Science.gov

Sample records for imaging applications part

  1. Fast transforms for acoustic imaging--part II: applications.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávio P; Nascimento, Vítor H

    2011-08-01

    In Part I ["Fast Transforms for Acoustic Imaging-Part I: Theory," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing], we introduced the Kronecker array transform (KAT), a fast transform for imaging with separable arrays. Given a source distribution, the KAT produces the spectral matrix which would be measured by a separable sensor array. In Part II, we establish connections between the KAT, beamforming and 2-D convolutions, and show how these results can be used to accelerate classical and state of the art array imaging algorithms. We also propose using the KAT to accelerate general purpose regularized least-squares solvers. Using this approach, we avoid ill-conditioned deconvolution steps and obtain more accurate reconstructions than previously possible, while maintaining low computational costs. We also show how the KAT performs when imaging near-field source distributions, and illustrate the trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. Finally, we show that separable designs can deliver accuracy competitive with multi-arm logarithmic spiral geometries, while having the computational advantages of the KAT. PMID:21342849

  2. Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 1. The neuroradiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E T S

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application and usage in clinical practice of techniques of detection and measurement of imaging biomarkers. Some commentaries in the article derive from a literature search and include summaries of recently published material compiled and linked to each other by extensive use of the text contained in the material examined.

  3. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  4. Data hiding in image and video: Part II--designs and applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Yu, Heather; Liu, Bede

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies the solutions to the fundamental issues addressed in Part I to specific design problems of embedding data in image and video. We apply multilevel embedding to allow the amount of embedded information that can be reliably extracted to be adaptive with respect to the actual noise conditions. When extending the multilevel embedding to video, we propose strategies for handling uneven embedding capacity from region to region within a frame as well as from frame to frame. We also embed control information to facilitate the accurate extraction of the user data payload and to combat such distortions as frame jitter. The proposed algorithm can be used for a variety of applications such as copy control, access control, robust annotation, and content-based authentication. PMID:18237945

  5. Image registration by parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalermwat, Prachya; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    In spite of the large number of different image registration techniques, most of these techniques use the correlation operation to match spatial image characteristics. Correlation is known to be one of the most computationally intensive operations and its computational needs grow rapidly with the increase in the image sizes. In this article, we show that, in many cases, it might be sufficient to determine image transformations by considering only one or several parts of the image rather than the entire image, which could result in substantial computational savings. This paper introduces the concept of registration by parts and investigates its viability. It describes alternative techniques for such image registration by parts and presents early empirical results that address the underlying trade-offs.

  6. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  7. Automated infrared imaging temperature measurement with application to upward flame spread studies. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, A.; Saito, K.; Gruver, W.A. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-02-01

    This article describes a new experimental technique with wide application that has been proven for wall fires. To measure the spread rate of the pyrolysis front along vertically oriented flat and corner walls, it may be necessary to measure transient temperature profiles on the walls. Conventional thermocouple and visual observation methods, however, have limitations due to complexity of implementation and the inherent ambiguity of visual observations due to interference from flames. To overcome these limitations, an automated infrared imaging system was applied to obtain two-dimensional wall surface temperature data in a relatively large area. In addition, upward flame spread experiments were conducted over vertically oriented PMMA flat and color board corner walls; and surface thermocouple and infrared imaging temperature data were compared in the PMMA wall fires. All the results indicate that the infrared system with a (10.60.5[mu]m) bandpass filter successfully avoids interferences from the flame allowing measurements of temperature distribution on the fire-heated wall, from which the spread rate in any direction can be deduced. However, this technique will fail for flames whose emissivity is greater than 0.1.

  8. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-21

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by improving the delivery of radiosensitising agents. Finally, US imaging offers various ways to measure dose in 3D. If technical problems can be overcome, these hold potential for wide-dissemination of cost-effective pre-treatment dose verification and in vivo dose monitoring methods. It is concluded that US imaging could eventually contribute to all aspects of the RT workflow. PMID:27002558

  9. User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

  10. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected from the target would be focused by the receiver optical system onto an array of optical fibers matching the array in the transmitter. These optical fibers would couple the received light to one or more photodetector( s). Optionally, the receiver could include solid-state optical switches for choosing which optical fiber(s) would couple light to the photodetector(s). This instrument architecture is flexible and can be optimized for a wide variety of applications and levels of performance. For example, it is scalable to any number of pixels and pixel resolutions and is compatible with a variety of ranging and photodetection methodologies, including, for example, ranging by use of modulated (including pulsed and encoded) light signals. The use of fixed arrays of optical fibers to generate controlled illumination patterns would eliminate the mechanical complexity and much of the bulk of optomechanical scanning assemblies. Furthermore, digital control of the selection of the fiber-optic pathways for the transmitted beams could afford capabilities not seen in previous three-dimensional range-imaging systems. Instruments of this type could be specialized for use as, for example, proximity detectors, three-dimensional robotic vision systems, airborne terrain-mapping systems, and inspection systems.

  11. Marking spatial parts within stereoscopic video images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Constance; Boehm, Klaus; Duong, Thanh; Kuehn, Volker; Weber, Martin

    1996-04-01

    The technology of stereoscopic imaging enables reliable online telediagnoses. Applications of telediagnosis include the fields of medicine and in general telerobotics. For allowing the participants in a telediagnosis to mark spatial parts within the stereoscopic video image, graphic tools and automatism have to be provided. The process of marking spatial parts and objects inside a stereoscopic video image is a non trivial interaction technique. The markings themselves have to be 3D elements instead of 2D markings which would lead to an alienated effect `in' the stereoscopic video image. Furthermore, one problem to be tackled here, is that the content of the stereoscopic video image is unknown. This is in contrast to 3D Virtual Reality scenes, which enable an easy 3D interaction because all the objects and their position within the 3D scene are known. The goals of our research comprised the development of new interaction paradigms and marking techniques in stereoscopic video images, as well as an investigation of input devices appropriate for this interaction task. We have implemented these interaction techniques in a test environment and integrated therefore computer graphics into stereoscopic video images. In order to evaluate the new interaction techniques a user test was carried out. The results of our research will be presented here.

  12. Transportation Applications, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J.

    1985-01-01

    The applications of tethers in support of space transportation is divided into: (1) orbit transfer, momentum transfer release/rendezvous (hanging, swinging, and spinning) and simplified docking; (2) orbit maintenance: electrodynamic thrust in or out of plane, electrodynamic libration pumping or damping, momentum scavenging, and isolate thruster exhaust; and (3) transfer within constellation: deployment or retrieval of whole constellation, clothesline loop, hoist, tram for travel on the tether, monkey between the tethers, and power and fluid transfer.

  13. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  14. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of

  15. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  16. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  17. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-04-15

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  18. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  19. Applications of Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Galbn, Craig; Galbn, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

  20. An Ultrasonic-Adaptive Beamforming Method and Its Application for Trans-skull Imaging of Certain Types of Head Injuries; Part I: Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeff; Wydra, Adrian; Malyarenko, Eugene V; Sinclair, Anthony N; Maev, Roman Gr

    2015-05-01

    A new adaptive beamforming algorithm for imaging via small-aperture 1-D ultrasonic-phased arrays through composite layered structures is reported. Such structures cause acoustic phase aberration and wave refraction at undulating interfaces and can lead to significant distortion of an ultrasonic field pattern produced by conventional beamforming techniques. This distortion takes the form of defocusing the ultrasonic field transmitted through the barrier and causes loss of resolution and overall degradation of image quality. To compensate for the phase aberration and the refractional effects, we developed and examined an adaptive beamforming algorithm for small-aperture linear-phased arrays. After accurately assessing the barrier's local geometry and sound speed, the method calculates a new timing scheme to refocus the distorted beam at its original location. As a tentative application, implementation of this method for trans-skull imaging of certain types of head injuries through human skull is discussed. Simulation and laboratory results of applying the method on skull-mimicking phantoms are presented. Correction of up to 2.5 cm focal point displacement at up to 10 cm depth under our skull phantom is demonstrated. Quantitative assessment of the method in a variety of temporal focusing scenarios is also reported. Overall temporal deviation on the order of a few nanoseconds was observed between the simulated and experimental results. The single-point adaptive focusing results demonstrate strong potential of our approach for diagnostic imaging through intact human skull. The algorithms were implemented on an ultrasound advanced open-platform controlling 64 active elements on a 128-element phased array. PMID:25423646

  1. Preparing images for publication: part 1.

    PubMed

    Devigus, Alessandro; Paul, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    Images play a vital role in the publication and presentation of clinical and scientific work. Within clinical photography, color reproduction has always been a contentious issue. With the development of new technologies, the variables affecting color reproduction have changed, and photographers have moved away from film-based to digital photographic imaging systems. To develop an understanding of color, knowledge about the basic principles of light and vision is important. An object's color is determined by which wavelengths of light it reflects. Colors of light and colors of pigment behave differently. Due to technical limitations, monitors and printers are unable to reproduce all the colors we can see with our eyes, also called the LAB color space. In order to optimize the output of digital clinical images, color management solutions need to be integrated in the photographic workflow; however, their use is still limited in the medical field. As described in part 2 of this article, calibrating your computer monitor and using an 18% gray background card are easy ways to enable more consistent color reproduction for publication. In addition, some basic information about the various camera settings is given to facilitate the use of this new digital equipment in daily practice. PMID:19655473

  2. SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers. Conclusion With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20457793

  3. BIOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING: PROGRESS AND APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Christian E.; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Application of bioluminescence imaging has grown tremendously in the past decade and has significantly contributed to the core conceptual advances in biomedical research. This technology provides valuable means for monitoring of different biological processes for immunology, oncology, virology and neuroscience. In this review, we will discuss current trends in bioluminescence and its application in different fields with emphasis on cancer research. PMID:21788092

  4. Pediatric electrocardiographic imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jennifer N A

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: (1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome, (2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and preexcitation, (3) ECGI in pediatric patients with WolffParkinsonWhite syndrome, and (4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25722754

  5. Fiber probe for nonlinear imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Luki?, Aleksandar; Dochow, Sebastian; Chernavskaia, Olga; Latka, Ines; Matthus, Christian; Schwuchow, Anka; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jrgen

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years it had been demonstrated that multimodal imaging combining the nonlinear modalities coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto-fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) show a great potential for tissue diagnosis and tumor identification. To extend the applicability of this multimodal imaging approach for in-vivo tissue screening of difficult to access body regions the development of suitable fiber optic probes is required. Here we report about a novel CARS imaging fiber probe consisting of 10,000 coherent light guiding elements preserving the spatial relationship between the entrance and the output of the fiber. Therefore the scanning procedure can be shifted from the distal to the proximal end of the fiber probe and no moving parts or driving current are required to realize in-vivo CARS endoscopy. Back scattered CARS image of rabbit aorta with plaques (white) using a laser scanning microscope and an imaging fiber. PMID:25924223

  6. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology. PMID:12605090

  7. Image wavelet decomposition and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

    1989-01-01

    The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

  8. Deformable part models for object detection in medical images

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Object detection in 3-D medical images is often necessary for constraining a segmentation or registration task. It may be a task in its own right as well, when instances of a structure, e.g. the lymph nodes, are searched. Problems from occlusion, illumination and projection do not arise, making the problem simpler than object detection in photographies. However, objects of interest are often not well contrasted against the background. Influence from noise and other artifacts is much stronger and shape and appearance may vary substantially within a class. Methods Deformable models capture the characteristic shape of an anatomic object and use constrained deformation for hypothesing object boundaries in image regions of low or non-existing contrast. Learning these constraints requires a large sample data base. We show that training may be replaced by readily available user knowledge defining a prototypical deformable part model. If structures have a strong part-relationship, or if they may be found based on spatially related guiding structures, or if the deformation is rather restricted, the supporting data information suffices for solving the detection task. We use a finite element model to represent anatomic variation by elastic deformation. Complex shape variation may be represented by a hierarchical model with simpler part variation. The hierarchy may be represented explicitly as a hierarchy of sub-shapes, or implicitly by a single integrated model. Data support and model deformation of the complete model can be represented by an energy term, serving as quality-of-fit function for object detection. Results The model was applied to detection and segmentation tasks in various medical applications in 2- and 3-D scenes. It has been shown that model fitting and object detection can be carried out efficiently by a combination of a local and global search strategy using models that are parameterized for the different tasks. Conclusions A part-based elastic model represents complex within-class object variation without training. The hierarchy of parts may specify relationship to neighboring anatomical objects in object detection or a part-decomposition of a complex anatomic structure. The intuitive way to incorporate domain knowledge has a high potential to serve as easily adaptable method to a wide range of different detection tasks in medical image analysis. PMID:25077691

  9. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  10. Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Christian; Wietzke, Steffen; Peters, Ole; Scheller, Maik; Vieweg, Nico; Salhi, Mohammed; Krumbholz, Norman; Jrdens, Christian; Hochrein, Thomas; Koch, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, and especially THz imaging, holds large potential in the field of nondestructive, contact-free testing. The ongoing advances in the development of THz systems, as well as the appearance of the first related commercial products, indicate that large-scale market introduction of THz systems is rapidly approaching. We review selected industrial applications for THz systems, comprising inline monitoring of compounding processes, plastic weld joint inspection, birefringence analysis of fiber-reinforced components, water distribution monitoring in polymers and plants, as well as quality inspection of food products employing both continuous wave and pulsed THz systems. PMID:20648121

  11. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  12. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  13. An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

    2009-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

  14. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  15. 19 CFR 205.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S. COMMERCE 205.1 Applicability of part. This part 205 applies to functions and duties of the Commission under sections 131, 301(e)(3), and 503(a) of the Trade Act of 1974. For other applicable...

  16. New application of integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) 3D sensing and reconstruction of occluded objects using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII). We present experiments with the NIR 3D imaging system using a radiant object. The occluded object is not observed in visible spectrum due to front obstruction. However, with 3D computational reconstruction, the NIR image of the object shows substantially reduced front obstruction.

  17. Interference imaging and it's application to material and medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menk, R. H.

    1999-08-01

    Recently several new imaging modalities in the domain of x-rays have been invented that show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques, where the contrast is based on attenuation only. Their working principle is either interference between scattered wave fronts from a sample with a reference wave field or the selective measure of refraction properties of the sample utilizing a crystal analyzer. The first category includes multi energy x-ray holography (MEXH) and phase contrast imaging (PHC) while the latter includes diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The basic theory will be discussed and some recent applications in material science as well as medical imaging will be reviewed.

  18. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  19. Prototype Videodisk-Based Part-Task Thermal Imaging Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thermal images, or infrared images, are representations of the world based on heat, instead of visible light. Research has shown that the resulting thermal image results in perceptual differences leading to difficulties in interpretation (e.g., the determination of slope angle, concavity/convexity), or increased identification latencies. A joint research project between the United States (NASA and U.S. Army) and Israel (Ministry of Defense and Israel Air Force) has resulted in the development of a prototype part-task trainer for the acquisition of perceptual skills associated with thermal imaging usage. This prototype system is videodisk-based under computer control, using recordings of thermal images. A lesson section introduces declarative knowledge, in which the basic physics and heuristics of thermal imagery are taught. An exercise section teaches procedural knowledge, with the user viewing dynamic, actual imagery, with an interactive detection/location determination task. The general philosophy and design of the trainer will be demonstrated.

  20. Alveolar soft part sarcoma: Clinicopathological analysis and imaging results

    PubMed Central

    QIAO, PENG-FEI; SHEN, LING-HUI; GAO, YANG; MI, YING-CHUN; NIU, GUANG-MING

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, malignant, soft-tissue tumor that accounts for ~1.2% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Due to its low incidence, clinicians often overlook the diagnosis. However, it is difficult to form an accurate diagnosis prior to surgery due to the lack of experience in imaging diagnosis. The present study reviewed the pathological images, and the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data of 6 ASPS cases in order to investigate the clinicopathological and imaging characteristics of the tumor. The present study indicated that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of ASPS are nonspecific, but malignancy may be determined to a certain degree, which may aid in diagnosis prior to surgery and provides information for treatment guidance. PMID:26722241

  1. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  2. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  3. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  4. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  5. 19 CFR 201.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 201.1 Section 201.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 201.1 Applicability of part. This part relates generally to functions and activities of the Commission under...

  6. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 27.3 Section 27.3 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the...

  7. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 27.3 Section 27.3 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the...

  8. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 24.2 Section 24.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information 24.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the...

  9. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 24.2 Section 24.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information 24.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the...

  10. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part 36... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801... § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36. (a) This subpart prescribes operating noise limits...

  11. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part 36... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801... § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36. (a) This subpart prescribes operating noise limits...

  12. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (b) Unless otherwise specified, as used in this subpart “part 36” refers to 14 CFR part 36... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801... § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to part 36. (a) This subpart prescribes operating noise limits...

  13. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  14. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  15. Petrophysical applications of NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, W.P.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    A system for obtaining high-resolution NMR images of oil field cores is described. Separate proton density and T/sub 2/ relaxation images are obtained to distinguish spatial variations of fluid-filled porosity and the physical nature of the pores. Results are presented for typical sandstones.

  16. Lens-Free Imaging for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Koo, Kyo-in; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lens-free (or lensless) imaging is emerging as a cost-effective, compact, and lightweight detection method that can serve numerous biological applications. Lens-free imaging can generate high-resolution images within a field-portable platform, which is ideal for affordable point-of-care devices aiming at resource-limited settings. In this mini-review, we first describe different modes of operation for lens-free imaging and then highlight several recent biological applications of this emerging platform technology. PMID:22357607

  17. Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mireshghi, A.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.K.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1994-07-01

    Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipments. An important component in the a-Si:H imager is the scintillator screen. A new approach for fabrication of high resolution CsI(Tl) scintillator layers, appropriate for coupling to a-Si:H arrays, are presented. For nuclear medicine applications, a new a-Si:H based gamma camera is introduced and Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate its performance.

  18. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  19. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cunlin; Mu, Kaijun

    2009-07-01

    We have examined application feasibility of THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to inspect 30 kinds of illicit drugs, 20 kinds of amino acid and 10 kinds of explosives and related compounds (ERCs). We also have got their fingerprints, established the corresponding database, and propose the reference-free methods to extract the absorption or reflection spectra, respectively. We also use optical pump THz probe to research the ultrafast dynamics of semiconductor. While, we also present some new THz imaging techniques, such as, focal-plane multiwavelength phase imaging, reference-free phase imaging, polarization imaging, and continuous-wave (CW) standoff distance imaging.

  20. Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-05-31

    The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

  1. The fundamentals of fetal MR imaging: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Congenital malformations detected in any fetal system using ultrasound may be further evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve counseling, to plan deliveries appropriately, and sometimes to enable fetal interventions. In this first half of a 2-part review, the history and safety factors regarding fetal MRI, as well as the practical aspects of image acquisition, are discussed. In addition, as central nervous system anomalies are most commonly and best evaluated using fetal MRI, challenging central nervous system anomalies, such as fetal ventriculomegaly, posterior anomalies, and neural tube defects, detected using prenatal ultrasound are also reviewed with a focus on the fundamental implications of these diagnoses. PMID:25060713

  2. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.1 Applicability of part. This part applies to any program administered by the Secretary of Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to...

