Nuclear, Space and Medical Physics. Medical applications of Geant4 in North America and throughout the world have been increasing rapidly due to the overall growth of Monte Carlo use in Medical Physics and the unique qualities of Geant4 as an all-particle code able to handle complex geometry, motion and fields with the flexibility of modern programming and an open and free source code. Many developers of imaging technology use Geant4 by way of GATE, the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography, which wraps around Geant4 to simplify use and add imaging features, while other imaging developers use Geant4 directly. This talk will provide an overview of these applications, with a focus on how Geant4's unique qualities, such as its support for moving geometries and electric and magnetic fields, are applied to medical imaging.

Perl, Joseph

2008-03-01

289

Perspectives on Imaging: Advanced Applications. Introduction and Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)|

Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.

1991-01-01

290

Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia

Hiroyuki Nagatani

2010-01-01

291

Reliability design of CMOS image sensor for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In space applications, sensors work in very harsh space environment. Thus the reliability design must be carefully considered. This paper addresses the techniques which effectively increase the reliability of CMOS image sensors. A radiation tolerant pixel design which is implemented in a sun tracker sensor is presented. Measurement results of total dose radiation, SEL, SEU, etc prove the radiation immunity of the sensor.

Xie, Ning; Chen, Shijun; Chen, Yongping

2013-08-01

292

Evaluation of an application-independent image information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manchester Content Addressable Image Database (CAID) is a generic tool which has been designed for image informatics and computer vision problems. The system stores pre- computed feature tokens, which are obtained by conventional processing of the input images, into a database which is accessed by a specialized query language (MVQL). MVQL extends the usual notion of a query language to include creation and refinement of groupings based on the stored attributes of the pre-computed features, and these groupings can be continued in a nested fashion. The aim of this paper is to report on two recent application studies. The first study concerns the automatic registration of volume MR data sets. This is achieved entirely within the CAID environment (i.e., as a database query) using only a short MVQL specification. The method used is based on curve token correspondence and an exhaustive search of transformation space. Some results on the estimated accuracy of the result will be included. The second application is concerned with the classification of microfossil images into morphological groups. Preliminary work on detecting microfossil structures was reported in Shann et al. Here we address the problem of classifying detected structures into six broad morphological groups. This is achieved using MVQL to define `structure' measures from the distribution of curve tokens in a circular region around each microfossil. The results are surprisingly good considering the very limited feature evidence used. Both application studies confirm the general applicability of the CAID structure and its query language.

Oakley, John P.; Davies, Darryl; Shann, Richard T.; Xydeas, Costas S.

1994-04-01

293

Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging via Bioluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a mic...

J. A. Gruenhagen

2003-01-01

294

Imaging and Genetics: Future Applications in the Emergency Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in brain imaging and genetics are revolutionizing our understanding of behavior, particularly the role of neurobiology in aggression and violence. In the emergency room (ER), these develop- ments will have special application for the evaluation of patients who are assaultive and potentially homicidal. Though useful, traditional psychiatric diagnosis with its focus on categoric conditions such as personality disorders, schizophrenia,

Laurence R. Tancredi

2009-01-01

295

CASpatch: A SAR image simulation code to support ATR applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, A SAR image simulation code of 3D complex targets named CASpatch is introduced. This code is based on the high frequency technique of shooting and bouncing rays (SBR). The original purpose to design the code is for SAR automatic target recognition (ATR) applications, but it can also be used for RCS prediction and high resolution range profile

Rui Zhang; Jun Hong; Feng Ming

2009-01-01

296

Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.  

PubMed

A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided. PMID:23637366

Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

2013-05-01

297

Monochromatic beam application in medical imaging and material analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycapillary optics can be employed as efficient low pass devices in conjunction with simple absorption filters to produce narrow band radiation from conventional broadband x-ray tube sources. Narrow band filtration is adequate for low-resolution powder diffraction without a monochromaor. Polycapillary optics can collect a large solid angle of x-rays from a laboratory point source and form intense focused beams, for powder diffraction and micro x-ray fluorescence (MXRF). Focused monochromatic micro beams were generated from low power sources using doubly curved crystal (DCC) optics. These optics provide an enabling technology for new portable, remote, and in situ application of monochromatic x-rays for composition and structure analysis. Femtogram sensitivity for surface contamination was achieved. Polycapillary optics can be used for a variety of imaging applications. Placing the optic after the object to be imaged provides very efficient rejection of Compton scatter because of the low angular acceptance of the capillaries. Scatter fraction and contrast data performed with energy sensitive and imaging detectors were in good agreement. A detailed calculation for comparing these broadband and monoenergenic-input scatter fraction data was performed. The agreement validates predictions of the effect of input spectrum on contrast of an image at different energies. The potential use of polycapillary optics to provide extraordinarily high spatial resolution imaging of radioactive sources for a new generation of gamma cameras was investigated. A series of images from 125I brachytherapy seeds in Lucite phantoms display resolution better than 0.l mm and signal to noise ratios in excess of a factor of 10. For applications that would benefit from more monochromatic or more parallel input beams, polycapillary collimating optics can be used to collect divergent radiation and redirect it towards a monochromatizing crystal to produce orders of magnitude higher diffracted intensity than from pinhole collimation. The implementation of high contrast monochromatic and refractive index imaging with a very low power source has been demonstrated.

Mail, Noor

298

Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application  

PubMed Central

As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management.

Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

2013-01-01

299

Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

1985-12-01

300

Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

2013-06-01

301

Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications  

SciTech Connect

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-18

302

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains Appendices B1, C1, and C2. These appendices describe the surface hydrology of the area, provide a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes to be placed in WIPP, and outline a waste analysis plan which gives an overview of the total waste inventory planned for WIPP. 34 refs., 107 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-01

303

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases.

Not Available

1991-02-01

304

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 4, contains Appendices C3, C4, and D1--D10. These appendices cover information on environmental impacts, site characterization, geology and hydrology of the area, monitoring of the environment, compatibility of waste forms and containers, and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

Not Available

1991-02-01

305

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 5, contains Appendices E1, H1, I1--3, K1, K2, and L1. These appendices cover a RCRA ground water monitoring waiver, a list of job titles, the operational closure plan, the waste retrieval plan for wastes placed during the test phase, and listings of agreements between WIPP, DOE, and various state and federal agencies. 91 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1991-02-01

306

Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications.  

PubMed

Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 ?m) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology. PMID:23372086

Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V

2013-01-28

307

Phase Difference Application in Fully PolSAR Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability density function of each phase angle ?pq in complex PolSAR data, follow hypothesis of strong scattering regime, is uniformly distributed over [ - ? , ? ] and therefore does not contain any information about image terrain properties. But interchannel phase information: 1) co-pol phase (the phase difference between the co-polarised channels HH and VV), 2) cross-pol phase (the phase difference between the cross- polarised channels HH and HV, VV and VH), 3) the phase difference between HV and VH channels, are important in SAR polarimetric data along with the intensity. The area of its application in SAR polarimetric images includes the discrimination between dominant scattering situations, crop classification, moving target indication, oil spill observations, forest parameters estimation. This paper represents a brief review of interchannel phase information application in PolSAR imagery, illustrated by images from SIR-C/X-SAR SLC C- and L-band fully polarimetric SAR data of Moscow region and Baikal Lake region, acquired in 1994/10/09. Speckle reduction is one of the main moments in the image interpretation improvement. But it is almost no difference between polarimetric phase difference not filtered or filtered by Lee polarimetric filter. It's not the case for amplitude information in PolSAR images.

Rodionova, N. V.

2009-04-01

308

The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging.  

PubMed

In the first part of this review we survey the role optical/infrared interferometry now plays in ground-based astronomy. We discuss in turn the origins of astronomical interferometry, the motivation for its development, the techniques of its implementation, examples of its astronomical significance, and the limitations of the current generation of interferometric arrays. The second part focuses on the prospects for ground-based astronomical imaging interferometry over the near to mid-term (i.e. 10 years) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. An assessment is made of the astronomical and technical factors which determine the optimal designs for imaging arrays. An analysis based on scientific capability, technical feasibility and cost argues for an array of large numbers of moderate-sized (2 m class) telescopes rather than one comprising a small number of much larger collectors. PMID:12804289

Baldwin, John E; Haniff, Christopher A

2002-05-15

309

High speed electronic imaging application in aeroballistic research  

SciTech Connect

Physical and temporal restrictions imposed by modern aeroballistics have pushed imaging technology to the point where special photoconductive surfaces and high-speed support electronics are dictated. Specifications for these devices can be formulated by a methodical analysis of critical parameters and how they interact. In terms of system theory, system transfer functions and state equations can be used in optimal coupling of devices to maximize system performance. Application of these methods to electronic imaging at the Eglin Aeroballistics Research Facility is described in this report. 7 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Brown, R.R.; Parker, J.R.

1984-01-01

310

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of such things as fog, bad weather and clothing, millimeter-wave imaging provides a powerful tool for both airborne and security type applications. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image through bad weather or detect concealed weapons and articles all without generating any form of radiation that might either help an enemey or raise health concerns. In this paper we will show imagery from our second generation state-of-the-art unit and discuss the technology involved.

Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

2003-08-01

311

Geodesics-based image registration: applications to biological and medical images depicting concentric ring patterns.  

PubMed

In many biological or medical applications, images that contain sequences of shapes are common. The existence of high inter-individual variability makes their interpretation complex. In this paper, we address the computer-assisted interpretation of such images and we investigate how we can remove or reduce these image variabilities. The proposed approach relies on the development of an efficient image registration technique. We first show the inadequacy of state-of-the-art intensity-based and feature-based registration techniques for the considered image datasets. Then, we propose a robust variational method which benefits from the geometrical information present in this type of images. In the proposed non-rigid geodesics-based registration, the successive shapes are represented by a level-set representation, which we rely on to carry out the registration. The successive level sets are regarded as elements in a shape space and the corresponding matching is that of the optimal geodesic path. The proposed registration scheme is tested on synthetic and real images. The comparison against results of state-of-the-art methods proves the relevance of the proposed method for this type of images. PMID:23880058

Nasreddine, Kamal; Benzinou, Abdesslam; Fablet, Ronan

2013-07-18

312

Multi-frequency static imaging in electrical impedance tomography: Part 1 instrumentation requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static images of the human body using electrical impedance tomography techniques can be obtained by measuring at two or more\\u000a different frequencies. The frequencies used depend on the application, and their selection depends on the frequency behaviour\\u000a of the impedance for the target tissue. An analysis using available data and theoretical models for tissue impedance yields\\u000a the expected impedance and

P. J. Riu; J. Rosell; A. Lozano; R. Pallà-Areny

1995-01-01

313

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2013-07-01

314

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2011-10-01

315

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2012-10-01

316

Fluorescence imaging system: application for the assessment of vegetation stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of an ongoing laser induced fluorescence (LIF) project, out laboratories have developed a fluorescence imaging system (FIS) to acquire fluorescence images at wavelengths centered at 450 nm, 550 nm, 680 nm, and 740 nm. The system consists of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescent lamps as an exciting source, automated filter wheel, and charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The automated filter wheel and CD camera are controlled by a microcomputer via a computer interface,a nd digital images are captured. The FIS is capable of capturing steady state fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence induction images. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the utility of the FIS. One such study included experiments to observe the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) in soybean leaves with FIS. Five different concentrations of EDU were sued to establish a doe-response relationship. Although visual effects of EDU treatment were not apparent, the intensities of the fluorescence images of the plant leaves varied depending on the EDU concentration, the location on the leaf surface and the emission wavelength. EDU appeared mainly to affect the photosynthetic apparatus causing non-uniform increases in red and far-red fluorescence. Ratio images of red-green and blue/far-red were found to be sensitive indicators in detecting EDU effects. A ratio of fluorescence induction to steady state fluorescence had a curvilinear relationship with EDU-dosage. Such kinetic measurements can be used to assess photosynthetic activity in response to a range of chemical and environmental stresses. This study demonstrates that FIS is an excellent tool to detect stress symptoms before the onset of visible injury. It will enhance our understanding of the interactions among photosynthetic activity, vegetative stresses and fluorescence responses. Characterization of steady state fluorescence patterns in leaves is of significant value in our LIF research studies, and images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by finding the spatial distribution of fluorescence in leaves.

