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1

Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 2  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has continued to develop into a powerful clinical tool to visualize venous structures and iron in the brain and to study diverse pathologic conditions. SWI offers a unique contrast, different from spin attenuation, T1, T2, and T2* (see Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1). In this clinical review (Part 2), we present a variety of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications for SWI, covering trauma, stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, venous anomalies, multiple sclerosis, and tumors. We conclude that SWI often offers complementary information valuable in the diagnosis and potential treatment of patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:19131406

Mittal, S.; Wu, Z.; Neelavalli, J.; Haacke, E.M.

2013-01-01

2

Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 3. The neuro-oncologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality in the management of brain tumours. Imaging biomarkers continue to be a focus of active investigation and there is increasing evidence of the utility of biomarkers in refining the overall management plan. This article briefly reviews the literature and outlines the possible clinical applications of imaging biomarkers in neuro-oncology. PMID:22433830

Shenoy, A

2011-01-01

3

Interferometry by deconvolution: Part 2 --Theory for elastic waves and application to drill-bit seismic imaging  

E-print Network

Interferometry by deconvolution: Part 2 -- Theory for elastic waves and application to drill-bit seismic imaging Ivan Vasconcelos1 and Roel Snieder2 ABSTRACT Deconvolution interferometry successfully in elastic media.As in the acoustic case, elas- tic deconvolution interferometry retrieves only causal scat

Snieder, Roel

4

A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.  

PubMed

This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×?) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1). PMID:22840977

Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

2012-11-01

5

Parts application handbook study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

1978-01-01

6

User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

1986-01-01

7

Range Imaging without Moving Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected from the target would be focused by the receiver optical system onto an array of optical fibers matching the array in the transmitter. These optical fibers would couple the received light to one or more photodetector( s). Optionally, the receiver could include solid-state optical switches for choosing which optical fiber(s) would couple light to the photodetector(s). This instrument architecture is flexible and can be optimized for a wide variety of applications and levels of performance. For example, it is scalable to any number of pixels and pixel resolutions and is compatible with a variety of ranging and photodetection methodologies, including, for example, ranging by use of modulated (including pulsed and encoded) light signals. The use of fixed arrays of optical fibers to generate controlled illumination patterns would eliminate the mechanical complexity and much of the bulk of optomechanical scanning assemblies. Furthermore, digital control of the selection of the fiber-optic pathways for the transmitted beams could afford capabilities not seen in previous three-dimensional range-imaging systems. Instruments of this type could be specialized for use as, for example, proximity detectors, three-dimensional robotic vision systems, airborne terrain-mapping systems, and inspection systems.

Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

2008-01-01

8

The future of hybrid imaging—part 1: hybrid imaging technologies and SPECT\\/CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1990s, hybrid imaging by means of software and hardware image fusion alike allows the intrinsic combination of functional\\u000a and anatomical image information. This review summarises in three parts the state-of-the-art of dual-technique imaging, with\\u000a a focus on clinical applications. We will attempt to highlight selected areas of potential improvement of combined imaging\\u000a technologies and new applications. In this

Thomas Beyer; Lutz S. Freudenberg; David W. Townsend; Johannes Czernin

2011-01-01

9

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers bolts, rivets, screws, studs, nuts and washers, including their types, applications and installation methods. Technical drawings and other illustrations are included in the presentation. This is part one of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

10

Industrial Applications of Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

2014-11-01

11

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers solid rivets, including their identification, installation and how they are used in fuselage repair. Materials selection and testing of aerospace fasteners is also included, along with the basic applications and needs of aerospace fasteners. Illustrative drawings and photographs are included in the presentation. This is part two of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

12

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

13

Parallelism for imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous image processing functions involve repetitive operations and therefore can benefit from parallel processing, where performance may be significantly improved as a function of the number of processors applied to the task. One such application that requires processing to be as near to real-time as possible is vision processing and, in particular, low level vision processing. A system developed by

M. P. Battaglia

1993-01-01

14

Adrenal imaging (Part 1): Imaging techniques and primary cortical lesions  

PubMed Central

Adrenal glands can be affected by a variety of lesions. Adrenal lesions can either be primary, of adrenal origin, or secondary to other pathologies. Primary adrenal lesions can further be either of cortical or medullary origin. Functioning adrenal lesions can also give clues to the histologic diagnosis and direct workup. Over the years, various imaging techniques have been developed that have increased diagnostic accuracy and helped in better characterization of adrenal lesions non-invasively. In the first part of the two part series, we review adrenal imaging techniques and adrenal cortical tumors such as adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, adrenal hyperplasia and oncocytomas. PMID:25593820

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Dhamija, Ekta; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, A. K.

2015-01-01

15

Adrenal imaging (Part 1): Imaging techniques and primary cortical lesions.  

PubMed

Adrenal glands can be affected by a variety of lesions. Adrenal lesions can either be primary, of adrenal origin, or secondary to other pathologies. Primary adrenal lesions can further be either of cortical or medullary origin. Functioning adrenal lesions can also give clues to the histologic diagnosis and direct workup. Over the years, various imaging techniques have been developed that have increased diagnostic accuracy and helped in better characterization of adrenal lesions non-invasively. In the first part of the two part series, we review adrenal imaging techniques and adrenal cortical tumors such as adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, adrenal hyperplasia and oncocytomas. PMID:25593820

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J; Dhamija, Ekta; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, A K

2015-01-01

16

CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

17

An Ultrasonic Adaptive Beamforming Method and its Application for Trans-skull Imaging of Certain Types of Head Injuries; Part I: Transmission Mode.  

PubMed

A new adaptive beamforming algorithm for imaging via small-aperture one-dimensional ultrasonic phased arrays through composite layered structures is reported. Such structures cause acoustic phase aberration and wave refraction at undulating interfaces and can lead to significant distortion of an ultrasonic field pattern produced by conventional beamforming techniques. This distortion takes the form of defocusing the ultrasonic field transmitted through the barrier and causes loss of resolution and overall degradation of image quality. To compensate for the phase aberration and the refractional effects, we developed and examined an adaptive beamforming algorithm for small-aperture linear phased arrays. After accurately assessing the barrier's local geometry and sound speed, the method calculates a new timing scheme to refocus the distorted beam at its original location. As a tentative application, implementation of this method for trans-skull imaging of certain types of head injuries through human skull is discussed. Simulation and laboratory results of applying the method on skull-mimicking phantoms are presented. Correction of up to 2.5cm focal point displacement at up to 10 cm depth under our skull phantom is demonstrated. Quantitative assessment of the method in a variety of temporal focusing scenarios is also reported. Overall temporal deviation on the order of a few nanoseconds was observed between the simulated and experimental results. The single-point adaptive focusing results demonstrate strong potential of our approach for diagnostic imaging through intact human skull. The algorithms were implemented on an ultrasound advanced open-platform (ULA-OP) controlling 64 active elements on a 128-element phased array. PMID:25423646

Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeff; Wydra, Adrian; Malyarenko, Eugene; Sinclair, Anthony N; Maev, Roman Gr

2014-11-20

18

Applications of Molecular Imaging  

PubMed Central

Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

Galbán, Craig; Galbán, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

2015-01-01

19

SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2  

PubMed Central

Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers. Conclusion With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20457793

de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

2013-01-01

20

CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF IMAGING RADAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current status of imaging radar systems deployed on spacecraft and airborne platforms, such as aircraft and unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). Imaging radar technology has advanced considerably over the last twenty years, and the user can now be fairly certain of finding a sensor ideal for a specifi c application. The objective of the paper is to

M. R. Inggs; R. T. Lord; WG VII

21

BIOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING: PROGRESS AND APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

Application of bioluminescence imaging has grown tremendously in the past decade and has significantly contributed to the core conceptual advances in biomedical research. This technology provides valuable means for monitoring of different biological processes for immunology, oncology, virology and neuroscience. In this review, we will discuss current trends in bioluminescence and its application in different fields with emphasis on cancer research. PMID:21788092

Badr, Christian E.; Tannous, Bakhos A.

2015-01-01

22

New Applications of Planar Image Fusion in Clinical Nuclear Medicine and Radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of multiple modalities has become an integral part of modern imaging methodology, especially in nuclear medicine where PET and SPECT scanning are frequently paired with computed tomography (CT). We have extended image fusion from the tomographic realm to planar imaging in 2 specific applications. In the first, we combine planar scintigraphic images with photographic images of the body part

Lionel S. Zuckier; Holly M. Koncicki

2006-01-01

23

A pornographic image filtering model based on erotic part  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with some deficiencies of the traditional filtering models using the features of skin color only, this paper presents a pornographic image filtering model based on erotic parts detection. And the information of face, skin color and trunk contour is utilized to implement the erotic part recognition. A decision tree classifier is also employed to identify porno image based on

Xuanjing Shen; Wei Wei; Qingji Qian

2010-01-01

24

Deformable part models for object detection in medical images  

PubMed Central

Background Object detection in 3-D medical images is often necessary for constraining a segmentation or registration task. It may be a task in its own right as well, when instances of a structure, e.g. the lymph nodes, are searched. Problems from occlusion, illumination and projection do not arise, making the problem simpler than object detection in photographies. However, objects of interest are often not well contrasted against the background. Influence from noise and other artifacts is much stronger and shape and appearance may vary substantially within a class. Methods Deformable models capture the characteristic shape of an anatomic object and use constrained deformation for hypothesing object boundaries in image regions of low or non-existing contrast. Learning these constraints requires a large sample data base. We show that training may be replaced by readily available user knowledge defining a prototypical deformable part model. If structures have a strong part-relationship, or if they may be found based on spatially related guiding structures, or if the deformation is rather restricted, the supporting data information suffices for solving the detection task. We use a finite element model to represent anatomic variation by elastic deformation. Complex shape variation may be represented by a hierarchical model with simpler part variation. The hierarchy may be represented explicitly as a hierarchy of sub-shapes, or implicitly by a single integrated model. Data support and model deformation of the complete model can be represented by an energy term, serving as quality-of-fit function for object detection. Results The model was applied to detection and segmentation tasks in various medical applications in 2- and 3-D scenes. It has been shown that model fitting and object detection can be carried out efficiently by a combination of a local and global search strategy using models that are parameterized for the different tasks. Conclusions A part-based elastic model represents complex within-class object variation without training. The hierarchy of parts may specify relationship to neighboring anatomical objects in object detection or a part-decomposition of a complex anatomic structure. The intuitive way to incorporate domain knowledge has a high potential to serve as easily adaptable method to a wide range of different detection tasks in medical image analysis. PMID:25077691

2014-01-01

25

Image wavelet decomposition and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

1989-01-01

26

Merging of range images for inspection or safety applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Range imagers provide useful information for part inspection, robot control, or human safety applications in industrial environments. However, some applications may require more information than range data from a single viewpoint. Therefore, multiple range images must be combined to create a three-dimensional representation of the scene. Although simple in its principle, this operation is not straightforward to implement in industrial systems, since each range image is affected by noise. In this paper, we present two specific applications where merging of range images must be performed. We use the same processing pipeline for both applications : conversion from range image to point clouds, elimination of degrees of freedom between different clouds, validation of the merged results. Nevertheless, each step in this pipeline requires dedicated algorithms for our example applications. The first application is high resolution inspection of large parts, where many range images are acquired sequentially and merged in a post-processing step, allowing to create a virtual model of the part observed, typically larger than the instrument's field of view. The key requirement in this application is high accuracy for the merging of multiple point clouds. The second application discussed is human safety in a human/robot environment: range images are used to ensure that no human is present in the robot’s zone of operation, and can trigger the robot's emergency shutdown when needed. In this case, range image merging is required to avoid uncertainties due to occlusions. The key requirement here is real-time operation, namely the merging operation should not introduce a significant latency in the data processing pipeline. For both application cases, the improvements brought by merging multiple range images are clearly illustrated.

Mure-Dubois, James; Hügli, Heinz

2008-08-01

27

The future of hybrid imaging-part 3: PET/MR, small-animal imaging and beyond.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, hybrid imaging by means of software and hardware image fusion alike allows the intrinsic combination of functional and anatomical image information. This review summarises in three parts the state of the art of dual-technique imaging with a focus on clinical applications. We will attempt to highlight selected areas of potential improvement of combined imaging technologies and new applications. In this third part, we discuss briefly the origins of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Unlike PET/computed tomography (CT), PET/MRI started out from developments in small-animal imaging technology, and, therefore, we add a section on advances in dual- and multi-modality imaging technology for small animals. Finally, we highlight a number of important aspects beyond technology that should be addressed for a sustained future of hybrid imaging. In short, we predict that, within 10 years, we may see all existing multi-modality imaging systems in clinical routine, including PET/MRI. Despite the current lack of clinical evidence, integrated PET/MRI may become particularly important and clinically useful in improved therapy planning for neurodegenerative diseases and subsequent response assessment, as well as in complementary loco-regional oncology imaging. Although desirable, other combinations of imaging systems, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI may be anticipated, but will first need to go through the process of viable clinical prototyping. In the interim, a combination of PET and ultrasound may become available. As exciting as these new possible triple-technique-imaging systems sound, we need to be aware that they have to be technologically feasible, applicable in clinical routine and cost-effective. PMID:22347950

Beyer, Thomas; Freudenberg, Lutz S; Czernin, Johannes; Townsend, David W

2011-06-01

28

Planning applications in image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1994-01-01

29

Image fusion for tactical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny R.; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

1998-10-01

30

22 CFR 1423.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.1 Applicability of this part. This part is applicable to any charge of alleged unfair labor practices filed with the Board on or after February...

2010-04-01

31

5 CFR 2423.0 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 2423.0 Applicability of this part. This part is applicable to any charge of alleged unfair labor practices pending or filed with the Authority on or...

2010-01-01

32

Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

1975-01-01

33

Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

34

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

35

Ultrawideband radar imaging system for biomedical applications  

SciTech Connect

Ultrawideband (UWB) (3-10 GHz) radar imaging systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration and resolution characteristics. The underlying principle of UWB cancer detection is a significant contrast in dielectric properties, which is estimated to be greater than 2:1 between normal and cancerous tissue, compared to a few-percent contrast in radiographic density exploited by x rays. This article presents a feasibility study of the UWB imaging of liver cancer tumors, based on the frequency-dependent finite difference time domain method. The reflection, radiation, and scattering properties of UWB pulses as they propagate through the human body are studied. The reflected and back-scattered electromagnetic energies from cancer tumors inside the liver are also investigated. An optimized, ultrawideband antenna was designed for near field operation, allowing for the reduction of the air-skin interface. It will be placed on the fat-liver tissue phantom with a malignant tumor stimulant. By performing an incremental scan over the phantom and removing early time artifacts, including reflection from the antenna ends, images based on the back-scattered signal from the tumor can be constructed. This research is part of our effort to develop a UWB cancer detection system with good detection and localization properties.

Jafari, H.M.; Liu, W.; Hranilovic, S.; Deen, M.J. [ECE Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2006-05-15

36

An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

2009-02-01

37

Image Mosaicing for UAV Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of disaster acquiring aerial images is challenging. The unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) is a low cost vehicle which can be carried close to the disaster site and flown to capture aerial images without any delay. This paper presents some techniques for UAV image mosaicing from a series of overlapped snapshot images. The process can be divided into three

Yingdong Huang; Jie Li; Ningjun Fan

2008-01-01

38

PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation\\u000a of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application\\u000a for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric\\u000a neuroimaging. PET is considered

Sunhee Kim; Noriko Salamon; Hollie A. Jackson; Stefan Blüml; Ashok Panigrahy

2010-01-01

39

Practical applications of 3D sonography in gynecologic imaging.  

PubMed

Volume imaging in the pelvis has been well demonstrated to be an extremely useful technique, largely based on its ability to reconstruct the coronal plane of the uterus that usually cannot be visualized using traditional 2-dimensional (2D) imaging. As a result, this technique is now a part of the standard pelvic ultrasound protocol in many institutions. A variety of valuable applications of 3D sonography in the pelvis are discussed in this article. PMID:25444101

Andreotti, Rochelle F; Fleischer, Arthur C

2014-11-01

40

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prospective application of part. 374a.8 Section 374a.8 Aeronautics...BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part...

2010-01-01

41

Application of Parallel Imaging to Murine Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

. This dissertation describes foundational level work to enable parallel imaging of mice on a 4.7 Tesla/40 cm bore research scanner. Reducing the size of the hardware setup associated with typical parallel imaging was an integral part of achieving the work, as animal...

Chang, Chieh-Wei 1980-

2012-09-21

42

Image analysis for digital media applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this broad-based overview, we review image analysis for three classes of digital media applications: traditional signal processing related procedures, including image enhancement, restoration and compression; relatively new media creation and data retrieval problems, including computer animation and multimedia data retrieval; and pattern recognition, including document imaging and electronic books

Hong Yan

2001-01-01

43

Spectral Image Utility for Target Detection Applications  

E-print Network

Spectral Image Utility for Target Detection Applications by Marcus S. Stefanou B. S. United States Center for Imaging Science, College of Science Rochester Institute of Technology 2008 Signature of AuthorPDF evaluation edition www.CutePDF.com #12;CHESTER F. CARLSON CENTER FOR IMAGING SCIENCE ROCHESTER INSTITUTE

Salvaggio, Carl

44

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications  

E-print Network

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal and/or multiview informa- tion into one new image containing information the quality of which cannot

Sroubek, Filip

45

Scattered radiation emission imaging: Principles and applications  

E-print Network

Scattered radiation emission imaging: Principles and applications M. K. Nguyen, T. T. Truong, M of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. 1. Introduction Since reconstruction of the of the inner object structure relies on the existence of the inverse of the so-called X-ray

Boyer, Edmond

46

This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

47

75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for Standard Design Certifications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 requirements to standard design certification or design certification rule (DCR) applicants...

2010-03-24

48

Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to present an overview of the current status of the MS imaging with different sampling ionization methods and to discuss the 3D imaging and quantitative imaging capabilities needed to be further developed, the importance of the multi-modal imaging, and a balance between the pursuit of the high imaging resolution and the practical application of MS imaging in biomedicine. PMID:23539099

Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

2013-01-01

49

Status of polycrystalline-diamond-compact bits: Part 2 - Applications  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed the characteristics, development, and outlook for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. This second part treats applications of PDC bits, including suitable locations, types of hole, and uses.

Feenstra, R.

1988-06-01

50

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES General § 65.1 Application of part 65. (a) This part establishes procedures and methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized...

2010-10-01

51

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2014-10-01

52

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2012-10-01

53

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2011-10-01

54

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2010-10-01

55

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2013-10-01

56

Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

1997-01-01

57

Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions. PMID:23543789

Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

58

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

59

Clinical Application of Ocular Imaging  

PubMed Central

The broadening frontier of technology used in ocular imaging is continuously affecting the landscape of clinical eye care. With each wave of enhanced imaging modalities, the field faces the difficulties of optimally incorporating these devices into the clinic. Ocular imaging devices have been widely incorporated into clinical management after their diagnostic capabilities have been documented in a wide range of ocular disease. In this review we are presenting the main commercially available devices for imaging of the posterior segment of the eye. PMID:22488266

Nadler, Zach; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Schuman, Joel S.

2012-01-01

60

Displaying radiologic images on personal computers: image storage and compression--Part 2.  

PubMed

This is part 2 of our article on image storage and compression, the third article of our series for radiologists and imaging scientists on displaying, manipulating, and analyzing radiologic images on personal computers. Image compression is classified as lossless (nondestructive) or lossy (destructive). Common lossless compression algorithms include variable-length bit codes (Huffman codes and variants), dictionary-based compression (Lempel-Ziv variants), and arithmetic coding. Huffman codes and the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) algorithm are commonly used for image compression. All of these compression methods are enhanced if the image has been transformed into a differential image based on a differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) algorithm. The LZW compression after the DPCM image transformation performed the best on our example images, and performed almost as well as the best of the three commercial compression programs tested. Lossy compression techniques are capable of much higher data compression, but reduced image quality and compression artifacts may be noticeable. Lossy compression is comprised of three steps: transformation, quantization, and coding. Two commonly used transformation methods are the discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation. In both methods, most of the image information is contained in a relatively few of the transformation coefficients. The quantization step reduces many of the lower order coefficients to 0, which greatly improves the efficiency of the coding (compression) step. In fractal-based image compression, image patterns are stored as equations that can be reconstructed at different levels of resolution. PMID:8172973

Gillespy, T; Rowberg, A H

1994-02-01

61

Digital rock physics benchmarks—Part I: Imaging and segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key paradigm of digital rock physics (DRP) "image and compute" implies imaging and digitizing the pore space and mineral matrix of natural rock and then numerically simulating various physical processes in this digital object to obtain such macroscopic rock properties as permeability, electrical conductivity, and elastic moduli. The steps of this process include image acquisition, image processing (noise reduction, smoothing, and segmentation); setting up the numerical experiment (object size and resolution as well as the boundary conditions); and numerically solving the field equations. Finally, we need to interpret the solution thus obtained in terms of the desired macroscopic properties. For each of these DRP steps, there is more than one method and implementation. Our goal is to explore and record the variability of the computed effective properties as a function of using different tools and workflows. Such benchmarking is the topic of the two present companion papers. Here, in the first part, we introduce four 3D microstructures, a segmented Fontainebleau sandstone sample (porosity 0.147), a gray-scale Berea sample; a gray-scale Grosmont carbonate sample; and a numerically constructed pack of solid spheres (porosity 0.343). Segmentation of the gray-scale images by three independent teams reveals the uncertainty of this process: the segmented porosity range is between 0.184 and 0.209 for Berea and between 0.195 and 0.271 for the carbonate. The implications of the uncertainty associated with image segmentation are explored in a second paper.