  3. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions applicable in this part. 268.2 Section 268.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS General § 268.2 Definitions applicable in this part. When used in this part the following terms have...

  4. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other applicable rule parts. 90.5 Section 90.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts of importance that may...

  5. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.1 Applicability of part. This part applies to any program administered by the Secretary of Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to...

  6. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES General Information 87.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other applicable CFR title 47 parts include: (a... for environmetal impact statements. (c) Part 2 contains the Table of Frequency Allocations and...

  7. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform application form for access codes to file on EDGAR, and (2) File, by uploading as a Portable... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of part 232. 232...-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General 232.10 Application of part 232....

  8. Terahertz image processing methods for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Huang, Shengyang; Sun, Yiwen; Kan, Kanis W C; Zhang, Yuan-ting

    2008-01-01

    Terahertz imaging is in its early stages of development. Due to the sensitivity of terahertz radiation to biomolecules, several potential medical applications are being investigated. In this paper we present examples of our latest measurements of biological samples and explain how we extract frequency domain and time domain information from image data to probe sample structure and composition. PMID:19163527

  9. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation dose efficiency improvement in multi-energy photon-counting CT, and can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT in full-fan and half-fan modes.

  10. Digital rock physics benchmarksPart I: Imaging and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andr, Heiko; Combaret, Nicolas; Dvorkin, Jack; Glatt, Erik; Han, Junehee; Kabel, Matthias; Keehm, Youngseuk; Krzikalla, Fabian; Lee, Minhui; Madonna, Claudio; Marsh, Mike; Mukerji, Tapan; Saenger, Erik H.; Sain, Ratnanabha; Saxena, Nishank; Ricker, Sarah; Wiegmann, Andreas; Zhan, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The key paradigm of digital rock physics (DRP) "image and compute" implies imaging and digitizing the pore space and mineral matrix of natural rock and then numerically simulating various physical processes in this digital object to obtain such macroscopic rock properties as permeability, electrical conductivity, and elastic moduli. The steps of this process include image acquisition, image processing (noise reduction, smoothing, and segmentation); setting up the numerical experiment (object size and resolution as well as the boundary conditions); and numerically solving the field equations. Finally, we need to interpret the solution thus obtained in terms of the desired macroscopic properties. For each of these DRP steps, there is more than one method and implementation. Our goal is to explore and record the variability of the computed effective properties as a function of using different tools and workflows. Such benchmarking is the topic of the two present companion papers. Here, in the first part, we introduce four 3D microstructures, a segmented Fontainebleau sandstone sample (porosity 0.147), a gray-scale Berea sample; a gray-scale Grosmont carbonate sample; and a numerically constructed pack of solid spheres (porosity 0.343). Segmentation of the gray-scale images by three independent teams reveals the uncertainty of this process: the segmented porosity range is between 0.184 and 0.209 for Berea and between 0.195 and 0.271 for the carbonate. The implications of the uncertainty associated with image segmentation are explored in a second paper.

  11. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  12. Computer image processing: Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

  13. Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

    1997-01-01

    The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF SPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of remote sensing using spectral imaging is just being realized through the investigation to a wide variety of environmental issues. Improved spectral and spatial resolution is very important to the detection of effects once regarded as unobservable. A current researc...

  15. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General § 1546.1 Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following: (a)...

  16. 49 CFR 831.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD ACCIDENT/INCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES 831.1 Applicability of part. Unless otherwise specifically ordered by the National Transportation Safety Board (Board), the provisions of this part shall govern...

  17. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as air taxi operators and commuter...

  18. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as air taxi operators and commuter...

  19. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as air taxi operators and commuter...

  20. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as air taxi operators and commuter...

  1. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General 298.1 Applicability of part. This part establishes classifications of air carriers known as air taxi operators and commuter...

  2. Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: Part 3: Digital image editing.

    PubMed

    LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

    2003-12-01

    This is the final installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first two articles of the series, the fundamentals of digital image architecture were reviewed and methods of importing images to the computer desktop were described. In this article, techniques are presented for editing images in preparation for online submission. A step-by-step guide to basic editing with use of Adobe Photoshop is provided and the ethical implications of this activity are explored. PMID:14654480

  3. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alka; Montanera, Walter; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Willinsky, Robert; Fenton, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging technique that has substantially affected the diagnosis of a multitude of diseases. It has become the imaging modality of choice for a number of pathologic processes, especially in the central nervous system. The authors discuss the clinical applications of MRI, its current status in radiologic investigations, and radiographic features of some of the common diseases of the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figures 12-13 PMID:21229123

  4. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chhablani, Jay; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography. PMID:26139797

  5. Stable image acquisition for mobile image processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Kai-Fabian; Fritze, Alexander; Gillich, Eugen; Mnks, Uwe; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Today, mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) are widespread and of high importance for their users. Their performance as well as versatility increases over time. This leads to the opportunity to use such devices for more specific tasks like image processing in an industrial context. For the analysis of images requirements like image quality (blur, illumination, etc.) as well as a defined relative position of the object to be inspected are crucial. Since mobile devices are handheld and used in constantly changing environments the challenge is to fulfill these requirements. We present an approach to overcome the obstacles and stabilize the image capturing process such that image analysis becomes significantly improved on mobile devices. Therefore, image processing methods are combined with sensor fusion concepts. The approach consists of three main parts. First, pose estimation methods are used to guide a user moving the device to a defined position. Second, the sensors data and the pose information are combined for relative motion estimation. Finally, the image capturing process is automated. It is triggered depending on the alignment of the device and the object as well as the image quality that can be achieved under consideration of motion and environmental effects.

  6. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reisert, Marco

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences. PMID:23710255

  7. Solid silica nanoparticles: applications in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Shirshahi, Vahid; Soltani, Madjid

    2015-01-01

    Silica and silica-based nanoparticles have been widely used for therapeutic and diagnostic applications in cancer mainly through delivery of drugs, genes and contrast agents. Development of synthesis methods has provided the possibility of fabricating silica nanoparticles with different sizes in nanometer ranges as well as silica-based multimodal nanoparticles with many innovative properties and intriguing applications in biomedicine. The surface of silica particles facilitates different methods of surface modifications and allows conjugation of various biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this review, different methods of fabrication of silica and silica-based nanoparticles, their surface modification and the application of these nanoparticles in molecular imaging are discussed. Overall, the aim of this review is to address the development of silica and silica-based multifunctional nanoparticles that are introduced mainly for molecular imaging applications using optical, magnetic (MRI), X-ray (computed tomography) and multimodal imaging techniques. PMID:24996058

  8. Remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure for image compression applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; Wu, Lin; Li, Tao; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Li, Song

    2013-10-01

    A remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure is proposed, which is used for adaptive image compression applications. The image activity measure has been studied and the support vector machine(SVM) is introduced. Then, the relationship between the image activity measure and the distortion caused by quantization is discussed in our image compression experiments (JPEG2000, CCSDS and SPIHT). Another two image activity measures are proposed as well. Then a feature vector is constructed by image activity measures in order to describe the image compression features of different images. The test images are classified by support vector machine classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested using an image data set, which demonstrates the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Value of Imaging Part I:: Perspectives for the Academic Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Bresnahan, Brian; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With payers and policymakers increasingly scrutinizing the value of medical imaging, opportunities abound for radiologists and radiology health services researchers to meaningfully and rigorously demonstrate value. Part one of this two-part series on the value of imaging explores the concept of value in health care from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and discusses the opportunities and challenges for radiologists and health service researchers to demonstrate value. The current absence of meaningful national value metrics also presents an opportunity for radiologists to take the lead on the discussions of these metrics that may serve as the basis for future value-based payments. As both practitioners and investigators, radiologists should consider the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in all they do-interdisciplinary support and cooperation are essential to the success of value-focused imaging research and initiatives that improve patient outcomes. Radiology departments that align their cultures, infrastructures, and incentives to support these initiatives will greatly increase their chances of being successful in these endeavors. PMID:26683508

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  11. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  12. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-06-17

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on α therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  1. Color Image Sharpening and Application to Eye Fundus Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Edison; Milln, Mara S.

    2008-04-01

    This work aims to build an algorithm to sharpen a color digital image based on S-CIELAB extension. We use this method to segment the optic cup inside the optic disc, and the optic disc from the rest of the eye fundus image of glaucomatous eyes. S-CIELAB involves a series of smoothing spatial filters in the opponent color space to approximate the contrast sensitivity functions of the human vision system. The filters are linear combinations of Gaussian masks. We combine these spatial filters with the Laplacian operator in each opponent channel to obtain the sharpened image. The resulting image is then subtracted from the original image in each opponent channel and back transformed to the device independent representation space (XYZ) to obtain the final sharpened image. The application developed to segment the optic cup and the optic disc is intended to give assistance in the cup to disc ratio estimation of glaucomatous eyes. Often the contours of both the optic cup and disc are faint and intersected by entangled veins that make it difficult to draw their silhouettes. The method is based on the information of color, the color differences between neighbor pixels and the geometry of the areas involved. It includes the spatial filtering proposed in the S-CIELAB extension and uses the color image sharpening algorithm.

  2. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  3. Radiofrequency thermal ablation: imaging guided therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Qasmi, Imran Masoud; Saeed, Farrukh; Bhatti, Muhammad Asghar

    2007-05-01

    Minimally invasive, image guided radiofrequency ablation RFA now provides an effective local treatment of isolated or localized neoplastic diseases, and is also being used as an adjunct to conventional surgery, systemic chemotherapy or radiation. It is now the front line treatment in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and its use in other neoplastic diseases continues to expand. This update introduces the technique to alleviate inoperable tumours and application of RFA in therapeutic imaging. PMID:17553335

  4. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  5. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 1544.1 Applicability of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security... under 14 CFR part 119 for scheduled passenger operations, public charter passenger operations,...

  6. The fundamentals of fetal magnetic resonance imaging: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Careful assessment of fetal anatomy by a combination of ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging offers the clinical teams and counselors caring for the patient information that can be critical for the management of both the mother and the fetus. In the second half of this 2-part review, we focus on space-occupying lesions in the fetal body. Because developing fetal tissues are programmed to grow rapidly, mass lesions can have a substantial effect on the formation of normal adjacent organs. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and lung masses, fetal teratoma, and intra-abdominal masses are discussed, with an emphasis on differential etiologies and on fundamental management considerations. PMID:24974309

  7. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodrguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity. PMID:24010245

  8. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

  9. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. K.; Truong, T. T.; Morvidone, M.; Zaidi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. PMID:21747823

  10. Moment-based approaches in imaging part 3: computational considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Moment functions have been defined in [1] and important properties such as invariance and robustness to noise have been reviewed in the second paper [2]. Before addressing applications of moments, another feature has to be discussed, the computational load. The complexity of image analysis methods, in other words the number of operations they require to achieve a given task, iteratively or not, may lead to practical limitations when dealing with large data sets (2D or 3D image sequences) and time constraints. This issue is also of concern for moments in particular when high orders have to be computed. Special attention must therefore be paid to fast computation. The continuous-to-discrete transform may also affect the analytical properties we must preserve (i.e. invariance, orthogonality, etc.) by introducing numerical errors. The problem of accurate computation of moments should thus be addressed. These two aspects are examined in this third paper. PMID:18519189

  11. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  12. Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

  13. A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup are briefly introduced. Some first imaging results showing the basic capabilities are illustrated. Possible error sources and their impacts are discussed by simulation and compared to the measured data.

  14. A single lens with no moving parts for rapid high-resolution 3D image capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Dan; Chen, Hongquiang; Czechowski, Joseph; Zhang, Kang; Tu, Jilin; Wheeler, Frederick; Yamada, Masako; Pablo Cilia, Juan; DeMuth, Russell; Heidari, Esmaeil; Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    There are many visual inspection and sensing applications where both a high resolution image and a depth-map of the imaged object are desirable at high speed. Presently available methods to capture 3D data (stereo cameras and structured illumination), are limited in speed, complexity, and transverse resolution. Additionally these techniques rely on a separated baseline for triangulation, precluding use in confined spaces. Typically, off the shelf lenses are implemented where performance in resolution, field-of-view, and depth of field are sacrificed in order to achieve a useful balance. Here we present a novel lens system with high-resolution and wide field-of-view for rapid 3D image capture. The design achieves this using a single lens with no moving parts. A depth-from-defocus algorithm is implemented to reconstruct 3D object point clouds and matched with a fused image to create a 3D rendered view.

  15. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Pt. 231, App. A Appendix A to Part 231—Application for Compensation United States... Compensation relates to Further Guaranteed Payments, such Application must also contain a statement of...

  16. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Pt. 231, App. A Appendix A to Part 231—Application for Compensation United States... Compensation relates to Further Guaranteed Payments, such Application must also contain a statement of...

  17. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NOs vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  18. ImageCalc: a Microsoft Windows application for quantitative image analysis and comparison.

    PubMed

    van de Lest, C H; Veerkamp, J H; van Kuppevelt, T H

    1995-06-01

    In this report we describe a Microsoft Windows-based computer program (ImageCalc) for the analysis of gels and autoradiograms and for computation of stand-alone images and images that are related to each other (i.e., images with the same image parameters). The program is able to subtract, add, multiply and divide constant values or full images from another image. It measures the intensity of (part of) an image in two ways: (i) by calculation of the total intensity and the average intensity/pixel and (ii) by line scanning. The program allows importation of all images that are stored in an 8-bit uncompressed format and saves them in a Microsoft Windows bitmap format. Densitometric analysis of gels and autoradiograms, digitized using an ordinary optical scanner, is illustrated for glycosaminoglycans separated by electrophoresis on agarose gels and stained with Azure A silver, and for [32P]phosphatidic acid, separated by thin-layer chromatography. Another application of the program is the analysis of multiple related images that are resolved in time or for which different emission or excitation wavelengths are used (fluorescence microscopy). As an example, the change of cytosolic [Ca2+] is demonstrated in cultured human skeletal muscle cells after stimulation with acetylcholine. PMID:7546707

  19. Imaging systems and applications: introduction to the feature.

    PubMed

    Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Skauli, Torbjrn; Tominaga, Shoji; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-05-01

    Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from design of stimuli for human perception, optics applications, and image enhancement to novel imaging modalities in both color and infrared spectral imaging, gigapixel imaging as well as a systems perspective to imaging. PMID:24921894

  20. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da; Nie, Liming; Guo, Hua; Ma, Songbo

    2009-08-01

    Based on the measurement of ultrasonic waves induced by electromagnetic pulses, photoacoustic imaging and thermoacoustic imaging can reveal optical or dielectric properties of tissues that are closely related to the physiological and pathological status of tissues and they have became the promising clinical imaging modalities. In this paper, a high frame rate tomography instrument with 64-channel parallel data-acquisition system was designed and developed for photoacoustic biomedical imaging. In the system, the pulse-laser-induced ultrasonic signals are converted to voltage signals by a 128-element linear ultrasound transducer array. The 128-channel signals are acquired by the 64-channel parallel data-acquisition system twice through the 2:1 multiplexer, and the OPO (optical parametric oscillator) laser provides laser with a pulse repetition rate of 15 Hz. Therefore, the acquisition rate can reach about 7 frames per second and photoacoustic images can be displayed dynamically. Based on the above signal acquisition system, biomedical application of photoacoustic imaging was explored and successfully performed. Fast photoacoustic tomography for flow-field visualization was demonstrated by flowing object. Thermoacoustic tomography was developed to detection of low-density foreign targets in small animals which was indistinguishable with X-ray. All the experimental results show that photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging with fast parallel data-acquisition system is a highly-efficient approach for functional imaging of biomedical tissues.

  1. Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

  2. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  3. A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1990-09-06

    A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  4. High-frequency ultrasound annular array imaging. Part II: digital beamformer design and imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Hong; Snook, Kevin A; Cao, Pei-Jie; Shung, K Kirk

    2006-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-paper series reporting a recent effort in the development of a high-frequency annular array ultrasound imaging system. In this paper an imaging system composed of a six-element, 43 MHz annular array transducer, a six-channel analog front-end, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based beamformer, and a digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor-based scan converter will be described. A computer is used as the interface for image display. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes for each channel is implemented with the strategy of combining the coarse and fine delays. The coarse delays that are integer multiples of the clock periods are achieved by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) structure, and the fine delays are obtained with a fractional delay (FD) filter. Using this principle, dynamic receiving focusing is achieved. The image from a wire phantom obtained with the imaging system was compared to that from a prototype ultrasonic backscatter microscope with a 45 MHz single-element transducer. The improved lateral resolution and depth of field from the wire phantom image were observed. Images from an excised rabbit eye sample also were obtained, and fine anatomical structures were discerned. PMID:16529105

  5. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 230, App. A Appendix A to Part 230—Application for Compensation United States Agency for International... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on...

  6. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 230, App. A Appendix A to Part 230—Application for Compensation United States Agency for International... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND CONDITIONS Pt. 221, App. A Appendix A to Part 221—Application for Compensation Agency for... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONDITIONS Pt. 221, App. A Appendix A to Part 221—Application for Compensation Agency for... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on...

  9. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  10. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT 290.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  11. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT 290.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  12. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT 290.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  13. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT 290.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  14. 17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT 290.1 Applicability of this part. This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability of this part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a) The operation of airports... official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport operator that does not have a security program...

  16. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  17. Image processing applications for geologic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

  18. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moir fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  19. Image enhancement technology research for army applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-06-01

    Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared detector array and the sensitivity. Second, also the intervening atmosphere, in particular over longer ranges, has an impact on the image quality. It degrades the contrast, due to transmission effects, as well as it influences the resolution, due to turbulence blur, of the image. We present studies in the field of infrared image enhancement. Several techniques are described: noise reduction, super resolution, turbulence compensation, contrast enhancement, stabilization. These techniques operate in real-time on COTS/MOTS platforms. They are especially effective in the army theatre, where long horizontal paths, and short line-of-sight limited urban operations are both present. Application of these techniques on observation masts, such as on military camp sites, and on UAVs and moving ground vehicles are discussed. Examples will be presented from several trials in which these techniques were demonstrated, including the presentation of test results.

  20. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of part. 611.2 Section 611.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 611.2 Application...

  1. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of part. 611.2 Section 611.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 611.2 Application...

  2. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801 Section 91.801 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to...

  3. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability: Relation to part 36. 91.801 Section 91.801 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.801 Applicability: Relation to...

  4. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Exhibit A to... CONDITIONS Pt. 204, Exh. A Exhibit A to Part 204—Application for Compensation Office of Housing and Urban..., DC 20523 Ref: Guaranty dated as of _________, 19__: A.I.D. Housing Project HG-____ Gentlemen: You...

  5. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Exhibit A to... CONDITIONS Pt. 204, Exh. A Exhibit A to Part 204—Application for Compensation Office of Housing and Urban..., DC 20523 Ref: Guaranty dated as of _________, 19__: A.I.D. Housing Project HG-____ Gentlemen: You...