Kim, Moon S.; Krizek, Donald T.; Daughtry, Craig S.; McMurtrey, James E.; Sandhu, Ravinder K.; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

1997-01-01

317

Analysis Operator Learning and its Application to Image Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be the sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this work, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on an $\\ell_p$-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constraints. Moreover, we compare our approach to state-of-the-art methods for image denoising, inpainting, and single image super-resolution. Our numerical results show competitive performance of our general approach in all presented applications compared to the specialized state-of-the-art techniques.

Hawe, Simon; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Diepold, Klaus

2013-06-01

318

Detection of Multiple, Partially Occluded Humans in a Single Image by Bayesian Combination of Edgelet Part Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method for human detection in crowded scene from static images. An individual human is modeled as an assembly of natural body parts. We introduce edgelet features, which are a new type of silhouette oriented features. Part detectors, based on these features, are learned by a boosting method. Responses of part detectors are combined to form a

Bo Wu; Ramakant Nevatia

2005-01-01

319

High-speed dual-output-channel stage-selectable TDI CCD image sensor for high-resolution applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

TDI sensors are a proven means of increasing the responsivity in a line scan imaging application. This paper describes the development of a family of high speed 96 stage TDI sensors. The sensor is available in a high resolution 2048 element version. A 512 element part will also be made. The number of TDI stages in the sensor can be

Suhail Agwani; David A. Dobson; William D. Washkurak; Savvas G. Chamberlain

1995-01-01

320

Development of a hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope and its application to tissue imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, characterization and application of a novel, rapid, optically sectioned hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope. The system is based on a line scanning confocal configuration and uses a highspeed time-gated detector to extract lifetime information from many pixels in parallel. This allows the full spectraltemporal profiles of a fluorescence decay to be obtained from every pixel

Dylan M. Owen; Hugh B. Manning; Pieter de Beule; Clifford Talbot; Jose Requejo-Isidro; Chris Dunsby; James McGinty; Richard K. P. Benninger; Dan S. Elson; Ian Munro; Neil P. Galletly; M. Jon Lever; Gordon W. Stamp; Praveen Anand; Mark A. A. Neil; Paul M. W. French

2007-01-01

321

22 CFR Appendix B to Part 201 - Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) B Appendix B to Part 201 Foreign...TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. B Appendix B to Part 201âApplication for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) EC06OC91.007 EC06OC91.008...

2013-04-01

322

Recent Analytical Applications of Molecular Spectroscopy in Bioorganometallic Chemistry—Part I: Metal Carbonyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This is the first part of a two-part review on the analytical applications of molecular spectroscopy in bioorganometallic chemistry since 2005. In this case, radiopharmaceutical studies are included and the review is focused particularly on biological molecules labeled with metal carbonyl fragments.

Ian S. Butler; Rosine P. Kengne-Momo; Gérard Jaouen; Clotilde Policar; Anne Vessières

2012-01-01

323

Pattern recognition of magnetic resonance images with application to atherosclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent soft tissue contrast enabling the non-invasive visualization of soft tissue diseases. The quantification of tissues visible in MR images would significantly increase the diagnostic information available. While tissue selection methods exist for CT images, those same methods do not work with MR images. This dissertation focuses on the application of image processing and pattern recognition techniques to MR images for the identification and quantification of soft tissues, atherosclerosis in particular. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of human arteries responsible for significant mortality and medical expense. Current diagnostic methods are invasive and carry significant risk. Supervised pattern recognition methods were investigated for tissue identification in MR images. The classifiers were trained A Fisher linear classifier successfully identified the tissues of interest from MR images of excised arteries, performing better than a minimum distance to the means classifier. Quantitative measures of the disease state were computed from the results and 3-D displays were generated of the diseased anatomy. For tissue in vivo, adequate histology can be difficult to collect, increasing the difficulty of training the classifiers and making the results less accurate. Cluster analysis was used in this dissertation to generate the training information. A new cluster analysis method was developed. ISODATA was modified to use hierarchical stopping rules. The new method was tested in a Monte Carlo study and with real world data sets. Comparisons were made with published methods using the same data. An information theoretic criterion, the CAIC, was found to be an excellent criteria for hierarchical stopping rules.

Carman, C.S.

1989-01-01

324

D8: an image capturing software for advanced applications including temporal synchronization of imaging sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flexible tool for collection of data from imaging sensors is presented. It is compatible to Windows XP and later. It is designed to meet demanding requirements in scientific applications and has been evaluated both in laboratory measurements and extended field trials. Main features of the image capturing software, denoted D8, are: D8 supports various kinds of cameras: monospectral, multispectral and hyperspectral. A new camera is included by adding additional information in a configuration list. The image data acquired from D8 are standardized into formats based on the ENVI format. Each single image gets a timestamp with the precision of 1 ms. There is support for an FPGA board, which can improve the precision to 1 ?s. Through D8 an arbitrary number of cameras can be temporally synchronized and the data collected. This options imitates true multi-colour cameras. Results from a temporal synchronization and spatial alignment of two multiband cameras are presented.

Cronström, Staffan; Svensson, Thomas; Renhorn, Ingmar

2010-04-01

325

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities.

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

326

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications.  

PubMed

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1)-catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 ((68)Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile "clickable" zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K; Larsen, Sarah

2011-02-01

327

Superresolution parallel magnetic resonance imaging: Application to functional and spectroscopic imaging  

PubMed Central

Standard parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques suffer from residual aliasing artifacts when the coil sensitivities vary within the image voxel. In this work, a parallel MRI approach known as Superresolution SENSE (SURE-SENSE) is presented in which acceleration is performed by acquiring only the central region of k-space instead of increasing the sampling distance over the complete k-space matrix and reconstruction is explicitly based on intra-voxel coil sensitivity variation. In SURE-SENSE, parallel MRI reconstruction is formulated as a superresolution imaging problem where a collection of low resolution images acquired with multiple receiver coils are combined into a single image with higher spatial resolution using coil sensitivities acquired with high spatial resolution. The effective acceleration of conventional gradient encoding is given by the gain in spatial resolution, which is dictated by the degree of variation of the different coil sensitivity profiles within the low resolution image voxel. Since SURE-SENSE is an ill-posed inverse problem, Tikhonov regularization is employed to control noise amplification. Unlike standard SENSE, for which acceleration is constrained to the phase-encoding dimension/s, SURE-SENSE allows acceleration along all encoding directions — for example, two-dimensional acceleration of a 2D echo-planar acquisition. SURE-SENSE is particularly suitable for low spatial resolution imaging modalities such as spectroscopic imaging and functional imaging with high temporal resolution. Application to echo-planar functional and spectroscopic imaging in human brain is presented using two-dimensional acceleration with a 32-channel receiver coil.

Otazo, Ricardo; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Wiggins, Graham; Jordan, Ramiro; Sodickson, Daniel; Posse, Stefan

2009-01-01

328

Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

Valdivia, F.; Crépeault, B.; Duchesne, S.

2012-02-01

329

The character and application of a neutron imaging plate (NIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a neutron imaging plate (NIP) as a new neutron detector and already reported the fundamental features of the NIP. The optimization of the NIP was carried out by changing a molar ratio of converter materials to PSL (Photostimulated luminescence) materials and thickness of the NIP. Some problems such as ?-ray sensitivity and irradiation effect for the practical use of the NIP were discussed. Several examples of application of the NIP were introduced.

Karasawa, Y.; Kumazawa, S.; Niimura, N.

1998-04-01

330

High dynamic range CMOS image sensors in biomedical applications.  

PubMed

The biomedical environment is one of the most recent and interesting application fields for CMOS image sensors. Low power consumption, high sensitivity and a simple interface are the main required features; nevertheless high dynamic range can be considered one of the more interesting and less investigated aspects. High Dynamic range is one of the main research fields NeuriCam has been involved in since its incipit. This work is an excursus of NeuriCam's approaches to this topic. PMID:18002581

Vatteroni, M; Covi, D; Stoppa, D; Crespi, B; Sartori, A

2007-01-01

331

Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. "Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications" presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references.

Javidi, Bahram

332

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x

Martin Wäny; Stephan Voltz; Fabio Gaspar; Lei Chen

2009-01-01

333

Pixel detectors for particle physics and imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g., in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in X-ray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large-scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are

N. Wermes

2003-01-01

334

Luminescent magnetic particles: structures, syntheses, multimodal imaging, and analytical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescent magnetic particles (LuMaPs) are attractive tools for life science applications such as multimodal imaging, analyte\\u000a monitoring, nanotherapeutics, and combinations thereof. LuMaPs consist of at least one magnetic and one luminescent component\\u000a which often are incorporated in a (polymeric) matrix. Alarge variety of materials do exist for the components that make up\\u000a LuMaPs. However, a smart selection and combination is

Günter Mistlberger; Ingo Klimant

2010-01-01

335

32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National...Part 110âApplication of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total package...

2009-07-01

336

32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National...Part 110âApplication of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total package...

2010-07-01

337

47 CFR Appendix B to Part 400 - Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants B Appendix B to...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 400, App. B...to Part 400âInitial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants...

2011-10-01

338

47 CFR Appendix B to Part 400 - Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants B Appendix B to...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 400, App. B...to Part 400âInitial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants...

2012-10-01

339

10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy...Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues This appendix sets out procedures...review of one or more site suitability issues relating to the construction...

2013-01-01

340

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27...TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR...

2013-01-01

341

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27...TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR...

2010-01-01

342

Engineered Biocompatible Nanoparticles for in Vivo Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Iron?platinum alloy nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are extremely promising candidates for the next generation of contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) diagnostic imaging and MR-guided interventions, including hyperthermic ablation of solid cancers. FePt has high Curie temperature, saturation magnetic moment, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, and chemical stability. We describe the synthesis and characterization of a family of biocompatible FePt NPs suitable for biomedical applications, showing and discussing that FePt NPs can exhibit low cytotoxicity. The importance of engineering the interface of strongly magnetic NPs using a coating allowing free aqueous permeation is demonstrated to be an essential parameter in the design of new generations of diagnostic and therapeutic MRI contrast agents. We report effective cell internalization of FePt NPs and demonstrate that they can be used for cellular imaging and in vivo MRI applications. This opens the way for several future applications of FePt NPs, including regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy in addition to enhanced MR diagnostic imaging.

2010-01-01

343

Applications of atomic magnetometry in chemical and biological imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic magnetometry has been recently developed as the most sensitive technique for detecting magnetic field, especially low-frequency magnetic signal. However, its applications in chemistry and biomedicine have not been extensively explored. In addition, the applications are often limited by the bulky size and high operating temperature of the magnetometers. We report a sensitive and compact atomic magnetometer that has an optimal operating temperature of 37 degree. The small size of the atomic sensors significantly improves the coupling between the sample and the detectors. Using this magnetometer in a scanning detection scheme, we show high-resolution, quantitative imaging of magnetically-labeled antibody binding to targeted molecules. We also show applications of this technique in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging in the Earth's magnetic field: a pH-sensitive gadolinium chelate for low magnetic field is revealed, which can be potentially used for minimum-invasive pH mapping; fluid flow in porous metallic materials is measured, which overcomes the penetration problem associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Further improvement for the magnetometer and new detection schemes will be discussed.