Andrä, Heiko; Combaret, Nicolas; Dvorkin, Jack; Glatt, Erik; Han, Junehee; Kabel, Matthias; Keehm, Youngseuk; Krzikalla, Fabian; Lee, Minhui; Madonna, Claudio; Marsh, Mike; Mukerji, Tapan; Saenger, Erik H.; Sain, Ratnanabha; Saxena, Nishank; Ricker, Sarah; Wiegmann, Andreas; Zhan, Xin

2013-01-01

62

Image registration for luminescent paint applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

1993-01-01

63

Petrophysical applications of NMR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for obtaining high-resolution NMR images of oil field cores is described. Separate proton density and Tâ relaxation images are obtained to distinguish spatial variations of fluid-filled porosity and the physical nature of the pores. Results are presented for typical sandstones.

William P. Rothwell; H. J. Vinegar

1985-01-01

64

PLASMA ENGINEERING. PART III. APPLICATIONS OF PLASMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical applications of plasma are studied and used in controlled ; thermonuclear fusion experiments, magnetohydrodynamic and thermionic power ; conversion, spacecraft propulsion, and electronics. Specific examples are given ; for each of the fields covered above. Specific electronic applications are ; microwave traveling-wave amplifiers, backward-wave oscillators, uhf parametric ; amplifiers, phase detectors, harmonic amplifiers, mixers, and switches. Other ; devices

M. F. ed

1961-01-01

65

Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

2010-04-01

66

Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

E-print Network

Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Justin D. Pearlman Professor pacemaker leads can be placed to improve cardiac output, avoiding areas of dead tissue, and achieving of Medicine and Radiology Director of Advanced CV Imaging Dartmouth 4pm, Wed, Jan. 31, 2007 Auditorium

Zanibbi, Richard

67

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION Part-time Programs  

E-print Network

Certificate [ ] Certificate in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems [ ] Human Resource Management Diploma [ ] Management Certificate [ ] Manitoba Arts and Cultural Management Certificate [ ] Marketing in Corporate Management Community Programs [ ] Educational Assistant Diploma APPLICATION MUST INCLUDE: 1

Martin, Jeff

68

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials focus on use of rivets in the aerospace industry, including their identification and installation, as well as basic aerospace fasteners applications. Testing and standardization of materials is also covered.

69

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials cover aerospace fasteners and their specifications, including the specifics of bolts, nuts, rivets and their applications in the industry.

70

Bedside ultrasonography: Applications in critical care: Part I  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians. PMID:24914259

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

71

Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation dose efficiency improvement in multi-energy photon-counting CT, and can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT in full-fan and half-fan modes.

Brunner, Stephen T.

72

Clinical applications in molecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging is aimed at the noninvasive in vivo characterization and measurement of processes at a cellular and molecular\\u000a level with clinical imaging methods. Contrast agents are constructed to target markers that are specific either for certain\\u000a diseases or for functional states of specialized tissues. Efforts are currently focused mainly on processes involved in angiogenesis,\\u000a inflammation, and apoptosis. Cell tracking

Carola Heneweer; Jan Grimm

2011-01-01

73

Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on ? therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

2005-06-17

74

Image correlation spectroscopy: principles and applications.  

PubMed

Image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) was developed as the imaging analog of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Using standard fluorescence microscopy image series as input, different versions of ICS can be used to extract parameters on the molecular transport properties (diffusion and flow) and oligomerization state for fluorescently labeled species in cells. This review introduces the various forms of spatial and temporal ICS and discusses application of these methods to reveal properties of the biomolecules that can be measured from standard fluorescence image time series sampled from cells and neurons. PMID:25834267

Wiseman, Paul W

2015-01-01

75

Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

76

Part one Concepts, definitions, and applications  

E-print Network

used since the 1,840 s to erect the relative geological age of sedimentary rocks and hence to perform to provide nu- merical ages also in sedimentary rocks formed under Newsletter on Stratigraphy © Gebrüder in Earth sciences, applicable to a wide variety of sedimentary (but also volcanic) rock types formed under

Utrecht, Universiteit

77

Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Ophthalmology – Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and its applications in ophthalmology. It is evident that drug delivery, gene therapy, implantable devices and regenerative medicine are some of the key areas of active research. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited review work on this subject area in the current literature. To assist the interested

Pho Nguyen; M. Meyyappan; Samuel C. Yiu

2010-01-01

78

Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy. PMID:25379515

Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun

2014-01-01

79

Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences. PMID:23710255

Reisert, Marco

2013-01-01

80

Solid silica nanoparticles: applications in molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Silica and silica-based nanoparticles have been widely used for therapeutic and diagnostic applications in cancer mainly through delivery of drugs, genes and contrast agents. Development of synthesis methods has provided the possibility of fabricating silica nanoparticles with different sizes in nanometer ranges as well as silica-based multimodal nanoparticles with many innovative properties and intriguing applications in biomedicine. The surface of silica particles facilitates different methods of surface modifications and allows conjugation of various biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this review, different methods of fabrication of silica and silica-based nanoparticles, their surface modification and the application of these nanoparticles in molecular imaging are discussed. Overall, the aim of this review is to address the development of silica and silica-based multifunctional nanoparticles that are introduced mainly for molecular imaging applications using optical, magnetic (MRI), X-ray (computed tomography) and multimodal imaging techniques. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24996058

Shirshahi, Vahid; Soltani, Madjid

2015-01-01

81

Remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure for image compression applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure is proposed, which is used for adaptive image compression applications. The image activity measure has been studied and the support vector machine(SVM) is introduced. Then, the relationship between the image activity measure and the distortion caused by quantization is discussed in our image compression experiments (JPEG2000, CCSDS and SPIHT). Another two image activity measures are proposed as well. Then a feature vector is constructed by image activity measures in order to describe the image compression features of different images. The test images are classified by support vector machine classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested using an image data set, which demonstrates the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

Tian, Xin; Wu, Lin; Li, Tao; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Li, Song

2013-10-01

82

Microbubbles in Imaging: Applications Beyond Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction as ultrasound contrast agents, microbubbles have demonstrated the potential to revolutionise the use of ultrasound at the bedside. Aside from clinical application, where microbubbles are used to enhance ultrasonic assessment of myocardial perfusion, they have demonstrated potential in an exciting host of pre-clinical ultrasound imaging and therapeutic applications. These include the ability to target specific cellular markers of disease, provide dynamic blood flow estimation, deliver localised chemotherapy, potentiate the mechanisms of gene therapy, enhance lesion ablation through cavitation, and spatiotemporally permeabilise the blood-brain barrier. The unique and flexible construction of microbubbles not only enables a variety of ultrasound applications, but also opens the door to detection of microbubbles with modalities other than ultrasound. In this review, non-ultrasound imaging applications utilizing microbubbles are discussed, including MRI, PET, and DEI. These various imaging approaches illustrate novel applications of microbubbles, and may provide the groundwork for future multi-modality imaging or image-guided therapeutics. PMID:22328906

Kogan, Paul; Gessner, Ryan C.; Dayton, Paul A.

2012-01-01

83

Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

1988-01-01

84

Phased arrays-part II: implementations, applications, and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I of this paper, we presented the basic architectures and theory for passive and active phased arrays. Here, we review array implementation, state-of-the-art applications, and identify future trends in phased-array technology

Don Parker; David C. Zimmermann

2002-01-01

85

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

Li, Shaofan

86

Moment-based approaches in imaging part 3: computational considerations  

PubMed Central

Moment functions have been defined in [1] and important properties such as invariance and robustness to noise have been reviewed in the second paper [2]. Before addressing applications of moments, another feature has to be discussed, the computational load. The complexity of image analysis methods, in other words the number of operations they require to achieve a given task, iteratively or not, may lead to practical limitations when dealing with large data sets (2D or 3D image sequences) and time constraints. This issue is also of concern for moments in particular when high orders have to be computed. Special attention must therefore be paid to fast computation. The continuous-to-discrete transform may also affect the analytical properties we must preserve (i.e. invariance, orthogonality, etc.) by introducing numerical errors. The problem of accurate computation of moments should thus be addressed. These two aspects are examined in this third paper. PMID:18519189

Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

2008-01-01

87

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

SciTech Connect

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

1982-01-01

88

Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

2012-01-01

89

A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

1990-09-06

90

ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

2008-12-01

91

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2010-07-01

93

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent...

2014-07-01

94

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2013-07-01

97

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they are not...

2011-07-01

98

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent...

2012-07-01

99

University of Nevada Human Body Parts Tracking: Applications  

E-print Network

University of Nevada Reno Human Body Parts Tracking: Applications to Activity Recognition A thesis recommend that the thesis prepared under our supervision by Aras Dargazany Entitled Human Body Parts community is human activity recognition. In order to recognize human activities, we propose a human body

Berns, Karsten

100

Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

1976-01-01

101

Purdue Ontology for Pharmaceutical Engineering: Part II. Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple steps in pharmaceutical product development generate a large amount of diverse information in various formats,\\u000a which hinders efficient decision-making. A major component of the solution is a common information model for the domain. Ontologies\\u000a were found to meet this need as described in Part I of this two-part paper. In Part II, we describe two applications of Purdue

Leaelaf Hailemariam; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2010-01-01

102

Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification  

PubMed Central

Abstract. This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach. PMID:23856916

Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Netz, Uwe J.; Blaschke, Sabine; Müller, Gerhard A.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2013-01-01

103

Scattered radiation emission imaging: principles and applications.  

PubMed

Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. PMID:21747823

Nguyen, M K; Truong, T T; Morvidone, M; Zaidi, H

2011-01-01

104

Snapshot hyperspectral imaging and practical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional broadband imaging involves the digital representation of a remote scene within a reduced colour space. Hyperspectral imaging exploits the full spectral dimension, which better reflects the continuous nature of actual spectra. Conventional techniques are all time-delayed whereby spatial or spectral scanning is required for hypercube generation. An innovative and patented technique developed at Heriot-Watt University offers significant potential as a snapshot sensor, to enable benefits for the wider public beyond aerospace imaging. This student-authored paper seeks to promote awareness of this field within the photonic community and its potential advantages for real-time practical applications.

Wong, G.

2009-07-01

105

Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

2012-01-01

106

Application of image guidance in pituitary surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Surgical treatment of pituitary pathologies has evolved along the years, adding safety and decreasing morbidity related to the procedure. Advances in the field of radiology, coupled with stereotactic technology and computer modeling, have culminated in the contemporary and widespread use of image guidance systems, as we know them today. Image guidance navigation has become a frequently used technology that provides continuous three-dimensional information for the accurate performance of neurosurgical procedures. We present a discussion about the application of image guidance in pituitary surgeries. Methods: Major indications for image guidance neuronavigation application in pituitary surgery are presented and demonstrated with illustrative cases. Limitations of this technology are also presented. Results: Patients presenting a history of previous transsphenoidal surgeries, anatomical variances of the sphenoid sinus, tumors with a close relation to the internal carotid arteries, and extrasellar tumors are the most important indications for image guidance in pituitary surgeries. The high cost of the equipment, increased time of surgery due to setup time, and registration and the need of specific training for the operating room personnel could be pointed as limitations of this technology. Conclusion: Intraoperative image guidance systems provide real-time images, increasing surgical accuracy and enabling safe, minimally invasive interventions. However, the use of intraoperative navigation is not a replacement for surgical experience and a systematic knowledge of regional anatomy. It must be recognized as a tool by which the neurosurgeon can reduce the risk associated with surgical approach and treatment of pituitary pathologies. PMID:22826819

de Lara, Danielle; Filho, Leo F. S. Ditzel; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Otto, Bradley A.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

2012-01-01

107

Imaging of subsurface lineaments in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin from gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear anomalies, as an indicator of the structural features of some geological bodies, are very important for the interpretation of gravity and magnetic data. In this study, an image processing technique known as the Hough transform (HT) algorithm is described for determining invisible boundaries and extensions in gravity anomaly maps. The Hough function implements the Hough transform used to extract straight lines or circles within two-dimensional potential field images. It is defined as image and Hough space. In the Hough domain, this function transforms each nonzero point in the parameter domain to a sinusoid. In the image space, each point in the Hough space is transformed to a straight line or circle. Lineaments are depicted from these straight lines which are transformed in the image domain. An application of the Hough transform to the Bouguer anomaly map of the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey, shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Based on geological data and gravity data, the structural features in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin are investigated by applying the proposed approach and the Blakely and Simpson method. Lineaments identified by these approaches are generally in good accordance with previously-mapped surface faults.

Aydogan, D.; Pinar, A.; Elmas, A.; Bal, O. Tarhan; Yuksel, S.

2013-04-01

108

Two Superresolving Image Restoration Techniques with Applications to Ultrasonic Images.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic pulse-echo images suffer from severe degradation due to the finite acoustic aperture of the imaging system, non-ideal signal recorder characteristics, and noise. The blurring effect of the imaging system can frequently be modeled by a linear low pass filter. Then the discrete image restoration problem is formulated as solving a set of linear equations. The solution of the resulting matrix equation requires the inversion of the low pass operator, which is generally rank-deficient or ill-conditioned, and therefore has no stable or unique inverse. Conventional inversion techniques fail in completely recovering the high frequency detail of the original image, due to noise and measurement error. Two new iterative superresolving restoration techniques for linearly degraded images are presented and compared. Both techniques allow for the use of linear and nonlinear (dichotomy) constraints on the solution, based on a priori information about the true image and the imaging system. The algorithms are applicable to a large class of restoration problems, including space-variant and non-separable degradation operators, but are particularly suited for impulsive or sparse images. The first technique uses a Linear Programming (LP) algorithm, to find an optimal constrained solution to the discrete image restoration problem by minimizing the L1-Norm of the error signal. Various implementations of the LP algorithm are discussed, which accelerate its convergence and reduce processing time. The second technique is an iterative restoration algorithm, based on the concept of projections onto convex sets (POCS), which provides a solution with least-squared restoration error. The method starts with the pseudoinverse solution, and attempts to reconstruct the missing high frequency components of the image by forcing the estimate to satisfy the constraints. The effectiveness of the restoration techniques is demonstrated with results from computer simulations for different noise conditions. The hypothesis of a separable and non-separable degradation operator is tested. The results show the superior performance of the techniques for sparse images in the presence of moderate noise or measurement error. Restorations of ultrasound A-Scans and B-scans from phantom targets are used to demonstrate the potential improvement in composite image resolution.

Rothacker, Rainer Jurgen

109

High-frequency ultrasound annular array imaging. Part II: digital beamformer design and imaging.  

PubMed

This is the second part of a two-paper series reporting a recent effort in the development of a high-frequency annular array ultrasound imaging system. In this paper an imaging system composed of a six-element, 43 MHz annular array transducer, a six-channel analog front-end, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based beamformer, and a digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor-based scan converter will be described. A computer is used as the interface for image display. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes for each channel is implemented with the strategy of combining the coarse and fine delays. The coarse delays that are integer multiples of the clock periods are achieved by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) structure, and the fine delays are obtained with a fractional delay (FD) filter. Using this principle, dynamic receiving focusing is achieved. The image from a wire phantom obtained with the imaging system was compared to that from a prototype ultrasonic backscatter microscope with a 45 MHz single-element transducer. The improved lateral resolution and depth of field from the wire phantom image were observed. Images from an excised rabbit eye sample also were obtained, and fine anatomical structures were discerned. PMID:16529105

Hu, Chang-Hong; Snook, Kevin A; Cao, Pei-Jie; Shung, K Kirk

2006-02-01

110

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2005-01-01

111

Uncertainty assessment of digital image correlation method in dynamic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though digital image correlation (DIC) is a widely used optical full field measurement method, it still needs further performance investigations, when it comes to dynamic conditions. Dealing with a moving target, causes a motion effect (i.e. blurring) on the acquired images. This factor is an important source of uncertainty that needs to be quantified. Therefore, the present study aims to perform a systematic uncertainty assessment of DIC method in general dynamic applications. The study focuses on 2D DIC. In the case of 3D DIC similar problems will arise and therefore, a complete understanding of two dimensional conditions will be of great help to further studies which deal with 3D conditions. The whole work can be divided in to two parts. In the first part, a method to simulate the motion effect on a reference image is proposed to be applied. This method allows simulating the acquired images in a real dynamic test and estimating the measurement uncertainty caused by the motion effect. Using this technique, the uncertainty of DIC measurement is estimated. The second part of the study aimed to validate the simulation technique. Therefore, several tests are conducted by imposing harmonic motion to a target, in different frequencies and amplitudes. The results show good agreement between the experiments and the simulations, proving the introduced technique to be an effective method for motion induced uncertainty estimation.

Zappa, Emanuele; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Matinmanesh, Ali

2014-05-01

112

Imaging coherent transport in graphene. Part II: probing weak localization.  

PubMed

Graphene has opened new avenues of research in quantum transport, with potential applications for coherent electronics. Coherent transport depends sensitively on scattering from microscopic disorder present in graphene samples: electron waves traveling along different paths interfere, changing the total conductance. Weak localization is produced by the coherent backscattering of waves, while universal conductance fluctuations are created by summing over all paths. In this work, we obtain conductance images of weak localization with a liquid-He-cooled scanning probe microscope, by using the tip to create a movable scatterer in a graphene device. This technique allows us to investigate coherent transport with a probe of size comparable to the electron wavelength. Images of magnetoconductance versus tip position map the effects of disorder by moving a single scatterer, revealing how electron interference is modified by the tip perturbation. The weak localization dip in conductivity at B = 0 is obtained by averaging magnetoconductance traces at different positions of the tip-created scatterer. The width Delta B(WL) of the dip yields an estimate of the electron coherence length L(phi) at fixed charge density. This 'scanning scatterer' method provides a new way of investigating coherent transport in graphene by directly perturbing the disorder configuration that creates these interferometric effects. PMID:20571201

Berezovsky, Jesse; Westervelt, Robert M

2010-07-01

113

Technology and application advancements of uncooled imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having delivered over 30,000 uncooled microbolometer based thermal imaging engines, BAE Systems is the world's leading producer. Advancements in technology include the demonstration of broadband microbolometers on a 46 ?m pixel pitch which have excellent sensitivity in the MWIR (NETD ~180 mK, 3-5 ?m) and LWIR (NETD ~ 15 mK, 8-12 ?m) wavebands. Application advancements include the development of a family of thermal weapons sights for the military which will replace current cooled systems with lighter, lower power systems and the introduction of a new generation of handheld and pole mounted thermal imagers for commercial markets.

Norton, Peter W.; Kohin, Margaret

2005-05-01

114

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

115

Investigation of cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging part 1: Common phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has emerged as a useful tertiary imaging tool in the investigation of patients suspected of many different types of cardiomyopathies. CMRI sequences are now of a sufficiently robust quality to enable high spatial and temporal resolution image acquisition. This has led to CMRI becoming an effective non-invasive imaging gold standard for many cardiomyopathies. In this 2-part review, we outline the typical sequences used to image cardiomyopathy, and present the imaging spectrum of cardiomyopathy. Part 1 focuses on the current classification of cardiomyopathy, basic CMRI sequences used in evaluating cardiomyopathy and the imaging spectrum of common phenotypes. PMID:22558489

McDermott, Shaunagh; O’Neill, Ailbhe C; Ridge, Carole A; Dodd, Jonathan D

2012-01-01

116

Musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging: Council on Scientific Affairs  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior contrast, resolution, and multiplanar imaging capability, allowing excellent definition of soft-tissue and bone marrow abnormalities. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging has become a major diagnostic imaging method for the evaluation of many musculoskeletal disorders. The applications of magnetic resonance imaging for musculoskeletal diagnosis are summarized and examples of common clinical situations are given. General guidelines are suggested for the musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging.