  6. Passive Synthetic Aperture Hitchhiker Imaging of Ground Moving Targets - Part 2: Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-07-01

    In Part 1 of this work, we present a passive synthetic aperture imaging and velocity estimation method for ground moving targets using a network of passive receivers. The method involves inversion of a Radon transform type forward model via a novel filtered backprojection approach combined with entropy optimization. The method is applicable to noncooperative transmitters of opportunity where the transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms are unknown. Furthermore, it can image multiple targets moving at different velocities in arbitrary imaging geometries. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the performance of our method. First the resolution analysis in position and velocity spaces is presented. The analysis identifies several factors that contribute positively or negativity towards position and velocity resolution. Next, we present a novel theory to analyze and predict smearing artifacts in position images due to error in velocity estimation of moving targets. Specifically, we show that small errors in the velocity estimation result in small positioning errors. We present extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretical results. While our primary interest lies in radar, the theory, methods and algorithms introduced in our work are also applicable to passive acoustic, seismic, and microwave imaging. PMID:25020091

  7. Application of diffraction enhanced imaging to bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Dean Michael, Jr.

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray-based medical imaging modality that is in its early stages of development and testing. In images generated using DEI, contrast is from absorption and refraction of x-rays and from ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS). Though accepted values for x-ray absorption in biological tissues have been established, only recently have investigators began probing for characteristic refraction and USAXS from biological tissues. For this work, a series of four experiments were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Upton, NY, USA) beamline X15A to help characterize DEI of bone. In the first experiment, the USAXS profile was measured for pre- and post-fatigue loaded cortical bone. Though no clear pattern of change in the USAXS profile was found, the bone samples were shown to have a measurable USAXS signal and it was found that large refracting structures within bone (>100 microns) could be visualized. In the next two experiments, the contrast of DEI's refraction and apparent absorption images was compared to the contrast in synchrotron radiation (SR) radiographs for planar imaging of gap regions in bone and for imaging of trabecular structure in tomography mode. DEI was shown to have significant contrast-to-noise ratio gains over SR radiographs in both experiments. The planar refraction and apparent absorption signals in the gap imaging experiment were shown to be consistent with their theoretically predicted values. DEI in tomography mode (DECT) was found to have significant resolution gains over comparably obtained SRCT images. In the final experiment, a computer model was developed to predict USAXS from cortical bone and the computer model results were compared to USAXS data obtained using DEI. The scattering widths, as predicted by the computer model, suggest that osteocyte lacunae cause the experimentally measured angular spreading of the x-ray beam. The findings of these experiments provide the impetus for further studies of bone with DEI emphasizing clinical applications.

  8. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  9. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  10. Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ■ Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ■ Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ■ Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ■ Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ■ The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm." PMID:25652302

  11. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  12. Medical applications of digital image morphing.

    PubMed

    Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

    2007-09-01

    The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion. PMID:17273920

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part IPhysical Principles

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most complex imaging technology available to clinicians. Whereas most imaging technologies depict differences in one, or occasionally two, tissue characteristics, MR imaging has five tissue variablesspin density, T1 and T2 relaxation times and flow and spectral shiftsfrom which to construct its images. These variables can be combined in various ways by selecting pulse sequences and pulse times to emphasize any desired combination of tissue characteristics in the image. This selection is determined by the user of the MR system before imaging data are collected. If the selection is not optimal, the imaging process must be repeated at a cost of time and resources. The optimal selection of MR imaging procedures and the proper interpretation of the resultant images require a thorough understanding of the basic principles of MR imaging. Included in this understanding should be at least the rudiments of how an MR imaging signal is produced and why it decays with time; the significance of relaxation constants; the principles of scanning methods such as saturation recovery, inversion recovery and spin echo; how data obtained by these methods are used to form an image, and how the imaging data are complied by multi-slice and volumetric processes. In selecting an MR imaging unit, information about different magnet designs (resistive, superconductive and permanent) is useful. Although no bioeffects are thought to be associated with an MR imaging examination, some knowledge of the attempts to identify bioeffects is helpful in alleviating concern in patients. Images PMID:6506686

  14. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of insecticides in biological tissues. Finally, in the microscale level, the penetration of household insecticides through different types of textiles fabrics. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectra, SFC and SEM showed that cotton-polyester (twill), cotton, wool and cotton thermal underwear were the least penetrable materials for the aerosols. On the other hand, acrylic and artificial silk (rayon) were the most penetrable cloth types. The most protective form of clothing will be more than one layer e.g. cotton/polyester type of clothing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Application of GFP imaging in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Multicolored proteins have allowed the color coding of cancer cells growing in vivo and enabled the distinction of host from tumor with single-cell resolution. Non-invasive imaging with fluorescent proteins enabled follow the dynamics of metastatic cancer to be followed in real time in individual animals. Non-invasive imaging of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins has enabled the real-time determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents in mouse models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm allow visualization of the nuclear–cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo, mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm such as occurs during cancer-cell deformation and extravasation. Recent applications of the technology described here include linking fluorescent proteins with cell-cycle-specific proteins (FUCCI) such that the cells change color from red to green as they transit from G1 to S phases. With the macro and micro imaging technologies described here, essentially any in vivo process can be imaged, enabling the new field of in vivo cell biology using fluorescent proteins. PMID:25686095

  16. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: optimisation of imaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J; Nellist, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 1616 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. PMID:25481091

  17. The application of ghost imaging in infrared imaging detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongtao; Yang, Zhaohua; Li, Dapeng; Wu, Ling-an

    2015-11-01

    Traditional imaging are mostly based on the principle of lens imaging which is simple but the imaging result is heavily dependent on the quality of detector. It is usual to increase the detector array density or reduce the size of pixels to improve the imaging resolution, especially for infrared imaging. It will decrease the light flux causing the noise enhance relatively and add the cost on the contrary. Besides, there is a novel imaging technology called ghost imaging. We present a new infrared imaging method named computational ghost imaging only using a bucket detector without spatial resolution, which avoiding the allocation of flux on the pixel dimension as well as reducing the cost.

  18. Application of independent component analysis in face images: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuchi; Lu, Hanqing

    2003-09-01

    Face technologies which can be applied to access control and surveillance, are essential to intelligent vision-based human computer interaction. The research efforts in this field include face detecting, face recognition, face retrieval, etc. However, these tasks are challenging because of variability in view point, lighting, pose and expression of human faces. The ideal face representation should consider the variability so as to we can develop robust algorithms for our applications. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as an unsupervised learning technique has been used to find such a representation and obtained good performances in some applications. In the first part of this paper, we depict the models of ICA and its extensions: Independent Subspace Analysis (ISA) and Topographic ICA (TICA).Then we summaraize the process in the applications of ICA and its extension in Face images. At last we propose a promising direction for future research.

  19. Fluorinated copolymer nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark M; Mahoney, Christine M; Dempah, Kassibla E; Davis, Jeffrey M; Becker, Matthew L; Khondee, Supang; Munson, Eric J; Berkland, Cory

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials have emerged as valuable tools in biomedical imaging techniques. Here, the synthesis and characterization of a novel fluorinated nanoparticle with potential applications as an MRI contrast agent is reported. Particles were synthesized using a free radical polymerization technique. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that the particles' surface contained fluorinated groups and nitrogen-containing groups. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy suggested the presence of two distinct fluorine resonances, which conforms to the structure of the fluorinated monomer. Ongoing studies aim to evaluate the performance of the nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21590842

  20. A broadband imaging system for research applications

    PubMed Central

    Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.71010 cm Hz1?2?W at a wavelength of 11.8 ?m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

  1. A broadband imaging system for research applications.

    PubMed

    Yefremenko, V; Gordiyenko, E; Shustakova, G; Fomenko, Yu; Datesman, A; Wang, G; Pearson, J; Cohen, E E W; Novosad, V

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7x10(10) cm Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 11.8 microm. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

  2. A broadband imaging system for research applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division; B. Verkin Inst. Low Temperature. Physics and Engineering; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7 x 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W at a wavelength of 11.8 {micro}m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated.

  3. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  4. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  5. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  6. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  7. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  8. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or...

  9. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  10. 14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES §...

  11. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  12. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  13. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  14. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN...

  15. 19 CFR 213.1 - Purpose and applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 213.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.1 Purpose and applicability of part. (a) Section 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, establishes in the Commission an office known as the Trade...

  16. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  17. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  18. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  19. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  20. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 17.2 Section 17.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color,...

  1. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRIES 208.2 Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term beneficiary sub-Saharan African country means those countries so designated by the President under 19 U.S.C. 2466a. (b) Lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term lesser...

  2. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  3. Terahertz electronics for sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Short channel field effect transistors can detect terahertz radiation. Such detection is enabled by the excitation of the plasma waves rectified due to the device nonlinearities. The resulting response has nanometer scale spatial resolution and can be modulated in the sub THz range. This technology could enable a variety of sensing, imaging, and wireless communication applications, including detection of biological and chemical hazardous agents, cancer detection, shortrange covert communications (in THz and sub-THz windows), and applications in radio astronomy. Field effect transistors implemented using III-V, III-N, Si, SiGe, and graphene have been used to detect THz radiation. Using silicon transistors in plasmonic regimes is especially appealing because of compatibility with standard readout silicon VLSI components.

  4. Multianode photomultiplier tube studies for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, R. A.; Cowie, E. N.; Hoek, M.; Keri, T.; Seitz, B.

    2012-12-01

    Highly efficient and position sensitive photon detection is essential in a variety of applications from particle identification in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, to radionuclide imaging in healthcare. Due to their position sensitivity and high packing fraction, the Hamamatsu H8500 and H9500 multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) are promising candidates for such applications and have thus been studied through precision laser scans at several light intensities. This has revealed signal and crosstalk dependencies upon constructional features of the MAPMTs. Both MAPMTs feature a common last dynode output signal, which can be used for self-triggering. The strength and timing of this signal have been investigated for the H8500 MAPMT, yielding similar dependencies upon MAPMT construction and standard deviation time resolutions of 67.5 ps and 154.4 ps for 20 and single photoelectron signals respectively.

  5. Neck neoplasms: MR imaging. Part I. Initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Glazer, H S; Niemeyer, J H; Balfe, D M; Devineni, V R; Emami, B; Hayden, R E; Aronberg, D J; Levitt, R G; Ward, M P; Sagel, S S

    1986-08-01

    Untreated neoplasms of the neck (tumors of the oropharynx, supraglottic area, carotid body, and thyroid, in addition to malignant lymphadenopathy) were evaluated in 23 patients with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The results were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans in 20 patients. Contrast between tumor and fat was best on relatively T1-weighted images (500/30-35 [TR msec/TE msec]), whereas separation of tumor and muscle was best with relatively T2-weighted pulse sequences (1,500/90). Balanced images (1,500/30-35) provided best overall image quality and best demonstrated vascular anatomy. MR imaging was usually superior to CT in showing the relationship of tumor mass to muscle. MR imaging and contrast material-enhanced CT were equivalent in most patients in defining vascular anatomy, but MR imaging was superior when intravenous contrast material was not administered. However, CT was more helpful in showing bone and cartilage anatomy, and in some patients CT also was better in showing airway abnormalities. Despite these limitations, MR imaging is a promising imaging technique for studying neoplasms of the neck. PMID:3726111

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  7. A Novel Application of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Feren?ek, Zrinka Greguri?; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24084063

  8. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and

  9. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

  10. Robust image modeling techniques with an image restoration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Rangasami L.; Eom, Kie-Bum

    1988-08-01

    A robust parameter-estimation algorithm for a nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) autoregressive model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is presented. The convergence of the estimation algorithm is proved. An algorithm to estimate parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the impulse-noise-corrupted image, where the model governing the image is not available, is also presented. The robustness of the parameter estimates is demonstrated by simulation. Finally, an algorithm to restore realistic images is presented. The entire image generally does not obey a simple image model, but a small portion (e.g., 8 x 8) of the image is assumed to obey an NSHP model. The original image is divided into windows and the robust estimation algorithm is applied for each window. The restoration algorithm is tested by comparing it to traditional methods on several different images.

  11. Radionuclides in Nephrourology, Part 2: Pitfalls and Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide renal scintigraphy provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of suspected genitourinary tract problems, but the procedures are underutilized. Maximizing the utility of the available studies (as well as the perception of utility by referring physicians) requires a clear understanding of the clinical question, attention to quality control, acquisition of the essential elements necessary to produce an informed interpretation, and production of a report that presents a coherent impression based on data contained in the report and that specifically addresses the clinical question. To help achieve these goals, part 1 of this review addressed the available radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, and quantitative indices, including the measurement of absolute and relative renal function. Part 2 assumes familiarity with part 1 and focuses on the common clinical indications of suspected obstruction and renovascular hypertension; part 2 also summarizes the status of radionuclide renal imaging in the evaluation of the transplanted kidney and the detection of infection, discusses potential pitfalls, and concludes with suggestions for future research. The series of SAM questions accompanying parts 1 and 2 has been designed to reinforce and extend points made in the review. Although the primary focus is the adult patient, aspects of the review also apply to the pediatric population. PMID:24591488

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  14. Boronated compounds for imaging guided BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Deagostino, Annamaria; Toppino, Antonio; Alberti, Diego; Venturello, Paolo; Aime, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the capture of thermal neutrons by boron 10 ((10)B) nuclei that have been selectively delivered to tumor cells. The amount of 10-30 ?g of boron for g of tumor mass is needed to attain an acceptable therapeutic advantage. Despite that the potentialities of BNCT have been demonstrated in several preclinical studies, this technique has not yet been fully accepted in the armory of tools for tumor treatment. This is partly due to the differences in the uptake and distribution of (10)B among patients and also to the uncertainty found in the determination of tumor-to-blood (10)B concentration ratio. Attention is now being payed to use the main imaging techniques to determine the in vivo biodistribution of BNCT agents. Most of the work has been devoted to the most promising BNCT agents, namely BPA, BSH and carborane derivatives. This review surveys studies carried out over the last decade, and outlines the role that NMR, PET and SPECT imaging may have to improve the efficacy of BNCT. PMID:22263798

  15. Two satellite image sets for the training and validation of image processing systems for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Aldridge, Shawn; Herzog, Britny; Moore, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Many image processing algorithms utilize the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to provide efficient compression and near-perfect reconstruction of image data. Defense applications often require the transmission of data at high levels of compression over noisy channels. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been utilized to optimize image transform filters that outperform standard wavelets for bandwidth-constrained compression of satellite images. The optimization of these filters requires the use of training images appropriately chosen for the image processing system's intended applications. This paper presents two robust sets of fifty images each intended for the training and validation of satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance image processing algorithms. Each set consists of a diverse range of subjects consisting of cities, airports, military bases, and landmarks representative of the types of images that may be captured during reconnaissance missions. Optimized algorithms may be "overtrained" for a specific problem instance and thus exhibit poor performance over a general set of data. To reduce the risk of overtraining an image filter, we evaluate the suitability of each image as a training image. After evolving filters using each image, we assess the average compression performance of each filter across the entire set of images. We thus identify a small subset of images from each set that provide strong performance as training images for the image transform optimization problem. These images will also provide a suitable platform for the development of other algorithms for defense applications. The images are available upon request from the contact author.

  16. Intravascular ultrasound imaging: development and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Cavaye, D M; White, R A

    1993-09-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is an exciting, new catheter based technique for imaging blood vessels. It provides accurate, real-time information about the types and distribution of vascular disease and displays both the macro- and micro-structure of blood vessels utilizating transducer frequencies of 10 MHz to 50 MHz. This paper discusses the development and current clinical applications of intravascular ultrasound technology, based on early intracardiac devices in the 1950s and resulting in very small diameter (1.3 mm), flexible probes in the 1990s for use in coronary and small peripheral vessels. Preliminary studies have established the dimensional accuracy of intravascular ultrasound, and more recent techniques such as three-dimensional image reconstruction have produced a very powerful research and clinical tool. The value of intravascular ultrasound in the diagnosis and therapy of vascular disease is based on its ability to define the transmural distribution of disease within the vessel, characterize plaque and intimal lesions, and provide accurate cross-sectional information regarding luminal and vessel wall morphology before and after intervention. Major priorities in the ongoing development of intravascular ultrasound are the need for further miniaturization and cost-effective manufacturing. Future angioplasty guidance devices may combine the benefits of angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound in a single delivery system suitable for incorporation into any ablative (mechanical or laser) catheter. PMID:8151166

  17. Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1923-01-01

    The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

  18. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

  19. Imaging of the aging brain. Part I. Normal findings.

    PubMed

    Drayer, B P

    1988-03-01

    A thorough knowledge of the normal changes that occur in the brain with age is critical before abnormal findings are analyzed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging improves the ability to distinguish normal and abnormal findings in the brain. The major changes that may occur in elderly individuals without neurologic deficits include enlargement of the ventricles, cortical sulci, and vermian subarachnoid spaces; multifocal areas of hyperintensity in the white matter and basal ganglia; a progressive prominence of hypointensity on T2-weighted images of the putamen, almost equal to that of the globus pallidus; an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio with normal or mildly decreased neuron metabolism; arteriosclerosis in large and small arteries and amyloid angiopathy in leptomeningeal cortical vessels; and decreased dopamine receptor binding in the corpus striatum. Since approximately half of the elderly population exhibits only negligible brain alterations, MR imaging may facilitate the distinction between usual (no neurologic dysfunction) and successful (no brain or vascular changes) aging. PMID:3277247

  20. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  1. Perfluorocarbon Compounds: Applications In Diagnostic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattrey, Robert F.

    1986-06-01

    Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC's), well known in industry and of late as synthetic oxygen carriers, have a wide range of significant applications in diagnostic imaging. Their enhancement effect is detectable by ultrasound and magnetic resonance and if radiopaque, such as perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB), by standard radiography and computed tomography (CT). We have utilized PFOB as a CT contrast agent to enhance the blood pool, and as both a CT and an ultrasound contrast agent to enhance the liver, spleen, abscesses, infarctions, and tumors or any tissue where inflammatory cells can be found. PFC's, except for the echogenic enhancement of the vascular space on their first pass to the lung, do not enhance the blood pool on ultrasound. Otherwise, ultrasound applications are similar to those observed for CT. Fluosol, which was available for human trials, is not radiopaque and therefore served as an ultrasound contrast agent. In a preliminary clinical trial, Fluosol produced tumor enhancement in man at 1.6g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed lesions and liver and spleen enhancement at 2.4g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed non-enhancing lesions. Perfluorocarbon toxicity seems to be related to the constituents of the emulsion rather than the perfluorocarbon itself. Improvements in the emulsifier and emulsification technology has yielded stable emulsions at high concentrations and low toxicity.

  2. Applications of Digital Image Processing 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. -C.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique, digital image velocimetry, is proposed for the measurement of instantaneous velocity fields of time dependent flows. A time sequence of single-exposure images of seed particles are captured with a high-speed camera, and a finite number of the single-exposure images are sampled within a prescribed period in time. The sampled images are then digitized on an image processor, enhanced, and superimposed to construct an image which is equivalent to a multiple exposure image used in both laser speckle velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The superimposed image and a single-exposure Image are digitally Fourier transformed for extraction of information on the velocity field. A great enhancement of the dynamic range of the velocity measurement is accomplished through the new technique by manipulating the Fourier transform of both the single-exposure image and the superimposed image. Also the direction of the velocity vector is unequivocally determined. With the use of a high-speed video camera, the whole process from image acquisition to velocity determination can be carried out electronically; thus this technique can be developed into a real-time capability.