Xu, Shoujun; Yao, Li; Garcia, Nissa; Yu, Dindi

2010-03-01

344

Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 ?m to 150 ?m. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

2013-03-01

345

[Application of nanophosphors with near infrared excitation for biomedical imaging].  

PubMed

Fluorescence bioimaging is an inevitable method for biological, medical and pharmaceutical sciences to visualize substances in biological objects in a highly sensitive, multicolor and dynamic way. Recently, elongation of the fluorescence wavelength is a trend used in this imaging to suppress scattering, which limits the imaging depth to within several millimeters. It has been known that the so-called "biological window" with low loss for a biological tissue has been known to lie in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range between 1000 and 1700 nm. The use of fluorescence in the over-1000-nm (OTN) NIR can deepen the observation to several centimeters. The use of imaging devices based on semiconductor silicon has limited the wavelength of the fluorescence bioimaging to less than 1000 nm. However, the appearance of InGaAs CCD on the market, to allow for imaging of the OTN-NIR light, is now changing the situation. On the other hand, rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors (RED-CNP) can emit efficient fluorescence in the OTN-NIR wavelength range. The author's group has applied the RED-CNP to OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging by hybridizing the RED-CNP with various polymers or molecules. The present paper will review the development of the materials and systems for this OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging, together with some applications of the imaging method for biological research and a medical surgery. PMID:23449415

Soga, Kohei

2013-01-01

346

Line scan CCD image processing for biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood samples are frequently analyzed for the blood disorders or other diseases in the research and clinic applications. Most of the analyses are related to blood cell counts and blood cell sizes. In this paper, the line scan CCD imaging system is developed, which is based on the Texas Instruments' TMS320C6416T (DSP6416), a high performance digital signal processor and Altera's Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) EP3C25F324. It is used to acquire and process the images of blood cells for counting the number of cells, sizing and positioning them. The cell image is captured by line scan CCD sensor and then the digital image data converted by Analogue Front-End (AFE) are transferred into FPGA, after pre-processing they are transferred into DSP6416 through the interface of First In First Out (FIFO) in FPGA and External Memory Interfaces (EMIF) of DSP6416. Then the image data are processed in DSP6416. Experimental results show that this system is useful and efficient.

Lee, Choon-Young; Yan, Lei; Lee, Sang-Ryong

2010-02-01

347

Application of spatial frequency response as a criterion for evaluating thermal imaging camera performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating spatial resolution using an application of Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) calculations for thermal imaging. According to ISO 12233, the SFR is defined as the integrated area below the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) curve derived from the discrete Fourier transform of a camera image representing a knife-edge target. This concept is modified slightly for use as a quantitative analysis of the camera's performance by integrating the area between the MTF curve and the camera's characteristic nonuniformity, or noise floor, determined at room temperature. The resulting value, which is termed the Effective SFR, can then be compared with a spatial resolution value obtained from human perception testing of task specific situations to determine the acceptability of the performance of thermal imaging cameras. The testing procedures described herein are being developed as part of a suite of tests for possible inclusion into a performance standard on thermal imaging cameras for first responders.

Lock, Andrew; Amon, Francine

2008-05-01

348

Imaging review of the temporal bone: part I. Anatomy and inflammatory and neoplastic processes.  

PubMed

From a clinical-radiologic standpoint, there are a limited number of structures and disease entities in the temporal bone with which one must be familiar in order to proficiently interpret a computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging study of the temporal bone. It is helpful to examine the region in an organized and systematic fashion, going through the same checklist of key structures each time. This is the first of a two-part review that provides a practical approach to understanding temporal bone anatomy, localizing a pathologic process with a focus on inflammatory and neoplastic processes, identifying pertinent positives and negatives, and formulating a differential diagnosis. © RSNA, 2013. PMID:24062560

Juliano, Amy F; Ginat, Daniel T; Moonis, Gul

2013-10-01

349

A new linear transfer theory and characterization method for image detectors. Part II: experiment.  

PubMed

A novel generalized linear transfer theory describing the signal and noise transfer in image detectors has been developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, [1]) of this paper. Similar to the existing notion of a point spread function (PSF) describing the transfer of the first statistical moment (the average), a noise spread function (NSF) was introduced to characterize the spatially resolved transfer of noise (central second moment, covariance). Following the theoretic results developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, [1]), a new experimental method based on single spot illumination has been developed and applied to measure 2D point and 4D noise spread functions of CCD cameras used in TEM. A dedicated oversampling method has been used to suppress aliasing in the measured quantities. We analyze the 4D noise spread with respect to electronic and photonic noise contributions. PMID:22424716

Lubk, Axel; Röder, Falk; Niermann, Tore; Gatel, Christophe; Joulie, Sebastien; Houdellier, Florent; Magén, César; Hÿtch, Martin J

2012-02-03

350

Case studies - Applications of laser systems for cutting and welding aerospace parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents three case studies of current industrial applications of laser systems, showing that multiaxis laser machining systems are satisfying demands for reduced part-production costs, higher quality, greater flexibility, and faster turnaround on prototype and production aerospace parts. For example, laser cutting has replaced milling for trimming a deep-drawn gas turbine part and increased throughput from 18 pieces per day to 18 pieces in 30 minutes. The case studies described include that of a job shop supplying aircraft engine parts, and those of two aircraft manufacturers.

Vanderwert, Terry L.

351

Character string detection algorithm using horizontal boundaries, and its application to a part number entry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new algorithm for detecting character strings in an image containing illustrations and characters. It also describes a part number entry system that utilizes this algorithm. The algorithm detects character strings by investigating the horizontal boundaries of rectangles representing characters strings. It can be performed a high speed, and can detect characters touching an illustration. Using this

Tomio Amano; Akio Yamashita; Hiroyasu Takahashi

1991-01-01

352

Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

Figler, Burton D.

2001-09-01

353

Optical-parametric-amplification applications to complex images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast optical pulses have many useful features. One in particular is their ability to exploit nonlinear processes due to their extremely short durations. We have used ultrafast optical pulses, primarily focused on the nonlinear processes of Polarization Gating and of Optical Parametric Amplification, one for measurement and the other for imaging purposes. For measurement, we have demonstrated a robust method of measurement to simultaneously measure both optical pulses used in a pump-probe type configuration. In these measurements, no initial information beyond the nonlinear interaction between the pulses is required. We refer to this method of pulse measurement as Double-Blind Polarization Gating FROG[1]. We have demonstrated this single-shot method for measuring two unknown pulses using one device. We have demonstrated this technique on three separate pulse pairs. We measured two Gaussian pulses with different amounts of chirp. We measured two double pulses with different pulse separations, and we have measured two extremely different pulses, where one was simple Gaussian and the other was a pulse train produced by an etalon. This method has no non-trivial ambiguities, has a reliable algorithm, and is automatically phase matched for all spectral bandwidths. In simulations[2], this method has proven to be extremely robust, measuring very complicated pulses with TBPs of ˜100 even in the presence of noise. In addition to pulse measurement, we have demonstrated the processes of Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) applicability to imaging of complex objects[3]. We have done this where the Fourier transform plane is used during the interaction. We have amplified and wavelength converted a complex image. We report imaging of spatial features from 1.1 to 10.1 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) in the vertical dimension and from 2.0 to 16.0 lp/mm in the horizontal dimension. We observe a gain of ˜100, and, although our images were averaged over many shots, we used a single-shot geometry, capable of true single-shot OPA imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first Fourier-plane OPA imaging of more than a single spatial-frequency component of an image. We observe more than 30 distinct spatial frequency components in both our amplified image and our wavelength shifted image. The two-dimensional SBP for our Fourier-plane OPA imaging system was ˜46,000. We have demonstrated all-optical spatial filtering for these complex images[4]. We have demonstrated that direct Fourier filtering of spatial features is possible by using a shaped pump beam. We have simply used a line shaped pump beam generated by a use of cylindrical lens. Further, the phase matching leads to interesting image-processing results, which are controlled by rotation of the crystal angle. The phase matching condition acts like a ring-shaped physical aperture on the image. We can isolate certain portions of the image simply by rotating the crystal. The Fourier plane of interaction allows for both spatial-frequency and spatial-feature filtering, with wide latitude available in the spatial-frequency transfer function through the use of exotic shaped pump beams.

Vaughan, Peter M.

354

42 CFR 423.458 - Application of Part D rules to certain Part D plans on and after January 1, 2006.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prescription drug coverage provided by MA-PD plans offered by MA organizations beginning...of this Part otherwise applicable to MA-PD plans or MA organizations under paragraph...applicable to the MA organizations or MA-PD plans under Part C of Medicare, or...

2012-10-01

355

Fractal Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fractal images made for the most part using a software application called Flarium24. Galleries contain about 15 images each and should be viewed in hi-color or truecolor settings. Tilable images that can be downloaded?for wallpaper are also available.

Forum, Math; Webb, Sharon

2000-01-01

356

Research on the application of digital image technology in school education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of information, digital image technology is widely applied to various fields. This paper compares the digital image technology with the traditional image technology, gives a brief introduction to the development of image technology?» illustrates the application and trends of it in today's school education, and appreciates the importance of digital image technology in school education, and puts

Yongfang Zhang

2011-01-01

357

A Unified Approach to Data Modeling for a Class of Image Database Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been widespread interest in various kinds of database management systems for managing information from images. Image Retrieval (IR) problem is concerned with retrieving images that are relevant to users' requests from a large collection of images, referred to as the image database. Since the application areas are very diverse, there seems to be no consensus as to

Venkat N. Gudivada; Vijay V. Raghavan; Kanonkluk Vanapipat

1996-01-01

358

Novel femtosecond laser development with applications in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, improvements and refinements in the field of ultrafast optics have led to more widespread implementation of femtosecond technology. As applications become more diverse, the development of specialized sources is vital in order to meet the requirements of the experiment. This thesis explores the theory and development of innovative femtosecond lasers and their application in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication. The first part of this thesis focuses on mode-locking and the cavity design theory behind KLM lasers. We explain the mechanisms that enable stable, ultrashort pulses to be produced. The master equation is introduced to provide insight into the interplay between competing nonlinear effects. Based on the operation of a standard laser, we introduce a new cavity design based on the Herriott cell. The theory of multi-pass cavities (MPC) allows for a new class of femtosecond lasers to be built with space-efficient layouts and significant performance enhancements. Part II of the thesis reports on the development and application of three novel femtosecond sources. The first is an ultra-low threshold KLM laser. The laser has a mode-locking threshold of 156 mW, and produces 14 fs pulses with 200 mW of pump power. We demonstrate the utility of low-threshold technology by developing a portable, robust, and low cost source for biomedical imaging. The 124 nm bandwidth enables ultrahigh resolution imaging of the human retina. A long cavity laser is also developed. By using the theory of MPC lasers, explained in Part I, pulse energies of up to 150 nJ with 43 fs durations are reported from a 5.85 MHz laser oscillator. This laser serves as the enabling technology for photonic device fabrication in transparent materials. A variety of 2D and 3D devices are fabricated and characterized. The ability to directly write waveguides and structures inside transparent materials is a significant advance over current 2D fabrication techniques.

Kowalevicz, Andrew M., Jr.

359

System for Verifiable CT Radiation Dose Optimization Based on Image Quality. Part II. Process Control System.  