Harms, S.E.; Fisher, C.F.; Fulmer, J.M. (American Medical Association, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-11-03

117

Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

118

MR imaging: acronyms and clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The intention of this article is to provide an overview of all MR imaging techniques that are accessible on most of commercially\\u000a available scanners and have the potential to be used in routine clinical applications. The techniques implemented by the major\\u000a vendors are briefly explained, including a comparison of the commonly used acronyms. A classification scheme is introduced\\u000a which

W. R. Nitz

1999-01-01

119

Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging Systems and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports activities in the development of AOTF Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging (PHI) Systems at JPL along with field observation results for illustrating the technology capabilities and advantages in remote sensing. In addition, the technology was also used to measure thickness distribution and structural imperfections of silicon-on-silicon wafers using white light interference phenomenon for demonstrating the potential in scientific and industrial applications.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George; Baw, Clayton La; Li, G. P.

1996-01-01

120

Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing

Ming-Hong Chen; Guo-Ping Zhang; Hongxing Xia

2009-01-01

121

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications Claude Fillion1,2 , Gaurav images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection

Sharma, Gaurav

122

Application of Titanium and Its Alloys for Automobile Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the R & D activities by Nippon Steel on the application of titanium mate- rials for automobile parts were introduced. Regarding exhaust pipes and mufflers, various material data needed to successfully handle commercially pure titanium was extensively accumulated while the manufacturing process by which products can show high performance inherent in titanium such as surface appearances was established.

Hideki FUJII; Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI; Yoshito YAMASHITA

2003-01-01

123

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability...through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent with...

2014-07-01

124

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability...through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent with...

2010-07-01

125

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability...through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent with...

2013-07-01

126

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability...through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent with...

2011-07-01

127

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability...through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5 NAAQS to the extent they are not inconsistent with...

2012-07-01

128

Part 2 : Scientific Information Main applicant: Nierstrasz, Oscar  

E-print Network

Part 2 : Scientific Information Main applicant: Nierstrasz, Oscar Project title: Agile Software 30, 2012 @ 12:07 i #12;SNF Proposal -- Agile Software Assessment ii 1 Summary of the research plan, query and manipulate software models. We refer to this goal as agile software assessment, since

Jäger, Gerhard

129

Applications of RFID Technology and Smart Parts in Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, industrial and consumer applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) are explored. The state-of-the-art and development in RFID technology is reviewed. A currently operative smart parts based manufacturing system is described which uses RFID as the key technology. The role of RFID in the emerging Wireless Internet Manufacturing field is highlighted.

Gadh, Rajit

130

Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.  

PubMed

A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ? Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ? Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ? Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ? Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ? Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ? Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ? The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm." PMID:25652302

Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

2015-02-01

131

Bayesian recognition of targets by parts in second generation forward looking infrared images  

E-print Network

of targets in second generation forward looking infrared images (FLIR). The recognition of targets is based into its parts and results obtained for target recognition in second generation FLIR images are also

Aggarwal, J. K.

132

Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions.  

PubMed

In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. PMID:25481091

Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J; Nellist, Peter D

2015-04-01

133

Cardiac Masses, Part 1: Imaging Strategies and Technical Considerations  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to discuss optimal imaging strategies for the evaluation of cardiac masses. The advantages and disadvantages of echocardiography, cardiac MRI, gated cardiac CT, and nuclear imaging will be discussed and specific techniques presented. CONCLUSION Multimodality imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and surgical planning of cardiac masses. Clinical features, such as patient age, location, and imaging characteristics of the mass will determine the likely differential diagnosis. PMID:22021530

Buckley, Orla; Madan, Rachna; Kwong, Raymond; Rybicki, Frank J.; Hunsaker, Andetta

2014-01-01

134

Medical applications of digital image morphing.  

PubMed

The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion. PMID:17273920

Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

2007-09-01

135

Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing characteristic of near-infrared image. The NIR imaging would be very useful in the nondestructive external and internal quality inspecting of agricultural products. It is important to detect stored-grain insects by the application of near-infrared spectroscopy. Computer vision detection base on the NIR imaging would be help to manage food logistics. Application of NIR imaging promoted quality management of agricultural products. In the further application research fields of NIR image in the agricultural engineering, Some advices and prospect were put forward.

Chen, Ming-hong; Zhang, Guo-ping; Xia, Hongxing

2009-07-01

136

Short-lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays Part II: Phantom and In Vivo Experiments  

PubMed Central

In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric Short-lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched B-mode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared to their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and CNR calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods. PMID:24960701

Jakovljevic, Marko; Byram, Brett C.; Hyun, Dongwoon; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

2014-01-01

137

Application of GFP imaging in cancer.  

PubMed

Multicolored proteins have allowed the color-coding of cancer cells growing in vivo and enabled the distinction of host from tumor with single-cell resolution. Non-invasive imaging with fluorescent proteins enabled the dynamics of metastatic cancer to be followed in real time in individual animals. Non-invasive imaging of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins has allowed the real-time determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents in mouse models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm can visualize the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo including: mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position, and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm that occurs during cancer-cell deformation and extravasation. Recent applications of the technology described here include linking fluorescent proteins with cell-cycle-specific proteins such that the cells change color from red to green as they transit from G1 to S phases. With the macro- and micro-imaging technologies described here, essentially any in vivo process can be imaged, giving rise to the new field of in vivo cell biology using fluorescent proteins. PMID:25686095

Hoffman, Robert M

2015-04-01

138

IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In the vidicon tube, IR radiation is sensed by a pyroelectric target such as triglycine sulfate (TGS), which is read out by scanning an electron beam across the surface (current modulation). The TGS single crystal sensors used in pyroelectric vidicon applications are extremely difficult to fabricate in thin section and can be easily damaged during operation due to their brittle nature. Thus, pyrolectric polymers offer several advantages over TGS sensors in these applications due to their low cost and robustness. However, the pyroelectric polymers traditionally have lower sensitivity. Therefore, we are investigating the pyroelectric performance of a family of copolymers based on poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in the compositional range 75/25 to 50/50 moleperformance and sensitivity of these copolymers were compared to that of TGS active sensor elements. Since the sensitivity of these IR sensors is related in part to material thickness, pyroelectric polymers were spin cast from solution to thicknesses <1 micrometer and subsequently used as free-standing thin films. By applying surface treatments and absorptive coatings to the as-cast pyrolectric polymer films, the temperature resolution has been improved to the point where differences between healthy and damaged tissue in the human body can now be distinguished. Examples of IR images of the human body using these pyroelectric polymer vidicon targets will be presented and will be used to provide a direct comparison between TGS and the pyroelectric copolymers in these imaging applications.

Gregory, Otto

2004-03-01

139

A broadband imaging system for research applications  

PubMed Central

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7×1010 cm Hz1?2?W at a wavelength of 11.8 ?m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.

2009-01-01

140

A broadband imaging system for research applications.  

PubMed

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7x10(10) cm Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 11.8 microm. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

Yefremenko, V; Gordiyenko, E; Shustakova, G; Fomenko, Yu; Datesman, A; Wang, G; Pearson, J; Cohen, E E W; Novosad, V

2009-05-01

141

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this part using two procedures...treatment applies, you may use the following chart: If * * * Then OTS will process your application under * * * (a)...

2014-01-01

142

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this part using two procedures...treatment applies, you may use the following chart: If * * * Then OTS will process your application under * * * (a)...

2012-01-01

143

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this part using two procedures...treatment applies, you may use the following chart: If * * * Then OTS will process your application under * * * (a)...

2013-01-01

144

Imaging of a Moving Target With Rotating Parts Based on the Hough Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotation of structures in a target introduces additional frequency modulations on the returned signals and also generates sidebands about the center Doppler frequency of the target. In other words, the body image will be contaminated due to the interference from the rotating parts. In this paper, an imaging method for moving targets with rotating parts is presented. The method

Qun Zhang; Tat Soon Yeo; Hwee Siang Tan; Ying Luo

2008-01-01

145

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

146

1 INTRODUCTION Medical imaging is an integral part of diagnostics.  

E-print Network

evaluated for a possible fracture or the size of a tumor is being monitored, some form of medical imaging Emission Tomography and ultrasound. Each modality measures some physical phenomenon and creates an image data. Another #12; 2 commonly used modality is ultrasound. By comparison to CT or MRI, ultrasound does

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

147

Toward the Detection of Overlapping Body Parts in Infrared Images Sue Twelves1  

E-print Network

Toward the Detection of Overlapping Body Parts in Infrared Images Sue Twelves1 , Pierre Payeur2 region of the body. In addition to the medical imaging field, there has been research into IR. OVERLAPPING BODY SYSTEM Detection Four different images of overlapping limbs were used during the system

Payeur, Pierre

148

Separation of image parts using 2-D parallel form recursive filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence deals with a new technique to separate objects or image parts in a composite image. A parallel form extension of a 2-D Steiglitz-McBride method is applied to the discrete cosine transform (DCT) of the image containing the objects that are to be separated. The obtained parallel form is the sum of several filters or systems, where the impulse

Radhika Sivaramakrishna

1996-01-01

149

The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.  

PubMed

The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. PMID:24855217

Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti; Pierard, Luc A; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

2014-07-01

150

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-12

151

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-21

152

A Novel Application of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24084063

Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Feren?ek, Zrinka Greguri?; Sikdar, Siddhartha

2013-01-01

153

Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff

2013-02-01

154

Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

Kean, D.; Smith, M.

1986-01-01

155

An Incremental Structured Part Model for Image Classification  

E-print Network

popular solution is to use graph structure because graph can be used to represent high level vision information. This property has made the graph based methods capable of bridging the low-level local invariant classification. (a) Extracted relevant semantic parts. (b) Training an SVM classifier for each seman- tic part

Zhou, Jun

156

PHOTOACOUSTIC IMAGING AND HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

. In this work, photoacoustic imaging that combines the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging, and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment enhanced with laser were investigated to understand the application and feasibility of optics...

Jo, Janggu

2014-08-31

157

Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

158

Monopulse radar 3-D imaging and application in terminal guidance radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monopulse radar 3-D imaging integrates ISAR, monopulse angle measurement and 3-D imaging processing to obtain the 3-D image which can reflect the real size of a target, which means any two of the three measurement parameters, namely azimuth difference beam elevation difference beam and radial range, can be used to form 3-D image of 3-D object. The basic principles of Monopulse radar 3-D imaging are briefly introduced, the effect of target carriage changes(including yaw, pitch, roll and movement of target itself) on 3-D imaging and 3-D moving compensation based on the chirp rate ? and Doppler frequency f d are analyzed, and the application of monopulse radar 3-D imaging to terminal guidance radars is forecasted. The computer simulation results show that monopulse radar 3-D imaging has apparent advantages in distinguishing a target from overside interference and precise assault on vital part of a target, and has great importance in terminal guidance radars.

Xu, Hui; Qin, Guodong; Zhang, Lina

2007-11-01

159

Multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of remote sensing technology has facilitated us the acquisition of remote sensing images with higher and higher spatial resolution, but how to automatically understand the image contents is still a big challenge. In this paper, we develop a practical and rotation-invariant framework for multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors (COPD). The COPD is composed of a set of representative and discriminative part detectors, where each part detector is a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier used for the detection of objects or recurring spatial patterns within a certain range of orientation. Specifically, when performing multi-class geospatial object detection, we learn a set of seed-based part detectors where each part detector corresponds to a particular viewpoint of an object class, so the collection of them provides a solution for rotation-invariant detection of multi-class objects. When performing geographic image classification, we utilize a large number of pre-trained part detectors to discovery distinctive visual parts from images and use them as attributes to represent the images. Comprehensive evaluations on two remote sensing image databases and comparisons with some state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the developed framework.

Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei; Zhou, Peicheng; Guo, Lei

2014-12-01

160

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

161

Robust image modeling techniques with an image restoration application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust parameter-estimation algorithm for a nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) autoregressive model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is presented. The convergence of the estimation algorithm is proved. An algorithm to estimate parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the impulse-noise-corrupted image, where the model governing the image is not available, is also presented. The robustness of the parameter estimates is demonstrated by simulation. Finally, an algorithm to restore realistic images is presented. The entire image generally does not obey a simple image model, but a small portion (e.g., 8 x 8) of the image is assumed to obey an NSHP model. The original image is divided into windows and the robust estimation algorithm is applied for each window. The restoration algorithm is tested by comparing it to traditional methods on several different images.

Kashyap, Rangasami L.; Eom, Kie-Bum

1988-08-01

162

Shen October 20, 2003 XX--ray Imaging & Microscopy Applicationsray Imaging & Microscopy Applications  

E-print Network

Shen ­ October 20, 2003 XX--ray Imaging & Microscopy Applicationsray Imaging & Microscopy: xx--ray imaging & microscopy applicationsray imaging & microscopy applications #12;Shen ­ October 20, 2003 XX--ray Scienceray Science 2 ~85% structures by~85% structures by xx--ray crystallographyray

Shen, Qun

163

Introduction to VIIRS Imaging and Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the VIIRS imager that operates on the current U.S. Suomi NPP satellite and is planned for future JPSS environmental satellites. VIIRS has many advanced features that improve both spectral and spatial resolution and enable the delivery of consistent, high quality, and high resolution data to users worldwide. The lesson covers the enhanced capabilities of VIIRS and highlights some of its applications. These include single channel and multispectral products used to monitor dust, volcanic ash, convection, fog and low clouds, sea surface temperature, tropical cyclones, contrails, and ocean color. A special feature on VIIRS, the Day Night Band low-light visible channel, is also introduced. For more information on the channel and its capabilities, users are referred to the COMET lesson "Advances in Space-Based Nighttime Visible Observation."

2014-09-14

164

Modeling and Imaging Techniques with Potential for Application in Bioterrorism  

E-print Network

Modeling and Imaging Techniques with Potential for Application in Bioterrorism H.T. Banks 1 , David signi#12;cant potential for applications related to bioterrorism. The #12;rst focuses on physiologically

165

Trauma radiology: Part V. Imaging of acute cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injury constitutes a major cause of morbidity resulting from trauma. The consequences of a missed "significant" injury can be devastating for the patient and can create potential medical legal consequences for involved physicians. Multiple imaging modalities can be applied to imaging of the cervical spine after trauma, including radiography, computed tomography (CT), myelography, CT myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Controversy exists concerning the appropriate number of radiographic views required for the screening assessment of cervical spine injuries. CT clarifies uncertain radiological findings, identifies subtle fractures in patients with neck pain or with neurological deficits but with normal radiographs, determines details of injury, and assists in operative planning. MRI has virtually replaced myelography and CT myelography in evaluating the traumatized cervical spine. MRI is more accurate than CT with intrathecal contrast in delineating epidural pathology, ligament injury, soft-tissue edema, and cord parenchymal injury. Information derived from MRI guides appropriate management and has value in predicting injury outcome. We consider indications for and relative merits of these various diagnostic modalities, and we describe imaging features of major patterns of cervical spine injury. PMID:10155167

Mirvis, S E; Shanmuganathan, K

1995-01-01

166

Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

2011-10-01

167

Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting. PMID:21344060

Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2010-01-01

168

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications  

PubMed Central

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2010-01-01

169

Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

Melcher, C. L.

2013-02-01

170

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part...Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program 1. General....

2011-07-01

171

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 263 - Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program B Appendix B to Part...Appendix B to Part 263—Application of Multiobjective Planning Framework to Continuing Authorities Program 1. General....

2010-07-01

172

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's...COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 4290.1940 Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to...

2010-01-01

173

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this part using two procedures...treatment applies, you may use the following chart: If * * * Then OTS will process yourapplication under * * * (a) The...

2010-01-01

174

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apply to all applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this part using two procedures...treatment applies, you may use the following chart: If * * * Then OTS will process yourapplication under * * * (a) The...

2011-01-01

175

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

2010-05-01

176

Separation of image parts using 2-D parallel form recursive filters.  

PubMed

This correspondence deals with a new technique to separate objects or image parts in a composite image. A parallel form extension of a 2-D Steiglitz-McBride method is applied to the discrete cosine transform (DCT) of the image containing the objects that are to be separated. The obtained parallel form is the sum of several filters or systems, where the impulse response of each filter corresponds to the DCT of one object in the original image. Preliminary results on an image with two objects show that the algorithm works well, even in the case where one object occludes another as well as in the case of moderate noise. PMID:18285105

Sivaramakrishna, R

1996-01-01

177

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves.  

PubMed

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. PMID:15480640

Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

2005-01-01

178

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a)...

2011-04-01

179

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01...CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a)...

2010-04-01

180

Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

Helstrom, C. W.

1973-01-01

181

Theoretical Foundations of Spatially-Variant Mathematical Morphology Part I: Binary Images  

E-print Network

Theoretical Foundations of Spatially-Variant Mathematical Morphology Part I: Binary Images Nidhal--We develop a general theory of spatially-variant (SV) mathematical morphology for binary images to demonstrate that the theory of spatially-variant mathematical morphology provides a general framework

Schonfeld, Dan

182

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN  

E-print Network

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

Ruf, Christopher

183

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: PART-2. ANALYSIS OF RETRIEVAL ACCURACY  

E-print Network

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: PART-2. ANALYSIS OF RETRIEVAL. INTRODUCTION The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, HIRAD, is a next generation Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer, SFMR, [1] for improved airborne surveillance of ocean surface winds and rain in hurricanes. HIRAD

Ruf, Christopher

184

The Fringe-Imaging Skin Friction Technique PC Application User's Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A personal computer application (CXWIN4G) has been written which greatly simplifies the task of extracting skin friction measurements from interferograms of oil flows on the surface of wind tunnel models. Images are first calibrated, using a novel approach to one-camera photogrammetry, to obtain accurate spatial information on surfaces with curvature. As part of the image calibration process, an auxiliary file containing the wind tunnel model geometry is used in conjunction with a two-dimensional direct linear transformation to relate the image plane to the physical (model) coordinates. The application then applies a nonlinear regression model to accurately determine the fringe spacing from interferometric intensity records as required by the Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) technique. The skin friction is found through application of a simple expression that makes use of lubrication theory to relate fringe spacing to skin friction.

Zilliac, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

185

Terahertz imaging technique and application in large scale integrated circuit failure inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz ray, as a new style optic source, usually means the electromagnetic whose frequencies lies in between 0.1THz~10THz, the waveband region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies in the gap between microwaves and infrared ray. With the development of laser techniques, quantum trap techniques and compound semiconductor techniques, many new terahertz techniques have been pioneered, motivated in part by the vast range of possible applications for terahertz imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. THz imaging technique was introduced, and THz imaging can give us not only the density picture but also the phase information within frequency domain. Consequently, images of suspicious objects such as concealed metallic or metal weapons are much sharper and more readily identified when imaged with THz imaging scanners. On the base of these, the application of THz imaging in nondestructive examination, more concretely in large scale circuit failure inspection was illuminated, and the important techniques of this application were introduced, also future prospects were discussed. With the development of correlative technology of THz, we can draw a conclusion that THz imaging technology will have nice application foreground.

Di, Zhi-gang; Yao, Jian-quan; Jia, Chun-rong; Xu, De-gang; Bing, Pi-bin; Yang, Peng-fei; Zheng, Yi-bo

2010-11-01

186

Novel multispectral imaging microscope with applications to biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel multispectral imaging microscope that can simultaneously record both spectral and spatial information of a sample, which can take advantage of spatial image processing and spectroscopic analysis techniques. A Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter device is used for fast wavelength selection and a cooled two-dimensional monochrome CCD for image detection. In order to acquire images that are not so dependent on imaging devices, a clever CCD exposure time control and a software based spectral and spatial calibration process is performed to diminish the influence of illumination, optic ununiformity, CCD"s spectral response curve and optic throughput property. A set of multispectral image processing and analysis software package is developed, which covers not only general image processing and analysis functions, and also provides powerful analysis tools for multispectral image data, including multispectral image acquisition, illumination and system response calibration, spectral analysis and etc. The combination of spatial and spectral analysis makes it an ideal tool for the applications to biomedicine. In this paper, two applications in biomedicine are also presented. One is medical image segmentation. Using multispectral imaging techniques, a mass of experiments on both marrow bone and cervical cell images showed that our segmentation results are highly satisfactory while with low computational cost. Another is biological imaging spectroscopic analysis in the study of pollen grains in rice. The results showed that the transmittance analysis of multispectral pollen images can accurately identify the pollen abortion stage of male-sterile rice, and can easily distinguish a variety of male sterile cytoplasm.

Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui; Ke, Hengyu; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Yaojun; Ding, Yi

2005-03-01

187

Diffusion tensor imaging: Concepts and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is deeply rooted in the powerful concept that during their random, diffusion-driven displacements molecules probe tissue structure at a microscopic scale well beyond the usual image resolution. As diffusion is truly a three- dimensional process, molecular mobility in tissues may be anisotropic, as in brain white matter. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI),

Denis Le Bihan; Cyril Poupon; Chris A. Clark; Sabina Pappata; Nicolas Molko; Hughes Chabriat

2001-01-01

188

Application of Stereo-Imaging Technology to Medical Field  

PubMed Central

Objectives There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. Methods We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Results Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. Conclusions The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices. PMID:23115737

Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young

2012-01-01

189

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

190

Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

Tilton, James C.

1988-01-01

191

Novel biomedical applications of Cerenkov radiation and radioluminescence imaging.  

PubMed

The main goals of this review is to provide an up-to-date account of the different uses of Cerenkov radiation (CR) and radioluminescence imaging for pre-clinical small animal imaging. We will focus on new emerging applications such as the use of Cerenkov imaging for monitoring radionuclide and external radiotherapy in humans. Another novel application that will be described is the monitoring of radiochemical synthesis using microfluidic chips. Several pre-clinical aspects of CR will be discussed such as the development of 3D reconstruction methods for Cerenkov images and the use of CR as excitation source for nanoparticles or for endoscopic imaging. We will also include a discussion on radioluminescence imaging that is a more general method than Cerenkov imaging for the detection using optical methods of alpha and gamma emitters. PMID:25555905

Spinelli, Antonello E; Boschi, Federico

2015-03-01

192

Robust image modeling technique with a bioluminescence image segmentation application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust pattern classifier algorithm for the variable symmetric plane model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is developed. The veracity and high-speed performance of the pattern recognition algorithm is proved. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has recently gained wide acceptance in the field of in vivo small animal molecular imaging. So that it is very important for BLT to how to acquire the highprecision region of interest in a bioluminescence image (BLI) in order to decrease loss of the customers because of inaccuracy in quantitative analysis. An algorithm in the mode is developed to improve operation speed, which estimates parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the noise corrupted image derived from the BLT optical hardware system. The focus pixel value is obtained from the symmetric plane according to a more realistic assumption for the noise sequence in the restored image. The size of neighborhood is adaptive and small. What's more, the classifier function is base on the statistic features. If the qualifications for the classifier are satisfied, the focus pixel intensity is setup as the largest value in the neighborhood.Otherwise, it will be zeros.Finally,pseudo-color is added up to the result of the bioluminescence segmented image. The whole process has been implemented in our 2D BLT optical system platform and the model is proved.

Zhong, Jianghong; Wang, Ruiping; Tian, Jie

2009-02-01

193

Infrared Thermography Based Image Construction for BioMedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning and imaging techniques, when applied to medicine, are helpful in diagnosis of some critical illnesses that affect human beings. Imaging techniques use the electromagnetic spectrum for the construction of internal anatomy, visibility of organs, and for detection of tumors and other such anomalies. Infrared Radiation (IR), which is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, is a potential alternative in medical

V. Umadevi; S. V. Raghavan

2009-01-01

194

Imaging the lymphatic system: possibilities and clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphatic system is anatomically complex and difficult to image. Lymph ducts are responsible for the drainage of part of the body’s interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes account for the enrichment of lymph fluid, and can be involved in a large variety of diseases, especially cancer. For a long time, lymphatic imaging was limited to the sole use of conventional lymphography

Olivier Clément; Alain Luciani

2004-01-01

195

Pixel Detectors for Particle Detection and Imaging Applications  

E-print Network

Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

Wermes, N

2003-01-01

196

Pixel Detectors for Particle Physics and Imaging Applications  

E-print Network

Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

Wermes, N

2003-01-01

197

Pixel Detectors for Particle Detection and Imaging Applications  

E-print Network

Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

Norbert Wermes

2002-09-07

198

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2014-06-01

199

BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

Planinsic, Gorazd

2011-09-01

200

Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays, Part I: Beamforming Methods and Simulation Studies  

PubMed Central

Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 × 8 elements in size on a 64 × 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 × 8, 4 × 4, and 2 × 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming. PMID:24960700

Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

201

Pharmaceutical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that provides internal images of materials and living organisms on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. It is non-invasive and non-destructive, and one of very few techniques that can observe internal events inside undisturbed specimens in situ. It is versatile, as a wide range of NMR modalities can be accessed, and 2D

J. Craig Richardson; Richard W. Bowtell; Karsten Mäder; Colin D. Melia

2005-01-01

202

In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

Cote, Daniel

2010-08-01

203

Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging  

PubMed Central

We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

204

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

SciTech Connect

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2013-01-15

205

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

PubMed Central

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

Sechopoulos, Ioannis

2013-01-01

206

Imaging ‘the lost tribe’: a review of adolescent cancer imaging. Part 1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although a small proportion of all cancer registrations, malignancy in adolescence and young adulthood remains the most common natural cause of death in this age group. Advances in the management and outcomes of childhood cancer have not been matched within the adolescent population, with increasing incidence and poorer survival seen amongst teenagers with cancer compared with other populations. There have been increasing moves towards specific adolescent oncology centres, with the aim of centralising expertise, however, ‘adolescent imaging’ does not exist as a speciality in the same way that paediatric imaging does, with responsibility for imaging adolescent patients sometimes falling to paediatric radiologists and sometimes to ‘adult’ radiologists, usually with a specific interest in a tumour type or body system. In this article, imaging of the more common malignancies, encountered in adolescent patients is reviewed. Complications of treatment are reviewed in another article to give an overview of adolescent oncology imaging practice. PMID:19933020

Zerizer, I.

2009-01-01

207

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table...Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j ) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due...

2013-07-01

208

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table...Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j ) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due...

2011-07-01

209

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table...Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j ) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due...

2014-07-01

210

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table...Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due...

2010-07-01

211

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates 1 Table...Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) Pt 63, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j ) Part 2 Application Due Dates Due...

2012-07-01

212

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

1997-04-01

213

Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

214

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

215

TM digital image products for applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT-4 TM images recorded on computer compatible tapes (CCTs) are currently available in the following tape formats: (1) raw rectified data (CCT-BT); (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT); and (3) geometrically corrected data (CCT-PT). These formats represent different steps in the process of producing fully-corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are rectified from telemetry format to image format, but are uncorrected radiometrically and geometrically; they are generally used for internal transportation of data from one ground processing system to another. The CCT-AT images have had data from faulty channels replaced and all data radiometrically calibrated to produce an archive image; they are available to researches for radiometric characterization. The final products, the CCT-PT images, have been resampled by cubic convolution procedures to provide a geometrically corrected image using satellite ephemeris data. The CCT-PT image is the one to which all of the various radiometric and geometric corrections have been applied; this is the product that is the product that is available to all users.

Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.

1985-01-01

216

Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an analysis of the pathophysiologic concepts and effectiveness of the commonly available cardiac imaging modalities: thallium-201 scintigraphy, myocardial infarct avid-imaging, and radionuclide ventriculography. Emphasis is on the implications of these diagnostic procedures. Organizing an efficient laboratory, instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and exercise testing are discussed.

Iskandrian, A.S.

1986-01-01

217

TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

1984-01-01

218

Light field applications to 3-dimensional surface imaging  

E-print Network

The structure of light around a scene may be contained in a 4-dimensional array known as a light field. This thesis describes methods for acquiring and manipulating light fields for applications in 3-dimensional imaging. ...

Hong, Wenxian

2009-01-01

219

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, as amended...C. 1271 et seq. ). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et...

2014-01-01

220

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, as amended...C. 1271 et seq. ). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et...

2013-01-01

221

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, as amended...C. 1271 et seq. ). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et...

2012-01-01

222

Resolution-Invariant Image Representation and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a resolution-invariant image representation (RIIR) framework in this paper. The RIIR framework includes the methods of building a set of multi-resolution bases from training images, estimating the optimal sparse resolution-invariant representation of any image, and reconstructing the missing patches of any resolution level. As the proposed RIIR framework has many potential resolution enhancement applications, we discuss three novel

Jinjun Wang; Shenghuo Zhu; Yihong Gong

2009-01-01

223

Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

2007-01-01

224

Spatially Variant Morphological Image Processing: Theory and Applications  

E-print Network

Spatially Variant Morphological Image Processing: Theory and Applications N. Bouaynaya and D under Euclidean translations. An interest in the extension of mathematical morphology to spatially-variant (image) processing. This paper presents a general theory of spatially-variant mathematical morphology

Bouaynaya, Nidhal

225

An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

226

“Contrast agents for optoacoustic imaging: design and biomedical applications”  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles and molecular chromophores with strong optical absorption in the near-infrared spectral range can be used as contrast agents for optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging, thereby significantly enhancing sensitivity and enabling new applications of this novel and rapidly growing biomedical imaging technology.

Oraevsky, Alexander A.

2015-01-01

227

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features of one

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2001-01-01

228

MODELING IMAGE SEQUENCES, WITH PARTICULAR APPLICATION TO FMRI DATA  

E-print Network

MODELING IMAGE SEQUENCES, WITH PARTICULAR APPLICATION TO FMRI DATA a dissertation submitted resonance imaging (fMRI) has made it possible to conduct so- phisticated human brain mapping neuroscience replenishing the sites. The data collected in fMRI human brain mapping experiments consists of se- quences

Hastie, Trevor

229

Dual objective fluorescence microscopy for single molecule imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence microscopy is an invaluable tool for studying biological processes in cells. In the recent past there has been significant interest in imaging cellular processes at the single molecule level. Single molecule experiments remove ensemble averaging effects and provide information that is typically not accessible through bulk experiments. One of the major requirements in single molecule imaging applications is that

Sripad Ram; Prashant Prabhat; E. Sally Ward; Raimund J. Ober

2009-01-01

230

Plasmonic Color Filters for CMOS Image Sensor Applications Sozo Yokogawa,,,  

E-print Network

Plasmonic Color Filters for CMOS Image Sensor Applications Sozo Yokogawa,,,§ Stanley P. Burgos to requirements for plasmonic color filters designed for state-of-the-art Si CMOS image sensors. The hole arrays at the primary colors of red, green, and blue. Hole array plasmonic filters show peak transmission in the 40

Atwater, Harry

231

NANO REVIEW Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

E-print Network

NANO REVIEW Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging K. Ted Thurn � Eric M. B. Brown � Building Room 13-007, Chicago, IL 60611, USA e-mail: g-woloschak@northwestern.edu S. Vogt Á B. Lai X-Ray on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also dis- cusses factors influencing

Brown, Eric

232

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

233

TM Digital Image Products for Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) digital image products recorded onto computer compatible tapes (CCTs), which were available for internal research purposes prior to August, 1983, are reviewed. The SCROUNGE image processing system at Goddard Space Flight Centr generated in tape formats: (1) raw band-sequential data (CCT-BT), generally used for internal transportation of digital data from one ground processing system to another; (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT), useful for reseachers doing radiometric characterization; and (3) geometrically resampled data (CCT-PT), the final product. The formats represent different steps in the process of producing fully-corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are re-sequenced from telemetry format to image format, but are uncorrected radiometrically and geometrically. The CCT-AT images had data from two faulty data channels replaced and all data radiometrically calibrated. The CCT-PT images were resampled by cubic convolution procedures to provide a geometrically corrected image using satellite ephemeris and altitude data and scan-mirror correction data. The final product, the CCT-PT, is the one to which all of the radiometric and geometric corrections were applied.

Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.

1984-01-01

234

Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

2008-08-01

235

Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

2006-05-01

236

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2010-07-01

237

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2011-07-01

238

Preclinical Whole-body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence sampling of cellular function is widely used in all aspects of biology, allowing the visualization of cellular and sub-cellular biological processes with spatial resolutions in the range from nanometers up to centimeters. Imaging of fluorescence in vivo has become the most commonly used radiological tool in all pre-clinical work. In the last decade, full-body pre-clinical imaging systems have emerged with a wide range of utilities and niche application areas. The range of fluorescent probes that can be excited in the visible to near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum continues to expand, with the most value for in vivo use being beyond the 630 nm wavelength, because the absorption of light sharply decreases. Whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging has not yet reached a state of maturity that allows its routine use in the scope of large-scale pre-clinical studies. This is in part due to an incomplete understanding of what the actual fundamental capabilities and limitations of this imaging modality are. However, progress is continuously being made in research laboratories pushing the limits of the approach to consistently improve its performance in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification. This paper reviews this imaging technology with a particular emphasis on its potential uses and limitations, the required instrumentation, and the possible imaging geometries and applications. A detailed account of the main commercially available systems is provided as well as some perspective relating to the future of the technology development. Although the vast majority of applications of in vivo small animal imaging are based on epi-illumination planar imaging, the future success of the method relies heavily on the design of novel imaging systems based on state-of-the-art optical technology used in conjunction with high spatial resolution structural modalities such as MRI, CT or ultra-sound. PMID:20031443

Leblond, Frederic; Davis, Scott C.; Valdés, Pablo A.; Pogue, Brain W.

2013-01-01

239

Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have been the main design goals of the two programs. In particular the NH90 TTH Thermal Imager is a compact camera operating in the 8 divided by 12 micrometers bandwidth with a single wide field of view. The thermal imager developed for the ATR42 MPA features a three remotely switchable fields of view objective equipped with diffractive optics. Performance goals, innovative design aspects and test results of these two thermal imagers are reported.

Uda, Gianni; Livi, Massimo; Olivieri, Monica; Sabatini, Maurizio; Torrini, Daniele; Baldini, Stefano; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Falli, Pietro; Maestrini, Mauro

1999-07-01

240

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHHHH, Table 4 Table 4 to...

2013-07-01

241

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHHHH, Table Table 4 to...

2014-07-01

242

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to § 4290.45 of this part. (c) Clean Air Act and Water Pollution Control Act requirements. To the extent applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with the...

2011-01-01

243

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part 108....

2010-01-01

244

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

2010-01-01

245

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 602 - Schedule of Renewal Applications and Reports  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applications and Reports A Appendix A to Part 602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Pt. 602, App. A Appendix A to Part 602—Schedule of...

2011-01-01

246

Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spectroscopy is a tool that has been used for decades to identify, understand, and quantify solid, liquid, or gaseous materials, especially in the laboratory. In disciplines ranging from astronomy to chemistry, spectroscopic measurements are used to detect absorption and emission features due to specific chemical bonds, and detailed analyses are used to determine the abundance and physical state of the detected absorbing/emitting species. Spectroscopic measurements have a long history in the study of the Earth and planets. Up to the 1990s remote spectroscopic measurements of Earth and planets were dominated by multispectral imaging experiments that collect high-quality images in a few, usually broad, spectral bands or with point spectrometers that obtained good spectral resolution but at only a few spatial positions. However, a new generation of sensors is now available that combines imaging with spectroscopy to create the new discipline of imaging spectroscopy. Imaging spectrometers acquire data with enough spectral range, resolution, and sampling at every pixel in a raster image so that individual absorption features can be identified and spatially mapped (Goetz et al., 1985).

Clark, R.N.; Boardman, J.; Mustard, J.; Kruse, F.; Ong, C.; Pieters, C.; Swayze, G.A.

2006-01-01

247

Cylindrical Millemeter-Wave Imaging Technique and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurements for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data is used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

2006-08-01

248

Providing image management and communication functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective delivery of health care has become increasingly dependent on a wide range of medical data which includes a variety of images. Manual and computer-based medical records ordinarily do not contain image data, leaving the physician to deal with a fragmented patient record widely scattered throughout the hospital. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is currently installing a prototype hospital information system (HIS) workstation network to demonstrate the feasibility of providing image management and communications (IMAC) functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system. The core of this system is a database management system adapted to handle images as a new data type. A general model for this integration is discussed and specifics of the hospital-wide network of image display workstations are given.

Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.

1990-08-01

249

Locomotion of microspheres for imaging and light focusing applications  

E-print Network

Super-resolution imaging using sub-diffraction field localization by micron sized transparent beads (microspheres) was recently demonstrated [1]. Practical applications in microscopy require control over the positioning of the microspheres. We present a simple method of positioning and controllable movement of a microsphere by using a glass micropipette. This allows sub-diffraction imaging at arbitrary points in three dimensions, as well as the ability to track moving objects. The results are relevant to a broad scope of applications, including sample inspection, and bio-imaging.

Krivitsky, Leonid A; Wang, Zengbo; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

2013-01-01

250

A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

2003-01-01

251

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

252

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1988-01-01

253

Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

1987-01-01

254

Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging  

PubMed Central

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

2015-01-01

255

Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

Bisbee, T.L.

1997-06-01

256

NMR imaging of components and materials for DOE application  

SciTech Connect

The suitability for using NMR imaging to characterize liquid, polymeric, and solid materials was reviewed. The most attractive applications for NMR imaging appear to be liquid-filled porous samples, partially cured polymers, adhesives, and potting compounds, and composite polymers/high explosives containing components with widely varying thermal properties. Solid-state NMR line-narrowing and signal-enhancing markedly improve the imaging possibilities of true solid and materials. These techniques provide unique elemental and chemical shift information for highly complex materials and complement images with similar spatial resolution, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT).

Richardson, B.R.

1993-12-01

257

Applications of magnetic resonance image segmentation in neurology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the introduction of digital imagin devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical modes, 3D visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In this research project several PC based software were developed in order to segment medical images, to visualize raw and segmented images in 3D, and to produce EEG brain maps in which MR images and EEG signals were integrated. The software package was tested and validated in numerous clinical research projects in hospital environment.

Heinonen, Tomi; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Laarne, Paeivi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Laasonen, Erkki; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

1999-05-01

258

5 CFR 8.4 - Positions excepted from the application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Positions excepted from the application of this part...CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.4 Positions excepted from the application of this...

2014-01-01

259

5 CFR 8.4 - Positions excepted from the application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Positions excepted from the application of this part...CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.4 Positions excepted from the application of this...

2011-01-01

260

5 CFR 8.4 - Positions excepted from the application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Positions excepted from the application of this part...CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.4 Positions excepted from the application of this...

2013-01-01

261

5 CFR 8.4 - Positions excepted from the application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Positions excepted from the application of this part...CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.4 Positions excepted from the application of this...

2012-01-01

262

5 CFR 8.4 - Positions excepted from the application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions excepted from the application of this part...CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.4 Positions excepted from the application of this...

2010-01-01

263

Part 2 : Scientific Information Main applicant: Nierstrasz, Oscar  

E-print Network

. However, successive changes lead to a decay in the internal quality unless effort is invested to control 1 #12;Enabling the evolution of J2EE applications 2 1 Summary Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J in enterprise application development. An enterprise application is a complex software product that manipulates

Nierstrasz, Oscar

264

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

265

Neural networks: Application to medical imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

Clarke, Laurence P.

1994-01-01

266

Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

Wood, C.C.

1997-10-01

267

New dimensions in endodontic imaging: Part 2. Cone beam computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patel S. New dimensions in endodontic imaging: part 2. Cone beam computed tomography. International Endodontic Journal. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been specifically designed to produce undistorted three- dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a significantly lower effective radiation dose compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). Periapi- cal disease may be

S. Patel

2009-01-01

268

Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric\\/topographic correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the radiometric correction of wide field-of-view airborne imagery has been developed that accounts for the angular dependence of the path radiance and atmospheric transmittance functions to remove atmospheric and topographic effects. The first part of processing is the parametric geocoding of the scene to obtain a geocoded, orthorectified image and the view geometry (scan and azimuth angles)

Rudolf Richter; Daniel Schläpfer

2002-01-01

269

Bistatic radar imaging of the marine environment. Part II: simulation and results analysis  

E-print Network

1 Bistatic radar imaging of the marine environment. Part II: simulation and results analysis present a bistatic, polarimetric and real aper- ture Marine Radar Simulator (MaRS) producing pseudo-raw radar signal. The simulation takes the main elements of the environment into account (sea temperature

Boyer, Edmond

270

Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine Part 2: common disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview for the identification of thoracic spinal pathologies on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the chiropractor. Illustrative examples are given, with discussion, of commonly encountered disorders including thoracic disc lesions, hemangioma, syrinx formation, Scheuermann's disease and compression fracture. Normal MRI appearance of the thoracic spine—this was approached in part 1 of the article.

Renee M. DeVries; Michelle A. Wessely

2005-01-01

271

Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

Iskandrian, A.S.