  3. Multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei; Zhou, Peicheng; Guo, Lei

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of remote sensing technology has facilitated us the acquisition of remote sensing images with higher and higher spatial resolution, but how to automatically understand the image contents is still a big challenge. In this paper, we develop a practical and rotation-invariant framework for multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors (COPD). The COPD is composed of a set of representative and discriminative part detectors, where each part detector is a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier used for the detection of objects or recurring spatial patterns within a certain range of orientation. Specifically, when performing multi-class geospatial object detection, we learn a set of seed-based part detectors where each part detector corresponds to a particular viewpoint of an object class, so the collection of them provides a solution for rotation-invariant detection of multi-class objects. When performing geographic image classification, we utilize a large number of pre-trained part detectors to discovery distinctive visual parts from images and use them as attributes to represent the images. Comprehensive evaluations on two remote sensing image databases and comparisons with some state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the developed framework.

  4. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  5. Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

  6. Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images ( l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

  7. Application of Uncooled Monolithic Thermoelectric Linear Arrays to Imaging Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Paul W.

    Introduction Identification of Incipient Failure of Railcar Wheels Technical Description of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Performance of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Initial Application Summary Imaging Radiometer for Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Description Operation Specifications Summary References INDEX CONTENTS OF VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES

  8. [Bronchiolitis. Part 1--anatomic features, classification, clinical presentation and imaging].

    PubMed

    Kroegel, C; Haidl, P; Kohlhäufl, M; Voshaar, T

    2012-01-01

    The term "bronchiolitis" refers to a broad spectrum of common conditions related to the small airways associated with a miscellaneous aetiology, histology, clinical features and course. Due to their variability, bronchiolar disorders are generally difficult to diagnose. History (smoking, collagen vascular disease, inhalational injury, medication usage, and organ transplant) may point towards a bronchiolar process. In addition, signs of systemic and pulmonary infection and evidence of air trapping may provide diagnostic hints. Although clinical presentation, physical examination, pulmonary function tests (obstructive ventilatory defect), and plain chest radiographs may demonstrate abnormalities suggesting small airways involvement, they are often non-specific and rarely diagnostic. In contrast, the high-resolution CT (HR-CT) scanning of the chest provides three distinct HR-CT patterns that assist in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchiolar conditions: (i) a tree-in-bud pattern, (ii) ill-defined centrilobular ground-glass nodules, and (iii) a mosaic attenuation pattern (best visible on expiratory images). The present paper summarises the current knowledge, the classification, imaging, and the clinical presentation of bronchiolar disorders. PMID:22250053

  9. Autoradiographic image intensification - Applications in medical radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    The image of an 80 to 90 percent underexposed medical radiograph can be increased to readable density and contrast by autoradiographic image intensification. The technique consists of combining the image silver of the radiograph with a radioactive compound, thiourea labeled with sulfur-35, and then making an autoradiograph from the activated negative.

  10. Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches.

    PubMed

    March, Jordon; Hand, Matthew; Grossman, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Confirming a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires obtaining a skin biopsy specimen. However, obtaining numerous biopsy specimens-which often happens in patients with increased melanoma risk-is associated with significant cost and morbidity. While some melanomas are easily recognized by the naked eye, many can be difficult to distinguish from nevi, and therefore there is a need and opportunity to develop new technologies that can facilitate clinical examination and melanoma diagnosis. In part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article, we will review the practical applications of emerging technologies for noninvasive melanoma diagnosis, including mobile (smartphone) applications, multispectral imaging (ie, MoleMate and MelaFind), and electrical impedance spectroscopy (Nevisense). PMID:25980998

  11. An image denoising application using shearlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevindir, Hulya Kodal; Yazici, Cuneyt

    2013-10-01

    Medical imaging is a multidisciplinary field related to computer science, electrical/electronic engineering, physics, mathematics and medicine. There has been dramatic increase in variety, availability and resolution of medical imaging devices for the last half century. For proper medical imaging highly trained technicians and clinicians are needed to pull out clinically pertinent information from medical data correctly. Artificial systems must be designed to analyze medical data sets either in a partially or even a fully automatic manner to fulfil the need. For this purpose there has been numerous ongoing research for finding optimal representations in image processing and computer vision [1, 18]. Medical images almost always contain artefacts and it is crucial to remove these artefacts to obtain healthy results. Out of many methods for denoising images, in this paper, two denoising methods, wavelets and shearlets, have been applied to mammography images. Comparing these two methods, shearlets give better results for denoising such data.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  13. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hkan; Koschny, Detlef

    2010-05-01

    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30m pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 m. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

  14. Overview of the ISO/IEC programmer's imaging kernel system application program interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, William K.

    1992-04-01

    The Programmer's Imaging Kernel System (PIKS) is an application program interface (API) for image processing. It is one of three parts of a standard for Image Processing and Interchange being developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper presents an overview of the API; companion papers discuss the imaging architecture and image interchange parts of the standard. PIKS contains a rich set of operators, tools, and utilities. PIKS operators are functional elements that perform manipulations of images or of data objects extracted from images in order to enhance, restore, or assist in the extraction of information from images. These operators range from primitive operators such as convolution and histogram generation to complex, higher level operators such as adaptive histogram equalization and texture feature extraction. PIKS tools are elements that create data objects to be used by PIKS operators, e.g., the generation of filter transfer functions. PIKS utilities are elements that perform basic mechanical implementation tasks such as extracting pixels from an image. PIKS provides a fundamental operator model that supports match point translation of images prior to processing, image-related region-of-interest processing control, image/operator coordinate index assignment, and the ability to define reusable chains of operators.

  15. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-11-14

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews.

  16. Algorithms for radiological image registration and their clinical application

    PubMed Central

    HAWKES, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work in radiological image registration and provides a classification of image registration by type of transformation and by methods employed to compute the transformation. The former includes transformation of 2D images to 2D images of the same individual, transformation of 3D images to 3D images of the same individual, transformation of images to an atlas or model, transformation of images acquired from a number of individuals, transformations for image guided interventions including 2D to 3D registration and finally tissue deformation in image guided interventions. Recent work on computing transformations for registration using corresponding landmark based registration, surface based registration and voxel similarity measures, including entropy based measures, are reviewed and compared. Recently fully automated algorithms based on voxel similarity measures and, in particular, mutual information have been shown to be accurate and robust at registering images of the head when the rigid body assumption is valid. Two approaches to modelling soft tissue deformation for applications in image guided interventions are described. Validation of complex processing tasks such as image registration is vital if these algorithms are to be used in clinical practice. Three alternative validation strategies are presented. These methods are finding application outside the original domain of radiological imaging. PMID:9877290

  17. [Coded excitation and its applications in medical ultrasound imaging].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiyu; Gao, Shangkai

    2005-02-01

    Compared with medical ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging system, coded excitation system has the potential of higher SNR and deeper penetration depth. In this paper, the basic principle of coded excitation is introduced. Through acoustic intensity analysis, the maximum improvement of SNR of ultrasonic image with coded excitation is deduced. Then, guide lines to choose codes in ultrasonic imaging are introduced. Some codes, such as white noise, pseudo-random code, Golay code, Chirp and pseudo-chirp are described in details. At last, the applications of ultrasonic coded excitation in B-mode imaging, Doppler flow measurement, B-flow imaging and harmonics imaging are described. PMID:15762144

  18. Applications of energy filtered imaging in biology.

    PubMed

    Shuman, H; Somlyo, A V; Safer, D; Frey, T; Somlyo, A P

    1983-01-01

    We describe the use of a magnetic sector spectrometer positioned below the projection chamber of an electron microscope for energy filtered transmission imaging. The spectrometer used has circular pole face edges and is corrected for second order aberrations. A round EM lens is placed after the sector to form a real image of the virtual achromatic image produced by the spectrometer. A slit placed in the dispersion plane allows the passage of electrons in a selected energy range. The filtered image is projected onto a transmission phosphor and acquired with a silicon intensified TV camera and stored in digital form on computer disk. Filtered images are taken at two energies, one immediately preceding (pre-edge) and one on the characteristic energy loss (edge). To obtain images showing the distribution of elements, background subtraction is performed by either subtraction or division of edge and pre-edge images. The optical properties of the imaging system are described and the results are illustrated by energy filtered images of single ferritin molecules (Fe M2,3 and C k), the phosphorus distribution in ribosomes (PL2,3) and the localization of calcium in muscle (Ca L2, 3). The major advantage of the system, compared to other energy filtered imaging methods, is that it can be readily adapted to existing high vacuum microscopes without the necessity of modifying the column to insert a spectrometer. PMID:6635570

  19. Cardiovascular applications of magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, Peter W.; Wisenberg, Gerald; Prato, Frank S.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a unique imaging modality that is gaining rapid acceptance for a variety of medical indications. Diagnostic information is obtained noninvasively, without the potential hazards of ionizing radiation. The spatial resolution and anatomic detail of MR imaging rival those of other currently available imaging methods. By gating to an electrocardiographic signal cardiac imaging is possible. Since March 1983 the authors have had experience with cardiac MR imaging in both animals and humans. Cardiac anatomy is well shown by this technique, which allows detection and characterization of intracardiac masses, congenital heart disease and anomalies of the great vessels. Myocardial infarction has been detected in both animals and humans without the use of contrast agents, and acute cardiac transplant rejection has been visualized in an animal model. Limitations of MR imaging primarily have been lengthy imaging times and the sensitivity of the images to motion. With further investigation and experience this technique may become useful for studying a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:3904969

  20. Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-06-01

    In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation. PMID:24815619

  1. Perceived Image Quality Improvements from the Application of Image Deconvolution to Retinal Images from an Adaptive Optics Fundus Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, P.; Nemeth, S. C.; Erry, G. R. G.; Otten, L. J.; Yang, S. Y.

    Aim: The objective of this project was to apply an image restoration methodology based on wavefront measurements obtained with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and evaluating the restored image quality based on medical criteria.Methods: Implementing an adaptive optics (AO) technique, a fundus imager was used to achieve low-order correction to images of the retina. The high-order correction was provided by deconvolution. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measures aberrations. The wavefront measurement is the basis for activating a deformable mirror. Image restoration to remove remaining aberrations is achieved by direct deconvolution using the point spread function (PSF) or a blind deconvolution. The PSF is estimated using measured wavefront aberrations. Direct application of classical deconvolution methods such as inverse filtering, Wiener filtering or iterative blind deconvolution (IBD) to the AO retinal images obtained from the adaptive optical imaging system is not satisfactory because of the very large image size, dificulty in modeling the system noise, and inaccuracy in PSF estimation. Our approach combines direct and blind deconvolution to exploit available system information, avoid non-convergence, and time-consuming iterative processes. Results: The deconvolution was applied to human subject data and resulting restored images compared by a trained ophthalmic researcher. Qualitative analysis showed significant improvements. Neovascularization can be visualized with the adaptive optics device that cannot be resolved with the standard fundus camera. The individual nerve fiber bundles are easily resolved as are melanin structures in the choroid. Conclusion: This project demonstrated that computer-enhanced, adaptive optic images have greater detail of anatomical and pathological structures.

  2. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(13... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(13... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(13... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, provisions applicable to subpart G 63.1(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(13... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63...

  6. Hemimegalencephaly: part 1. Genetic, clinical, and imaging aspects.

    PubMed

    Flores-Sarnat, Laura

    2002-05-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare hamartomatous malformation of the brain, remarkable for its extreme asymmetry. It can be isolated or associated with several neurocutaneous syndromes; less frequently, it also involves the brain stem and cerebellum. Traditionally, hemimegalencephaly has been considered a primary neuroblast migratory disturbance. At present, genetic theories of pathogenesis and modern histopathology provide a basis for this complex malformation as a primary disturbance in cellular lineage, differentiation, and proliferation, interacting with a disturbance in gene expression of body symmetry, with earlier onset than radial neuroblast migration. From my personal experience with 10 patients with hemimegalencephaly and review of the literature, I have found the same clinical neurologic, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic features in isolated and syndromic hemimegalencephaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals abnormal gyration, ventriculomegaly, colpocephaly, an "occipital sign" (displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline), and increased volume and T2 signal of white matter, in addition to the overall increased size of the involved hemisphere. Mild, moderate, and severe grades of severity can be recognized, providing a functional neurologic prognosis and therapeutic plan. Early diagnosis is crucial because despite neuroimaging and pathologic evidence, hemimegalencephaly sometimes still is unrecognized. Also, misdiagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus or cerebral neoplasm can lead to unnecessary surgical procedures. Although hemispherectomy has a high morbidity, it is recommended early for patients with severe, intractable epilepsy. The mildest forms of hemimegalencephaly are infrequent and the least recognized. PMID:12150586

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40 CFR part... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General... specified in 40 CFR part 65....

  12. Application of Stereo-Imaging Technology to Medical Field

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. Methods We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Results Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. Conclusions The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices. PMID:23115737

  13. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

  15. Novel biomedical applications of Cerenkov radiation and radioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Boschi, Federico

    2015-03-01

    The main goals of this review is to provide an up-to-date account of the different uses of Cerenkov radiation (CR) and radioluminescence imaging for pre-clinical small animal imaging. We will focus on new emerging applications such as the use of Cerenkov imaging for monitoring radionuclide and external radiotherapy in humans. Another novel application that will be described is the monitoring of radiochemical synthesis using microfluidic chips. Several pre-clinical aspects of CR will be discussed such as the development of 3D reconstruction methods for Cerenkov images and the use of CR as excitation source for nanoparticles or for endoscopic imaging. We will also include a discussion on radioluminescence imaging that is a more general method than Cerenkov imaging for the detection using optical methods of alpha and gamma emitters. PMID:25555905

  16. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  17. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase

  18. Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  20. Imaging data analyses for hazardous waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    David, N.A.; Ginsberg, I.W.; Lewis, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    The interactive poster session presentation gives examples of the use of remote sensing products for characterization of hazardous waste sites. The sites are located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where materials associated with past weapons testing are buried. Problems of interest include the detection and delineation of buried trenches containing contaminants, seepage from old septic drain fields, and location of faults and fractures relative to hazardous waste areas. Overlays of suspected trench locations on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and trenches. Overlays of engineering drawings on recent and historical photos showed error in trench location and extent. A thermal image showed warm anomalies suspected to be areas of water seepage through an asphalt cap. Overlays of engineering drawings on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and drain fields.

  1. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Fili; Moreno, Amlia; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis. PMID:24972360

  2. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Fili; Moreno, Amlia; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  3. Microprocessor-Based Image Processing System For Dedicated Applications Or Interactive Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, F. M.; Hodgson, R. M.

    1982-07-01

    A microcomputer based system used in an airborne remote sensing application and for interactive image processing is described. The system hardware includes a two dimensional charge coupled device imaging array, a visual display monitor for real-time display of digitized picture information, and a floppy disk for permanent storage of data. The central processor unit is an Intel 8080. The software used for interactive image processing and remote sensing applications is evaluated. A next-generation system design is discussed.

  4. Emerging Applications of Conjugated Polymers in Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junwei; Liu, Jie; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liu, Bin; ODonnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties. Their size and emission wavelength tunability, brightness, photostability, and low toxicity have been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro sensing and cellular imaging applications, and have just begun to show impact in in vivo settings. In this Perspective, we summarize recent advances in engineering conjugated polymers as imaging contrast agents, their emerging applications in molecular imaging (referred to as in vivo uses in this paper), as well as our perspectives on future research. PMID:23860904

  5. Applications of Aptamers in Flow and Imaging Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Isis C; Nery, Arthur A; Bassaneze, Vincius; Krieger, Jos E; Ulrich, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers compete with antibodies in many applications, in which high-affinity and specificity ligands are needed. In this regard, fluorescence-tagged aptamers have gained applications in flow and imaging cytometry for detecting cells expressing distinct antigens. Here we present prospective methods, as a starting point, for using these high-affinity ligands for cytometry applications. PMID:26552821

  6. Applications of high-resolution echoplanar spectroscopic imaging for structural imaging.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Heberlein, K; Metzger, G J; Zhang, X; Hu, X

    1999-07-01

    Echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) was introduced as a fast alternative for spectroscopic imaging and has been recently implemented on clinical scanners. With further advances in gradient hardware and processing strategies, EPSI can be used to obtain spectroscopic images whose spatial resolution parallels that of conventional anatomic images within clinically acceptable acquisition time. The present work demonstrates that high-resolution EPSI can be used to derive structural images for applications in which spectroscopic information is beneficial. These applications are chemical shift (fat-water) imaging, narrow bandwidth imaging, and T2* mapping. In this paper, the EPSI sequence design and processing strategies are detailed and experimental results in normal volunteers are presented to illustrate the potential of using EPSI in imaging anatomic structures. PMID:10398971

  7. Recent coastline changes at the eastern part of the Meghna Estuary using PALSAR and Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. A.; Tajima, Y.; Gunasekara, K.; Rana, S.; Hasan, R.

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, we have focused on the recent coastline changes at the eastern part of the Meghna Estuary of Bangladesh through the application of PALSAR (The Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat images. The area under concern is very dynamic where the combined processes of erosion and accretion take place under the influence of river discharge with heavy sediment load, wind waves and tides. It falls under the macro-tidal zone with tidal range varying from 4 m to 6 m or even higher. Many parts of the area is covered with intertidal mudflats. They are inundated during the high tides and get exposed during the low tides. So for the detection coastline change consideration of tidal phase is quite important which has been done in the present study. Coastline change from the year 2007 to 2013 has been presented in this paper. From the analyses of satellite images the areas of erosion and accretion of the four major offshore islands have been calculated during the above mentioned period. It has been found that the annual rate of accretion of Urir Char island has decreased from 5.84 km2 per year between 2007~2010 to 1.05 km2 per year between 2010~2013. On the other hand, Sandwip island has been eroding at a higher rate of 3.15 km2 per year between 2010~2013 compared to 0.34 km2 per year between 2007~2010. Overall, the total area of Urir Char, Sandwip and Jahajir Char island increased by about 120 km2 from 2007 to 2013, mainly contributed by the drastic expansion of Jahajir Char island during this period.

  8. TM Digital Image Products for Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) digital image products recorded onto computer compatible tapes (CCTs), which were available for internal research purposes prior to August, 1983, are reviewed. The SCROUNGE image processing system at Goddard Space Flight Centr generated in tape formats: (1) raw band-sequential data (CCT-BT), generally used for internal transportation of digital data from one ground processing system to another; (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT), useful for reseachers doing radiometric characterization; and (3) geometrically resampled data (CCT-PT), the final product. The formats represent different steps in the process of producing fully-corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are re-sequenced from telemetry format to image format, but are uncorrected radiometrically and geometrically. The CCT-AT images had data from two faulty data channels replaced and all data radiometrically calibrated. The CCT-PT images were resampled by cubic convolution procedures to provide a geometrically corrected image using satellite ephemeris and altitude data and scan-mirror correction data. The final product, the CCT-PT, is the one to which all of the radiometric and geometric corrections were applied.

  9. Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.