PubMed

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Materials and Methods: This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. Results: A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P < .01) and the standard deviation decreased from 3.9 to 1.6 HU (P < .01). Mean SSDE decreased from 11.9 to 7.5 mGy, a 37% reduction (P < .01). The process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Conclusion: Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013. PMID:23784877

Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

2013-06-19

360

Seismic interferometry, with applications in passive reflection imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic interferometry is the process of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelating seismic observations at different receiver locations. A first version of this principle was derived in 1968 by Claerbout, who showed that the reflection response of a horizontally layered medium can be synthesized from the autocorrelation of its transmission response. Later he conjectured a similar principle for crosscorrelations of 3-D wave fields. In a similar fashion, Schuster (2001) introduced the principle of interferometric imaging, i.e., forming an image of the subsurface from crosscorrelated seismic traces. In this paper we first discuss the theory of seismic interferometry for arbitrary 3-D inhomogeneous media (deterministic or random). Starting with the Rayleigh-Betti reciprocity theorem and the principle of time-reversal, we derive a number of relations that form the basis for seismic interferometry (amongst others these relations prove Claerbouts conjecture). Despite the difference in assumptions, these relations show a close resemblance with those of Weaver and Lobkis (2001) for the retrieval of the Greens function from diffuse wave field correlations. Next we discuss a number of applications, like passive seismic reflection imaging, surface wave reconstruction, improving sparse data sets and interferometric imaging for different geometries.

Wapenaar, Kees; Draganov, Deyan

2005-04-01

361

DSP filters in FPGAs for image processing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time video-rate image processing requires orders of magnitude performance beyond the capabilities of general purpose computers. ASICs deliver the required performance, however they have the drawback of fixed functionality. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are reprogrammable SRAM based ICs capable of real-time image processing. FPGAs deliver the benefits of hardware execution speeds and software programmability. An FPGA program creates a custom data processor, which executes the equivalent of hundreds to thousands of lines of C code on the same clock tick. FPGAs emulate circuits which are normally built as ASICs. Multiple real-time video streams can be processed in Giga Operations' Spectrum Reconfigurable Computing (RC) PlatformTM. The Virtual Bus ArchitectureTM enables the same hardware to be configured into many image processing architectures, including 32-bit pipelines, global busses, rings, and systolic arrays. This allows an efficient mapping of data flows and memory access for many image processing applications and the implementation of many real-time DSP filters, including convolutions, morphological operators, and recoloring and resampling algorithms. FPGAs provide significant price/performance benefits versus ASICs where time to market, cost to market, and technical risk are issues. And FPGA descriptions migrate efficiently and easily into ASICs for downstream cost reduction.

Taylor, Brad

1996-10-01

362

Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.  

PubMed

The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm. PMID:1435595

Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

363

EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

2001-12-01

364

Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.  

PubMed

Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner. PMID:24051776

Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

2013-12-01

365

Clinical Application of Image-Based CFD for Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the convergence of medical imaging and computational modeling technologies has enabled tremendous progress in the development and application of image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling of patient-specific blood flows. These techniques have been used for studying the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases, for studying possible ways to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of patients by incorporating hemodynamics information to the anatomical data typically available, and for the development of computational tools that can be used to improve surgical and endovascular treatment planning. However, before these technologies can have a significant impact on the routine clinical practice, it is still necessary to demonstrate the connection between the extra information provided by the models and the natural progression of vascular diseases and the outcome of interventions. This paper summarizes some of our contributions in this direction, focusing in particular on cerebral aneurysms.

Cebral, JR; Mut, F; Sforza, D; Lohner, R; Scrivano, E; Lylyk, P; Putman, CM

2010-01-01

366

Image sequence segmentation combining global labeling and local relabeling and its application to materials science images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately segmenting a series of 2D serial-sectioned images for multiple, contiguous 3D structures has important applications in medical image processing, video sequence analysis, and materials science image segmentation. While 2D structure topology is largely consistent across consecutive serial sections, it may vary locally because a 3D structure of interest may not span the entire 2D sequence. In this paper, we develop a new approach to address this challenging problem by considering both the global consistency and possible local inconsistency of the 2D structural topology. In this approach, we repeatedly propagate a 2D segmentation from one slice to another, and we formulate each step of this propagation as an optimal labeling problem that can be efficiently solved using the graph-cut algorithm. Specifically, we divide the optimal labeling into two steps: a global labeling that enforces topology consistency, and a local labeling that identifies possible topology inconsistency. We justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach by using it to segment a sequence of serial-section microscopic images of an alloy widely used in material sciences and compare its performance against several existing image segmentation methods.

Waggoner, Jarrell W.; Simmons, Jeff; Wang, Song

2012-02-01

367

Three-dimensional printing of metal parts for tooling and other applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-Dimensional Printing is a Solid-Freeform Fabrication process that creates parts out of powder by spreading layers into\\u000a which binder is ink-jet printed to define the part geometry of that layer. By repetition of the process layer-by-layer, three-dimensional\\u000a components of very complex geometry can be created. This paper describes key aspects of the application of Three-Dimensional\\u000a Printing to the fabrication of

Samuel M. Allen; Emanuel M. Sachs

2000-01-01

368

Model-based estimation of ultrasonic echoes. Part II: Nondestructive evaluation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Part I see ibid., vol.48, no.3, pp.787-802 (2001). Accurate estimation of the ultrasonic echo pattern leading to the physical property of the object is desirable for ultrasonic NDE (nondestructive evaluation) applications. In Part I of this study, we have presented a generalized parametric ultrasonic echo model, composed of a number of Gaussian echoes corrupted by noise, and algorithms for

Ramazan Demirli; Jafar Saniie

2001-01-01

369

Beam combination for Stellar Imager and its application to full-aperture imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled-aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and the discarding of most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

2007-09-01

370

Clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging applications.  

PubMed

Although clinical positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) applications were obvious and have completely replaced PET in oncology, clinical applications of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) are currently not clearly defined. This is due to the lack of clinical data, which is mainly because PET/MR technology is not clinically mature at this point. Open issues are technical and concern ease of obtaining PET attenuation correction maps, dealing with, for example, MR surface coil metal in the PET field-of-view and appropriate workflows leading to a cost-effective examination. All issues can be circumvented by using a shuttle-connected PET/CT-MR system, but the penalty is that simultaneous PET and MR imaging are not possible and potential motion between examinations may occur. Clinically, some systems installed worldwide start to have a reasonable bulk of clinical data. Preliminary results suggest that in oncology, PET/MR may have advantages over PET/CT in head and neck imaging. In liver imaging, more PET-positive lesions are seen on MR than on CT, but that does not mean that PET/MR is superior to PET/CT. Possibly in some settings where a contrast-enhanced PET/CT is needed to be diagnostic, PET/MR can be done without contrast media. Although PET/CT has virtually no role in brain imaging, this may be an important domain for PET/MR, particularly in dementia imaging. The role of PET/MR in the heart is as yet undefined, and much research will have to be done to elucidate this role. At this point, it is also not clear where the simultaneity afforded by a fully integrated PET/MR is really needed. Sequential data acquisition even on separate systems and consecutive software image fusion may well be appropriate. With the increasing installed base of systems, clinical data will be forthcoming and define more clearly where there is clinical value in PET/MR at an affordable price. PMID:23178084

von Schulthess, Gustav K; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kaufmann, Philipp; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

2013-01-01

371

Image Restoration with Discrete Constrained Total Variation Part II: Levelable Functions, Convex Priors and Non-Convex Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part II of this paper we extend the results obtained in Part I for total variation minimization in image restoration towards the following directions: first we investigate the decomposability property of energies on levels, which leads us to introduce the concept of levelable regularization functions (which TV is the paradigm of). We show that convex levelable posterior energies can

Jérôme Darbon; Marc Sigelle

2006-01-01

372

Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Rafecas, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular Y Nuclear, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Stankova, V.; Solaz, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Bisogni, M. G.; Del Guerra, A. [Universite di Pisa, INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

2011-07-01

373

Calibration of Small Plastic Scintillators for Imaging Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications. The scintillator is equivalent to a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator. A gamma calibration is presented to determine the voltage to be applied on each detector to ensure uniform detector operation. Time of flight measurements performed with a Cf-252 source are also presented. Comparisons between experimental data and data from the Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement for time lags of 0 to 70 ns.

Pozzi, S.

2005-01-19

374

New application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging is a MRI technique that enables the measurement of the diffusion of water in tissue in order to produce neural tract images. Advanced methods such as color coding and tractography (fiber tracking) have been used to investigate the directionality. The localization of tumors in relation to the white matter tracts (infiltration, deflection), has been one the most important initial applications. A non invasive technique for assessing tumor tissue characteristics, like tumor cell density, is required to assist preoperative surgical planning for malignant brain tumors and help better de?ne the target for tumor biopsy, resulting in more accurate diagnosis and grading of malignant brain tumors. One possible source of this information is diffusion tensor imaging. Date studies have focused on its ability to delineate white matter ?ber tracks by ?ber tracking and to detect tumor in?ltration around the tumor and normal white matter interface. Relationships between cell density and the two key values that diffusion tensor imaging provides, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, still need to be investigated. Mean diffusivity has a good negative correlation and fractional anisotropy has a good positive correlation with tumor cell density within the tumor core. Similar correlation was observed between the Ki–67, on the one hand and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, on the other hand. Thus, measurement of both fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity within the tumor core has a potential to provide detailed information on tumor cell density within the tumor. Abbreviations: DTI - diffusion tensor imaging, FA - fractional anisotropy, MD - mean diffusivity, WM - white matter

Rizea, RE; Ciurea, AV; Onose, G; Gorgan, RM; Tascu, A; Brehar, F

2011-01-01

375

Quantitative imaging biomarkers: the application of advanced image processing and analysis to clinical and preclinical decision making.  

PubMed

The importance of medical imaging for clinical decision making has been steadily increasing over the last four decades. Recently, there has also been an emphasis on medical imaging for preclinical decision making, i.e., for use in pharamaceutical and medical device development. There is also a drive towards quantification of imaging findings by using quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and reproducibility of imaged characteristics used for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. An important component of the discovery, characterization, validation and application of quantitative imaging biomarkers is the extraction of information and meaning from images through image processing and subsequent analysis. However, many advanced image processing and analysis methods are not applied directly to questions of clinical interest, i.e., for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making, which is a consideration that should be closely linked to the development of such algorithms. This article is meant to address these concerns. First, quantitative imaging biomarkers are introduced by providing definitions and concepts. Then, potential applications of advanced image processing and analysis to areas of quantitative imaging biomarker research are described; specifically, research into osteoarthritis (OA), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer is presented. Then, challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker research are discussed. Finally, a conceptual framework for integrating clinical and preclinical considerations into the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers and their computer-assisted methods of extraction is presented. PMID:22415112

Prescott, Jeffrey William

2013-02-01

376

The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: application of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology.  

PubMed

This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse turnover and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse turnover costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse turnover that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention. PMID:15647669

Jones, Cheryl Bland

2005-01-01

377

Multivariate statistical model for 3D image segmentation with application to medical images.  