1987-01-01

272

[The application of X-ray imaging in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths. The method is also helpful for complex injury evaluation in abused victims or in persons where abuse is suspected. Finally, X-ray imaging still remains the gold standard method for identification of unknown deceased. With time modern imaging methods, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are more and more applied in forensic medicine. Their application extends possibilities of the visualization the bony structures toward a more detailed imaging of soft tissues and internal organs. The application of modern imaging methods in postmortem body investigation is known as digital or virtual autopsy. At present digital postmortem imaging is considered as a bloodless alternative to the conventional autopsy. PMID:25186776

Ku?erová, St?pánka; Safr, Miroslav; Ublová, Michaela; Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

2014-07-01

273

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-01-01

274

Four-dimensional MR cardiovascular imaging: method and applications.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. Three-dimensional cardiovascular MRI in real-time, or 4D cardiovascular MRI without cardiac and respiratory gating or triggering, remains an important technological goal of the MR cardiovascular research community. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve 4D cardiovascular MR imaging in unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This breakthrough is made possible through a creative use of sparse sampling theory and parallel imaging with phased array coils and a novel implementation of data acquisition and image reconstruction. We have successfully used the technique to perform 4D cardiovascular imaging on rats, achieving 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution with a frame rate of 67 fps. This capability enables simultaneous imaging of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and first-pass myocardial perfusion. This in turn allows multiple cardiac assessments including measurement of ejection fraction, cardiac output, and myocardial blood flow in a single experiment. We believe that the proposed technique can open up many important applications of cardiovascular imaging and have significant impact on the field. PMID:22255151

Christodoulou, Anthony G; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Haosen; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

2011-01-01

275

Applications of computational verbs to effective and realtime image understanding  

E-print Network

Abstract — An effective and realtime image understanding algorithm must meet the challenges of ever-growing image databases, the varieties of features to be understood and the limited human resources for developing this algorithm. In this paper, the reasons that mainstream image understanding algorithms could not meet these challenges were presented. One effective and realtime image understanding platform based on physical linguistic(PL) network and cognitive features was given. The effective aspect of the PL network-based image understanding engine stems from the infinite flexibility of human natural languages when cognitive features are grouped and modelled. The realtime aspect of the PL network-based image understanding engine originates from the much faster processing speed for computational nouns and computational verbs than the processing speed for raw image data. The applications of this new effective and realtime image understanding platform to image search engine, porn detection/filtering and many other image understanding tasks were compared with the conventional approaches. The results show that the new image understanding platform is much more flexible, accurate, user-friendly and less resource consuming.

Tao Yang

276

Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications†  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted. PMID:22234515

Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huxford-Phillips, Rachel C.

2013-01-01

277

An auto-switched mode CMOS image sensor for high dynamic range scientific imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with auto-switched mode readout architecture for high throughput and high dynamic range scientific imaging applications. The proposed readout circuit compares background illumination with a threshold level and automatically adjusts the pixel array to operate in either linear or logarithmic mode by feeding back a mode switching control signal. This novel readout architecture allows

Jian Guo; Sameer Sonkusale

2008-01-01

278

Contoured window correlation interferometry for synthetic aperture radar interferometry based on three parts of complex images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data processing method comprehensively based on three parts of complex images is introduced. The method includes image pair registration and interferogram creation. These methods are improved and extended, and a set of integrated technology, which is named contoured correlation interferometry (CCI), is formed for the InSAR data processing. The CCI method needs only an arbitrary three parts of InSAR complex image pair to generate an interferogram without noise and blurring effect. The formulae of the CCI method are deduced and proved in a different way, the details and steps of the whole method are explained systemically, the algorithms for the calculation of fringe orientations are improved, and the discussions about selecting of parameters and comparing results of different methods are shown.

Shi, Jianhua; Fu, Sihua; Long, Xuejun; Yang, Xia; Yu, Qifeng

2013-01-01

279

Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)  

SciTech Connect

Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

Van Dort, M.E.

1983-01-01

280

Surface-Sensitive Mechanical Behavior. Part II: Mechanisms and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first part of this article, brief reviews were given of the atomic-scale mechanisms by which crystalline solids deform and the nature of the interface between such solids and their environment. In this part, the mechanisms of a representative range of surface and environment sensitive mechanical phenomena are explained. (Author/CP)

Macmillan, Norman H.; Latanision, R. M.

1976-01-01

281

Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze

2008-12-01

282

Infrared scanning images: An archeological application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

Schaber, G.G.; Gumerman, G.J.

1969-01-01

283

Infrared Scanning Images: An Archeological Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric

Gerald G. Schaber; George J. Gumerman

1969-01-01

284

Applications of Computed Tomography in Renal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been huge advances in CT technology since its introduction more than 30 years ago. Modern, multislice CT scanners are fast and produce truly volumetric data, allowing it to be reconstructed in almost any plane. In this article, we explore the impact of these developments on the use of CT in imaging of the renal tract. Whilst it may

Samantha Read; Clare Allen; Christopher Hare

2006-01-01

285

Quad Tree Structures for Image Compression Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a class of distortion controlled vector quantizers that are capable of compressing images so they comply with certain distortion requirements. Highlights include tree-structured vector quantizers; multiresolution vector quantization; error coding vector quantizer; error coding multiresolution algorithm; and Huffman coding of the quad-tree…

Markas, Tassos; Reif, John

1992-01-01

286

Distributed computing in image analysis using open source frameworks and application to image sharpness assessment of histological whole slide images  

PubMed Central

Background Automated image analysis on virtual slides is evolving rapidly and will play an important role in the future of digital pathology. Due to the image size, the computational cost of processing whole slide images (WSIs) in full resolution is immense. Moreover, image analysis requires well focused images in high magnification. Methods We present a system that merges virtual microscopy techniques, open source image analysis software, and distributed parallel processing. We have integrated the parallel processing framework JPPF, so batch processing can be performed distributed and in parallel. All resulting meta data and image data are collected and merged. As an example the system is applied to the specific task of image sharpness assessment. ImageJ is an open source image editing and processing framework developed at the NIH having a large user community that contributes image processing algorithms wrapped as plug-ins in a wide field of life science applications. We developed an ImageJ plug-in that supports both basic interactive virtual microscope and batch processing functionality. For the application of sharpness inspection we employ an approach with non-overlapping tiles. Compute nodes retrieve image tiles of moderate size from the streaming server and compute the focus measure. Each tile is divided into small sub images to calculate an edge based sharpness criterion which is used for classification. The results are aggregated in a sharpness map. Results Based on the system we calculate a sharpness measure and classify virtual slides into one of the following categories - excellent, okay, review and defective. Generating a scaled sharpness map enables the user to evaluate sharpness of WSIs and shows overall quality at a glance thus reducing tedious assessment work. Conclusions Using sharpness assessment as an example, the introduced system can be used to process, analyze and parallelize analysis of whole slide images based on open source software. PMID:21489186

2011-01-01

287

A probabilistic approach for color correction in image mosaicking applications.  

PubMed

Image mosaicking applications require both geometrical and photometrical registrations between the images that compose the mosaic. This paper proposes a probabilistic color correction algorithm for correcting the photometrical disparities. First, the image to be color corrected is segmented into several regions using mean shift. Then, connected regions are extracted using a region fusion algorithm. Local joint image histograms of each region are modeled as collections of truncated Gaussians using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Then, local color palette mapping functions are computed using these sets of Gaussians. The color correction is performed by applying those functions to all the regions of the image. An extensive comparison with ten other state of the art color correction algorithms is presented, using two different image pair data sets. Results show that the proposed approach obtains the best average scores in both data sets and evaluation metrics and is also the most robust to failures. PMID:25438315

Oliveira, Miguel; Sappa, Angel Domingo; Santos, Vitor

2015-02-01

288

Imaging applications of the sparse FFT  

E-print Network

The sparse Fourier transform leverages the intrinsic sparsity of the frequency spectrum in many natural applications to compute the discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) in sub-linear time. Consequently, it has the potential ...

Shi, Lixin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

289

Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Simulation Technology Research Dept.

1997-09-01

290

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-08-15

291

Development of a multi-spectral imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a multi-spectral imaging (MSI) system based on a rapid-scanning solid-state device, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), for wavelength selection and a two-dimensional charge-coupled device for detection. The MSI device is designed for in vivo optical detection in medical diagnostic applications. Unlike conventional grating spectrometers, the AOTF is a miniature solid-state device that has no moving parts, and can be rapidly tuned to any wavelength within its operating range. The large aperture of the AOTF and its high spatial resolution allows the optical image from an imaging fibre optic probe to be recorded by the detector. These characteristics, combined with their small size, make AOTFs important new alternatives to conventional monochromators, especially for spectral imaging in biomedical applications. The MSI can also be used for dual-modality diagnostics to detect both fluorescence and diffuse reflectance images. The usefulness and potential of the MSI system is illustrated in several applications of biomedical interest, such as reflectance fluorescence imaging of skin and brain tissues.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Cullum, Brian; Kasili, Paul

2003-07-01

292

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

293

Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance. PMID:24521904

Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

2014-01-01

294

Applications of pulse radiolysis to imaging sciences  

SciTech Connect

Pulse radiolysis has been used over the last 3 decades to study a variety of physical and chemical systems, including those relevant to imaging processes. This review outlines the similarities between photolysis and radiolysis and highlight the differences. It focuses on time-resolved variants of the two disciplines, flash photolysis vs pulse radiolysis. The strength (and weakness) of the radiolytic techniques is their nonspecificity; the energy is always absorbed by the solvent and not the solute. Radiation chemistry principles that were developed for one discipline are easily transportable to another. The pulse radiolysis technique with a wide arsenal of detection techniques is currently used to identify short-lived intermediates and to determine their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into the behavior of physical systems. We demonstrate the utility of the approach in several areas of interest to imaging sciences: clustering of silver atoms, growth of silver halides, and medium effects on these systems.

Meisel, D.

1996-05-01

295

14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 of this chapter as if those noise levels were part 36 noise levels. (c) Sections 91...this subpart prescribe operating noise limits and related requirements that apply to any civil subsonic jet (turbojet) airplane...

2010-01-01

296

14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5 of this chapter as if those noise levels were part 36 noise levels. (c) Sections 91...this subpart prescribe operating noise limits and related requirements that apply to any civil subsonic jet (turbojet) airplane...

2011-01-01

297

47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MHz; (4) Specialized Mobile Radio Service. (j...public (common carrier) mobile radio services. (k...connection of private land mobile radio equipment to the public switched telephone network. (n) Part 101...

2011-10-01

298

47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...table of frequency allocations and special requirements in International regulations, agreements, and treaties. This part also contains standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment...

2010-10-01

299

Smart imaging using laser targeting: a multiple barcodes application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the best of our knowledge, proposed is a novel variable depth of field smart imager design using intelligent laser targeting for high productivity multiple barcodes reading applications. System smartness comes via the use of an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal-Length Lens (ECVFL) to provide an agile pixel (and/or pixel set) within the laser transmitter and optical imaging receiver. The ECVFL in the receiver gives a flexible depth of field that allows clear image capture over a range of barcode locations. Imaging of a 660 nm wavelength laser line illuminated 95-bit one dimensional barcode is experimentally demonstrated via the smart imager for barcode target distances ranging from 10 cm to 54 cm. The smart system captured barcode images are evaluated using a proposed barcode reading algorithm. Experimental results after computer-based post-processing show a nine-fold increase in barcode target distance variation range (i.e., range variation increased from 2.5 cm to 24.5 cm) when compared to a conventional fixed lens imager. Applications for the smart imager include industrial multiple product tracking, marking, and inspection systems.

Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

2014-05-01

300

Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have

Gianni Uda; Massimo Livi; Monica Olivieri; Maurizio Sabatini; Daniele Torrini; Stefano Baldini; Riccardo Bardazzi; Pietro Falli; Mauro Maestrini

1999-01-01

301

Infrared scanning images: an archeological application.  

PubMed

Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots. PMID:17839350

Schaber, G G; Gumerman, G J

1969-05-01

302

GeneXpert Testing: Applications for Clinical Microbiology, Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology on infectious-disease testing is continuing to evolve outside the realm of a centralized laboratory. The GeneXpert Dx system is the first unit dose, near-point-of-care, molecular device commercially available. Part I of this two-part article addressed the use of the GeneXpert system for the detection of group B Streptococcus, enterovirus, and methicillin-resistant

Elizabeth M. Marlowe; Donna M. Wolk

2008-01-01

303

X-ray imaging for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

Evans, J. Paul

2004-01-01

304

Global shutter imagers for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global shutter image sensors offer significant advantages over rolling shutter imagers but their implementation needs careful consideration. Each pixel needs a storage element on which the signal is stored after the exposure period. To cope with low read noise requirements, it is essential that the pixel can still perform correlated double sampling or CDS. This requires a second memory element in the pixel, so that the reset reference level of the sense amplifier can be read before the charge is dumped onto the sense node. An important specification is the parasitic light sensitivity or shutter efficiency of the pixel. This is a measure how insensitive the memory cell in the pixel is to light. Depending on the pixel architecture, this may be especially difficult in combination with backside illumination. Other important pixel performance parameters related to pixel architecture are read noise and dark current. In this paper we will review global shutter pixel architectures, compare their performances and discuss future developments. We discuss the issues related to global shutter pixels for high dynamic range and backside illumination, and how the most advanced CMOS image sensor process technologies can offer new approaches.

Meynants, G.

2014-05-01

305

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR 26417, May 20,...

2014-01-01

306

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR 26417, May 20,...

2012-01-01

307

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR 26417, May 20,...

2013-01-01

308

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR 26417, May 20,...

2011-01-01

309

Multidimensional force spectra of CNC machine tools and their applications, part two: reliability design of elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the reliability design of elements of computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tools and the practical applications of multidimensional force spectra of CNC machine tools described in part one of this paper. To illustrate the application of multidimensional force spectra, part two considers the design example of an S1-273 CNC lathe. First the force distribution of transmission

Yiqiang Wang; Guixiang Shen; Yazhou Jia

2003-01-01

310

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER...to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR 26417, May 20,...

2010-01-01

311

Application of gelcasting to the fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelcasting is a novel method for the molding of ceramic powder based on a synthesis of concepts derived from traditional ceramics and polymer chemistry. Although a wealth of literature has been published describing the application of the technology to the fabrication of structural ceramics, little has been reported about its application to the fabrication of functional ceramics. In order to

Dong Guo; Kai Cai; Longtu Li; Zhilun Gui

2003-01-01

312

Mining remote-image repositories with application to Mars Rover stereoscopic image datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of December 2008, the two Mars rover spacecraft Spirit and Opportunity have collected more than 4 years worth of data from nine imaging instruments producing greater than 200k images which includes both raw image data from spacecraft instruments and images generated by post-processing algorithms developed by NASA's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). This paper describes a prototype software system that allows scientists to browse and data-mine the images produced from NASA's Mars Exploratory Rover (MER) missions with emphasis on the automatic detection of images containing rocks that are of interest for geological research. We highlight two aspects of our prototype system: (1) software design for mining remote data repositories, (2) a computationally efficient image search engine for detecting MER images that containing rocks. Datatype abstractions made at the software design level allow users to access and visualize the source data through a single simple-to-use interface when the underlying data may originate from a local or remote image repository. Data mining queries into the MER image data are specified over chronological intervals denoted (sols) as each interval is a solar day. As in other mining applications, an automatic detection and classification algorithm is used to compute a relevance score that represents how relevant a given recorded image is to the user-specified query. Query results are presented as list of records, sorted by their relevance score, which the user may then visualize and investigate to extract information of interest. Several standard image analysis tools are provided for investigation of 2D images (e.g., histogram equalization, edge detection, etc.) and, when available, stereoscopic data is integrated with the image data using multiple windows which show both the 2D image and 3D surface geometry. The combination of data mining and a high-quality visualization interface provides MER researchers unprecedented access to the recorded data.

Willis, Andrew; Shadid, Waseem; Eppes, Martha C.

2009-02-01

313

A novel image capture system for use in telehealth applications.  

PubMed

A novel image capture and retrieval system has been developed for use in a range of telehealth applications in the home and in residential care facilities. The system is based around the JPEG 2000 standard and uses the PTP protocol for image capture from any high resolution digital camera and the Kakadu suite of JPEG2000 utilities to serve the collected images via a proxy server over any available communication channel from telephone lines to broadband services. When coupled with an image processing system such as the AMWIS system for pressure wound management, the system provides a high level of clinical functionality suitable for a wide range of telemedicine applications in rural and remote sites. PMID:17947114

Lim, Ed W; Celler, Branko G; Basilakis, Jim; Taubman, David

2006-01-01

314

The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce  

PubMed Central

Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

315

The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.  

PubMed

Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

316

Investigating clutter reduction for unmanned systems applications using imaging polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of unmanned systems in recent years has sparked increased interest in multiple areas of research for on-board image processing including autonomous navigation, surveillance, detection, and tracking to name a few. For these applications, techniques for reducing scene clutter provide an increased level of robustness for autonomous systems and reduced operator burden for tele-operated systems. Because imaging polarimetry frequently provides complementary information to the standard radiometric image, it is anticipated that this technology is well suited to provide a significant reduction in scene clutter. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of imaging polarimetry under a number of representative scenarios to assess the utility of this technology for unmanned system applications.

Hanks, Jonathan B.; Aycock, Todd M.; Chenault, David B.

2014-06-01

317

Using XML and JSON with Android, Part 2: Deliver hybrid Android applications with JSON  

E-print Network

Using XML and JSON with Android, Part 2: Deliver hybrid Android applications with JSON Mix JavaScript, JSON, callback functions, Android-SDK Java code for flexible mobile apps Skill Level: IntermediateScript Object Notation (JSON), on the Android platform. Part 1 covered the basics of XML and JSON. Part 2

318

Design and Applications of Bispecific Heterodimers: Molecular Imaging and beyond  

PubMed Central

Ligand-based molecular imaging probes have been designed with high affinity and specificity for monitoring biological process and responses. Single-target recognition by traditional probes can limit their applicability for disease detection and therapy because synergistic action between disease mediators and different receptors is often involved in disease progression. Consequently, probes that can recognize multiple targets should demonstrate higher targeting efficacy and specificity than their monospecific peers. This concept has been validated by multiple bispecific heterodimer-based imaging probes that have demonstrated promising results in several animal models. This review summarizes the design strategies for bispecific peptide- and antibody-based heterodimers and their applications in molecular targeting and imaging. The design and application of bispecific heterodimer-conjugated nanomaterials are also discussed. PMID:24738564

2015-01-01

319

Statistical properties of radar backscatter data for imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally radar imaging algorithms implement second-order statistics. In this article, the statistical properties, (Gaussianity, linearity, and frequency-reversibility) of measured backscattered radar data are evaluated in order to determine the statistical dependence of radar data. Non-Gaussianity, nonlinearity, or frequency-irreversibility favors the use of higher order statistics, rather than second-order statistics in modeling radar backscatter data for imaging applications. The backscatter radar

J. W. Odendaal; P. Niemand

2003-01-01

320

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast neutron resonance radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a two-dimensional (2-D) elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images, taken at different neutron energies and chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2002-01-01

321

Ultra wideband horn antenna for microwave imaging application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, high-contrast and high-resolution microwave imaging has been extensively studied in the detection of early breast cancer, This method is based on the contrast in electrical properties of healthy fatty breast tissues and malignant tissues. In this paper we design a new TEM double-ridged horn antenna for microwave imaging application. Proposed antenna is simulated with two commercially available packages, namely

Hana Amjadi; Farzad Tavakkol Hamedani

2011-01-01

322

X-ray characterization of CMOS imaging detector with high resolution for fluoroscopic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS)-based X-ray imaging detectors with high spatial resolution for medical imaging application. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS imaging sensor has been fabricated by using a 0.35 ?m 1 Poly 4 Metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 ?m×100 ?m and the pixel array format is 24×96 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 9.6 mm×2.4 mm. The 14.3-bit extend counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. Both thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were used as converters for incident X-rays to visible light photons. The optical property and X-ray imaging characterization such as X-ray to light response as a function of incident X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution and X-ray images of objects were measured under different X-ray energy conditions. The measured results suggest that our developed CMOS-based X-ray imaging detector has the potential for fluoroscopic imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging applications.

Cha, Bo Kyung; Kim, Cho Rong; Jeon, Seongchae; Kim, Ryun Kyung; Seo, Chang-Woo; Yang, Keedong; Heo, Duchang; Lee, Tae-Bum; Shin, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Boo; Kwon, Oh-Kyung

2013-12-01

323

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-05-15

324

A martian case study of segmenting images automatically for granulometry and sedimentology, Part 1: Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary exploration, delineating individual grains in images via segmentation is a key path to sedimentological comparisons with the extensive terrestrial literature. Samples that contain a substantial fine grain component, common at Meridiani and Gusev at Mars, would involve prohibitive effort if attempted manually. Unavailability of physical samples also precludes standard terrestrial methods such as sieving. Furthermore, planetary scientists have been thwarted by the dearth of segmentation algorithms customized for planetary applications, including Mars, and often rely on sub-optimal solutions adapted from medical software. We address this with an original algorithm optimized to segment whole images from the Microscopic Imager of the Mars Exploration Rovers. While our code operates with minimal human guidance, its default parameters can be modified easily for different geologic settings and imagers on Earth and other planets, such as the Curiosity Rover’s Mars Hand Lens Instrument. We assess the algorithm’s robustness in a companion work.