    PubMed

    Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbgy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2014-03-01

    Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

  10. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

  11. Clinical Applications of Myocardial Innervation Imaging.

    PubMed

    Travin, Mark I

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac autonomic innervation plays an important role in regulating function. Adrenergic innervation imaging is possible with the norepinephrine analogue radiotracer iodine 123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) and positron emitting tracers such carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine. (123)I-mIBG uptake is assessed globally via the heart to mediastinum ratio on planar images and regionally with tomographic imaging and has utility in various cardiac diseases. There is promise for guiding expensive invasive therapies such as implantable defibrillators, ventricular assist devices, and transplant. There are reports of utility in primary arrhythmic conditions, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes and after cardiac damaging chemotherapy. PMID:26590785

  12. [Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Laval-Jeantet, M; Crooks, L E; Davis, P L; Kaufman, L; Margulis, A R

    1982-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is based on selective excitation of proton magnetic properties by means of a dual magnetic field. In the human body, NMR gives sectional images which represent hydrogen atom densities in the different tissues. The first results obtained in tomography of the brain, spinal cord, intrathoracic and abdominal organs and some vessels have been remarkable. The magnetic fields ans radiofrequency waves involved appear to be harmless. NMR imaging favourably compares with X-ray computerized tomography or with ultrasonography and will no doubt be increasingly used for its special qualities. PMID:6982457

  13. Imaging the lost tribe: a review of adolescent cancer imaging. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zerizer, I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although a small proportion of all cancer registrations, malignancy in adolescence and young adulthood remains the most common natural cause of death in this age group. Advances in the management and outcomes of childhood cancer have not been matched within the adolescent population, with increasing incidence and poorer survival seen amongst teenagers with cancer compared with other populations. There have been increasing moves towards specific adolescent oncology centres, with the aim of centralising expertise, however, adolescent imaging does not exist as a speciality in the same way that paediatric imaging does, with responsibility for imaging adolescent patients sometimes falling to paediatric radiologists and sometimes to adult radiologists, usually with a specific interest in a tumour type or body system. In this article, imaging of the more common malignancies, encountered in adolescent patients is reviewed. Complications of treatment are reviewed in another article to give an overview of adolescent oncology imaging practice. PMID:19933020

  14. The Fringe-Imaging Skin Friction Technique PC Application User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    A personal computer application (CXWIN4G) has been written which greatly simplifies the task of extracting skin friction measurements from interferograms of oil flows on the surface of wind tunnel models. Images are first calibrated, using a novel approach to one-camera photogrammetry, to obtain accurate spatial information on surfaces with curvature. As part of the image calibration process, an auxiliary file containing the wind tunnel model geometry is used in conjunction with a two-dimensional direct linear transformation to relate the image plane to the physical (model) coordinates. The application then applies a nonlinear regression model to accurately determine the fringe spacing from interferometric intensity records as required by the Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) technique. The skin friction is found through application of a simple expression that makes use of lubrication theory to relate fringe spacing to skin friction.

  15. Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

  16. Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

  17. In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

  18. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  19. Using stereoscopic imaging for visualization applications

    SciTech Connect

    Adelson, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of scientific visualization is to simplify the analysis of numerical data by rendering the information as an image. Even when the image is familiar, as in the case of terrain data, preconceptions about what the image should look like and deceptive image artifacts can create misconceptions about what information is actually contained in the scene. One way of aiding the development of unambiguous visualizations is to add stereoscopic depth to the image. Despite the recent proliferation of affordable stereoscopic viewing equipment, few researchers are at this time taking advantage of stereo in their visualizations. It is generally perceived that the rendering time will have to be doubled in order to generate the pair, and so stereoscopic viewing is sacrificed in the name of expedient rendering. We show that this perception is often invalid. The second half of a stereoscopic image can be generated from the first half for a fraction of the computational cost of complete rendering, usually no more than 50% of the cost and in many cases as little as 5%. Using the techniques presented here, the benefits of stereoscopy can be added to existing visualization systems for only a small cost over current single-frame rendering methods.

  20. Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Boardman, J.; Mustard, J.; Kruse, F.; Ong, C.; Pieters, C.; Swayze, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a tool that has been used for decades to identify, understand, and quantify solid, liquid, or gaseous materials, especially in the laboratory. In disciplines ranging from astronomy to chemistry, spectroscopic measurements are used to detect absorption and emission features due to specific chemical bonds, and detailed analyses are used to determine the abundance and physical state of the detected absorbing/emitting species. Spectroscopic measurements have a long history in the study of the Earth and planets. Up to the 1990s remote spectroscopic measurements of Earth and planets were dominated by multispectral imaging experiments that collect high-quality images in a few, usually broad, spectral bands or with point spectrometers that obtained good spectral resolution but at only a few spatial positions. However, a new generation of sensors is now available that combines imaging with spectroscopy to create the new discipline of imaging spectroscopy. Imaging spectrometers acquire data with enough spectral range, resolution, and sampling at every pixel in a raster image so that individual absorption features can be identified and spatially mapped (Goetz et al., 1985).

  1. 75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 49352), clarified the applicability of various requirements to each of the licensing... of considerations that accompanied the final rule (3150-AG24) for Part 52 (72 FR 49352; August 28... Standard Design Certifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity...

  2. Imaging Features of Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma: A Report from Children's Oncology Group Study ARST0332

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, M. Beth; Muzzafar, Sofia; Kao, Simon C.; Coffin, Cheryl; Parham, David M.; Anderson, James; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is little literature regarding imaging features of alveolar soft-part sarcoma. We performed a comprehensive assessment of imaging characteristics of this rare tumor to determine if there are features that suggest the diagnosis. Materials and Methods Twenty-two subjects with alveolar soft-part sarcoma underwent pre-therapy imaging (16 MRIs, 3 CTs, 3 both) as part of enrollment on Children's Oncology Group protocol ARST0332 for treatment of non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcomas. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed imaging by consensus and recorded tumor location, size, contour, internal architecture, signal characteristics, presence of flow-voids and enhancement patterns. Results The 12 females and 10 males ranged in age from 8 to 23.6 years (mean, 15.7 years). The most common anatomic site was lower extremity (12/22, 55%) followed by upper extremity (4/22, 18%). Maximal tumor diameter ranged from 2.3 cm to 20.0 cm (median, 5.9 cm). All tumors imaged with MRI had flow-voids (19/19, 100%) and 19 (19/22, 86%) had large peripheral vessels, lobulated margins and nodular internal architecture. T1W pre-contrast MR imaging was available for 18 tumors; 14 (14/18, 78%) appeared slightly hyperintense to muscle. Of 16 imaged with contrast, 11 (11/16, 69%) showed intense and 5 (5/16, 31%) moderate enhancement. Six (6/16, 38%) had thick enhancing peripheral rims with non-enhancing centers consistent with necrosis. Conclusions Imaging features of alveolar soft part sarcoma include flow voids, large peripheral vessels, internal nodularity and lobulated margins. Contrast administration produces intense to moderate enhancement, sometimes with a thick enhancing peripheral rim around central necrosis. Extremity tumors with these imaging features in a child or young adult should suggest the diagnosis of alveolar soft part sarcoma. PMID:25415714

  3. Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays, Part I: Beamforming Methods and Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 8 elements in size on a 64 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 8, 4 4, and 2 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming. PMID:24960700

  4. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the... telephone network. (j) Part 101. This part contains rules concerning common carrier and private...

  5. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  6. Compressive sampling for time critical microwave imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Halloran, Martin; McGinley, Brian; Conceicao, Raquel C.; Kilmartin, Liam; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Across all biomedical imaging applications, there is a growing emphasis placed on reducing data acquisition and imaging times. This research explores the use of a technique, known as compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS), as an efficient technique to minimise the data acquisition time for time critical microwave imaging (MWI) applications. Where a signal exhibits sparsity in the time domain, the proposed CS implementation allows for sub-sampling acquisition in the frequency domain and consequently shorter imaging times, albeit at the expense of a slight degradation in reconstruction quality of the signals as the compression increases. This Letter focuses on ultra wideband (UWB) radar MWI applications where reducing acquisition is of critical importance therefore a slight degradation in reconstruction quality may be acceptable. The analysis demonstrates the effectiveness and suitability of CS with UWB applications. PMID:26609368

  7. Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, É.

    2006-05-01

    This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des ondes, qui démontre l'aspect mésoscopique de leur propagation, est une limitation majeure pour les techniques d'imagerie conventionelles (imagerie médicale, sismique réflexion ou réfraction, tomographie...). La deuxième partie du document (Chaps. 3 5) est consacrée à une application de cette physique mésoscopique : le principe de l'imagerie passive. En effectuant la corrélation temporelle d'enregistrement de bruit ambiant ou d'ondes diffuses, il est possible de reconstruire la réponse impulsionnelle du milieu entre deux capteurs passifs comme si l'on avait placé une source en lieu et place d'un des capteurs. Cela offre la possibilité de faire de l'acoustique ou de la sismologie sans source. Plusieurs aspects sont présentés dans ce manuscrit : des aspects théoriques et numériques (Chaps. 3, 4), ensuite des aspects expérimentaux avec des applications (Chap. 5) à l'échelle des ultrasons (tomographie passive d'un milieu stratifié), et des applications à l'échelle de la sismologie (imagerie du sous-sol de la Californie, et même de la Lune).

  8. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

  9. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  10. Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

    Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

  11. Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

    2008-08-01

    A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

  12. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of the diver's depth based on the IR surface manifestation. To reduce the impact of measurement and data processing errors in this natural very noisy environment, a computer based analysis process was developed and optimized for this very specific application. Based on its assessment previous contradictions in the bubble growth could be resolved.

  13. Click Reaction: An Applicable Radiolabeling Method for Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Chul

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the click reaction has found rapidly growing applications in the field of radiochemistry, ranging from a practical labeling method to molecular imaging of biomacromolecules. This present review details the development of highly reliable, powerful and selective click chemistry reactions for the rapid synthesis of new radiotracers for molecular imaging. PMID:26550044

  14. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  15. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  16. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  17. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  18. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting Releases... (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  19. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (17 Cfr Part 210) 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210.1-01 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  20. 5 CFR 1209.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1209.3... WHISTLEBLOWING Jurisdiction and Definitions 1209.3 Application of 5 CFR part 1201. Except as expressly provided in this part, the Board will apply subparts A, B, C, E, F, and G of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals...

  1. 5 CFR 1209.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1209.3... WHISTLEBLOWING Jurisdiction and Definitions 1209.3 Application of 5 CFR part 1201. Except as expressly provided in this part, the Board will apply subparts A, B, C, E, F, and G of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals...

  2. 5 CFR 1209.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1209.3... WHISTLEBLOWING Jurisdiction and Definitions 1209.3 Application of 5 CFR part 1201. Except as expressly provided in this part, the Board will apply subparts A, B, C, E, F, and G of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals...

  3. 5 CFR 1209.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1209.3... WHISTLEBLOWING Jurisdiction and Definitions 1209.3 Application of 5 CFR part 1201. Except as expressly provided in this part, the Board will apply subparts A, B, C, E, F, and G of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals...

  4. Stereo imaging velocimetry for microgravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Brian B.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Bethea, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Stereo imaging velocimetry is the quantitative measurement of three-dimensional flow fields using two sensors recording data from different vantage points. The system described in this paper, under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, uses two CCD cameras placed perpendicular to one another, laser disk recorders, an image processing substation, and a 586-based computer to record data at standard NTSC video rates (30 Hertz) and reduce it offline. The flow itself is marked with seed particles, hence the fluid must be transparent. The velocimeter tracks the motion of the particles, and from these we deduce a multipoint (500 or more), quantitative map of the flow. Conceptually, the software portion of the velocimeter can be divided into distinct modules. These modules are: camera calibration, particle finding (image segmentation) and centroid location, particle overlap decomposition, particle tracking, and stereo matching. We discuss our approach to each module, and give our currently achieved speed and accuracy for each where available.

  5. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  6. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  7. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

  8. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-15

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  9. Cylindrical Millemeter-Wave Imaging Technique and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2006-08-01

    The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurements for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data is used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

  10. Thermoelectric infrared imager and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Satou, Fuminori; Saito, Masanori; Kishi, Youichi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Makato

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes a newly developed thermoelectric infrared imager having a 48 X 32 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) and an experimental vehicle featuring a blind spot pedestrian warning system, which employs four infrared imagers. The imager measures 100 mm in width, 60 mm in height and 80 mm in depth, weighs 400 g, and has an overall field of view (FOV) of 40 deg X 20 deg. The power consumption of the imager is 3 W. The pedestrian detection program is stored in a CPU chip on a printed circuit board (PCB). The FPA provides high responsivity of 2,100 V/W, a time constant of 25 msec, and a low cost potential. Each element has external dimensions of 190 ?m x 190 ?m, and consists of six pairs of thermocouples and an Au-black absorber that is precisely patterned by low-pressure evaporation and lift-off technologies. The experimental vehicle is called the Nissan ASV-2 (Advanced Safety Vehicle-2), which incorporates a wide range of integrated technologies aimed at reducing traffic accidents. The blind spot pedestrian warning system alerts the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person's body. This system also prevents the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian.

  11. MR imaging probes: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Boros, Eszter; Gale, Eric M; Caravan, Peter

    2015-03-21

    This perspective outlines strategies towards the development of MR imaging probes that our lab has explored over the last 15 years. Namely, we discuss methods to enhance the signal generating capacity of MR probes and how to achieve tissue specificity through protein targeting or probe activation within the tissue microenvironment. PMID:25376893

  12. Infrared scanning images: An archeological application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Gumerman, G.J.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... application should be granted or denied are at Appendix B to this part. B. Submitting a Waiver Application...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... application should be granted or denied are at Appendix B to this part. B. Submitting a Waiver Application...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... application should be granted or denied are at Appendix B to this part. B. Submitting a Waiver Application...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... application should be granted or denied are at appendix B to this part. B. Submitting a Waiver Application...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards for... application should be granted or denied are at Appendix B to this part. B. Submitting a Waiver Application...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Waiver Application C Appendix C to... Pt. 284, App. C Appendix C to Part 284—Submitting a Waiver Application A. Who May Apply for...

  19. Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 284 - Submitting a Waiver Application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... processing of a claim under 32 CFR part 281. B. Where To Submit A Waiver Application An applicant must submit... applicant's telephone number. 3. The applicant's social security number when required by the Component... application submitted by the applicant's agent or attorney must include or have attached a duly executed...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63...) Circumvention/Severability Yes 63.5(a) Construction/Reconstruction Applicability Yes 63.5(b)(1) Existing,...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63...) Circumvention/Severability Yes 63.5(a) Construction/Reconstruction Applicability Yes 63.5(b)(1) Existing,...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63...) Circumvention/Severability Yes 63.5(a) Construction/Reconstruction Applicability Yes 63.5(b)(1) Existing,...

  4. Semantic sparse recoding of visual content for image applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiwu; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Wen, Ji-Rong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new semantic sparse recoding method to generate more descriptive and robust representation of visual content for image applications. Although the visual bag-of-words (BOW) representation has been reported to achieve promising results in different image applications, its visual codebook is completely learnt from low-level visual features using quantization techniques and thus the so-called semantic gap remains unbridgeable. To handle such challenging issue, we utilize the annotations (predicted by algorithms or shared by users) of all the images to improve the original visual BOW representation. This is further formulated as a sparse coding problem so that the noise issue induced by the inaccurate quantization of visual features can also be handled to some extent. By developing an efficient sparse coding algorithm, we successfully generate a new visual BOW representation for image applications. Since such sparse coding has actually incorporated the high-level semantic information into the original visual codebook, we thus consider it as semantic sparse recoding of the visual content. Finally, we apply our semantic sparse recoding method to automatic image annotation and social image classification. The experimental results on several benchmark datasets show the promising performance of our semantic sparse recoding method in these two image applications. PMID:25438314

  5. Interferometric fiber optic sensors for biomedical applications of optoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Horacio; Gallego, Daniel; Gutierrez, Rebeca; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    We present a non-metallic interferometric silica optical fiber ultrasonic wideband sensor for optoacoustic imaging applications. The ultrasonic sensitivity of this sensor has been characterized over the frequency range from 1 to 10 MHz. A comparative analysis has been carried out between this sensor and an array of piezoelectric transducers using optoacoustic signals generated from an optical absorbent embedded in a tissue mimicking phantom. Also, a two dimensional reconstructed image of the phantom using the fiber interferometric sensor is presented and compared to the image obtained using the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B. The feasibility of our fiber optic based sensor for wideband ultrasonic detection is demonstrated. PMID:21246745

  6. Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Ikeda, Teruki; Wada, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hideo; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2001-10-01

    This article reports the outline of a new portable Raman imaging probe and its applications. This probe may be the smallest and lightest Raman imaging probe in the world. It is equipped with an interchangeable long-working distance microscope objective lens. The irradiation area is about 45 and 90 μm and the spatial resolution is 1 μm. In the present study, the Raman imaging probe was used to obtain a Raman image of diamond particles and a Raman mapping of carotenoid in Euglena.

  7. Applications of magnetic resonance image segmentation in neurology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Laarne, Paeivi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Laasonen, Erkki; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    1999-05-01

    After the introduction of digital imagin devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical modes, 3D visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In this research project several PC based software were developed in order to segment medical images, to visualize raw and segmented images in 3D, and to produce EEG brain maps in which MR images and EEG signals were integrated. The software package was tested and validated in numerous clinical research projects in hospital environment.

  8. NMR imaging of components and materials for DOE application

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.R.

    1993-12-01

    The suitability for using NMR imaging to characterize liquid, polymeric, and solid materials was reviewed. The most attractive applications for NMR imaging appear to be liquid-filled porous samples, partially cured polymers, adhesives, and potting compounds, and composite polymers/high explosives containing components with widely varying thermal properties. Solid-state NMR line-narrowing and signal-enhancing markedly improve the imaging possibilities of true solid and materials. These techniques provide unique elemental and chemical shift information for highly complex materials and complement images with similar spatial resolution, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  9. Application of Laser Imaging for Bio/geophysical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

  10. Application of laser imaging for bio/geophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

    1992-07-01

    SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

  11. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  12. Review of polarization imaging for international military application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Mo, Chunhe; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Polarization is a primary characteristic of electromagnetic wave. Polarization is another field of the light except the intensity, wavelength, and coherence. Polarization can indicate the different attributions that decided by objects, such as surface features, roughness, shading, shape and so on. Polarization Imaging is a useful complement to traditional intensity and spectral imaging methods with great potential in many application fields. In the future war, the advantages of polarization are significant for target detection and recognition in the increasingly complicated battlefield environment. In this paper, the research progress is generally introduced in military application in four fields: 1) target polarization characteristics and simulationenhance contrast, distinguish the target and background; 2) polarization transmission characteristics- observe target through the smoke and fog of War; 3) polarization imaging detection methods- improve the imaging quality, enhance the information available; 4) polarization image processing- improve detection and tracking performance.

  13. Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bisbee, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

  14. A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

    2003-01-01

    A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

  15. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to operate in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, adjudicatory proceedings including hearing... contains rules relating to miscellaneous wireless communications services. (l) Part 51 contains rules... radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101 governs the operation of...

  16. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to operate in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, adjudicatory proceedings including hearing... contains rules relating to miscellaneous wireless communications services. (l) Part 51 contains rules... radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101 governs the operation of...