PubMed

In this article we describe a statistical model that was developed to segment brain magnetic resonance images. The statistical segmentation algorithm was applied after a pre-processing stage involving the use of a 3D anisotropic filter along with histogram equalization techniques. The segmentation algorithm makes use of prior knowledge and a probability-based multivariate model designed to semi-automate the process of segmentation. The algorithm was applied to images obtained from the Center for Morphometric Analysis at Massachusetts General Hospital as part of the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR). The developed algorithm showed improved accuracy over the k-means, adaptive Maximum Apriori Probability (MAP), biased MAP, and other algorithms. Experimental results showing the segmentation and the results of comparisons with other algorithms are provided. Results are based on an overlap criterion against expertly segmented images from the IBSR. The algorithm produced average results of approximately 80% overlap with the expertly segmented images (compared with 85% for manual segmentation and 55% for other algorithms). PMID:14752607

John, Nigel M; Kabuka, Mansur R; Ibrahim, Mohamed O

2004-02-02

378

Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis is widely used in chemistry, both for rapid qualitative evaluations using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and for quantitative purposes such as well-plate measurements of analyte concentrations or fragment-size determinations in gel electrophoresis. This paper describes a programmable system for image acquisition and processing that is currently used in the laboratories of our organic and physical chemistry courses. It has also been used in student research projects in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. The potential range of applications is illustrated by brief presentations of four examples: (1) using well-plate optical transmission data to construct a standard concentration absorbance curve; (2) the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen in Tylenol and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin using TLC with fluorescence detection; (3) the analysis of electrophoresis gels to determine DNA fragment sizes and amounts; and, (4) using color change to follow reaction kinetics. The supplemental material in JCE Online contains information on two additional examples: deconvolution of overlapping bands in protein gel electrophoresis, and the recovery of data from published images or graphs. The JCE Online material also presents additional information on each example, on the system hardware and software, and on the data analysis methodology.

Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian

2003-06-01

379

Sector imaging radar for enhanced vision (SIREV): theory and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for supplementing existing airborne radar systems with enhanced forward looking abilities has considerably increased. Available radar systems are not able to accomplish the needed requirements for enhanced vision. Instead a new approach has to be taken to cover the forward lying sector with respect to the flight path. Presently a system called SIREV (Sector Imaging Radar for Enhanced Vision) is under development at DLR> Due to the all-weather capability of the system and its ability to present radar images very similar to optical images either as top view (mapping mode) or as pilot view (central perspective mode) the system is essentially qualified for navigation support, autonomous landing approaches or taxi support at the ground. IN this paper the authors will describe the idea the new SIREV system originates from and the relation of the SIREV principle to the SAR principle. Different modes of operation and thereby obtainable performance numbers will be discussed with regard to the special advantages of each sensor. Some potential applications of either sensor will be explained in detail. Finally a summarized overview of the system under development at DLR together with a description of a test field setup at Oberpfaffenhofen airfield will be given. The SIREV project at DLR was partially funded by STN Atlas Elektronik Bremen. This company also holds the SIREV license rights.

Sutor, Thomas; Buckreuss, Stefan; Wendler, Michael; Witte, Franz

2000-06-01

380

NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

2011-02-01

381

Applications of chemical shift imaging to marine sciences.  

PubMed

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or ¹H) including carbon (¹³C) or phosphorus (³¹P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using ¹³C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-¹³C]-glycine. This is the first report of ¹³C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K; Macdonald, Jeffrey M

2010-08-19

382

Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

Nagatani, Hiroyuki

2010-02-01

383

Karman vortex street parametrization with image processing application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karman vortex street phenomenon is applied in the vortex flowmeter. Application of various methods of investigations is necessary in the course of getting increased knowledge of the phenomenon. Flow visualization being the leading method of aero- and hydrodynamic phenomena investigations enables qualitative evaluation in micro-scale. Due to the image processing application in analysis of flow visualization pictures, calculation of geometrical parameters of the Karman vortex street is feasible. So, the quantitative information is obtained. The worked out methodology of investigations as well as designed software for analysis of vortex street pictures are described in the paper. The results of the carried out laboratory tests are reported. Flow visualization has been carried out on the especially designed laboratory tests are reported. Flow visualization has been carried out on the especially designed laboratory stand. The visualized flow has been recorded on the magnetic tape and then processed into set of consecutive frames. Four groups of frames of similar vortex development phases have been put on the image processing procedure. Distances between adjoining vortices have been calculated. On the basis of obtained results it can be stated, that in spite of probabilistic nature of the investigated phenomenon strengthened by the applied research method (flow visualization), the proposed method enables quantitative determination of Karman vortex street parameters.

Pankanin, Grzegorz; Kulinczak, Artur; Berlinski, Jerzy

2003-09-01

384

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism.

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

385

Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

Clark, G A

2002-10-08

386

Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern. Part II. Application  

SciTech Connect

A model based on mosaic pattern analysis is shown to have the potential to describe the complex shapes and spatial distribution of phases in the microstructures of multiphase materials. Several characteristics of both micrographs of portland cement pastes and images generated using the few parameters of the model are determined and, for the most part, agreement is good. The advantage is that spatial features of the microstructures can be captured by a few parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

Tennis, P.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Xi, Y. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Jennings, H.M. [Department of Civil Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

1997-07-01

387

New general guidance method in constrained optimal control, part 2: Application to space shuttle guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application and the performance of the neighboring optimal feedback scheme presented in Part 1 of this paper is demonstrated for the heating-constrained cross-range maximization problem of a space-shuttle-orbiter-type vehicle. This problem contains five state variables, two control variables, and a state variable inequality constraint of order zero.

B. Kugelmann; H. J. Pesch

1990-01-01

388

A cost-efficient signaling protocol for mobility application part (MAP) in IMT2000 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient signaling protocol for mobility application part (MAP) is essential to mobility support when mobile terminals roam between different networks in next generation wireless systems such as IMT-2000. In this paper, a new signaling protocol is proposed to reduce the overhead caused by mobility management, alleviating network load and consumption of network resources. Moreover, the new protocol effectively reduces

Wenye Wang; Ian F. Akyildiz

2001-01-01

389

Input determination for neural network models in water resources applications. Part 1—background and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of artificial neural network (ANN) models in water resources applications has grown considerably over the last decade. However, an important step in the ANN modelling methodology that has received little attention is the selection of appropriate model inputs. This article is the first in a two-part series published in this issue and addresses the lack of a suitable

Gavin J. Bowden; Graeme C. Dandy; Holger R. Maier

2005-01-01

390

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Volume one contains the following: Regulatory cross-reference; Hazardous waste permit application part B; Facility description; Waste analysis plan; Facility and process information; Groundwater monitoring; Procedure to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plans, post-closure plans, and financial requirements; Corrective action for solid waste management units; Other Federal laws; No-migration variance petition; and Certification.

NONE

1995-06-01

391

Application of image analysis to Neogene planktonic foraminiferal bioseries  

SciTech Connect

The morphological characteristics of fossil foraminiferal tests are the basis for making phylogenetic and taxonomic, as well as paleoecological inferences about fossil species. A complete understanding of the taxonomic and paleoenvironmental information contained in morphology of foraminifera depends heavily on quantitative methods to describe phenotypic and ecophenotypic variation. Automated image analysis is used to quantify the shape characteristics of planktonic and benthic foraminifera. There are three main components to the authors' quantitative image analysis system: (1) computer based image digitizer; (2) Fourier series analysis in closed form; and (3) multivariate statistical analysis. The advantages of such a system are that shape characteristics can be objectively determined and that large numbers of specimens can be analyzed. The focus of their research has been to improve the utility of foraminifera in paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphic application. The Globorotalia menardii/Globorotalia tumida group and the Globigerinoides obliquus/Globigerinoides extremus complex from Neogene sediments from DSDP Site 502 in the Caribbean have been examined via image analysis. In both groups they were able to determine distinct morphotypes that change relative proportion with time. This information is utilized to define morphotypes within each group that are independent of taxonomically defined zones. Changes in the proportions of each end member are also correlated with paleoceanographic events of the Neogene such as the initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the Messinian event. Signal processing techniques, such as cross correlation, spectral analysis, and cross spectral analysis are also used in their investigations. Applying these techniques to the data in conjunction with stable isotope record for Site 502 allows them to determine correlations with the isotopic record and the similarities in the frequencies in the morphological records.

Healy-Williams, N.; Cline, C.E. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States))

1991-03-01

392

Line image sensors for spectroscopic applications in the extreme ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral range of extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV or EUV) is an active area of research incorporating many scientific fields such as microscopy, lithography or reflectometry. During the last decade, a lot of effort has been put into transferring many of the known techniques developed at linear accelerators into the laboratory using discharge-produced plasmas (DPPs) or laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) as an alternative light source. In particular, the semiconductor industry is in need of on-site tools in the shorter wavelength range for production and inspection of structured surfaces with nanometer resolution. Here traditional charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors are inapplicable as detectors because of the strong absorption of XUV by matter prohibiting any generation of electron-hole pairs inside a deep lying p-n junction. As a solution, two-dimensional backthinned CCDs are available in the market offering high sensitivity to XUV light. Although for many applications a one-dimensional line scanning image sensor would be sufficient, they are non-existent for XUV. It is only lately that manufacturers have started to adopt the principle of backthinning to CCD line sensors to enhance sensitivity in the long wavelength UV range (>200 nm). Here we show that generally these compact sensors offer good quantum efficiencies in the XUV which make them a candidate for many spectroscopic applications and future industrial inline inspection tools for which costly two-dimensional CCDs are oversized. We have successfully implemented a compact sensor device into a laboratory XUV spectrometer and reflectometer. Our measurements compare the quantum efficiency of a state-of-the-art XUV array CCD to a phosphor-coated line sensor and a new backthinned line sensor. Additionally, we show recorded spectra from a laboratory DPP source to demonstrate the potential of a wide range of applications.

Banyay, Matus; Brose, Sascha; Juschkin, Larissa

2009-10-01

393

Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods. PMID:23456006

Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

2013-01-01

394

[Remote control for magnetic resonance imaging as a part of daily routine examinations].  

PubMed

Continuous improvements in MR technology have lead to an increased number of clinical indications, such as whole-body MRI, as well as demanding examination protocols. A remote control (syngo Expert-i, Siemens Medical Solutions) allows radiologists and other experts to support the scan at any time without being physically present at the MR site. Consequently a high level of expertise is available for every exam. The radiologist can simply log on from any networked PC and a full-screen display with total mouse control within the MR console's user interface is provided. A local user can be advised with respect to the imaging strategy while the patient is still inside the scanner, thus resulting in a more time-efficient high-quality examination protocol. This paper provides an account of our initial experiences using the remote control and describes practical future applications. PMID:17492538

Kramer, U; Schlemmer, H-P

2007-05-09

395

IGSTK: Framework and example application using an open source toolkit for image-guided surgery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source software has tremendous potential for improving the productivity of research labs and enabling the development of new medical applications. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) is an open source software toolkit based on ITK, VTK, and FLTK, and uses the cross-platform tools CMAKE and DART to support common operating systems such as Linux, Windows, and MacOS. IGSTK integrates the

Peng Cheng; Hui Zhang; Hee-su Kim; Kevin Gary; M. Brian Blake; David Gobbi; Stephen Aylward; Julien Jomier; Andinet Enquobahrie; Rick Avila; Luis Ibanez; Kevin Cleary

2006-01-01

396

Knowledge modeling in image-guided neurosurgery: application in understanding intraoperative brain shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an image-guided neurosurgery procedure, the neuronavigation system is subject to inaccuracy because of anatomical deformations which induce a gap between the preoperative images and their anatomical reality. Thus, the objective of many research teams is to succeed in quantifying these deformations in order to update preoperative images. Anatomical intraoperative deformations correspond to a complex spatio-temporal phenomenon. Our objective is to identify the parameters implicated in these deformations and to use these parameters as constrains for systems dedicated to updating preoperative images. In order to identify these parameters of deformation we followed the iterative methodology used for cognitive system conception: identification, conceptualization, formalization, implementation and validation. A state of the art about cortical deformations has been established in order to identify relevant parameters probably involved in the deformations. As a first step, 30 parameters have been identified and described following an ontological approach. They were formalized into a Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagram. We implemented that model into a web-based application in order to fill a database. Two surgical cases have been studied at this moment. After having entered enough surgical cases for data mining purposes, we expect to identify the most relevant and influential parameters and to gain a better ability to understand the deformation phenomenon. This original approach is part of a global system aiming at quantifying and correcting anatomical deformations.