Karunatillake, Suniti; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Husch, Jonathan M.; Hardgrove, Craig; Skok, J. R.

2014-02-01

325

The selected examples of the application of computer image analysis in the assessment of environmental quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental monitoring (EM) is an essential part of protection of the environment, most of the methods of environmental protection based on visual techniques or physico-chemical and biochemical measurements. The automation of traditional methods proceeds at an accelerating rate, modern laboratories prefer this type of tools to conduct a more comprehensive assessment and online monitoring. The application of computer image analysis methods in biomonitoring brings to this discipline the opportunity to develop innovative tools that allow for more precise sensitive and quantified assessment of monitored processes. The application of techniques based on computer image processing technology will dominate in the future and very comfortable and intuitive tool for researchers in the study of the components of the environment quality. The article presents some methods of automation the acute toxicity bioassay based on the application of computational methods.

Janczak, Damian; Lewicki, Piotr; Mazur, Robert; Boniecki, Piotr; Dach, Jacek; Przybyl, Jacek; Pawlak, Maciej; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Czekala, Wojciech

2013-07-01

326

26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1-2 Section 303.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...therein indicated, to any internal revenue tax applicable...with the operation of an enterprise under control of the Attorney General...

2013-04-01

327

26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1-2 Section 303.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...therein indicated, to any internal revenue tax applicable...with the operation of an enterprise under control of the Attorney General...

2014-04-01

328

26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1-2 Section 303.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...therein indicated, to any internal revenue tax applicable...with the operation of an enterprise under control of the Attorney General...

2012-04-01

329

26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1-2 Section 303.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...therein indicated, to any internal revenue tax applicable...with the operation of an enterprise under control of the Attorney General...

2011-04-01

330

26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1-2 Section 303.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...therein indicated, to any internal revenue tax applicable...with the operation of an enterprise under control of the Attorney General...

2010-04-01

331

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1987-01-01

332

Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology  

PubMed Central

The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials. PMID:21483100

Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

2012-01-01

333

Tailored liquid crystal devices for specific imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the mature liquid crystals (LCs) display technology, there is a significant interest in implementing these devices into other non-display applications. Hence the emerging field of LC photonics is becoming increasingly active in which the strong electrooptic properties of LCs are harnessed for these applications particularly for imaging such as the use of SLMs, tunable focus lenses, tunable filters and polarization control devices. In this paper we review our recently developed LC devices integrated into full field optical coherence tomography system, into multi-spectral skin diagnosis system and in extended depth of focus imaging system.

Safrani, A.; Abuleil, M.; Isaac, S.; Solodar, A.; Klapp, I.; Kirzhner, M. G.; Abdulhalim, I.

2014-10-01

334

The future of imaging spectroscopy - Prospective technologies and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new applications monitoring transitional ecological zones, where human impact and disturbance have highest impact as well as in monitoring changes in our natural resources and environment We conclude that imaging spectroscopy enables mapping of biophysical and biochemical variables of the Earth's surface and atmospheric composition with unprecedented accuracy.

Schaepman, M.E.; Green, R.O.; Ungar, S.G.; Curtiss, B.; Boardman, J.; Plaza, A.J.; Gao, B.-C.; Ustin, S.; Kokaly, R.; Miller, J.R.; Jacquemoud, S.; Ben-Dor, E.; Clark, R.; Davis, C.; Dozier, J.; Goodenough, D.G.; Roberts, D.; Swayze, G.; Milton, E.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.

2006-01-01

335

Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

2014-01-01

336

Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications  

PubMed Central

In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas–Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography. PMID:24587692

Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

2014-01-01

337

Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications.  

PubMed

In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography. PMID:24587692

Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

2014-01-01

338

Medical Applications of Digital Image Morphing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and\\/or failure of the physiological\\u000a healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured\\u000a humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus,\\u000a several sequential

Keith Penska; Les Folio; Rolf Bunger

2007-01-01

339

Validation of nonrigid image registration using finite-element methods: application to breast MR images.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel method for validation of nonrigid medical image registration. This method is based on the simulation of physically plausible, biomechanical tissue deformations using finite-element methods. Applying a range of displacements to finite-element models of different patient anatomies generates model solutions which simulate gold standard deformations. From these solutions, deformed images are generated with a range of deformations typical of those likely to occur in vivo. The registration accuracy with respect to the finite-element simulations is quantified by co-registering the deformed images with the original images and comparing the recovered voxel displacements with the biomechanically simulated ones. The functionality of the validation method is demonstrated for a previously described nonrigid image registration technique based on free-form deformations using B-splines and normalized mutual information as a voxel similarity measure, with an application to contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography image pairs. The exemplar nonrigid registration technique is shown to be of subvoxel accuracy on average for this particular application. The validation method presented here is an important step toward more generic simulations of biomechanically plausible tissue deformations and quantification of tissue motion recovery using nonrigid image registration. It will provide a basis for improving and comparing different nonrigid registration techniques for a diversity of medical applications, such as intrasubject tissue deformation or motion correction in the brain, liver or heart. PMID:12716000

Schnabel, Julia A; Tanner, Christine; Castellano-Smith, Andy D; Degenhard, Andreas; Leach, Martin O; Hose, D Rodney; Hill, Derek L G; Hawkes, David J

2003-02-01

340

Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

Wood, L.L.

1993-06-07

341

Object manifestations for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

As healthcare providers become increasingly decentralized and distributed, information systems support must follow suit by providing healthcare professionals with flexible, adaptable and secure views of medical data in a timely fashion. To this end, this paper introduces the notion of manifestations of medical image objects in a heterogeneous client environment. We define the fundamental building blocks of manifestations using object-oriented concepts. Examples are given of how constraints and rules can be used to govern the presentation of data within objects and for the environmental (e.g. hardware and network) and user defined factors (e.g. preferences) that act as inputs to manifestations. Using these techniques, we give several examples of user interactions with a system based on manifestations. This paper demonstrates how objects can be efficiently and effectively presented to users with various information appliances using manifestation techniques. PMID:8954236

Adam, N R; Holowczak, R D; Li, W S

1996-01-01

342

Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed according to a specification which defines the metrics levels to reach, such as the local contrast ?T RSS (NVESD metric), the Signal to Clutter Ratio, or the masking ratio target/mask. An integrated calibrated sensor model simulates the sensor degradations by using the pre and post-filter MTF, and the 3D noise parameters of the camera. The image generation comes with the construction of a ground truth file which indicates all the parameter values defining the image scenario. A large quantity of images can be generated accordingly, leading to a meaningful statistical evaluation. A key feature is that this technique allows to build learning and testing databases with comparable difficulty, in the sense of the chosen image metrics. The theoretical interest of this technique is presented in the paper, compared to the classical ones which use real or simulated data. An application is also presented, within the CALADIOM project (terrestrial target detection with programmable artificial IR retina combined with IR ATR system). Over 38,000 images were processed by this ATR for training and testing, involving seven armored vehicles as targets.

Landeau, Stéphane; Dagobert, Tristan

2006-05-01

343

A geometrical defect detection method for non-silicon MEMS part based on HU moment invariants of skeleton image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the accuracy of geometrical defect detection, this paper presented a method based on HU moment invariants of skeleton image. This method have four steps: first of all, grayscale images of non-silicon MEMS parts are collected and converted into binary images, secondly, skeletons of binary images are extracted using medialaxis- transform method, and then HU moment invariants of skeleton images are calculated, finally, differences of HU moment invariants between measured parts and qualified parts are obtained to determine whether there are geometrical defects. To demonstrate the availability of this method, experiments were carried out between skeleton images and grayscale images, and results show that: when defects of non-silicon MEMS part are the same, HU moment invariants of skeleton images are more sensitive than that of grayscale images, and detection accuracy is higher. Therefore, this method can more accurately determine whether non-silicon MEMS parts qualified or not, and can be applied to nonsilicon MEMS part detection system.

Cheng, Xu; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhijing; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

344

17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the uniform application form for access codes to file on EDGAR, and (2) File, by uploading as a Portable Document Format (PDF) attachment to the Form ID filing or by faxing to (202) 504-2474 or (703) 914-4240 within two business days...

2010-04-01

345

Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

2014-03-01

346

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

347

Diffuse Reflectance Imaging with Astronomical Applications Samuel W. Hasinoff  

E-print Network

Diffuse Reflectance Imaging with Astronomical Applications Samuel W. Hasinoff TTIC Anat Levin reconstruction method based on high-resolution photography, taking advantage of visi- bility changes near of visibility coding, analogous to the amplitude masks used in computational photography [29, 10]. This coding

Freeman, William T.

348

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking  

E-print Network

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking R. D structured materials, termed metamaterials (MM), has dramati- cally expanded our view of electromagnetic with metamaterials provides a promising approach--from a device perspective--towards fill- ing this gap

349

GPU-enabled parallel processing for image halftoning applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has emerged as a powerful parallel processing architecture for various applications requiring a large amount of CPU cycles. In this paper, we study the feasibility for using this architecture for image halftoning, in particular implementing computationally intensive neighborhood halftoning algorithms such as error diffusion and Direct Binary Search (DBS). We show that it is possible

Barry Trager; Chai Wah Wu; Mikel Stanich; Kartheek Chandu

2011-01-01

350

Applying Image Analysis to Auto Insurance Triage: A Novel Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the auto insurance claims process, improvements in the First Notice of Loss and rapidity in the investigation and evaluation of claims could drive significant values by reducing loss adjustment expense. This paper proposes a novel application where advanced technologies in image analysis and pattern recognition are applied to automatically identify and characterize automobile damage. Success in this will allow

Ying Li; C. Dorai

2007-01-01

351

"APPLICATIONS OF MICRORESONATORS: FROM PHOTODETECTORS TO BIOLOGICAL SENSING AND IMAGING"  

E-print Network

. Optical resonance is one of the key properties of light enabling important devices such as interference recognized and the interference due to multiple reflections had in fact been analyzed theoretically by George imaging of very large arrays. A novel application of resonance to fluorescence microscopy promises

352

Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

2005-01-01

353

Clinical applications for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiotherapy treatment of several key clinical sites, including those of the central nervous system, the head and neck, the prostate, and the cervix. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is an imaging technique that is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance owing to its ease and wide availability. DWI measures the mobility of water within tissue at the cellular level without the need of any exogenous contrast agent. For radiotherapy treatment planning, DWI improves upon conventional imaging techniques, by better characterization of tumor tissue properties required for tumor grading, diagnosis, and target volume delineation. Because DWI is also a sensitive marker for alterations in tumor cellularity, it has potential clinical applications in the early assessment of treatment response following radiation therapy. PMID:24931097

Tsien, Christina; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas

2014-07-01

354

A generic discriminative part-based model for geospatial object detection in optical remote sensing images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting geospatial objects with complex structure has been explored for years and it is still a challenging task in high resolution optical remote sensing images (RSI) interpretation. In this paper, we mainly focus on the problem of rotation variance in detecting geospatial objects and propose a generic discriminative part-based model (GDPBM) to build a practical object detection framework. In our model, a geospatial object with arbitrary orientation is divided into several parts and represented via three terms: the appearance features, the spatial deformation features and the rotation deformation features. The appearance features characterize the local patch appearance of the object and parts, and we propose a new kind of rotation invariant feature to represent the appearance using the local intensity gradients. The spatial deformation features capture the geometric deformation of parts by representing the relative displacements among parts. The rotation deformation features define the pose variances of the parts relative to the objects based on their dominant orientations. In generating the two deformation features, we introduce the statistic methods to encode the features in the category level. Concatenating the three terms of the features, a classifier based on the support vector machine is learned to detect geospatial objects. In the experiments, two datasets in optical RSI are used to evaluate the performance of our model and the results demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness.

Zhang, Wanceng; Sun, Xian; Wang, Hongqi; Fu, Kun

2015-01-01

355

Quantum dots for fluorescent biosensing and bio-imaging applications.  

PubMed

Quantum dots (QDs) have been facilitating the development of sensitive fluorescence biosensors over the past two decades due to their high quantum yield, narrow and tunable emission spectrum and good photostability. The new emerging QDs with improved biocompatibility further promote their biological applications. In this review, we first briefly introduce the prevalently used QDs and their preparation and bioconjugation approaches. Then we summarize QDs-based fluorescent biosensing for proteins and nucleic acids, and QDs-based applications in cellular and in vivo targeting and imaging. Last but not the least, we envision the potential QDs-based applications in future perspectives. PMID:23518695

Li, Jingjing; Zhu, Jun-Jie

2013-05-01

356

Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

357

Simulation and applications as part of the ARGOS project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the ARGOS development project, different numerical simulations were performed. The computer programs are presented as block diagrams. These programs cover: simulation of ocean buoys, collecting and transmitting data to a TDR satellite; simulation of the onboard command and test system; and simulation of the onboard data processing equipment. The system and data link tests are described. A comprehensive data processing system test (PROBATION experiment) is also reviewed. Results show the high efficiency and readiness of the ARGOS data collecting and localization system.

Donat, H.

358

A collaborative biomedical image mining framework: application on the image analysis of microscopic kidney biopsies.  

PubMed

The analysis and characterization of biomedical image data is a complex procedure involving several processing phases, like data acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The proper combination and parameterization of the utilized methods are heavily relying on the given image data set and experiment type. They may thus necessitate advanced image processing and classification knowledge and skills from the side of the biomedical expert. In this work, an application, exploiting web services and applying ontological modeling, is presented, to enable the intelligent creation of image mining workflows. The described tool can be directly integrated to the RapidMiner, Taverna or similar workflow management platforms. A case study dealing with the creation of a sample workflow for the analysis of kidney biopsy microscopy images is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed framework. PMID:23076078

Goudas, T; Doukas, C; Chatziioannou, A; Maglogiannis, I

2013-01-01

359

Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

1985-12-01

360

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

2014-01-01

361

Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application  

PubMed Central

As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

2013-01-01

362

Thick film compound semiconductors for X-ray imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of thick film compound semiconductor materials for radiation imaging applications is reviewed. Polycrystalline high-Z semiconductors offer a number of significant advantages for X-ray and ?-ray imaging, and provide an excellent technology for large area direct conversion imaging detectors. There has been significant recent progress in the development of high-purity polycrystalline layers in two distinct material groups, namely the CdTe/CdZnTe material system, and the Z>80 compounds of Hg, Pb, Bi and Tl. In this paper the charge transport and detection performance of these various thick film materials is summarised, and the most recent imaging performance of prototype detector systems is presented.

Sellin, P. J.

2006-07-01

363

Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications  

SciTech Connect

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-18

364

Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

2013-06-01

365

Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

Tilton, James C.

2010-01-01

366

Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II  

PubMed Central

Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice – in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures. PMID:24987237

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

367

Information system modeling for biomedical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information system modeling has historically been relegated to a low priority among the designers of information systems. Often times, there is a rush to design and implement hardware and software solutions after only the briefest assessments of the domain requirements. Although this process results in a rapid development cycle, the system usually does not satisfy the needs of the users and the developers are forced to re-program certain aspects of the system. It would be much better to create an accurate model of the system based on the domain needs so that the implementation of the solution satisfies the needs of the users immediately. It would also be advantageous to build extensibility into the model so that updates to the system could be carried out in an organized fashion. The significance of this research is the development of a new formal framework for the construction of a multimedia medical information system. This formal framework is constructed using visual modeling which provides a way of thinking about problems using models organized around real- world ideas. These models provide an abstract way to view complex problems, making them easier for one to understand. The formal framework is the result of an object-oriented analysis and design process that translates the systems requirements and functionality into software models. The usefulness of this information framework is demonstrated with two different applications in epilepsy research and care, i.e., surgical planning of epilepsy and decision threshold determination.

Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Wong, Stephen T. C.

1999-07-01

368

Multi-frequency static imaging in electrical impedance tomography: Part 1 instrumentation requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static images of the human body using electrical impedance tomography techniques can be obtained by measuring at two or more\\u000a different frequencies. The frequencies used depend on the application, and their selection depends on the frequency behaviour\\u000a of the impedance for the target tissue. An analysis using available data and theoretical models for tissue impedance yields\\u000a the expected impedance and

P. J. Riu; J. Rosell; A. Lozano; R. Pallà-Areny

1995-01-01

369

Digital Micro-mirror Device-based broadband optical image sensor for robust imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the best of the authors' knowledge, presented for the first time is the design of a robust broadband optical image sensor using a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD). Electronic focus control of the imaging lens and full programmability of the spatial sampling aperture shape, size, and location on the DMD plane that mechanically scans the incident incoherent optical irradiance distribution lead to imaging smartness. Dual port single-point photo-detection design provides imaging operation robustness to the global light irradiance variations such as via environmental effects, e.g., moving clouds. As the Texas Instruments (TI) DMD can provide light modulation over 400 nm to 2500 nm wavelengths, visible, Near Infrared (NIR), and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands can be simultaneously processed to generate three independent band images via three point photo-detectors. A proof-of-concept experiment in the SWIR band at 1580 nm is conducted using an incoherent heart-shaped target that is sampled using the DMD imager set for a 68.4 ?m side square moving pinhole. A 60 × 60 pixel image from the proposed imager produces a 0.94 cross-correlation peak when compared to an optically attenuated heart shape image produced by a near 9 ?m pixel size phosphor coated Charge Coupled Device (CCD) imager. Using the dual-detection method, robust 633 nm visible light imaging of an Air Force (AF) Chart figure is successfully demonstrated for 3 Hz global light fluctuation. Applications for the proposed imager include optical sensing in the fields of astronomy, defense, medicine, and security.

Riza, Nabeel A.; Reza, Syed Azer; Marraccini, Philip J.

2011-01-01

370

A trimodality comparison of volumetric bone imaging technologies. Part I: Short-term precision and validity.  

PubMed

In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and peripheral magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) modalities can measure apparent bone microstructure at resolutions 200 ?m or higher. However, validity and in vivo test-retest reproducibility of apparent bone microstructure have yet to be determined on 1.0 T pMRI (196 ?m) and pQCT (200 ?m). This study examined 67 women with a mean age of 74±9 yr and body mass index of 27.65±5.74 kg/m2, demonstrating validity for trabecular separation from pMRI, cortical thickness, and bone volume fraction from pQCT images compared with high-resolution pQCT (hr-pQCT), with slopes close to unity. However, because of partial volume effects, cortical and trabecular thickness of bone derived from pMRI and pQCT images matched hr-pQCT more only when values were small. Short-term reproducibility of bone outcomes was highest for bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and densitometric variables and lowest for trabecular outcomes measuring microstructure. Measurements at the tibia for pQCT images were more precise than at the radius. In part I of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of precision and validity, it is shown that pQCT images can yield valid and reproducible apparent bone structural outcomes, but because of longer scan time and potential for more motion, the pMRI protocol examined here remains limited in achieving reliable values. PMID:25129405

Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Min, Kevin K H; Webber, Colin E; Gordon, Christopher L; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M W; Adachi, Jonathan D

2015-01-01

371

Content-based image retrieval systems have become a reliable tool for many image database applications. There  

E-print Network

Abstract Content-based image retrieval systems have become a reliable tool for many image database applications. There are several advantages of the image retrieval techniques compared to other simple retrieval approaches such as text-based retrieval techniques. This paper proposes an image retrieval technique that can

Farag, Aly A.

372

Optoelectronic workshops. Part 4: Liquid Crystals for Laser Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This optoelectronic workshop represents the fourth of a series of intensive academic/government interactions in the field of advanced electro-optics as part of the Army sponsored University Research Initiative. The workshops are a collaboration between the Center of Opto-Electronic Systems Research at the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York and the U.S. Army Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics, Ft. Belvoir, Virginia. By documenting the associated technology status and dialogue it is hoped that this baseline will serve all interested parties towards providing a solution to high priority Army requirements. Responsible for program and program execution are Dr. Nicholas George, University of Rochester (ARO-URI) and Dr. Rudy Buser, NVEOC.

Jacobs, Stephen; Pohlmann, Juergen

1988-05-01

373

Fission matrix capability for MCNP, Part II - Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the initial experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix is obtained at essentially no cost during the normal simulation for criticality calculations. It can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode power distribution, the reactor dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode spatial eigenfunctions. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. Numerous examples are presented. A companion paper (Part I - Theory) describes the theoretical basis for the fission matrix method. (authors)

Carney, S. E. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

374

5 CFR 1203.1 - Scope; application of part 1201, subpart B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Scope; application of part 1201, subpart B. 1203.1 Section 1203.1 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PROCEDURES FOR REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF...

2010-01-01

375

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2013-10-01

376

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2010-10-01

377

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2012-10-01

378

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2011-10-01

379

42 CFR 51c.113 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of 45 CFR part 74. 51c.113 Section 51c.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.113 Applicability of 45 CFR...