  17. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to operate in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, adjudicatory proceedings including hearing... contains rules relating to miscellaneous wireless communications services. (l) Part 51 contains rules... radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101 governs the operation of...

  18. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to operate in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, adjudicatory proceedings including hearing... contains rules relating to miscellaneous wireless communications services. (l) Part 51 contains rules... radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101 governs the operation of...

  19. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the... the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the ULS....

  20. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the.... Subpart F includes the rules for the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for...

  1. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes the... the Wireless Telecommunications Services and the procedures for filing electronically via the ULS....

  2. Applications of pulse radiolysis to imaging sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Meisel, D.

    1996-05-01

    Pulse radiolysis has been used over the last 3 decades to study a variety of physical and chemical systems, including those relevant to imaging processes. This review outlines the similarities between photolysis and radiolysis and highlight the differences. It focuses on time-resolved variants of the two disciplines, flash photolysis vs pulse radiolysis. The strength (and weakness) of the radiolytic techniques is their nonspecificity; the energy is always absorbed by the solvent and not the solute. Radiation chemistry principles that were developed for one discipline are easily transportable to another. The pulse radiolysis technique with a wide arsenal of detection techniques is currently used to identify short-lived intermediates and to determine their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into the behavior of physical systems. We demonstrate the utility of the approach in several areas of interest to imaging sciences: clustering of silver atoms, growth of silver halides, and medium effects on these systems.

  3. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. Methods We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. Results In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. Conclusion In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary. PMID:18215290

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body MR imaging: principles, technique, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Alsabban, Zehour; Babyn, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is an emerging technique in body imaging that provides indirect information about the microenvironment of tissues and lesions and helps detect, characterize, and follow up abnormalities. Two main challenges in the application of DW imaging to body imaging are the decreased signal-to-noise ratio of body tissues compared with neuronal tissues due to their shorter T2 relaxation time, and image degradation related to physiologic motion (eg, respiratory motion). Use of smaller b values and newer motion compensation techniques allow the evaluation of anatomic structures with DW imaging. DW imaging can be performed as a breath-hold sequence or a free-breathing sequence with or without respiratory triggering. Depending on the mobility of water molecules in their microenvironment, different normal tissues have different signals at DW imaging. Some normal tissues (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, ovarian and testicular parenchyma) are diffusion restricted, whereas others (eg, gallbladder, corpora cavernosa, endometrium, cartilage) show T2 shine-through. Epiphyses that contain fatty marrow and bone cortex appear dark on both DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Current and emerging applications of DW imaging in pediatric body imaging include tumor detection and characterization, assessment of therapy response and monitoring of tumors, noninvasive detection and grading of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, detection of abscesses, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24819803

  5. Applications of computer modeling to engineer better part quality

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, E.C.; Bernhardt, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Modern computer modeling tools can help define the best way to produce quality injection molded parts. They provide a way to quickly evaluate different processing options, taking into consideration part geometry, resin characteristics, process variability and plant economics. They are tools for optimizing the technical and economic aspects of producing consistent quality parts. The uses of computer models are discussed here.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p....

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to be... Contracts, Part III of Executive Order 11246 (September 24, 1965), 3 CFR 1964—65 Comp., p. 345... 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), 40 CFR part 1500, as implemented by (45 FR 20694, March...

  10. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appendix A of this part. Financial assistance, as used in this part, includes the grant or loan of money...) Money paid, property transferred, or other assistance extended before the effective date of this part... on the grounds of race, color, or national origin in a program or activity receiving...

  11. X-ray imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  12. 7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart V of 7 CFR part 3015, Intergovernmental... to this part, the Secretary will comply with subpart B of 7 CFR part 1806. The Secretary has not... 11738; and 40 CFR part 32. The Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to ...

  13. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices. PMID:26614557

  14. An open source application framework for astronomical imaging pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, T.; Kantor, J.; Lupton, R. H.; Pierfederici, F.

    2010-07-01

    The LSST Data Management System is built on an open source software framework that has middleware and application layers. The middleware layer provides capabilities to construct, configure, and manage pipelines on clusters of processing nodes, and to manage the data the pipelines consume and produce. It is not in any way specific to astronomical applications. The complementary application layer provides the building blocks for constructing pipelines that process astronomical data, both in image and catalog forms. The application layer does not directly depend upon the LSST middleware, and can readily be used with other middleware implementations. Both layers have object oriented designs that make the creation of more specialized capabilities relatively easy through class inheritance. This paper outlines the structure of the LSST application framework and explores its usefulness for constructing pipelines outside of the LSST context, two examples of which are discussed. The classes that the framework provides are related within a domain model that is applicable to any astronomical pipeline that processes imaging data. Specifically modeled are mosaic imaging sensors; the images from these sensors and the transformations that result as they are processed from raw sensor readouts to final calibrated science products; and the wide variety of catalogs that are produced by detecting and measuring astronomical objects in a stream of such images. The classes are implemented in C++ with Python bindings provided so that pipelines can be constructed in any desired mixture of C++ and Python.

  15. Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huxford-Phillips, Rachel C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted. PMID:22234515

  16. RNA imaging in living cells – methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Martyna O; Galka-Marciniak, Paulina; Olejniczak, Marta; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2014-01-01

    Numerous types of transcripts perform multiple functions in cells, and these functions are mainly facilitated by the interactions of the RNA with various proteins and other RNAs. Insight into the dynamics of RNA biosynthesis, processing and cellular activities is highly desirable because this knowledge will deepen our understanding of cell physiology and help explain the mechanisms of RNA-mediated pathologies. In this review, we discuss the live RNA imaging systems that have been developed to date. We highlight information on the design of these systems, briefly discuss their advantages and limitations and provide examples of their numerous applications in various organisms and cell types. We present a detailed examination of one application of RNA imaging systems: this application aims to explain the role of mutant transcripts in human disease pathogenesis caused by triplet repeat expansions. Thus, this review introduces live RNA imaging systems and provides a glimpse into their various applications. PMID:25483044

  17. Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Chang Qiang; Chen, Tian Wu; Tang, Meng Yue; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. The lack of early detection and effective interventions is the main reason. Therefore, considerable ongoing efforts aimed at identifying early PC are currently being pursued using a variety of methods. In recent years, the development of molecular imaging has made the specific targeting of PC in the early stage possible. Molecular imaging seeks to directly visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Among different imaging technologies, the magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging has potential in this regard because it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of PC. This topic is reviewed in terms of the contrast agents for MR molecular imaging, the biomarkers related to PC, targeted molecular probes for MRI, and the application of MRI in the diagnosis of PC. PMID:26579537

  18. 49 CFR 1182.1 - Applications covered by this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passengers. There is no application form for these proceedings. Applicants shall file a pleading containing the information described in 49 CFR 1182.2. See 49 CFR 1002.2(f) (2) and (5) for filing fees....

  19. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  20. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  1. Cardiac imaging: current and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Jankharia, B; Raut, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan have made big inroads as modalities used for evaluation of various pathologies of the heart. Cardiac MRI is typically used for perfusion and viability studies as well as to study various cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases and the pericardium. It has been used in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases over the last two decades. Cardiac CT is used mainly for the evaluation of the coronary arteries, typically in the setting of "to rule out coronary artery disease". PMID:20622392

  2. Applications Of Digital Image Acquisition In Anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Lewis, James L.

    1981-10-01

    Anthropometric data on reach and mobility have traditionally been collected by time consuming and relatively inaccurate manual methods. Three dimensional digital image acquisition promises to radically increase the speed and ease of data collection and analysis. A three-camera video anthropometric system for collecting position, velocity, and force data in real time is under development for the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The use of a prototype of this system for collecting data on reach capabilities and on lateral stability is described. Two extensions of this system are planned.

  3. Application of the real-time Retinex image enhancement for endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hajime; Hara, Shinsuke; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Onoye, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time image enhancement technique for gastric endoscopy, which is based on the variational approach of the Retinex theory. In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost required for image enhancement, processing layers and repeat counts of iterations are determined in accordance with software evaluation result, and as for processing architecture, the pipelining architecture can handle high resolution pictures in real-time. To show its potential, performance comparison between with and without the proposed image enhancement technique is shown using several video images obtained by endoscopy for different parts of digestive organ. PMID:24110460

  4. Preclinical Whole-body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Frederic; Davis, Scott C.; Valdés, Pablo A.; Pogue, Brain W.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence sampling of cellular function is widely used in all aspects of biology, allowing the visualization of cellular and sub-cellular biological processes with spatial resolutions in the range from nanometers up to centimeters. Imaging of fluorescence in vivo has become the most commonly used radiological tool in all pre-clinical work. In the last decade, full-body pre-clinical imaging systems have emerged with a wide range of utilities and niche application areas. The range of fluorescent probes that can be excited in the visible to near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum continues to expand, with the most value for in vivo use being beyond the 630 nm wavelength, because the absorption of light sharply decreases. Whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging has not yet reached a state of maturity that allows its routine use in the scope of large-scale pre-clinical studies. This is in part due to an incomplete understanding of what the actual fundamental capabilities and limitations of this imaging modality are. However, progress is continuously being made in research laboratories pushing the limits of the approach to consistently improve its performance in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification. This paper reviews this imaging technology with a particular emphasis on its potential uses and limitations, the required instrumentation, and the possible imaging geometries and applications. A detailed account of the main commercially available systems is provided as well as some perspective relating to the future of the technology development. Although the vast majority of applications of in vivo small animal imaging are based on epi-illumination planar imaging, the future success of the method relies heavily on the design of novel imaging systems based on state-of-the-art optical technology used in conjunction with high spatial resolution structural modalities such as MRI, CT or ultra-sound. PMID:20031443

  5. Application of optical character recognition in thermal image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W. T.; Sim, K. S.; Tso, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the reliability of the thermal imager compared to other devices that are used in preventive maintenance. Several case studies are used to facilitate the comparisons. When any device is found to perform unsatisfactorily where there is a suspected fault, its short-fall is determined so that the other devices may compensate, if possible. This study discovered that the thermal imager is not suitable or efficient enough for systems that happen to have little contrast in temperature between its parts or small but important parts that have their heat signatures obscured by those from other parts. The thermal imager is also found to be useful for preliminary examinations of certain systems, after which other more economical devices are suitable substitutes for further examinations. The findings of this research will be useful to the design and planning of preventive maintenance routines for industrial benefits.

  6. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  7. High speed global shutter image sensors for professional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xu; Meynants, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Global shutter imagers expand the use to miscellaneous applications, such as machine vision, 3D imaging, medical imaging, space etc. to eliminate motion artifacts in rolling shutter imagers. A low noise global shutter pixel requires more than one non-light sensitive memory to reduce the read noise. But larger memory area reduces the fill-factor of the pixels. Modern micro-lenses technology can compensate this fill-factor loss. Backside illumination (BSI) is another popular technique to improve the pixel fill-factor. But some pixel architecture may not reach sufficient shutter efficiency with backside illumination. Non-light sensitive memory elements make the fabrication with BSI possible. Machine vision like fast inspection system, medical imaging like 3D medical or scientific applications always ask for high frame rate global shutter image sensors. Thanks to the CMOS technology, fast Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be integrated on chip. Dual correlated double sampling (CDS) on chip ADC with high interface digital data rate reduces the read noise and makes more on-chip operation control. As a result, a global shutter imager with digital interface is a very popular solution for applications with high performance and high frame rate requirements. In this paper we will review the global shutter architectures developed in CMOSIS, discuss their optimization process and compare their performances after fabrication.

  8. Nanoparticles for Cardiovascular Imaging and Therapeutic Delivery, Part 1: Compositions and Features.

    PubMed

    Stendahl, John C; Sinusas, Albert J

    2015-10-01

    Imaging agents made from nanoparticles are functionally versatile and have unique properties that may translate to clinical utility in several key cardiovascular imaging niches. Nanoparticles exhibit size-based circulation, biodistribution, and elimination properties different from those of small molecules and microparticles. In addition, nanoparticles provide versatile platforms that can be engineered to create both multimodal and multifunctional imaging agents with tunable properties. With these features, nanoparticulate imaging agents can facilitate fusion of high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging modalities and selectively bind tissues for targeted molecular imaging and therapeutic delivery. Despite their intriguing attributes, nanoparticulate imaging agents have thus far achieved only limited clinical use. The reasons for this restricted advancement include an evolving scope of applications, the simplicity and effectiveness of existing small-molecule agents, pharmacokinetic limitations, safety concerns, and a complex regulatory environment. This review describes general features of nanoparticulate imaging agents and therapeutics and discusses challenges associated with clinical translation. A second, related review to appear in a subsequent issue of JNM highlights nuclear-based nanoparticulate probes in preclinical cardiovascular imaging. PMID:26272808

  9. Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendziora, C. A.; Jones, Robert M.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

    2012-06-01

    We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace analytes and residues (explosives, hazardous chemicals, drugs, etc.) using photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). Herein, we refer to this technique as "RED" for "Remote Explosives Detection" or "Resonance Enhanced Detection". This approach leverages recent developments in critical enabling micro and nano-technology components. The first component, a compact IR quantum cascade laser (QCL), is tuned to fundamental absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate a surface of interest. The second component, an IR focal plane array (FPA), is used to image the surface and detect any small increase in the thermal emission upon laser illumination. We have demonstrated the technique at up to 30 meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). In this manuscript we detail several recent improvements to the method and system, as well as some recent results for explosives on complex substrates such as car panels and fabrics. We also introduce a computational framework for modeling and simulating the optical and thermal phenomena associated with the photothermal process.

  10. Applications for high-speed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Austin A.

    2005-03-01

    The phrase high-speed imaging is generally associated with short exposure times, fast frame rates or both. Supersonic projectiles, for example, are often impossible to see with the unaided eye, and require strobe photography to stop their apparent motion. It is often necessary to image high-speed objects in the infrared region of the spectrum, either to detect them or to measure their surface temperature. Conventional infrared cameras have time constants similar to the human eye, so they too, are often at a loss when it comes to photographing fast-moving hot targets. Other types of targets or scenes such as explosions change very rapidly with time. Visualizing those changes requires an extremely high frame rate combined with short exposure times in order to slow down a dynamic event so that it can be studied and quantified. Recent advances in infrared sensor technology and computing power have pushed the envelope of what is possible to achieve with commercial IR camera systems.

  11. Technique of diffusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Wu; He, Huiguang

    2003-05-01

    To study the application of diffusion weighted imaging and image post processing in the diagnosis of stroke, especially in acute stroke, 205 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner and the images such as T1, T2 and diffusion weighted images were obtained. Image post processing was done with "3D Med System" developed by our lab to analyze data and acquire the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. In acute and subacute stage of stroke, the signal in cerebral infarction areas changed to hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images, normal or hypointensity in T1-weighted images. In hyperacute stage, however, the signal was hyperintense just in the diffusion weighted imaes; others were normal. In the chronic stage, the signal in T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging showed hypointensity and hyperintensity in T2 weighted imaging. Because ADC declined obviously in acute and subacute stage of stroke, the lesion area was hypointensity in ADC map. With the development of the disease, ADC gradually recovered and then changed to hyperintensity in ADC map in chronic stage. Using diffusion weighted imaging and ADC mapping can make a diagnosis of stroke, especially in the hyperacute stage of stroke, and can differentiate acute and chronic stroke.

  12. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  13. A quantum mechanics-based framework for image processing and its application to image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssry, Akram; El-Rafei, Ahmed; Elramly, Salwa

    2015-10-01

    Quantum mechanics provides the physical laws governing microscopic systems. A novel and generic framework based on quantum mechanics for image processing is proposed in this paper. The basic idea is to map each image element to a quantum system. This enables the utilization of the quantum mechanics powerful theory in solving image processing problems. The initial states of the image elements are evolved to the final states, controlled by an external force derived from the image features. The final states can be designed to correspond to the class of the element providing solutions to image segmentation, object recognition, and image classification problems. In this work, the formulation of the framework for a single-object segmentation problem is developed. The proposed algorithm based on this framework consists of four major steps. The first step is designing and estimating the operator that controls the evolution process from image features. The states associated with the pixels of the image are initialized in the second step. In the third step, the system is evolved. Finally, a measurement is performed to determine the output. The presented algorithm is tested on noiseless and noisy synthetic images as well as natural images. The average of the obtained results is 98.5 % for sensitivity and 99.7 % for specificity. A comparison with other segmentation algorithms is performed showing the superior performance of the proposed method. The application of the introduced quantum-based framework to image segmentation demonstrates high efficiency in handling different types of images. Moreover, it can be extended to multi-object segmentation and utilized in other applications in the fields of signal and image processing.

  14. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  15. Smart imaging using laser targeting: a multiple barcodes application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2014-05-01

    To the best of our knowledge, proposed is a novel variable depth of field smart imager design using intelligent laser targeting for high productivity multiple barcodes reading applications. System smartness comes via the use of an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal-Length Lens (ECVFL) to provide an agile pixel (and/or pixel set) within the laser transmitter and optical imaging receiver. The ECVFL in the receiver gives a flexible depth of field that allows clear image capture over a range of barcode locations. Imaging of a 660 nm wavelength laser line illuminated 95-bit one dimensional barcode is experimentally demonstrated via the smart imager for barcode target distances ranging from 10 cm to 54 cm. The smart system captured barcode images are evaluated using a proposed barcode reading algorithm. Experimental results after computer-based post-processing show a nine-fold increase in barcode target distance variation range (i.e., range variation increased from 2.5 cm to 24.5 cm) when compared to a conventional fixed lens imager. Applications for the smart imager include industrial multiple product tracking, marking, and inspection systems.

  16. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium 1910.1027. (7)...

  17. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium 1910.1027. (7)...

  18. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES... Construction and Modernization 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part...

  19. 42 CFR 124.11 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 124.11 Section 124.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES... Construction and Modernization 124.11 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part...

  20. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  1. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section 59.215 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part...

  2. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  3. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  8. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  9. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  10. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  11. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  12. 5 CFR 1208.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1208.3... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT Jurisdiction and Definitions 1208.3 Application of 5 CFR... (Enforcement of Final Decisions and Orders) of 5 CFR part 1201 to appeals governed by this part. The Board...

  13. 5 CFR 1209.3 - Application of 5 CFR part 1201.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of 5 CFR part 1201. 1209.3... WHISTLEBLOWING OR OTHER PROTECTED ACTIVITY Jurisdiction and Definitions 1209.3 Application of 5 CFR part 1201. Except as expressly provided in this part, the Board will apply subparts A, B, C, E, F, and G of 5...

  14. 42 CFR 59.215 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 59.215 Section 59... FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training 59.215 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and...

  15. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section...

  16. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section...

  17. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section...

  18. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section...

  19. 42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45 CFR part 74, establishing uniform administrative requirements and cost principles, shall... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due date MACT standard 10/30/03 Combustion...

  1. 40 CFR 94.703 - Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of 40 CFR part 85... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Recall Regulations 94.703 Applicability of 40 CFR part 85, subpart S. (a) Engines subject to provisions of this part...

  2. 29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section... Standards 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following standards in part 1910 of...-moving vehicles 1910.145; (5) Hazard communication 1910.1200; (6) Cadmium 1910.1027. (7)...