Cohen-Adad, Julien; Paul, Perrine; Morandi, Xavier; Jannin, Pierre

2006-03-01

397

Evaluation of Two Applications of Spectral Mixing Models to Image Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many applications in remote sensing require merging low-resolution multispectral or hyperspectral images with high-resolution panchromatic images to create high-resolution multispectral or hyperspectral material maps. A number of methods are currently in ...

G. D. Robinson

1997-01-01

398

Breast imaging technology: Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its first introduction approximately 10 years ago, there has been extensive progress in the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced MRI has been shown to have value in the diagnostic work-up of women who present with mammogram or clinical abnormalities. In addition, it has been demonstrated that MRI can detect mammogram occult multifocal cancer in patients who present with unifocal disease. Advances in risk stratification and limitations in mammography have stimulated interest in the use of MRI to screen high-risk women for cancer. Several studies of MRI high-risk screening are ongoing. Preliminary results are encouraging.

Schnall, Mitchell D

2001-01-01

399

Image Accumulation in Pixel Detector Gated by Late External Trigger Signal and its Application in Imaging Activation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Single quantum counting pixel detectors of Medipix type are starting to be used in various radiographic applications. Compared to standard devices for digital imaging (such as CCDs or CMOS sensors) they present significant advantages: direct conversion of radiation to electric signal, energy sensitivity, noiseless image integration, unlimited dynamic range, absolute linearity. In this article we describe usage of the pixel device TimePix for image accumulation gated by late trigger signal. Demonstration of the technique is given on imaging coincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (Imaging CINAA). This method allows one to determine concentration and distribution of certain preselected element in an inspected sample.

Jakubek, J.; Cejnarova, A.; Platkevic, M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Vobecky, M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ 142 20, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

2007-11-26

400

Electron cyclotron emission imaging and applications in magnetic fusion energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy production through the burning of fossil fuels is an unsustainable practice. Exponentially increasing energy consumption and dwindling natural resources ensure that coal and gas fueled power plants will someday be a thing of the past. However, even before fuel reserves are depleted, our planet may well succumb to disastrous side effects, namely the build up of carbon emissions in the environment triggering world-wide climate change and the countless industrial spills of pollutants that continue to this day. Many alternatives are currently being developed, but none has so much promise as fusion nuclear energy, the energy of the sun. The confinement of hot plasma at temperatures in excess of 100 million Kelvin by a carefully arranged magnetic field for the realization of a self-sustaining fusion power plant requires new technologies and improved understanding of fundamental physical phenomena. Imaging of electron cyclotron radiation lends insight into the spatial and temporal behavior of electron temperature fluctuations and instabilities, providing a powerful diagnostic for investigations into basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion reactor operation. This dissertation presents the design and implementation of a new generation of Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics on toroidal magnetic fusion confinement devices, or tokamaks, around the world. The underlying physics of cyclotron radiation in fusion plasmas is reviewed, and a thorough discussion of millimeter wave imaging techniques and heterodyne radiometry in ECEI follows. The imaging of turbulence and fluid flows has evolved over half a millennium since Leonardo da Vinci's first sketches of cascading water, and applications for ECEI in fusion research are broad ranging. Two areas of physical investigation are discussed in this dissertation: the identification of poloidal shearing in Alfven eigenmode structures predicted by hybrid gyrofluid-magnetohydrodynamic (gyrofluid-MHD) modeling, and magnetic field line displacement during precursor oscillations associated with the sawtooth crash, a disruptive instability observed both in tokamak plasmas with high core current and in the magnetized plasmas of solar flares and other interstellar plasmas. Understanding both of these phenomena is essential for the future of magnetic fusion energy, and important new observations described herein underscore the advantages of imaging techniques in experimental physics.

Tobias, Benjamin John

401

A comprehensive human computation framework: with application to image labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image and video labeling is important for computers to understand images and videos and for image and video search. Manual labeling is tedious and costly. Automatically image and video labeling is yet a dream. In this paper, we adopt a Web 2.0 approach to labeling images and videos efficiently: Internet users around the world are mobilized to apply their \\

Yang Yang; Bin B. Zhu; Rui Guo; Linjun Yang; Shipeng Li; Nenghai Yu

2008-01-01

402

A practical algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules: part 1: radiologic characteristics and imaging modalities.  

PubMed

The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is frequently encountered on chest imaging and poses an important diagnostic challenge to clinicians. The differential diagnosis is broad, ranging from benign granulomata and infectious processes to malignancy. Important concepts in the evaluation of SPNs include the definition, morphologic characteristics via appropriate imaging modalities, and the calculation of pretest probability of malignancy. Morphologic differentiation of SPN into solid or subsolid types is important in the choice of follow-up and further management. In this first part of a two-part series, we describe the morphologic characteristics and various imaging modalities available to further characterize SPN. In Part 2, we will describe the determination of pretest probability of malignancy and an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis of SPN. PMID:23460160

Patel, Vishal K; Naik, Sagar K; Naidich, David P; Travis, William D; Weingarten, Jeremy A; Lazzaro, Richard; Gutterman, David D; Wentowski, Catherine; Grosu, Horiana B; Raoof, Suhail

2013-03-01

403

Nanotechnology in medical imaging: probe design and applications  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles have become more and more prevalent in reports of novel contrast agents, especially for molecular imaging, the detection of cellular processes. The advantages of nanoparticles include their potency to generate contrast, the ease of integrating multiple properties, lengthy circulation times and the possibility to include high payloads. As the chemistry of nanoparticles has improved over the past years more sophisticated examples of nano-sized contrast agents have been reported, such as paramagnetic, macrophage targeted quantum dots or ?v?3-targeted, MRI visible microemulsions that also carry a drug to suppress angiogenesis. The use of these particles is producing greater knowledge of disease processes and the effects of therapy. Along with their excellent properties, nanoparticles may produce significant toxicity, which must be minimized for (clinical) application. In this review we discuss the different factors that are considered when designing a nanoparticle probe and highlight some of the most advanced examples.

Cormode, David P.; Skajaa, Torjus; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

2010-01-01

404

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

2011-01-01

405

Fiction, Fashion, and Function Revisited: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Gendered Body Image, Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing the theme of our special issue (Calogero and Tylka, Sex Roles, 63, 1-5. 2010), we present a collection of novel studies that detail how gendered experiences of the body constrain and impact body image.\\u000a Specifically, Part II of the special issue explores gendered body image from vantage points of intersectionality and diversity—importantly\\u000a recognizing that culturally-prescribed appearance ideals for women

Tracy L. Tylka; Rachel M. Calogero

2010-01-01

406

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart IIIi of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart IIII of Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Trucks Pt. 63, Subpt. IIII, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart IIII of Part 63âApplicability...requirements according to the following table Citation Subject Applicable tosubpart...3120(b) specifies the contents of periodic compliance reports. §...

2012-07-01

407

Pixelated-anode for direct MCP readout in imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel IonCCDTM, a charged-particle-sensitive pixelated detector, was used as an anode to directly read out the electrons exiting from the back of a micro-channel plate (MCP). The IonCCD chip is a 51-mm-long linear array of 2126 pixels, each of 21-?m width and 1.5-mm height, resulting in a 24-?m pitch. Both simulations and experiments were performed to assess MCP-IonCCD performance. The assembled MCP-IonCCD test apparatus consisted of a standard, off-the-shelf, 25-mm-diameter circular MCP. The IonCCD was mounted at proximity focus. The IonCCD eliminates the requirement for a phosphorus screen (after glow and electrons-to-photons conversion), as well as the need for a transformer lens or fiber coupling, as commonly used in imaging devices such as electro-optical ion detector systems (EOIDs). Another advantage is the elimination of the rather high voltages (~5-kV) that are typically needed for effective electron-to-photon conversion. Finally, the IonCCD should preclude any photon-scattering-induced spatial resolution degradation. Our early MCP-IonCCD tests showed that the MCP permits an immediate 103-104 gain, with virtually no additional noise beyond that attributed to the IonCCD alone. The high gain allows the use of lower IonCCD integration times, which will motivate the development of faster IonCCD readout speeds (currently at 2.7 ms) to match the 2-kHz 1D chip. The presented detector system exhibits a clear potential not only as a trace analysis detector in scan-free mass spectrometry, ion mobility and electron spectroscopy but more importantly as a means to achieve simpler, more compact and robust 2D imaging detectors for photon and particle imaging applications.

Hadjar, Omar

2012-05-01

408

Passive millimeter-wave imaging model application and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military use of millimeter wave radiometers has been studied since the 1960's. It is only recently that advances in the technology have made passive millimeter wave (PMMW) systems practical. It is well established that metal targets will have a large contrast ratio versus the background in the millimeter wave (MMW) regime and that atmospheric propagation through clouds, fog and light rain is possible. The limitations have been the noise figures of the detectors, the size of the systems, and the cost of the systems. Through the advent of millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits technology, MMW devices are becoming smaller, more sensitive, and less expensive. In addition many efforts are currently under way to develop PMMW array imaging devices. This renewed interest has likewise brought forth the need for passive millimeter wave system modeling capabilities. To fill this need, Nichols Research Corporation has developed for Eglin AFB a physics-based image synthesis code, capable of modeling the dominant effects in the MMW regime. This code has been developed to support the development of the next generation of PMMW seeker systems. This paper will describe the phenomenology of PMMW signatures, the Irma software, validation of the Irma models and the application of the models to both Air Force and Navy problems.

Blume, Bradley T.; Chenault, David B.

1997-06-01

409

Application of parametric statistical weights in CAD imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PURPOSE: To propose a method for Parametric Statistical Weights (PSW) estimations and analyze its statistical impact in Computer-Aided Diagnosis Imaging Systems based on a Relative Similarity (CADIRS) classification approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Multifactor statistical method was developed and applied for Parametric Statistical Weights calculations in CADIRS. The implemented PSW method was used for statistical estimations of PSW impact when applied to a clinically validated breast ultrasound digital database of 332 patients' cases with biopsy proven findings. The method is based on the assumption that each parameter used in Relative Similarity (RS) classifier contributes to the deviation of the diagnostic prediction proportionally to the normalized value of its coefficient of multiple regression. The calculated by CADIRS Relative Similarity values with and without PSW were statistically estimated, compared and analyzed (on subset of cases) using classic Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis methods. RESULTS: When CADIRS classification scheme was augmented with PSW the Relative Similarity the calculated values were 2-5% higher in average. Numeric estimations of PSW allowed decomposition of statistical significance for each component (factor) and its impact on similarity to the diagnostic results (biopsy proven). CONCLUSION: Parametric Statistical Weights in Computer-Aided Diagnosis Imaging Systems based on a Relative Similarity classification approach can be successfully applied in an effort to enhance overall classification (including scoring) outcomes. For the analyzed cohort of 332 cases the application of PSW increased Relative Similarity to the retrieved templates with known findings by 2-5% in average.