2014-10-01

380

42 CFR 405.2410 - Application of Part B deductible and coinsurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2410 Application of Part B deductible and...

2014-10-01

381

21 CFR 107.1 - Status and applicability of the regulations in part 107.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA General Provisions § 107...the labeling requirements applicable to infant formula under section 403 of the Federal...subpart B of this part will render an infant formula misbranded under section...

2014-04-01

382

40 CFR 766.2 - Applicability and duration of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.2 Applicability and duration of this part. (a) Chemical substances...

2010-07-01

383

17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2013-04-01

384

17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix A to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2014-04-01

385

17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2012-04-01

386

Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.  

PubMed

Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services. PMID:23847587

Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

2013-01-01

387

Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2014-01-01

388

Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

1982-01-01

389

An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

Gevarter, W. B.

1983-01-01

390

PET/CT imaging in cancer: current applications and future directions.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radiotracer imaging method that yields quantitative images of regional in vivo biology and biochemistry. PET, now used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) in PET/CT devices, has had its greatest impact to date on cancer and is now an important part of oncologic clinical practice and translational cancer research. In this review of current applications and future directions for PET/CT in cancer, the authors first highlight the basic principles of PET followed by a discussion of the biochemistry and current clinical applications of the most commonly used PET imaging agent, (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Then, emerging methods for PET imaging of other biologic processes relevant to cancer are reviewed, including cellular proliferation, tumor hypoxia, apoptosis, amino acid and cell membrane metabolism, and imaging of tumor receptors and other tumor-specific gene products. The focus of the review is on methods in current clinical practice as well as those that have been translated to patients and are currently in clinical trials. PMID:24947987

Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A; Mankoff, David A

2014-11-15

391

Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery, 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several areas of applications of image processing to astronomy were identified and discussed. These areas include: (1) deconvolution for atmospheric seeing compensation; a comparison between maximum entropy and conventional Wiener algorithms; (2) polarization in galaxies from photographic plates; (3) time changes in M87 and methods of displaying these changes; (4) comparing emission line images in planetary nebulae; and (5) log intensity, hue saturation intensity, and principal component color enhancements of M82. Examples are presented of these techniques applied to a variety of objects.

Lorre, J. J.

1979-01-01

392

Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.

Antcliffe, G. A.

1975-01-01

393

Improved Tensor Scale Computation with Application to Medical Image Interpolation  

PubMed Central

Tensor scale (t-scale) is a parametric representation of local structure morphology that simultaneously describes its orientation, shape and isotropic scale. At any image location, t-scale represents the largest ellipse (an ellipsoid in three dimensions) centered at that location and contained in the same homogeneous region. Here, we present an improved algorithm for t-scale computation and study its application to image interpolation. Specifically, the t-scale computation algorithm is improved by: (1) enhancing the accuracy of identifying local structure boundary and (2) combining both algebraic and geometric approaches in ellipse fitting. In the context of interpolation, a closed form solution is presented to determine the interpolation line at each image location in a gray level image using t-scale information of adjacent slices. At each location on an image slice, the method derives normal vector from its t-scale that yields trans-orientation of the local structure and points to the closest edge point. Normal vectors at the matching two-dimensional locations on two adjacent slices are used to compute the interpolation line using a closed form equation. The method has been applied to BrainWeb data sets and to several other images from clinical applications and its accuracy and response to noise and other image-degrading factors have been examined and compared with those of current state-of-the-art interpolation methods. Experimental results have established the superiority of the new t-scale based interpolation method as compared to existing interpolation algorithms. Also, a quantitative analysis based on the paired t-test of residual errors has ascertained that the improvements observed using the t-scale based interpolation are statistically significant. PMID:20961733

Xu, Ziyue; Sonka, Milan

2010-01-01

394

77 FR 22789 - Withdrawal of Approval of Part of a New Animal Drug Application; Tiamulin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...parts of a new animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article...FDA withdraw approval of those parts of NADA 139-472 for DENAGARD (tiamulin) Type...indications has been approved in a supplement to NADA 139-472. Therefore, under...

2012-04-17

395

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to...

2014-07-01

396

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H...

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to...

2012-07-01

398

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H...

2014-07-01

400

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40...

2010-07-01

403

Fatigue analysis and life prediction of bridges with structural health monitoring data — Part II: application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a continuation of the paper titled “FATIGUE ANALYSIS AND LIFE PREDICTION OF BRIDGES WITH STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING DATA — PART I: METHODOLOGY AND STRATEGY” with the emphasis on application of the developed method to the fatigue damage assessment of the Tsing Ma Bridge. Based on the methodology and strategy of the fatigue analysis presented in Part I,

T. H. T. Chan; Z. X. Li; J. M. Ko

2001-01-01

404

Global Approach for Technical Data Management Application to Ship Equipment Part Families  

E-print Network

Global Approach for Technical Data Management Application to Ship Equipment Part Families J. Le approach that enables technical data to be managed and used throughout the product life a company environment that designs and produces families of ship equipment parts. This case study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

A Word Image Coding Technique and its Applications in Information Retrieval from Imaged Documents  

E-print Network

, Singapore 117543 Email: {zhangli,tancl}@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract With the need of current fast evolving being a popular and important resource for many human interactive applications, it becomes a growing studied to query on imaged documents using physical layout and logical (semantic) structure information

Tan, Chew Lim

406

Analysis operator learning and its application to image reconstruction.  

PubMed

Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this paper, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on l(p)-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constraints. Moreover, we compare our approach to state-of-the-art methods for image denoising, inpainting, and single image super-resolution. Our numerical results show competitive performance of our general approach in all presented applications compared to the specialized state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:23412611

Hawe, Simon; Kleinsteuber, Martin; Diepold, Klaus

2013-06-01

407

Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 ?m to 150 ?m. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

2013-03-01

408

The Application Of Infrared Thermography To Solar Central Receiver Temperature Measurements Part I. Instrument Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the instrumentation system, the calibration theory, and the error analysis of an experiment designed to measure front surface temperatures of the Barstow Solar Central Receiver panels. The instrumentation system uses an infrared detector, imaging peripherals, a collimator, and a 30 power telescope. The unique feature of this application is the large distance (200 m) between the detector and the target (1.27 cm diameter tubes). Sources of thermal radiation other than the target are found to contribute heavily to the input signal. Thus, the calibration scheme must specifically account for these background or environmental effects. During the data acquisition, two blackbody radiators at known temperatures are referenced periodically, and their output signals are used to define the calibration curves. These curves are valid as long as the environmental effects remain unchanged. The error analysis uses the Root-Sum-Square (RSS) technique for evaluating random errors. The biased errors are assumed to stem from spatial resolution problems, and are addressed using the optical transfer functions of the system. Data analysis and interpretation are covered in Part II, Receiver Evaluation.

Bergan, Nina E.; Stoddard, Mary Clare

1985-03-01

409

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Part 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Part 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2010-07-01

411

Low dose applications of lightspeed VCT in cardiac imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduced and evaluated the techniques LightSpeed VCT uses to reduce X-ray dose and image noise in cardiac helical CT applications. These techniques include the use of much improved VCT data acquisition system (VDAS) with reduced electronic noise; cardiac bowtie that redistributes X-rays to have more signals for heart and much less flux to the peripheries; adaptive post-processing filters to reduce cardiac image noise; and ECG modulated tube currents to concentrate X-ray dose for desired cardiac phases. Phantom and patient scans were used to evaluate the dose saving and noise reduction potentials of these techniques. The results demonstrated that the improved VDAS reduced image noise 15-20% for cardiac imaging. With same scan technique, the use of cardiac bowtie reduced about 10% dose in terms of CTDIw measurement and clinical evaluation demonstrated additional 7% image noise reduction and equivalent image quality with cardiac bowtie vs. regular body bowtie. The adaptive filter generated 15-20% noise reduction while maintaining image resolution and artery sharpness. Finally, the use of ECG modulated mA method provided up to 50% dose reduction based on CTDIw measurements, but the saving potentials depended on the heart rate and cardiac phase selection. For heart rate of 60bpm and +/-15% cardiac phase margin, the average dose reduction could be 30%. Since these dose and noise reduction methods are inclusive and can be combined to produce even greater dose/noise reduction. It is reasonable to believe that with VCT we maybe able to acquire cardiac helical CT images with only 30-40% of the dose of older generation 16-slice CT scanners with similar noise level and same slice thickness.

Li, Jianying; Hsieh, Jiang; Lundgren, Ronald; Shen, Yun

2007-03-01

412

A stereoscopic imaging system for laser back scatter based trajectory measurement in ballistics: part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress on a laser- and stereo-camera-based trajectory measurement system that we already proposed and described in recent publications is given. The system design was extended from one to two more powerful, DSP-controllable LASER systems. Experimental results of the extended system using different projectile-/weapon combinations will be shown and discussed. Automatic processing of acquired images using common 3DIP techniques was realized. Processing steps to extract trajectory segments from images as representative for the current application will be presented. Used algorithms for backward-calculation of the projectile trajectory will be shown. Verification of produced results is done against simulated trajectories, once in terms of detection robustness and once in terms of detection accuracy. Fields of use for the current system are within the ballistic domain. The first purpose is for trajectory measurement of small and middle caliber projectiles on a shooting range. Extension to big caliber projectiles as well as an application for sniper detection is imaginable, but would require further work. Beside classical RADAR, acoustic and optical projectile detection methods, the current system represents a further projectile location method under the new class of electro-optical methods that have been evolved in recent decades and that uses 3D imaging acquisition and processing techniques.

Chalupka, Uwe; Rothe, Hendrik

2012-03-01

413

Application of image processing techniques to fluid flow data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of color coding techniques used in processing remote sensing imagery to analyze and display fluid flow data is discussed. A minicomputer based color film recording and color CRT display system is described. High quality, high resolution images of two-dimensional data are produced on the film recorder. Three dimensional data, in large volume, are used to generate color motion pictures in which time is used to represent the third dimension. Several applications and examples are presented. System hardware and software is described.

Giamati, C. C.

1981-01-01

414

Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.  

SciTech Connect

The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

2004-11-01

415

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

416

Application of Digital Image Correlation to reinforced concrete fracture  

E-print Network

., & Loukili, A., 2013. Study of evolution of fracture process zone in concrete by simultaneous application of digital image correlation and acoustic emission. VIII International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (pp. 1... Procedia Materials Science 3 ( 2014 ) 1585 – 1590 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com 2211-8128 © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3...

Fayyad, Tahreer M.; Lees, Janet M.

2014-06-27

417

A GENERIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF GRAPH THEORY TO IMAGE PROCESSING  

E-print Network

A GENERIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF GRAPH THEORY TO IMAGE PROCESSING by Sonali Barua framework for application of Graph Theory to Image Processing.( Under the direction of DR. KALPATHI R and Registration Toolkit. Graph theory has important applications in medical image processing such as centerline

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

418

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

419

Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive submillimeter-wave imaging is a concept that has been in the focus of interest as a promising technology for security applications for a number of years. It utilizes the unique optical properties of submillimeter waves and promises an alternative to millimeter-wave and X-ray backscattering portals for personal security screening in particular. Possible application scenarios demand sensitive, fast, and flexible high-quality imaging techniques. Considering the low radiometric contrast of indoor scenes in the submillimeter range, this objective calls for an extremely high detector sensitivity that can only be achieved using cooled detectors. Our approach to this task is a series of passive standoff video cameras for the 350 GHz band that represent an evolving concept and a continuous development since 2007. The cameras utilize arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), i. e. cryogenic microbolometers, as radiation detectors. The TES are operated at temperatures below 1 K, cooled by a closed-cycle cooling system, and coupled to superconducting readout electronics. By this means, background limited photometry (BLIP) mode is achieved providing the maximum possible signal to noise ratio. At video rates, this leads to a pixel NETD well below 1K. The imaging system is completed by reflector optics based on free-form mirrors. For object distances of 3-10 m, a field of view up to 2m height and a diffraction-limited spatial resolution in the order of 1-2 cm is provided. Opto-mechanical scanning systems are part of the optical setup and capable frame rates up to 25 frames per second. Both spiraliform and linear scanning schemes have been developed. Several electronic and software components are used for system control, signal amplification, and data processing. Our objective is the design of an application-ready and user-friendly imaging system. For application in real world security screening scenarios, it can be extended using image processing and automated threat detection software.

Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Brömel, Anika; Anders, Solveig; Zakosarenko, Vyacheslav; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, André; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

2012-10-01

420

Case studies - Applications of laser systems for cutting and welding aerospace parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents three case studies of current industrial applications of laser systems, showing that multiaxis laser machining systems are satisfying demands for reduced part-production costs, higher quality, greater flexibility, and faster turnaround on prototype and production aerospace parts. For example, laser cutting has replaced milling for trimming a deep-drawn gas turbine part and increased throughput from 18 pieces per day to 18 pieces in 30 minutes. The case studies described include that of a job shop supplying aircraft engine parts, and those of two aircraft manufacturers.

Vanderwert, Terry L.

421

Novel femtosecond laser development with applications in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, improvements and refinements in the field of ultrafast optics have led to more widespread implementation of femtosecond technology. As applications become more diverse, the development of specialized sources is vital in order to meet the requirements of the experiment. This thesis explores the theory and development of innovative femtosecond lasers and their application in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication. The first part of this thesis focuses on mode-locking and the cavity design theory behind KLM lasers. We explain the mechanisms that enable stable, ultrashort pulses to be produced. The master equation is introduced to provide insight into the interplay between competing nonlinear effects. Based on the operation of a standard laser, we introduce a new cavity design based on the Herriott cell. The theory of multi-pass cavities (MPC) allows for a new class of femtosecond lasers to be built with space-efficient layouts and significant performance enhancements. Part II of the thesis reports on the development and application of three novel femtosecond sources. The first is an ultra-low threshold KLM laser. The laser has a mode-locking threshold of 156 mW, and produces 14 fs pulses with 200 mW of pump power. We demonstrate the utility of low-threshold technology by developing a portable, robust, and low cost source for biomedical imaging. The 124 nm bandwidth enables ultrahigh resolution imaging of the human retina. A long cavity laser is also developed. By using the theory of MPC lasers, explained in Part I, pulse energies of up to 150 nJ with 43 fs durations are reported from a 5.85 MHz laser oscillator. This laser serves as the enabling technology for photonic device fabrication in transparent materials. A variety of 2D and 3D devices are fabricated and characterized. The ability to directly write waveguides and structures inside transparent materials is a significant advance over current 2D fabrication techniques.

Kowalevicz, Andrew M., Jr.

422

Real-Time Human Pose Recognition in Parts from Single Depth Images Jamie Shotton Andrew Fitzgibbon Mat Cook Toby Sharp Mark Finocchio  

E-print Network

of body joints from a single depth image, using no temporal information. We take an object recog- nition probabilistic body part labeling, with the parts defined to be spatially localized near skeletal depth image body parts 3D joint proposals Figure 1. Overview. From an single input depth image, a per-pixel body

Wolberg, George

423

New technology of functional infrared imaging and its clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With improvements in infrared camera technology, the promise of reduced costs and noninvasive character, infrared thermal imaging resurges in medicine. The paper introduces a new technology of functional infrared imaging, thermal texture maps (TTM), which is not only an apparatus for thermal radiation imaging but also a new method for revealing the relationship between the temperature distribution of the skin surface and the emission field inside body. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Any disease in the body is associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of human body. Infrared thermography is noninvasive, so it is the best choice for studying the physiology of thermoregulation and the thermal dysfunction associated with diseases. Reading and extracting information from the thermograms is a complex and subjective task that can be greatly facilitated by computerized techniques. Through image processing and measurement technology, surface or internal radiation sources can be non-invasively distinguished through extrapolation. We discuss the principle, the evaluation procedure and the effectiveness of TTM technology in the clinical detection and diagnosis of cancers, especially in their early stages and other diseases by comparing with other imaging technologies, such as ultrasound. Several study cases are given to show the effectiveness of this method. At last, we point out the applications of TTM technology in the research field of traditional medicine.

Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Lu, Zukang; Liu, Zhongqi

2006-01-01

424

Line scan CCD image processing for biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood samples are frequently analyzed for the blood disorders or other diseases in the research and clinic applications. Most of the analyses are related to blood cell counts and blood cell sizes. In this paper, the line scan CCD imaging system is developed, which is based on the Texas Instruments' TMS320C6416T (DSP6416), a high performance digital signal processor and Altera's Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) EP3C25F324. It is used to acquire and process the images of blood cells for counting the number of cells, sizing and positioning them. The cell image is captured by line scan CCD sensor and then the digital image data converted by Analogue Front-End (AFE) are transferred into FPGA, after pre-processing they are transferred into DSP6416 through the interface of First In First Out (FIFO) in FPGA and External Memory Interfaces (EMIF) of DSP6416. Then the image data are processed in DSP6416. Experimental results show that this system is useful and efficient.

Lee, Choon-Young; Yan, Lei; Lee, Sang-Ryong

2010-02-01

425

Application of Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion on digital radiographic image  

SciTech Connect

Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a very useful and efficient denoising technique if the parameters are properly selected. Overestimating the parameters may cause oversmoothed and underestimating it may leave unfiltered noise. This makes the selection of parameters a crucial process. In this paper the PMAD model is solved using a finite difference scheme The discretized model is evaluated using different diffusion coefficient of exponential and quadratic on defective radiographic images in terms of quality and efficiency. In the application of the PMAD model on image data, a set of defective radiographic images of welding is used as input data. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Measure (SSIM) and temporal time are used to evaluate the performance of the model. The implementation of the experiment has been carried out using MATLAB R2009a. In terms of quality, results show that the Quadratic Diffusion Coefficient Function (QDCF) provides better results compared with the Exponential Diffusion Coefficient Function (EDCF). In conclusion, the denoising effect using PMAD model based on finite difference scheme shows able to improve image quality by removing noise in the defective radiographic image.

Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abdul; Ibrahim, Arsmah [Center of Mathematics Studies, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor DE (Malaysia); Manurung, Yupiter HP [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor DE (Malaysia)

2014-07-10

426

[Application of nanophosphors with near infrared excitation for biomedical imaging].  

PubMed

Fluorescence bioimaging is an inevitable method for biological, medical and pharmaceutical sciences to visualize substances in biological objects in a highly sensitive, multicolor and dynamic way. Recently, elongation of the fluorescence wavelength is a trend used in this imaging to suppress scattering, which limits the imaging depth to within several millimeters. It has been known that the so-called "biological window" with low loss for a biological tissue has been known to lie in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range between 1000 and 1700 nm. The use of fluorescence in the over-1000-nm (OTN) NIR can deepen the observation to several centimeters. The use of imaging devices based on semiconductor silicon has limited the wavelength of the fluorescence bioimaging to less than 1000 nm. However, the appearance of InGaAs CCD on the market, to allow for imaging of the OTN-NIR light, is now changing the situation. On the other hand, rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors (RED-CNP) can emit efficient fluorescence in the OTN-NIR wavelength range. The author's group has applied the RED-CNP to OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging by hybridizing the RED-CNP with various polymers or molecules. The present paper will review the development of the materials and systems for this OTN-NIR fluorescence bioimaging, together with some applications of the imaging method for biological research and a medical surgery. PMID:23449415

Soga, Kohei

2013-01-01

427

Graphene electrically reconfigurable patterns for THz imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz waves are attractive for several imaging applications, since they can propagate through non metallic media such as paper, cloth, plastics, and ceramics, and do not scatter over nano-scale defects or ionize the material under imaging -as might shorter wavelengths do- while offering an image resolution similar to that of the human eye. In this work we propose and experimentally demonstrate electrically reconfigurable patterns for single-pixel terahertz imaging based on arrays of graphene THz electro-absorption modulators. In an optical setup, in conjunction with mirrors, the modulator array can transform the output radiation from a CW THz source into a pixelated and collimated beam of illumination. Single-atom-thick graphene is employed as the active element of these modulators, achieving a modulation of the THz wave reflectance 50% with a potential modulation depth approaching 100% (i.e. each region of the pixelated collimated beam can be potentially completely turned-off). Although the proof-of-concept device here discussed only consists of 4x4 elements, we foresee that this technology can enable low-cost video rate THz imaging systems.

Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Rafique, Subrina; Yan, Rusen; Zhu, Mingda; Protasenko, Vladimir; Jena, Debdeep; Liu, Lei; Xing, Huili Grace

2013-03-01

428

Building an outpatient imaging center: a case study at Genesis Healthcare System, part 1.  