  3. Charge coupled devices for intensified imager applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, D. P.; Walker, J. W.; Breazeale, B. H.; Mercer, H. D.; Collins, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of CCD sensors have been successfully incorporated into ICCD (intensified CCD) tubes. Intensifier tubes of varying design and application have been manufactured by three different manufacturers. Typical characteristics of the thinned CCDs incorporated into these ICCD's will be presented. Problems concerning the compatibility of tube processing and CCD performance will be discussed, as well as the procedures used to minimize CCD degradation during tube processing. ICCD tube characteristics will also be presented.

  4. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  5. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  6. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  7. Surface-Sensitive Mechanical Behavior. Part II: Mechanisms and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Norman H.; Latanision, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    In the first part of this article, brief reviews were given of the atomic-scale mechanisms by which crystalline solids deform and the nature of the interface between such solids and their environment. In this part, the mechanisms of a representative range of surface and environment sensitive mechanical phenomena are explained. (Author/CP)

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) (15 CFR part 930). Endangered Species..., 1979, 3 CFR 1979 Comp., p. 474). Administrative and Fiscal Policy Requirements The Hatch Act (5 U.S.C... Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs, 10 CFR part 1040 (45 FR 40514, June 13, 1980), as proposed to...

  9. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  10. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    PubMed Central

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  11. Strain Imaging: From Physiology to Practical Applications in Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Nishtha; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Non-Doppler, 2-dimensional strain imaging is a new echocardiographic technique for obtaining strain and strain rate measurements, which serves as a major advancement in understanding myocardial deformation. It analyzes motion in ultrasound imaging by tracking speckles in 2 dimensions. There are a lot of data emerging with multiple applications of strain imaging in the clinical practice of echocardiography. As incorporation of strain imaging in daily practice has been challenging, we intend to systematically highlight the top 10 applications of speckle-tracking echocardiography, which every cardiologist should be aware of: chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, left ventricular assessment, cardiac amyloidosis, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, right ventricular dysfunction, valvular heart diseases (aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation), cardiac sarcoidosis, athlete heart, left atrial assessment, and cardiac dyssynchrony. PMID:25839992

  12. Investigating clutter reduction for unmanned systems applications using imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, Jonathan B.; Aycock, Todd M.; Chenault, David B.

    2014-06-01

    The proliferation of unmanned systems in recent years has sparked increased interest in multiple areas of research for on-board image processing including autonomous navigation, surveillance, detection, and tracking to name a few. For these applications, techniques for reducing scene clutter provide an increased level of robustness for autonomous systems and reduced operator burden for tele-operated systems. Because imaging polarimetry frequently provides complementary information to the standard radiometric image, it is anticipated that this technology is well suited to provide a significant reduction in scene clutter. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of imaging polarimetry under a number of representative scenarios to assess the utility of this technology for unmanned system applications.

  13. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography-part 2: image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Correia, Teresa; Koch, Maximilian; Ale, Angelique; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Arridge, Simon

    2016-02-21

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. We propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. Furthermore, structural information can be incorporated into the image reconstruction with PAD-WT to improve image quality and resolution. In this case, the weights used to average voxels in the image are calculated using the structural image, instead of the fluorescence image. The regularisation strength depends on both structural and fluorescence images, which guarantees that the method can preserve fluorescence information even when it is not structurally visible in the anatomical images. In part 1, we tested the method using a denoising problem. Here, we use simulated and in vivo mouse fDOT data to assess the algorithm performance. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides high quality and noise free images, superior to those obtained using AD. PMID:26808190

  14. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography—part 2: image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Teresa; Koch, Maximilian; Ale, Angelique; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Arridge, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. We propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. Furthermore, structural information can be incorporated into the image reconstruction with PAD-WT to improve image quality and resolution. In this case, the weights used to average voxels in the image are calculated using the structural image, instead of the fluorescence image. The regularisation strength depends on both structural and fluorescence images, which guarantees that the method can preserve fluorescence information even when it is not structurally visible in the anatomical images. In part 1, we tested the method using a denoising problem. Here, we use simulated and in vivo mouse fDOT data to assess the algorithm performance. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides high quality and noise free images, superior to those obtained using AD.

  15. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  16. Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoliang; Shi, Weisong; Gao, Wanrong

    2015-11-01

    We present an imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (IMcmOCT) technique for in vivo blood vessels imaging. In the conventional correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) method, two adjacent frames of intensity-based structural images are correlated to extract blood flow information and the size of correlation window has to be increased to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of microcirculation maps, which may cause image blur and miss the small blood vessels. In the IMcmOCT method, the imaginary part of a depth-resolved complex analytic signal in two adjacent B-scans is correlated to reconstruct microcirculation maps. Both phantom and in vivo experiments were implemented to demonstrate that the proposed method can provide improved sensitivity for extracting blood flow information in small vessels. PMID:26618523

  17. Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoliang; Shi, Weisong; Gao, Wanrong

    2015-11-01

    We present an imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (IMcmOCT) technique for in vivo blood vessels imaging. In the conventional correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) method, two adjacent frames of intensity-based structural images are correlated to extract blood flow information and the size of correlation window has to be increased to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of microcirculation maps, which may cause image blur and miss the small blood vessels. In the IMcmOCT method, the imaginary part of a depth-resolved complex analytic signal in two adjacent B-scans is correlated to reconstruct microcirculation maps. Both phantom and in vivo experiments were implemented to demonstrate that the proposed method can provide improved sensitivity for extracting blood flow information in small vessels.

  18. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mainprize, James G.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge; Jong, Roberta A.; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background clutter that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

  19. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  20. The application of high-speed digital image correlation.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

    2008-02-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method of using digital images to calculate two-dimensional displacement and deformation or for stereo systems three-dimensional shape, displacement, and deformation. While almost any imaging system can be used with DIC, there are some important challenges when working with the technique in high- and ultra-high-speed applications. This article discusses three of these challenges: camera sensor technology, camera frame rate, and camera motion mitigation. Potential solutions are treated via three demonstration experiments showing the successful application of high-speed DIC for dynamic events. The application and practice of DIC at high speeds, rather than the experimental results themselves, provide the main thrust of the discussion.

  1. Design and Applications of Bispecific Heterodimers: Molecular Imaging and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-based molecular imaging probes have been designed with high affinity and specificity for monitoring biological process and responses. Single-target recognition by traditional probes can limit their applicability for disease detection and therapy because synergistic action between disease mediators and different receptors is often involved in disease progression. Consequently, probes that can recognize multiple targets should demonstrate higher targeting efficacy and specificity than their monospecific peers. This concept has been validated by multiple bispecific heterodimer-based imaging probes that have demonstrated promising results in several animal models. This review summarizes the design strategies for bispecific peptide- and antibody-based heterodimers and their applications in molecular targeting and imaging. The design and application of bispecific heterodimer-conjugated nanomaterials are also discussed. PMID:24738564

  2. Phase Sensitive X-Ray Imaging: Towards its Interdisciplinary Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottler, C.; Revol, V.; Kaufmann, R.; Urban, C.; Knop, K.; Sennhauser, U.; Jerjen, I.; Lüthi, T.; Cardot, F.; Niedermann, P.; Morel, J.-P.; Maake, C.; Walt, H.; Knop, E.; Blanc, N.

    2010-04-01

    X-ray phase imaging including phase tomography has been attracting increasing attention during the past few decades. The advantage of X-ray phase imaging is that an extremely high sensitivity is achieved for weakly absorbing materials, such as biological soft tissues, which generate a poor contrast by conventional schemes. Especially for such living samples, where the reduction of the applied dose is of paramount interest, phase sensitive measurements schemes have an inherent potential for a significant dose reduction combined with an image quality enhancement. Several methods have been invented for x-ray phase contrast imaging that either use an approach based on interferometry, diffraction or wave-field propagation. Some of these techniques have a potential for commercial applications, such as in medicine, non-destructive testing, security and inspection. The scope of this manuscript thus deals with one particular such technique that measures the diffraction caused by the specimen by means of a grating interferometer. Examples of measurements are shown that depict the potential of phase contrast imaging for future commercial applications, such as in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and inspection for quality control. The current state of the technology is briefly reviewed as well as its shortcomings to be overcome with regard to the applications.

  3. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  4. Development of prototype shielded cervical intracavitary brachytherapy applicators compatible with CT and MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Michael J.; Jackson, Edward F.; Gifford, Kent A.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is an integral part of the treatment regimen for cervical cancer and, generally, outcome in terms of local disease control and complications is a function of dose to the disease bed and critical structures, respectively. Therefore, it is paramount to accurately determine the dose given via ICBT to the tumor bed as well as critical structures. This is greatly facilitated through the use of advanced three-dimensional imaging modalities, such as CT and MR, to delineate critical and target structures with an ICBT applicator inserted in vivo. These methods are not possible when using a shielded applicator due to the image artifacts generated by interovoid shielding. The authors present two prototype shielded ICBT applicators that can be utilized for artifact-free CT image acquisition. They also investigate the MR amenability and dosimetry of a novel tungsten-alloy shielding material to extend the functionality of these devices. Methods: To accomplish artifact-free CT image acquisition, a ''step-and-shoot'' (S and S) methodology was utilized, which exploits the prototype applicators movable interovoid shielding. Both prototypes were placed in imaging phantoms that positioned the applicators in clinically applicable orientations. CT image sets were acquired of the prototype applicators as well as a shielded Fletcher-Williamson (sFW) ovoid. Artifacts present in each CT image set were qualitatively compared for each prototype applicator following the S and S methodology and the sFW. To test the novel tungsten-alloy shielding material's MR amenability, they constructed a phantom applicator that mimics the basic components of an ICBT ovoid. This phantom applicator positions the MR-compatible shields in orientations equivalent to the sFW bladder and rectal shields. MR images were acquired within a gadopentetate dimeglumine-doped water tank using standard pulse sequences and examined for artifacts. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to match the attenuation due to the thickness of this new shield type with current, clinically utilized ovoid shields and a {sup 192}Ir HDR/PDR source. Results: Artifact-free CT images could be acquired of both generation applicators in a clinically applicable geometry using the S and S method. MR images were acquired of the phantom applicator containing shields, which contained minimal, clinically relevant artifacts. The thickness required to match the dosimetry of the MR-compatible and sFW rectal shields was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusions: Utilizing a S and S imaging method in conjunction with prototype applicators that feature movable interovoid shields, they were able to acquire artifact-free CT image sets in a clinically applicable geometry. MR images were acquired of a phantom applicator that contained shields composed of a novel tungsten alloy. Artifacts were largely limited to regions within the ovoid cap and are of no clinical interest. The second generation A{sup 3} utilizes this material for interovoid shielding.

  5. A Very Low Bandwidth, Unattended Imager For Surveillance Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichel, P. H.; Jakowatz, C. V.

    1986-12-01

    The need arises in certain vehicular surveillance applications for an electronic imager that can perform without human interaction and can transmit definitive images over very low bandwidth channels. The investigators have found that line scan imagers offer particular advantages toward these ends. Specifically, the use of a line scan imager facilitates the following processing steps: 1) Segmentation of the vehicle from the background, 2) Auto-matic exposure control, 3) Light level equalization prior to quantization, and 4) Implementation of an adaptive sampling scheme. These processing steps together with the source encoder may be implemented on a relatively low throughput processor and achieve near real time operation. The specific encoding method used here is an extended differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). A prototype system has been developed, producing medium resolution images at less than 10K bits per frame.

  6. Image fusion technology for security and surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Tom; Smith, Moira

    2006-09-01

    Image fusion technology offers a range of potential benefits to the security and surveillance community, including increased situational awareness and enhanced detection capabilities. This paper reports on how image fusion technology is being adapted from the military arena (in which it is generally found today) to provide a new and powerful asset in the fight against crime and terrorism. The combination of detection and tracking processing with image fusion is discussed and assessed. Finally, a number of specific examples are presented which include land, air, and sea applications.

  7. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches can offer novel insight into PVD by providing noninvasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This article discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment. PMID:26590787

  8. X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shedlock, Daniel; Edwards, Talion; Toh, Chin

    2011-06-23

    Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

  9. Applications of digital image acquisition in anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.; Lewis, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a video kinesimeter, a device for the automatic real-time collection of kinematic and dynamic data. Based on the detection of a single bright spot by three TV cameras, the system provides automatic real-time recording of three-dimensional position and force data. It comprises three cameras, two incandescent lights, a voltage comparator circuit, a central control unit, and a mass storage device. The control unit determines the signal threshold for each camera before testing, sequences the lights, synchronizes and analyzes the scan voltages from the three cameras, digitizes force from a dynamometer, and codes the data for transmission to a floppy disk for recording. Two of the three cameras face each other along the 'X' axis; the third camera, which faces the center of the line between the first two, defines the 'Y' axis. An image from the 'Y' camera and either 'X' camera is necessary for determining the three-dimensional coordinates of the point.

  10. Application of tomographic imaging to stability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maleki, Hamid; Johnston, J.

    1996-12-01

    Roof falls are one of the leading ground control problems that adversely influence productivity and worker safety in underground mines, constriction sites, and nuclear waste repositories. To control roof stability problems, the operator needs to have practical methods for measuring changes in strata conditions and criteria for defining the timing of secondary support installation. The objective of this study was to develop measurement techniques and criteria for assessing roof conditions at the mining face. An integrated rock deformation and tomographic imaging method was developed and amplified at two sites in a western U.S. trona mine. It was shown that rock damage occurred at a deformation of 30 to 60 mm (1.2 to 2.4 in) (2 to 4 pct strain) and was associated with a significant (16 pct) reduction in wave velocity. Thus, supplementary support may be installed when there is a measured change in wave velocity of at least 16 pct. Tomographic measurements can be obtained in rocks rapidly, thus providing a powerful tool for analyzing growth of failure and for installing supplementary support systems in a timely manner.

  11. The future of imaging spectroscopy - Prospective technologies and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaepman, M.E.; Green, R.O.; Ungar, S.G.; Curtiss, B.; Boardman, J.; Plaza, A.J.; Gao, B.-C.; Ustin, S.; Kokaly, R.; Miller, J.R.; Jacquemoud, S.; Ben-Dor, E.; Clark, R.; Davis, C.; Dozier, J.; Goodenough, D.G.; Roberts, D.; Swayze, G.; Milton, E.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new applications monitoring transitional ecological zones, where human impact and disturbance have highest impact as well as in monitoring changes in our natural resources and environment We conclude that imaging spectroscopy enables mapping of biophysical and biochemical variables of the Earth's surface and atmospheric composition with unprecedented accuracy.

  12. [Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and its Application in Ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Lindner, T; Langner, S; Paul, K; Pohlmann, A; Hadlich, S; Niendorf, T; Jnemann, A; Guthoff, R F; Stachs, O

    2015-12-01

    The value of diffusion-weighted magnet resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) has been demonstrated for an ever growing range of clinical indications. DWI is sensitive to the diffusion of water molecules and probes their random displacement within tissue. DWI provides both qualitative and quantitative information on tissue characteristics, e.g. tissue cellularity. This review provides an overview of diffusion-weighted imaging and its emerging applications in ophthalmology. The basic physics and technical foundations of DWI are introduced. The emerging applications of DWI are surveyed, particularly in diseases of the eye, orbit and optical nerve. PMID:26678901

  13. Body Parts Dependent Joint Regressors for Human Pose Estimation in Still Images.

    PubMed

    Dantone, Matthias; Gall, Juergen; Leistner, Christian; Van Gool, Luc

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we address the problem of estimating 2d human pose from still images. Articulated body pose estimation is challenging due to the large variation in body poses and appearances of the different body parts. Recent methods that rely on the pictorial structure framework have shown to be very successful in solving this task. They model the body part appearances using discriminatively trained, independent part templates and the spatial relations of the body parts using a tree model. Within such a framework, we address the problem of obtaining better part templates which are able to handle a very high variation in appearance. To this end, we introduce parts dependent body joint regressors which are random forests that operate over two layers. While the first layer acts as an independent body part classifier, the second layer takes the estimated class distributions of the first one into account and is thereby able to predict joint locations by modeling the interdependence and co-occurrence of the parts. This helps to overcome typical ambiguities of tree structures, such as self-similarities of legs and arms. In addition, we introduce a novel data set termed FashionPose that contains over 7,000 images with a challenging variation of body part appearances due to a large variation of dressing styles. In the experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed parts dependent joint regressors outperform independent classifiers or regressors. The method also performs better or similar to the state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy, while running with a couple of frames per second. PMID:26353056

  14. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  15. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organization, or (e) any procurement of goods or services, including the procurement of training. This part... limitation nor does not bar special treatment including special courses of training, orientation...

  16. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organization, or (e) any procurement of goods or services, including the procurement of training. This part... limitation nor does not bar special treatment including special courses of training, orientation...

  17. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries,...

  18. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries,...

  19. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries,...

  20. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs are halogenated organic compounds defined in accordance with 40 CFR 761.3. (f... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries,...

  1. View-invariant, partially occluded human detection in still images using part bases and random forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Son, Jung Eun; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a part-based human detection method that is invariant to variations in the view of the human and partial occlusion by other objects. First, to address the view variance, parts are extracted from three views: frontal-rear, left profile, and right profile. Then a random set of rectangular parts are extracted from the upper, middle, and lower body as the distribution of Gaussian. Second, an individual part classifier is constructed using random forests across all parts extracted from the three views. From the part locations of each view, part vectors (PVs) are generated and part bases (PB) are also formalized by clustering PVs with their weights of each PB. For testing, a PV for the frontal-rear view is estimated using trained part detectors and is then applied to the trained PB for each view class. Then the distance is computed between the PB and PVs. After applying the same process to the other two views, the final human and its view having the minimum score are selected. The proposed method is applied to pedestrian datasets and its detection precision is, on average, 0.14 higher than related methods, while achieving a faster or comparable processing time with an average of 1.85 s per image.