Galperin, Michael

2005-04-01

410

Application of time reversal acoustics focusing for nonlinear imaging ms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time reversal acoustic (TRA) focusing of ultrasound appears to be an effective tool for nonlinear imaging in industrial and medical applications because of its ability to efficiently concentrate ultrasonic energy (close to diffraction limit) in heterogeneous media. In this study, we used two TRA systems to focus ultrasonic beams with different frequencies in coinciding focal points, thus causing the generation of ultrasonic waves with combination frequencies. Measurements of the intensity of these combination frequency waves provide information on the nonlinear parameter of medium in the focal region. Synchronized stirring of two TRA focused beams enables obtaining 3-D acoustic nonlinearity images of the object. Each of the TRA systems employed an aluminum resonator with piezotransducers glued to its facet. One of the free facets of each resonator was submerged into a water tank and served as a virtual phased array capable of ultrasound focusing and beam steering. To mimic a medium with spatially varying acoustical nonlinearity a simplest model such as a microbubble column in water was used. Microbubbles were generated by electrolysis of water using a needle electrode. An order of magnitude increase of the sum frequency component was observed when the ultrasound beams were focused in the area with bubbles.

Sarvazyan, Armen; Sutin, Alexander

2001-05-01

411

Evaluation of Multivalent, Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles for Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

A series of multivalent, functional polymer nanoparticles with diagnostic/imaging units and targeting ligands for molecular targeting were synthesized with the loading of the chain end functionalized, GRGDS peptide targeting sequence (model system based on integrin ?v?3) ranging from 0 to 50%. Accurate structural and functional group control in these systems was achieved through a modular approach involving the use of multiple functionalized macromonomer/monomer units combined with living free radical polymerization. In cellulo results show an increase in uptake in ?v?3 integrin-positive U87MG glioblastoma cells with increasing RGD loading and a possible upper limit on the effectiveness of the number of RGD peptides for targeting ?v?3 integrin. Significantly, this increased targeting efficiency is coupled with in vivo biodistribution results which show decreased blood circulation and increased liver uptake with increasing RGD loading. The results demonstrate the importance of controlling ligand loading in order to achieve optimal performance for therapeutic and imaging applications for multivalent nanoparticle based systems.

Shokeen, Monica; Pressly, Eric D.; Hagooly, Aviv; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Ramos, Nicholas; Fiamengo, Ashley L.; Welch, Michael J.; Hawker, Craig J.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

2011-01-01

412

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

413

[Advance on application of hyperspectral imaging to nondestructive detection of agricultural products external quality].  

PubMed

Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging technique that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a studied object simultaneously. The images data can reflect the external features, surface defects and contamination. The spectra data can analyze physical structure and chemical composition in studied object. Therefore, hyperspectral imaging technology causes more and more attention, and has become a hot research topic recently. In order to track the latest research developments at home and abroad, application of hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging techniques to nondestructive detection of agricultural products external quality was reviewed, which would provide reference for application of hyperspectral imaging to agriculture. PMID:22007376

Li, Jiang-Bo; Rao, Xiu-Qin; Ying, Yi-Bin

2011-08-01

414

A hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system for biological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a hyperspectral imaging system aimed at imaging fluorescent molecules in two different contexts: In vivo 3-D molecular imaging of mice and multi-fluorophore imaging of 2-D tissue samples. The main concept is to add high resolution spectral information to the intensity data to improve imaging capabilities. The system is based on an imaging spectrograph, ImSpector, coupled to a

G. Zavattini; S. Vecchi; R. M. Leahy; D. J. Smith; S. R. Cherry

2003-01-01

415

IMAGESERVER: A SYSTEM FOR A DISTRIBUTED IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATION BASED ON JAVA ADVANCED IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, imaging has become an increasingly important subject in many fields, as well as an important field in networking computing since the release of Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) by Sun Microsystems. An ImageServer was developed using Java RMI and JAI technology. This ImageServer provides common functions for image processing which are very convenient for distributed imaging. In addition to the

Xinwen YU; Seishi Ninomiya; Matthew Laurenson; Zuorui Shen

2003-01-01

416

NXE:3300B platform: imaging applications for Logic and DRAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the third generation EUV scanner, the NXE:3300B, it is expected that customers will move into volume manufacturing of the devices and processes currently in development. The NXE:3300B has an NA of 0.33 and is positioned at a resolution of 22nm, which can be extended down to 18nm and below with off-axis illumination at full transmission. In this presentation we will demonstrate the imaging performance of the NXE:3300B EUV scanner. With the system operating for almost a year now, we will show the main achievements, and present latest status on system performance, with a focus on imaging of customer device applications. For this, a wide range of features have been evaluated for lithographic performance across the field and across wafer. CD performance for 22nm dense and isolated lines, 18nm and 16nm dense lines with off-axis illumination, 24nm contact holes, as well as performance of customer device structures for 10nm node will be discussed and benchmarked against the current ArF immersion capability. The benefits of EUV for critical customer applications will be discussed, showing excellent imaging results for 2D features and the extension capability to 13nm half pitch and beyond. This demonstrates the capability of EUV to bring the single exposure resolution limit well below what can be achieved with complex multi-patterning techniques on ArFi. The benefit of off-axis illumination usage for process window enhancement at challenging resolutions will be assessed. The influence of mask 3D induced best focus difference on the overlapping depth of focus will also be addressed and compared to current ArFi performance. Furthermore a budget verification will be presented showing CD and contrast budgets for a selection of lithographic features, such as 22nm dense and isolated LS. The contribution of the resist process and the mask will be discussed as well. Finally an outlook will be given to future NA 0.33 systems with improved subsystem performance and full pupil flexibility for off-axis illuminations.

van Setten, Eelco; Schiffelers, Guido; Toma, Cristina; Finders, Jo; Oorschot, Dorothe; van Dijk, Joep; Lok, Sjoerd; Peeters, Rudy

2013-10-01

417

[Nanoparticles: the industrial viewpoint. Applications in diagnostic imaging].  

PubMed

Iron oxide particles can be divided into two categories: small superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). Both describe nanoparticles most often formulated with dextran or dextran derivatives. For magnetic resonance imaging, these agents are of major importance because of their superparamagnetic effect, that is the magnetic field generated locally by their presence. Clinical applications have been well differentiated: 1) SPIO (larger than 50nm) are mainly used via intravenous infusion to detect and characterize small focal lesions in the liver. SPIO can also be given orally to visualize the digestive tract; 2) USPIO (smaller than 50nm) have a longer plasmatic half-life (>36hours) and exhibit slower uptake by liver and spleen after intravenous administration. This allows the product to access macrophages in normal (lymph nodes) or diseased tissue (multiple sclerosis, graft rejection, atheroma plaques, stroke, rhumatoid arthritis). They can also be used as biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of treatments. In addition to routine clinical applications, these agents are also under investigation to improve diagnoses in oncological, inflammatory and degenerative as well as cardiovascular diseases (risk of atheroma plaques). PMID:19061725

Bonnemain, B

2008-09-17

418

Hybrid Magnetic Nanostructures (MNS) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R1 or R2 sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T1-PET, T2-PET T1-optical, T2-optical, T1–T2 agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T2 magnetic nanostructure development, T1/T2-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T1–T2 hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T2 materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T1 agents.

De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.

2011-01-01

419

Modular multispectral imaging system for multiple missions and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy recently began investing in the design of mission-specific payloads for the Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (STUAS). STUAS is a Tier II size UAS with a roughly 35 pound mission payload and a gimbaled general-purpose electro optical/infrared (EO/IR) system. The EO/IR system is likely composed of a video camera in the visible, a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and/or a long-wave infrared (LWIR) for night operations, and an infrared marker and laser range finder. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT), in a series of SBIR efforts, has developed a modular, multi-channel imaging system for deployment on airborne and UAV platforms. ACT's system, called EYE5, demonstrates how an EO/IR system combined with an on-board, real-time processor can be tailored for specific applications to produce real-time actionable data. The EYE5 sensor head and modular real-time processor descriptions are presented in this work. Examples of the system's abilities in various Navy-relevant applications are reviewed.

Schoonmaker, Jon; Podobna, Yuliya; Boucher, Cynthia; Saggese, Steve; Oakley, Daniel; Medeiros, Dustin

2011-05-01

420

Object-oriented framework for rapid development of image analysis applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis applications are usually composed of a set of graphic objects, a set of image processing algorithms, and a graphic user interface (GUI). Typically, developing an image analysis application is time-consuming and the developed programs are hard to maintain. We have developed a framework called IMANAL that aims at reducing the development costs by improving system maintainability, design change flexibility, component reusability, and human-computer interaction. IMANAL decomposes an image analysis application into three models; data model, process model, and GUI model. The three models as well as the collaboration among them are standardized into a unified system architecture. A new application can be developed rapidly by customizing task- specific building blocks within the unified architecture. IMANAL maintains a class library of more than 100,000 lines of C/C++ code that are highly reusable for creating the three above mentioned models. Software components from other sources such as Khoros can also be easily included in the applications. IMANAL was used for development of image analysis applications utilizing a variety of medical images such as x-ray coronary angiography, intracardiac, intravascular and brachial ultrasound, and pulmonary CT. In all the above listed applications, the development overhead is removed and the developer is able to fully focus on the image analysis algorithms. IMANAL has proven to be a useful tool for image analysis research as well as the prototype development tool for commercial image analysis applications.

Liang, Weidong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Sonka, Milan

1997-04-01

421

Applications of laser transmission processes for the joining of plastics, silicon and glass micro parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joining processes for microtechnology must fulfil special requirements concerning mechanical and thermal load of the components\\u000a as well as their alignment accuracy. For these applications laser radiation as an energy source is ideally suited for joining\\u000a with a minimum of energy load to the parts. In particular, laser transmission joining is used for joining plastics, silicon\\u000a or glass using the

F. Sari; W.-M. Hoffmann; E. Haberstroh; R. Poprawe

2008-01-01

422

Injection moulding of micro-parts: applications to micro-gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the development of the injection molding process for micro-parts with an application to injection moulding of micro-gears with the volume less than 0.2 mm3. First the paper describes the equipment that is used consisting in a micro-injection equipment that that is used consisting in a micro-injection that permits simultaneously bi-polymer injection. A polypropylene polymer is

T. Barriere; J. C. Gelin; G. Michel; M. Sahli; C. Quinard

2007-01-01

423

Optimal Image Subtraction Method: Summary Derivations, Applications, and Publicly Shared Application Using IDL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To detect objects that vary in brightness or spatial coordinates over time, C. Alard and R. H. Lupton in 1998 proposed an "optimal image subtraction" (OIS) method that constructs a convolution kernel from a set of matching stars distributed across the two images to be subtracted. Using multivariable least squares, the kernel is derived and can be designed to vary by pixel coordinates across the convolved image. Local effects in the optics, including aberrations or other spatially sensitive perturbations to a perfect image, can be mitigated. This paper presents the specific systems of equations that originate from the OIS method. Also included is a complete description of the Gaussian components basis vectors used by Alard & Lupton to construct the convolution kernel. An alternative set of basis vectors, called the delta function basis, is also described. Important issues are addressed, including the selection of the matching stars, differential background correction, constant photometric flux, contaminated pixel masking, and alignment at the subpixel level. Computer algorithms for the OIS method were developed, written using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and applications demonstrating these algorithms are presented.

Miller, J. Patrick; Pennypacker, C. R.; White, Graeme L.