PubMed

In the first of two parts, this article provides an outline of key steps in creating a freestanding diagnostic imaging center (Genesis HealthCare System located in Zanesville, OH) and provides details on a few of the significant processes. The following are highlighted in this article: Overview, market assessment, facility design, and equipment selection. Part 2 will feature operational process improvements. The length of the Genesis project extended to about 18 months due to the added services of urgent care and a community education and meeting facility. The project began in July 2005 and was completed in January 2006 (if the project was focused only on imaging, it could have been complete in about 8 to 10 months, see Figure 1 for a typical summary work task timeline). This multi-service outpatient center, The Genesis Healthplex on Maple, was created in an existing facility that was once a large grocery store. A significant goal that came out of the project was to create the perfect customer experience. The customer is defined as: Patients, patient families, referring physicians and their staff, radiologists, and employees. This was achieved by bringing the 3 entities of people (patient/family, staff, and physicians) working closely together by utilizing well identified processes and employing technology that the market demands. Only when these areas overlap and work together will the perfect customer experience be created. See Figure 2. PMID:17191544

Yanci, Jim

2006-01-01

429

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2011-07-01

430

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2014-07-01

431

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2013-07-01

432

HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

2004-08-01

433

PATCH-BASED IMAGE INTERPOLATION: ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS Lane Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering  

E-print Network

. Extensive experimental results in image interpolation and coding applica- tions are reported to demonstrate synthesis [5], image inpainting [6], image denois- ing [7], [8]). Nonlocal image interpolation has alsoPATCH-BASED IMAGE INTERPOLATION: ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS Xin Li Lane Dept. of Computer Science

Li, Xin

434

Single event upset injection simulation and fault-tolerant design for image compression applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a SEU fault injection framework. Based on the assumption of SEU effects and SEU distribution, the quantitative analysis between measured data and simulation model is investigated. By adjusting some parameters in the simulation-based framework, the proposed framework can be very possibly close to the published data and some accelerated radiation experiments. Furthermore, how the JPEG2000 based hardware architecture is sensitive to SEUs can be found out. In terms of hardware resources and operating frequencies, some fault-tolerant techniques can be introduced to the more sensitive parts, which show the framework's effectiveness in fault-tolerant design for image compression applications.

Guo, Jie; Li, Yunsong; Liu, Kai; Lei, Jie; Wu, Chengke

2012-10-01

435

Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence  

SciTech Connect

The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized CdS monocrystals. Aggregates of nanospheres were bathed in imaging solution, and ATP bioluminescence was monitored to investigated the release kinetics of the nanosphere drug delivery systems. Addition of disulfide bond-cleaving molecules induced uncapping of the nanospheres and subsequently, the release of ATP. Increasing the concentration of the uncapping molecule decreased the temporal maximum and increased the magnitude of release of encapsulated ATP from the nanospheres. Furthermore, the release kinetics from the nanospheres varied with the size of the particle aggregates.

Jason Alan Gruenhagen

2003-12-12

436

Automatic segmentation of medical images using image registration: diagnostic and simulation applications.  

PubMed

Automatic identification of the boundaries of significant structure (segmentation) within a medical image is an are of ongoing research. Various approaches have been proposed but only two methods have achieved widespread use: manual delineation of boundaries and segmentation using intensity values. In this paper we describe an approach based on image registration. A reference image is prepared and segmented, by hand or otherwise. A patient image is registered to the reference image and the mapping then applied to ther reference segmentation to map it back to the patient image. In general a high-resolution nonlinear mapping is required to achieve accurate segmentation. This paper describes an algorithm that can efficiently generate such mappings, and outlines the uses of this tool in two relevant applications. An important feature of the approach described in this paper is that the algorithm is independent of the segmentation problem being addresses. All knowledge about the problem at hand is contained in files of reference data. A secondary benefit is that the continuous three-dimensional mapping generated is well suited to the generation of patient-specific numerical models (e.g. finite element meshes) from the library models. Smoothness constraints in the morphing algorithm tend to maintain the geometric quality of the reference mesh. PMID:15804853

Barber, D C; Hose, D R

2005-01-01

437

High-performance field-portable imaging radiometric spectrometer technology for hyperspectral imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standoff detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state are fundamental needs in several fields of applications. Additional required sensor characteristics include high sensitivity, low false alarms and high-speed (ideally real-time) operation, all in a compact and robust package. The thermal infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been utilized to implement such chemical sensors, either with spectrometers (with none or moderate imaging capability) or with imagers (with moderate spectral capability). Only with the recent emergence of high-speed, large format infrared imaging arrays, has it been possible to design chemical sensors offering uncompromising performance in the spectral, spatial, as well as the temporal domain. Telops has developed a novel instrument that can not only provide an early warning for chemical agents and toxic chemicals, but also one that provides a "Chemical Map" of the field of view and is man portable. To provide to best field imaging spectroscopy instrument, Telops has developed the FIRST, Field-portable Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology, instrument. This instrument is based on a modular design that includes: a high performance infrared FPA and data acquisition electronics, onboard data processing electronics, a high performance Fourier transform modulator, dual integrated radiometric calibration targets, a visible boresight camera. These modules, assembled together in an environmentally robust structure, used in combination with Telops' proven radiometric and spectral calibration algorithms make this instrument a world-class passive standoff detection system for chemical imaging.

Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Vallières, Alexandre; Villemaire, André; Belhumeur, Louis; Giroux, Jean; Legault, Jean-François

2005-11-01

438

Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results. PMID:20648125

Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas

2010-07-01

439

Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors for unattended ground sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in the early 1990's, uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology began to move out of the basic development laboratories of the Honeywell Corporation in Minneapolis and into applied development at several companies which have licensed the basic technology. Now, this technology is addressing military, government, and commercial applications in the real world. Today, thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are being produced and sold annually. At the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues at an unabated pace. These research and development efforts have two primary goals: 1) improving sensor performance in terms of increased resolution and greater thermal sensitivity and 2) reducing sensor cost. Success is being achieved in both areas. In this paper we will describe advances in uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology as they apply to the modern battlefield and to unattended ground sensor applications in particular. Improvements in sensor performance include: a) reduced size, b) increased spatial resolution, c) increased thermal sensitivity, d) reduced electrical power, and e) reduced weight. For battlefield applications, unattended sensors are used not only in fixed ground locations, but also on a variety of moving platforms, including remotely operated ground vehicles, as well as Micro and Miniature Aerial Vehicles. The use of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors on these platforms will be discussed, and the results from simulations, of an uncooled microbolometer sensor flying on a Micro Aerial Vehicle will be presented. Finally, we will describe microbolometer technology advancements currently being made or planned at BAE SYSTEMS. Where possible, examples of actual improvements, in the form of real imagery and/or actual performance measurements, will be provided.

Figler, Burton D.

2001-09-01

440

Adaptation of web pages and images for mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce our new visualization service which presents web pages and images on arbitrary devices with differing display resolutions. We analyze the layout of a web page and simplify its structure and formatting rules. The small screen of a mobile device is used much better this way. Our new image adaptation service combines several techniques. In a first step, border regions which do not contain relevant semantic content are identified. Cropping is used to remove these regions. Attention objects are identified in a second step. We use face detection, text detection and contrast based saliency maps to identify these objects and combine them into a region of interest. Optionally, the seam carving technique can be used to remove inner parts of an image. Additionally, we have developed a software tool to validate, add, delete, or modify all automatically extracted data. This tool also simulates different mobile devices, so that the user gets a feeling of how an adapted web page will look like. We have performed user studies to evaluate our web and image adaptation approach. Questions regarding software ergonomics, quality of the adapted content, and perceived benefit of the adaptation were asked.

Kopf, Stephan; Guthier, Benjamin; Lemelson, Hendrik; Effelsberg, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

441

Impact of an etched EUV mask black border on imaging: part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (ReMa) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from its image border overlaps with the edges of neighboring dies affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack has 1-3% reflectance for actinic light. For a 55nm thick absorber the induced CD drop at the edges is found to be 4-5 nm for 27 nm dense lines. In this work we will show an overview of the absorber reflection impact on CD at the edge of the field across EUV scanner generations, for several imaging nodes and multiple absorber heights. Increasing spacing between dies on the wafer would prevent the unwanted exposure but results in an unacceptable loss of valuable wafer real estate thereby reducing the yield per wafer and is thus not a viable manufacturing solution. In order to mitigate the reflection from the image border one needs to create a so called black border. The most promising approach is removal of the absorber and the underlying multilayer down to the low reflective LTEM substrate by multilayer etching. It was shown in the previous study that the impact on CD was reduced essentially for 27 nm dense lines exposed on ASML NXE:3100. In this work we will continue the study of a multilayer etched black border impact on imaging. In particular, 22 nm lines/spaces imaging on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner will be investigated in the areas close to the black border as well as die to die effects. We will look closer into the CD uniformity impact by DUV Out-of-Band light reflected from black border and its mitigation. A possible OPC approach will also be evaluated.

Davydova, Natalia; de Kruif, Robert; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Fukugami, Norihito; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Connolly, Brid; van Gestel, Dries; Oorschot, Dorothe; Rio, David; Zimmerman, John; Harned, Noreen

2013-09-01

442

Indocyanine Green Loaded Nanoconstructs for Optical Imaging and Phototherapeutic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Optically active nanoparticles are widely pursued as exogenous chromophores in diagnostic imaging and phototherapeutic applications. However, the blood circulation time of nanoparticles remains limited due to the rapid clearance of the nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Coating with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a strategy to extend the circulation time of nanoparticles. Here, we report PEGylation of polymeric-based nanocapsules loaded with Indocyanine green (ICG) and effect of PEG's molecular weight on the uptake of these nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages and hepatocytes using flow cytometry. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging in mice and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG. Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents using surface modified nanovectors has been explored immensely in recent years. The growing demand for site-specific and efficient delivery of nanovectors entails stable surface conjugation of targeting moieties. Our ICG-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) have potential for covalent coupling of various targeting moieties and materials due to presence of amine groups on the surface. Here, we covalently bioconjugate PEG-coated ICG-NCs with monoclonal anti- HER2 through reductive amination-mediated procedures. The targeting abilities of HER2 functionalized ICG-NCs toward ovarian cancer was investigated in-vitro. Since these functionalized nanoconstructs have potential applications in laser-induced photodestruction of ovarian cancer cells, we studies NIR laser induced phototherapy of ovarian cancer cells in-vitro. Other than polymeric theranostic nano-constructs, here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate ICG. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions.

Bahmani, Baharak

443

Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

2004-06-01

444

EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

2001-12-01

445

Chinese Restaurant Game - Part II: Applications to Wireless Networking, Cloud Computing, and Online Social Networking  

E-print Network

In Part I of this two-part paper [1], we proposed a new game, called Chinese restaurant game, to analyze the social learning problem with negative network externality. The best responses of agents in the Chinese restaurant game with imperfect signals are constructed through a recursive method, and the influence of both learning and network externality on the utilities of agents is studied. In Part II of this two-part paper, we illustrate three applications of Chinese restaurant game in wireless networking, cloud computing, and online social networking. For each application, we formulate the corresponding problem as a Chinese restaurant game and analyze how agents learn and make strategic decisions in the problem. The proposed method is compared with four common-sense methods in terms of agents' utilities and the overall system performance through simulations. We find that the proposed Chinese restaurant game theoretic approach indeed helps agents make better decisions and improves the overall system performan...

Wang, Chih-Yu; Liu, K J Ray

2011-01-01

446

Parallel Algorithms and Software for Nuclear, Energy, and Environmental Applications. Part II: Multiphysics Software  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.

Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson

2012-09-01

447

Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier

2006-04-01

448

Application of molecular ultrasound for imaging integrin expression.  

PubMed

Stabilized microbubbles with a size between 1-5 µm are used as ultrasound contrast agents in the clinical routine. They have shown convincing results for the vascular characterization of tissues as well as in echocardiography. Due to their size, microbubbles strictly remain intravascular where they can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity. This qualifies them for intravascular molecular imaging. Many studies have been published reporting on the successful use of microbubbles conjugated to specific ligands for target identification in vivo. Among them, there are several promising examples on how to use molecular ultrasound for the imaging of integrin expression. This review provides an overview on the composition of ultrasound contrast agents that can be used for molecular imaging and their detection by ultrasound using destructive and non destructive methods. Furthermore, concrete examples are given on the use of molecular ultrasound to characterize integrin expression on vessels. These cover oncological applications where integrin targeted microbubbles were used to identify and characterize tumor angiogenesis and to assess tumor response to antiangiogenic drugs as well as to radiotherapy. In addition, increased accumulation of integrin targeted microbubbles was found during vascular reformation in ischemic tissues as well as in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. In summary, there is clear evidence from preclinical studies that integrin targeted ultrasound imaging is a valuable tool for the characterization of a broad spectrum of diseases. Thus, more efforts should be put into translating this promising technology into the clinics. PMID:21547155

Kiessling, Fabian; Gaetjens, Jessica; Palmowski, Moritz

2011-01-01

449

Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.  

PubMed

Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner. PMID:24051776

Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

2013-12-01

450

A Multimode Optical Imaging System for Preclinical Applications In Vivo: Technology Development, Multiscale Imaging, and Chemotherapy Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several established optical imaging approaches have been applied, usually in isolation, to preclinical studies; however, truly useful in vivo imaging may require a simultaneous combination of imaging modalities to examine dynamic characteristics of cells and tissues. We developed a new multimode optical imaging system designed to be application-versatile, yielding high sensitivity, and specificity molecular imaging. Procedures We integrated several optical imaging technologies, including fluorescence intensity, spectral, lifetime, intravital confocal, two-photon excitation, and bioluminescence, into a single system that enables functional multiscale imaging in animal models. Results The approach offers a comprehensive imaging platform for kinetic, quantitative, and environmental analysis of highly relevant information, with micro-to-macroscopic resolution. Applied to small animals in vivo, this provides superior monitoring of processes of interest, represented here by chemo-/nanoconstruct therapy assessment. Conclusions This new system is versatile and can be optimized for various applications, of which cancer detection and targeted treatment are emphasized here. PMID:21874388

Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Ljubimova, Julia; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

451

Robust Recognition-by-Parts Using Transduction and Boosting with Applications to Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The ability to recognize objects, in general, and living creatures, in particular, in photographs or video clips, is a critical enabling technology for a wide range of applications including health care, human-computer intelligent interaction, search engines for image retrieval and data mining, industrial and personal robotics, surveillance and security, and transportation. Despite almost 50 years of

H. Wechsler

2007-01-01

452

New fractional matrix with its applications in image encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, new fractional matrix generation by using different the periodic matrix sequences are considered. For a periodic matrix with period P, its integer forms and fractional forms can constitute different periodic matrix sequences. The series of the periodic matrix sequence can be used to compute and construct different fractional matrices, which is depended on the relationship between the period and the size of the periodic matrix sequence. The proposed fractional matrix generation method is general and can be used to any periodic matrices. Then, we extend the new fractional matrices to multi-order forms, which can be used in image encryption. Simulation results and the application example in image encryption using the obtained new fractional matrix are also presented.

Zhang, Feng; Hu, Yang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

2014-12-01

453

Clinical Application of Image-Based CFD for Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the convergence of medical imaging and computational modeling technologies has enabled tremendous progress in the development and application of image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling of patient-specific blood flows. These techniques have been used for studying the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases, for studying possible ways to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of patients by incorporating hemodynamics information to the anatomical data typically available, and for the development of computational tools that can be used to improve surgical and endovascular treatment planning. However, before these technologies can have a significant impact on the routine clinical practice, it is still necessary to demonstrate the connection between the extra information provided by the models and the natural progression of vascular diseases and the outcome of interventions. This paper summarizes some of our contributions in this direction, focusing in particular on cerebral aneurysms. PMID:21822465

Cebral, JR; Mut, F; Sforza, D; Löhner, R; Scrivano, E; Lylyk, P; Putman, CM

2010-01-01

454

Image sequence segmentation combining global labeling and local relabeling and its application to materials science images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately segmenting a series of 2D serial-sectioned images for multiple, contiguous 3D structures has important applications in medical image processing, video sequence analysis, and materials science image segmentation. While 2D structure topology is largely consistent across consecutive serial sections, it may vary locally because a 3D structure of interest may not span the entire 2D sequence. In this paper, we develop a new approach to address this challenging problem by considering both the global consistency and possible local inconsistency of the 2D structural topology. In this approach, we repeatedly propagate a 2D segmentation from one slice to another, and we formulate each step of this propagation as an optimal labeling problem that can be efficiently solved using the graph-cut algorithm. Specifically, we divide the optimal labeling into two steps: a global labeling that enforces topology consistency, and a local labeling that identifies possible topology inconsistency. We justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach by using it to segment a sequence of serial-section microscopic images of an alloy widely used in material sciences and compare its performance against several existing image segmentation methods.

Waggoner, Jarrell W.; Simmons, Jeff; Wang, Song

2012-03-01

455

Beam Combination for Stellar Imager and its Application to Full-Aperture Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and discarding most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

2007-01-01

456

Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and 192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a measured air-kerma rate. Conclusions: The novel output verification methods described in this work will reduce uncertainties in dose delivery for treatments with these kinds of surface applicators, ultimately improving patient care. PMID:24506635

Fulkerson, Regina K.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

2014-01-01

457

Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a measured air-kerma rate. Conclusions: The novel output verification methods described in this work will reduce uncertainties in dose delivery for treatments with these kinds of surface applicators, ultimately improving patient care.

Fulkerson, Regina K., E-mail: rmkenned@gmail.com; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2014-02-15

458

LCA of Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Systems - Part 2: Application on an Island Economy (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

-  Part 1: Present Situation and Future Perspectives \\u000a Part 2: Application on an Island Economy\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Goal, Scope and Background   In the first part of this paper, we developed a methodology to incorporate exposure and risk concepts into life cycle impact\\u000a assessment (LCIA). We argued that both risk assessment and LCIA are needed to consider the impacts of increasing insulation\\u000a for single-family

Christopher Koroneos; Nikolaos Stylos; Nicolas Moussiopoulos

2006-01-01

459

20 CFR 655.900 - Purpose, procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part. 655.900 Section 655...procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part. (a) Purpose...students for off-campus work. Subpart K of this part sets forth complaint,...

2013-04-01

460

20 CFR 655.900 - Purpose, procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part. 655.900 Section 655...procedure and applicability of subparts J and K of this part. (a) Purpose...students for off-campus work. Subpart K of this part sets forth complaint,...

2012-04-01

461

26 CFR 1.761-2 - Exclusion of certain unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...or a part of the provisions of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Code. Such...

2013-04-01

462

26 CFR 1.761-2 - Exclusion of certain unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...or a part of the provisions of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Code. Such...

2012-04-01

463

26 CFR 1.761-2 - Exclusion of certain unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code...or a part of the provisions of subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Code. Such...

2014-04-01

464

On the von Neumann equation with time-dependent Hamiltonian. Part II: Applications  

E-print Network

This second part deals with applications of a general method to describe the quantum time evolution determined by a Schroedinger equation with time-dependent Hamiltonian. A new aspect of our approach is that we find all solutions starting from one special solution. The two main applications are reviewed, namely the Bloch equations and the harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency. Even in these well-known examples some new results are obtained.

Maciej Kuna; Jan Naudts

2008-05-29

465

Clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging applications.  

PubMed

Although clinical positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) applications were obvious and have completely replaced PET in oncology, clinical applications of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) are currently not clearly defined. This is due to the lack of clinical data, which is mainly because PET/MR technology is not clinically mature at this point. Open issues are technical and concern ease of obtaining PET attenuation correction maps, dealing with, for example, MR surface coil metal in the PET field-of-view and appropriate workflows leading to a cost-effective examination. All issues can be circumvented by using a shuttle-connected PET/CT-MR system, but the penalty is that simultaneous PET and MR imaging are not possible and potential motion between examinations may occur. Clinically, some systems installed worldwide start to have a reasonable bulk of clinical data. Preliminary results suggest that in oncology, PET/MR may have advantages over PET/CT in head and neck imaging. In liver imaging, more PET-positive lesions are seen on MR than on CT, but that does not mean that PET/MR is superior to PET/CT. Possibly in some settings where a contrast-enhanced PET/CT is needed to be diagnostic, PET/MR can be done without contrast media. Although PET/CT has virtually no role in brain imaging, this may be an important domain for PET/MR, particularly in dementia imaging. The role of PET/MR in the heart is as yet undefined, and much research will have to be done to elucidate this role. At this point, it is also not clear where the simultaneity afforded by a fully integrated PET/MR is really needed. Sequential data acquisition even on separate systems and consecutive software image fusion may well be appropriate. With the increasing installed base of systems, clinical data will be forthcoming and define more clearly where there is clinical value in PET/MR at an affordable price. PMID:23178084

von Schulthess, Gustav K; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kaufmann, Philipp; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

2013-01-01

466

Applications of Non-Imaging Micro-Optic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While imaging optics necessarily transmit a clear image of an object, non-imaging opti