  2. On combining image-based and ontological semantic dissimilarities for medical image retrieval applications.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Camille; Depeursinge, Adrien; Napel, Sandy; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-10-01

    Computer-assisted image retrieval applications can assist radiologists by identifying similar images in archives as a means to providing decision support. In the classical case, images are described using low-level features extracted from their contents, and an appropriate distance is used to find the best matches in the feature space. However, using low-level image features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases is challenging and the semantic gap between these features and the high-level visual concepts in radiology may impair the system performance. To deal with this issue, the use of semantic terms to provide high-level descriptions of radiological image contents has recently been advocated. Nevertheless, most of the existing semantic image retrieval strategies are limited by two factors: they require manual annotation of the images using semantic terms and they ignore the intrinsic visual and semantic relationships between these annotations during the comparison of the images. Based on these considerations, we propose an image retrieval framework based on semantic features that relies on two main strategies: (1) automatic "soft" prediction of ontological terms that describe the image contents from multi-scale Riesz wavelets and (2) retrieval of similar images by evaluating the similarity between their annotations using a new term dissimilarity measure, which takes into account both image-based and ontological term relations. The combination of these strategies provides a means of accurately retrieving similar images in databases based on image annotations and can be considered as a potential solution to the semantic gap problem. We validated this approach in the context of the retrieval of liver lesions from computed tomographic (CT) images and annotated with semantic terms of the RadLex ontology. The relevance of the retrieval results was assessed using two protocols: evaluation relative to a dissimilarity reference standard defined for pairs of images on a 25-images dataset, and evaluation relative to the diagnoses of the retrieved images on a 72-images dataset. A normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) score of more than 0.92 was obtained with the first protocol, while AUC scores of more than 0.77 were obtained with the second protocol. This automatical approach could provide real-time decision support to radiologists by showing them similar images with associated diagnoses and, where available, responses to therapies. PMID:25036769

  3. On combining image-based and ontological semantic dissimilarities for medical image retrieval applications

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Camille; Depeursinge, Adrien; Napel, Sandy; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted image retrieval applications can assist radiologists by identifying similar images in archives as a means to providing decision support. In the classical case, images are described using low-level features extracted from their contents, and an appropriate distance is used to find the best matches in the feature space. However, using low-level image features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases is challenging and the semantic gap between these features and the high-level visual concepts in radiology may impair the system performance. To deal with this issue, the use of semantic terms to provide high-level descriptions of radiological image contents has recently been advocated. Nevertheless, most of the existing semantic image retrieval strategies are limited by two factors: they require manual annotation of the images using semantic terms and they ignore the intrinsic visual and semantic relationships between these annotations during the comparison of the images. Based on these considerations, we propose an image retrieval framework based on semantic features that relies on two main strategies: (1) automatic “soft” prediction of ontological terms that describe the image contents from multi-scale Riesz wavelets and (2) retrieval of similar images by evaluating the similarity between their annotations using a new term dissimilarity measure, which takes into account both image-based and ontological term relations. The combination of these strategies provides a means of accurately retrieving similar images in databases based on image annotations and can be considered as a potential solution to the semantic gap problem. We validated this approach in the context of the retrieval of liver lesions from computed tomographic (CT) images and annotated with semantic terms of the RadLex ontology. The relevance of the retrieval results was assessed using two protocols: evaluation relative to a dissimilarity reference standard defined for pairs of images on a 25-images dataset, and evaluation relative to the diagnoses of the retrieved images on a 72-images dataset. A normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) score of more than 0.92 was obtained with the first protocol, while AUC scores of more than 0.77 were obtained with the second protocol. This automatical approach could provide real-time decision support to radiologists by showing them similar images with associated diagnoses and, where available, responses to therapies. PMID:25036769

  4. A martian case study of segmenting images automatically for granulometry and sedimentology, Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunatillake, Suniti; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Husch, Jonathan M.; Hardgrove, Craig; Skok, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    In planetary exploration, delineating individual grains in images via segmentation is a key path to sedimentological comparisons with the extensive terrestrial literature. Samples that contain a substantial fine grain component, common at Meridiani and Gusev at Mars, would involve prohibitive effort if attempted manually. Unavailability of physical samples also precludes standard terrestrial methods such as sieving. Furthermore, planetary scientists have been thwarted by the dearth of segmentation algorithms customized for planetary applications, including Mars, and often rely on sub-optimal solutions adapted from medical software. We address this with an original algorithm optimized to segment whole images from the Microscopic Imager of the Mars Exploration Rovers. While our code operates with minimal human guidance, its default parameters can be modified easily for different geologic settings and imagers on Earth and other planets, such as the Curiosity Rovers Mars Hand Lens Instrument. We assess the algorithms robustness in a companion work.

  5. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information. PMID:15347692

  6. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1400 - Application for advance approval under part 73.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... devices must comply with any applicable provisions of subpart H, part 15 of the FCC Rules for TV interface devices. (e) No modifications may be made by either the applicant or the user of a system having...

  8. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  9. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  10. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mainprize, James G.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Ebrahimi, Mehran; Jong, Roberta A.; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

  11. Flat-panel imaging system for fluoroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeth, Richard E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Day, Derek J.; Gilblom, David L.; Harris, Richard A.; Job, Isaias D.; Klausmeier-Brown, Martin E.; Pavkovich, John M.; Seppi, Edward J.; Shapiro, Edward G.; Wright, Michael D.; Yu, Jiann M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a multi-mode, digital imager for real- time x-ray applications. The imager has three modes of operation: low dose fluoroscopy, zoom fluoroscopy, and high resolution radiography. These modes trade-off resolution or field-of-view for frame rate and additionally optimize the sensitivity of the imager to match the x-ray dose used in each mode. This large area sensing technology has a form factor similar to that of a film cassette, no geometric image distortion, no sensitivity to magnetic fields, a very large dynamic range which eliminates repeat shots due to over or under exposure, 12 bit digital output and the ability to switch between operating modes in real-time. The imager, which consists of three modules: the Receptor, the Power Supply and the Command Processor, is intended as a component in a larger imaging system. Preliminary characterization of the prototype imager in fluoroscopic mode at entrance exposure rates down to 2.5 (mu) R/frame, indicates that the DQE(f), MTF and low contrast resolution are comparable to that obtained with an image intensifier tube (IIT) coupled to a video camera.

  12. An adjustable frame-straddling image formation system for PIV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Ouyang, Zhenxing; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    As an important measuring method in velocity measuring field, Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV), which follows the principle of dividing the maximum displacement of tracer particles by the corresponding time, is applied more and more widely in various subjects, and the accuracy of which is influenced by the choice of the time delay to some extent. The existing PIV system usually chooses a fixed time delay, which could not meet the need of the application in measuring the vector of time varying flow field with a relatively high measuring accuracy. Considering the weakness of this, we introduce a new kind of adjustable frame-straddling image formation system for PIV application to improve the accuracy in this paper. The image formation system is implemented mainly because of two parts: a dual CCD camera system which is carefully designed to capture the frame-straddling image pairs of the flow field with an adjustable time delay controlled by the externally trigger signals, and an effective subpixel image registration algorithm, which is used to calculate vector of the time varying flow field on the hardware platform, which generates the two channels of trigger signals with the adjustable time delay according to the instantaneous calculating vector of flow field. Experiments were performed for several time varying flows to verify the effectiveness of the image formation system and the results shows that the accuracy was improved in calculating the vector of the flow field based on such image formation system to some extent.

  13. MEMS scanners for display and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urey, Hakan

    2004-10-01

    Dynamic display and imagin applications demand high performance scanners, which has high frequency (exceeding 10KHz), large scan-angle-mirror-size product (>+/-10deg.mm), good optical surface quality (

  14. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

    2008-03-01

    A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system matched the clinical results. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software has good perspective for application in biomechanical research, which has the advantage of simple optical setup, no-contact, high precision, and no special requirement of test environment.

  15. Bioengineered iron-oxide nanocrystals: Applications in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Brian A.

    Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical and research applications, effectively increasing the imaging sensitivity of MRI. Current clinical MRI applications utilizing SPIO are limited to liver and gastrointestinal imaging, but further bioengineering will expand the capabilities of SPIO enhanced MRI. This thesis presents different methods of bioengineering SPIO contrast agents for MRI applications. In particular, chemical methods are developed to manipulate contrast agent size via aggregation, modify contrast agent surface encapsulation, and biofunctionalize contrast agents for new applications. Contrast agent sizes from 15 nm to 100 nm are synthesized by nanoparticle aggregation, yielding a new method to incrementally size contrast agent sizing for specific applications. Mono- and Diethoxy silane surface chemistries are applied to SPIO to develop quasi-monolayer biocompatible contrast agent surface encapsulations. Finally, biofunctionalization enables two new applications of SPIO contrast agents, as a new MRI-based method to detect inflammation in vivo, and as a bifunctional MRI contrast agent and nanoparticle antigen delivery system.

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63...) Compliance with Opacity/VE Standards No Subpart DDD does not include VE/opacity standards....

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63...) Compliance with Opacity/VE Standards No Subpart DDD does not include VE/opacity standards....

  18. Pipe line pigs have varied applications in operations. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vernooy, B.

    1980-10-01

    In the early days of pipelining, it was discovered that running a swab equipped with leather disks through the line removed paraffin deposited on the pipe wall increasing the flow without increasing the power input. Blades were added to the device later to improve the efficiency of wax removal, which also decreased the number of runs and the cost of pigging. Pig developers learned from their successes as well as their failures. Part 1 of this work focused on the construction and kaliper pigs, and the second part describes the general form and function of the different operational pigs, i.e., calipers, cleaners, and spheres.

  19. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Bjrkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines. PMID:23901144

  20. Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

  1. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-P, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbire, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  2. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  3. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  4. Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

  5. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  6. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study

  7. Application of Imaging Technology to Chicken Carcasses and Hatching Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision technology has been utilized by many sectors of the food and agriculture industry to facilitate sorting, inspection, and field mapping. A specific application, hyperspectral imaging, has been adapted to detect the fertility/early development of hatching eggs and fecal material on chi...

  8. Application of tomographic particle image velocimetry to complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jeremiah

    2011-11-29

    Over the past decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to obtain detailed measurements of the thermal and transport properties of weakly-coupled dusty plasmas. This paper reports on the application of an extension of these techniques, tomographic PIV (tom-PIV), which provides an instantaneous volumetric measurement of the particle transport.

  9. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  10. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook. PMID:26996636

  11. Red Fluorescent Proteins: Advanced Imaging Applications and Future Design

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Subach, Oksana M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years a large series of the advanced red-shifted fluorescent proteins (RFPs) has been developed. These enhanced RFPs provide new possibilities to study biological processes at the levels ranging from single molecules to whole organisms. Herein the relationship between the properties of the RFPs of different phenotypes and their applications to various imaging techniques are described. Existing and emerging imaging approaches are discussed for conventional RFPs, far-red FPs, RFPs with a large Stokes shift, fluorescent timers, irreversibly photoactivatable and reversibly photo-switchable RFPs. Advantages and limitations of specific RFPs for each technique are presented. Recent progress in understanding the chemical transformations of red chromophores allows the future RFP phenotypes and their respective novel imaging applications to be foreseen. PMID:22851529

  12. 17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank Act....

  13. 17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank Act....

  14. 17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank Act....

  15. 17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank Act....

  16. 17 CFR 287.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 11(a) OF THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Asian Development Bank pursuant to section 11(a) of the Asian Development Bank Act....

  17. 7 CFR 15.1 - Purpose and application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded... appendix to this part. They apply to money paid, property transferred, or other Federal financial... assistance by way of insurance or guaranty contract, (2) money paid, property transferred, or...

  18. Intrinsic fluorescence of selenium nanoparticles for cellular imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Khalid, A; Tran, Phong A; Norello, Romina; Simpson, David A; O'Connor, Andrea J; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles hold great potential in contributing to high-resolution bioimaging as well as for biomedical applications. Although, selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated owing to their potential roles in therapeutics, the imaging capability of these NPs has never been explored. This manuscript identifies the intrinsic fluorescence of Se NPs, which is highly beneficial for nanoscale imaging of biological structures. The emission of individual NPs and its evolution with time is explored. The photoluminescence spectra has revealed visible to near infrared emission for Se NPs. The work finally reflects on the role of this intrinsic fluorescence for in vitro imaging and tracking in fibroblast cells, without the need of any additional tags. This technique would overcome the limitations of the conventionally used methods of imaging with tagged fluorescent proteins and dyes, preventing possible adverse cellular effects or phototoxicity caused by the added fluorescent moieties. PMID:26792107

  19. Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

  20. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status

    SciTech Connect

    Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

    1985-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

  2. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  3. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application...

  4. Intrinsic fluorescence of selenium nanoparticles for cellular imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Tran, Phong A.; Norello, Romina; Simpson, David A.; O'Connor, Andrea J.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles hold great potential in contributing to high-resolution bioimaging as well as for biomedical applications. Although, selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated owing to their potential roles in therapeutics, the imaging capability of these NPs has never been explored. This manuscript identifies the intrinsic fluorescence of Se NPs, which is highly beneficial for nanoscale imaging of biological structures. The emission of individual NPs and its evolution with time is explored. The photoluminescence spectra has revealed visible to near infrared emission for Se NPs. The work finally reflects on the role of this intrinsic fluorescence for in vitro imaging and tracking in fibroblast cells, without the need of any additional tags. This technique would overcome the limitations of the conventionally used methods of imaging with tagged fluorescent proteins and dyes, preventing possible adverse cellular effects or phototoxicity caused by the added fluorescent moieties.Nanoparticles hold great potential in contributing to high-resolution bioimaging as well as for biomedical applications. Although, selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated owing to their potential roles in therapeutics, the imaging capability of these NPs has never been explored. This manuscript identifies the intrinsic fluorescence of Se NPs, which is highly beneficial for nanoscale imaging of biological structures. The emission of individual NPs and its evolution with time is explored. The photoluminescence spectra has revealed visible to near infrared emission for Se NPs. The work finally reflects on the role of this intrinsic fluorescence for in vitro imaging and tracking in fibroblast cells, without the need of any additional tags. This technique would overcome the limitations of the conventionally used methods of imaging with tagged fluorescent proteins and dyes, preventing possible adverse cellular effects or phototoxicity caused by the added fluorescent moieties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08771f

  5. 17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicable rules, regulations and forms, shall govern the electronic submission of documents filed or otherwise submitted to the Commission and shall be controlling for an electronic format document in the... Document Format (PDF) attachment to the Form ID filing or by faxing to (202) 504-2474 or (703)...

  6. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance or guarantee. (d) The terms applicant and recipient mean, respectively, one who applies for and... proprietorship as a whole; or (B) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health...)(i) An entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire...

  7. Fuzzy sets, possibility distributions, and their applications to image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to arrive at a unified framework to represent and manipulate colored as well as grey valued digital images in the higher levels of image processing. It was considered important that this framework lend itself to the eventual integration of the various artificial intelligence techniques. Fuzzy Set Theory provided an elegant way to extend the notions developed for black and white images to those for colored/grey-valued images. A priori generalizations of fuzzy sets are proposed, enabling effective application of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The various operations on fuzzy sets and possibility distributions studied are maximum, minimum, complement, sum, product, difference, quotient, and scalar multiplication. It is shown that the semantics of the underlying operations are preserved by the operations induced by them. The fuzzy sets are used to represent colors of the pixels in the colored digital image model; whereas the possibility distributions are used to represent the possible grey values of a pixel in the grey-valued digital image model. Two morphological covariance functions are proposed for effective characterization of images. A space-time efficient algorithm to compute these functions is also presented.

  8. Wideband fractal antennas for holographic imaging and rectenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

    2008-04-01

    At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

  9. Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

    2008-04-18

    At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

  10. [AOTF-Based Imaging Spectrometer and Its Applications in the Identification of Metameric Targets].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Gao, Zhi-fan; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-04-01

    For obtaining spectrum information and space distribution information of metameric targets at the same time, an AOTF-based imaging spectrometer was developed, which consists of a front imaging lens assembly, an AOTF filter imaging module, an AOTF driver, a plane array CCD, an image acquisition card and a PC. Under the control of the PC, a spectral image cube can be obtained by a fast wavelength scanning process, thereby the spectrum information of any point on the image is available. The developed imaging spectrometer, with a spectral range from 550-1,000 nm and a spectral resolution of 2.6 nm (@ 632 nm), and a less than 80 s switch time between any two wavelengths, has the characteristics of no mechanical moving part, low power dissipation and strong vibration resistance. The identification test of true and false roses and the information recovery experiment of altered physical evidence were carried out, The true and false roses were identified and the altered physical evidence was recovered, The experimental results showed that the imaging spectrometer has an excellent ability of identifying metameric targets, indicating a good application prospect. PMID:26197617

  11. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  12. Integration of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the nondestructive inspection of aeronautic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Paoletti, D.; Maldague, X.

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses in the implementation of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the inspection of aeronautics parts. To this aim, a helicopter blade with known defects is inspected with four different techniques: long pulse thermography, pulsed thermography, digital speckle photography (DSP) and holographic interferometry (HI). The first two techniques belongs to the group of infrared imaging techniques, which are based on the analysis of the infrared thermal patterns in order to detect internal anomalies in the material; whilst the last two (DSP and HI) corresponds to the optical imaging techniques which make use of visible light to measure the material response to an applied stress. Both techniques were applied using the active approach, i.e. an external stimulation is applied in order to produce a gradient in either, the thermal and/or displacement field of the material. The results are then compared in order to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each technique.

  13. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... play to the TGRA. (b) Approved gaming equipment and software only. All gaming equipment and...

  14. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... play to the TGRA. (b) Approved gaming equipment and software only. All gaming equipment and...

  15. 42 CFR 56.114 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 56.114 Section 56.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions 56.114 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of...

  16. 42 CFR 56.114 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 56.114 Section 56.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions 56.114 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of...

  17. 42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of...

  18. 42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6 Section 132.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great...

  20. 37 CFR 1.991 - Merger of concurrent reissue application and inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application and inter partes reexamination proceeding. 1.991 Section 1.991 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United States on or After November 29, 1999 Concurrent Proceedings Involving Same Patent in Inter...

  1. 37 CFR 1.991 - Merger of concurrent reissue application and inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application and inter partes reexamination proceeding. 1.991 Section 1.991 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United States on or After November 29, 1999 Concurrent Proceedings Involving Same Patent in Inter...

  2. 37 CFR 1.991 - Merger of concurrent reissue application and inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application and inter partes reexamination proceeding. 1.991 Section 1.991 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United States on or After November 29, 1999 Concurrent Proceedings Involving Same Patent in Inter...

  3. 37 CFR 1.991 - Merger of concurrent reissue application and inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application and inter partes reexamination proceeding. 1.991 Section 1.991 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United States on or After November 29, 1999 Concurrent Proceedings Involving Same Patent in Inter...

  4. 37 CFR 1.991 - Merger of concurrent reissue application and inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application and inter partes reexamination proceeding. 1.991 Section 1.991 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... CASES Inter Partes Reexamination of Patents That Issued From an Original Application Filed in the United States on or After November 29, 1999 Concurrent Proceedings Involving Same Patent in Inter...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 26 - Uniform Certification Application Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform Certification Application Form F Appendix F to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED... F to Part 26Uniform Certification Application Form ER16JN03.053 ER16JN03.054 ER16JN03.055...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 26 - Uniform Certification Application Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform Certification Application Form F Appendix F to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED... F to Part 26Uniform Certification Application Form ER16JN03.053 ER16JN03.054 ER16JN03.055...

  7. 40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and duration of this part. 766.2 Section 766.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions 766.2 Applicability and duration of this part. (a) Chemical...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  10. 10 CFR 1016.41 - Continued applicability of the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued applicability of the regulations in this part. 1016.41 Section 1016.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 1016.41 Continued applicability of the regulations in this part....

  11. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6 Section 132.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great...

  12. 22 CFR 63.2 - Applicability of this part under special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of this part under special circumstances. 63.2 Section 63.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM 63.2 Applicability of this part under...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet...

  18. 10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations. 603.125 Section 603.125 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations. (a) TIAs are explicitly covered in...

  19. Interpretation of Medical Imaging Data with a Mobile Application: A Mobile Digital Imaging Processing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J.; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; Janke, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services. PMID:23847587

  20. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services. PMID:23847587