2008-04-01

424

Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the proximity of the Cy3 and Cy5 fluorophores, behaves as an optical photoswitch in the presence of a thiol reagent. This unique property was employed to achieve sub-diffraction-limited imaging of the stalks of Caulobacter crescentus cells with 30-nm resolution using STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy). Lastly, the synthesis of the first selenium analogue of firefly luciferin is described, and this analogue is shown to be a competent substrate for firefly luciferase (fLuc). Remarkably, it exhibits red-shifted bioluminescence emission relative to the native sulfur analogue. The in vivo performance of the selenium and sulfur analogues in imaging are compared by tail-vein injection into nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts of a human breast cancer cell line that was stably transduced to express fLuc. Part II of this thesis begins by addressing design considerations in the development of palladium catalysts that effect oxidative transformations under mild conditions (i.e., 1 atm air, room temperature) using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. A newly synthesized cationic palladium complex, [(2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc)]2[OTf]2, is shown to catalyze aerobic alcohol oxidation under such conditions with an unprecedented initial turnover frequency, but the presence of partially reduced oxygen species results in competitive ligand oxidation with concomitant decrease in catalyst activity. To remedy this, oxidatively resistant ligands, which are essential for the development of next-generation, high-turnover-frequency palladium catalysts that utilize oxygen as a terminal oxidant, have been prepared and effectively employed. In addition, the first general palladium-catalyzed route to the carbonylation of diols is reported. In this system, carbon monoxide (1 atm) serves the carbonyl source, (2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc) 2 acts as the catalyst, and N-chlorosuccinimide and iodosobenzene are the oxidants for 1,2- and 1,3-diols, respectively. This thesis illustrates the power of synthetic organic chemistry to exert precise control ove

Conley, Nicholas R.

425

Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software

Kurt C. Lawrence; William R. Windham; Matthew P. Snead

2006-01-01

426

Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework for anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images is presented. We propose an evolution equation where, at each point in time, the directions and magnitudes of the maximal and minimal rate of change in the vector-image are first evaluated. These are given by eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the first fundamental form in the given image metric. Then, the image

Guillermo Sapiro; Dario L. Ringach

1996-01-01

427

Seismic assessment of geothermal potential: Concept and application Part 2: Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of renewable energies such as geothermal energy plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but its widespread economic use is limited by high uncertainties in the reservoir characterization and the resulting high investment risks. The aim of the MeProRisk project (with the project partners CAU Kiel, RWTH Aachen, FU-Berlin and Geophysica) is the improvement of geophysical methods for the exploration of the geothermal potential by setting up a concept which will be based on the combination of geophysical and hydraulic borehole measurements and thermal simulations (Part1: Concept, Szalaiova E., Iwanowski K., Rabbel W.). Since geothermal properties vary significantly in different subsurface conditions such as crystalline and sediments, different approaches in the fracture zones detection and the derivation of petrophysical boundary conditions for geothermal modeling must be defined. A comparative analysis of seismic data combined with borehole information was applied on the following two geothermally relevant locations: (1) Southern German crystalline: German continental deep drilling program (KTB), and (2) North German Basin sediments (provided by RWE-DEA). Available are 3D reflexion seismic datasets, numerous vertical seismic profiles and a dataset containing a big amount of various log data. The result is a 3D structure model, which will be used as input in the following modeling. This poster gives an overview of the current state of results and a comparison of the two datasets mentioned above.

Iwanowski, K.; Szalaiova, E.; Rabbel, W.

2009-12-01

428

Pesticide Exposure during Greenhouse Applications, Part I. Dermal Exposure Reduction Due to Directional Ventilation and Worker Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in a commercial greenhouse in Florida with the ventilation system either on or off. Five workers were experienced applicators, while four had little or no previous application experience. Applications were conducted for 1 hour with a fluorescent tracer substituted for pesticides in an aqueous mixture. Dermal exposure was monitored by video imaging and by

Mark M. Methner; Richard A. Fenske

1994-01-01

429

Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: basic concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of inhomogeneous phantoms for diffuse optical imaging purposes using totally absorbing objects embedded in a diffusive medium is proposed and validated. From time-resolved and continuous-wave Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that a given or desired perturbation strength caused by a realistic absorbing inhomogeneity of a certain absorption and volume can be approximately mimicked by a small totally absorbing object of a so-called equivalent black volume (equivalence relation). This concept can be useful in two ways. First, it can be exploited to design realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with different perturbation strengths simply using a set of black objects with different volumes. Further, it permits one to grade physiological or pathological changes on a reproducible scale of perturbation strengths given as equivalent black volumes, thus facilitating the performance assessment of clinical instruments. A set of plots and interpolating functions to derive the equivalent black volume corresponding to a given absorption change is provided. The application of the equivalent black volume concept for grading different optical perturbations is demonstrated for some examples.

Martelli, Fabrizio; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Zaccanti, Giovanni

2013-06-01

430

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National...to Part 110âApplication of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total package...

2009-07-01

431

32 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Application of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) C Appendix C to Part 110 National...to Part 110âApplication of Basic Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total package...

2010-07-01

432

Compact, rugged, and intuitive thermal imaging cameras for homeland security and law enforcement applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost, small size, low power uncooled thermal imaging sensors have completely changed the way the world views commercial law enforcement and military applications. Key applications include security, medical, automotive, power generation monitoring, manufacturing and process control, aerospace application, defense, environmental and resource monitoring, maintenance monitoring and night vision. Commercial applications also include law enforcement and military special operations. Each

Charles M. Hanson

2005-01-01

433

An efficient dictionary learning algorithm and its application to 3-D medical image denoising.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose an efficient dictionary learning algorithm for sparse representation of given data and suggest a way to apply this algorithm to 3-D medical image denoising. Our learning approach is composed of two main parts: sparse coding and dictionary updating. On the sparse coding stage, an efficient algorithm named multiple clusters pursuit (MCP) is proposed. The MCP first applies a dictionary structuring strategy to cluster the atoms with high coherence together, and then employs a multiple-selection strategy to select several competitive atoms at each iteration. These two strategies can greatly reduce the computation complexity of the MCP and assist it to obtain better sparse solution. On the dictionary updating stage, the alternating optimization that efficiently approximates the singular value decomposition is introduced. Furthermore, in the 3-D medical image denoising application, a joint 3-D operation is proposed for taking the learning capabilities of the presented algorithm to simultaneously capture the correlations within each slice and correlations across the nearby slices, thereby obtaining better denoising results. The experiments on both synthetically generated data and real 3-D medical images demonstrate that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to some well-known methods. PMID:22049358

Li, Shutao; Fang, Leyuan; Yin, Haitao

2011-10-27

434

Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed

Stéphane Landeau; Tristan Dagobert

2006-01-01

435

An Image-Based Three-Dimensional Digitizer for Pre-Decorating Thermoformed Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoformed plastic parts are pervasive in modern products. Decorating these thermoformed parts is a critical step in their manufacture. For parts with significant relief, decorating the part after it is formed can be prohibitively expensive. Prior to thermoforming, the plastic which is in flat sheets or rolls can easily be fed through a printer. However, during thermoforming the plas- tic

J. P. Mellor

436

Body Image Ideal among Males and Females: Sociocultural Influences and Focus on Different Body Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has obtained mixed findings in relation to gender differences and other factors that shape ideal body image. The current study was designed to investigate these differences further, using a digital body image program to assess body image individually. As expected, females desired a body that was smaller than their current size, whereas males were split between wanting a

Jacqueline N. Stanford; Marita P. Mccabe

2002-01-01

437

Active Millimeter-Wave and Sub-Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Active imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths has been developed for security applications including concealed weapon detection. The physical properties that affect imaging performance are discussed along with a review of the current state-of-the-art and future potential for security imaging systems.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

2011-09-02

438

Application of an enhanced fuzzy algorithm for MR brain tumor image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation is one of the significant digital image processing techniques commonly used in the medical field. One of the specific applications is tumor detection in abnormal Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain images. Fuzzy approaches are widely preferred for tumor segmentation which generally yields superior results in terms of accuracy. But most of the fuzzy algorithms suffer from the drawback of

D. Jude Hemanth; C. Kezi Selva Vijila; J. Anitha

2010-01-01

439

Web Application System with Synthetic Aperture Rader Image Processing for Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely sensed images observed by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) become to be more significant for a variety of purposes. It is necessary to process and focus SAR images at a user's side for required precision. This paper presents a concept, a system structure, and an implementation method for a web application system with a SAR image processing for education. The

Yuuhei Teramoto; Yosuke Ito; Kenji Abe

2009-01-01

440

Nonrigid image registration in shared-memory multiprocessor environments with application to brains, breasts, and bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major problem with nonrigid image registra- tion techniques is their high computational cost. Because of this, these methods have found limited application to clinical situations where fast execution is required, e.g., intraoperative imaging. This paper presents a parallel implementation of a nonrigid image reg- istration algorithm. It takes advantage of shared-memory multi- processor computer architectures using multithreaded program- ming

Torsten Rohlfing

2003-01-01

441

A novel kernelized fuzzy C-means algorithm with application in medical image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for fuzzy segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The algorithm is realized by modifying the objective function in the conventional fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm using a kernel-induced distance metric and a spatial penalty on the membership functions. Firstly, the original

Dao-qiang Zhang; Song-can Chen

2004-01-01

442

GGI technology for the application of low profile image sensor module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image sensor is one of the fastest growing market segments of semiconductor. The major applications are still digital camera, digital video camcorder, surveillance camera, game player, PC\\/NB camera, automotive and mobile phone. In the past years, mobile phone application is the major driving force of imager sensor technologies and dominated the sensor shipment of 87%. The module assembly technology for

Chia-Shuai Chang; Chin-Ta Fan; Cheng-Lung Chuang

2010-01-01

443

Planar microwave imaging camera for biomedical applications: Critical and prospective analysis of reconstruction algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is dealing with the biomedical applications of active microwave imaging. As a result of extensive preliminary evaluations conducted by means of a 2.45-GHz planar camera, it has been proven that active microwave imaging is able to provide a very sensitive means of investigation in such applications. While technological problems have been conveniently solved, the main problem still remains

J. C. Bolomey; C. Pichot; G. Garboriaud

1991-01-01

444

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Application to the Study of the Developing Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To provide an overview of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its application to the study of white matter in the developing brain in both healthy and clinical samples. Method: The development of DTI and its application to brain imaging of white matter tracts is discussed. Forty-eight studies using DTI to examine diffusion properties of…

Cascio, Carissa J.; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

2007-01-01

445

X-ray grating interferometer for biomedical imaging applications at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility.  

PubMed

An X-ray grating interferometer was installed at the BL13W beamline of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) for biomedical imaging applications. Compared with imaging results from conventional absorption-based micro-computed tomography, this set-up has shown much better soft tissue imaging capability. In particular, using the set-up, the carotid artery and the carotid vein in a formalin-fixed mouse can be visualized in situ without contrast agents, paving the way for future applications in cancer angiography studies. The overall results have demonstrated the broad prospects of the existing set-up for biomedical imaging applications at SSRF. PMID:22898963

Xi, Yan; Kou, Binquan; Sun, Haohua; Qi, Juncheng; Sun, Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

2012-07-12

446

Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part I. Technical characterization of the systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many European countries, image quality for digital x-ray systems used in screening mammography is currently specified using a threshold-detail detectability method. This is a two-part study that proposes an alternative method based on calculated detectability for a model observer: the first part of the work presents a characterization of the systems. Eleven digital mammography systems were included in the study; four computed radiography (CR) systems, and a group of seven digital radiography (DR) detectors, composed of three amorphous selenium-based detectors, three caesium iodide scintillator systems and a silicon wafer-based photon counting system. The technical parameters assessed included the system response curve, detector uniformity error, pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Approximate quantum noise limited exposure range was examined using a separation of noise sources based upon standard deviation. Noise separation showed that electronic noise was the dominant noise at low detector air kerma for three systems; the remaining systems showed quantum noise limited behaviour between 12.5 and 380 µGy. Greater variation in detector MTF was found for the DR group compared to the CR systems; M