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1

Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 2  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has continued to develop into a powerful clinical tool to visualize venous structures and iron in the brain and to study diverse pathologic conditions. SWI offers a unique contrast, different from spin attenuation, T1, T2, and T2* (see Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1). In this clinical review (Part 2), we present a variety of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications for SWI, covering trauma, stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, venous anomalies, multiple sclerosis, and tumors. We conclude that SWI often offers complementary information valuable in the diagnosis and potential treatment of patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:19131406

Mittal, S.; Wu, Z.; Neelavalli, J.; Haacke, E.M.

2013-01-01

2

Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 3. The neuro-oncologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality in the management of brain tumours. Imaging biomarkers continue to be a focus of active investigation and there is increasing evidence of the utility of biomarkers in refining the overall management plan. This article briefly reviews the literature and outlines the possible clinical applications of imaging biomarkers in neuro-oncology. PMID:22433830

Shenoy, A

2011-01-01

3

Parts application handbook study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

1978-01-01

4

State-of-the-art aortic imaging: Part II - applications in transcatheter aortic valve replacement and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as well as thoracic and abdominal endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR and EVAR) rely on accurate pre- and postprocedural imaging. This review article discusses the application of imaging, including preprocedural assessment and measurements as well as postprocedural imaging of complications. Furthermore, the exciting perspective of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on cross-sectional imaging is presented. TAVR is a minimally invasive alternative for treatment of aortic valve stenosis in patients with high age and multiple comorbidities who cannot undergo traditional open surgical repair. Given the lack of direct visualization during the procedure, pre- and peri-procedural imaging forms an essential part of the intervention. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the imaging modality of choice for preprocedural planning. Routine postprocedural follow-up is performed by echocardiography to confirm treatment success and detect complications. EVAR and TEVAR are minimally invasive alternatives to open surgical repair of aortic pathologies. CTA constitutes the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up including detection of endoleaks. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent alternative to CT for postoperative follow-up, and is especially beneficial for younger patients given the lack of radiation. Ultrasound is applied in screening and postoperative follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysms, but cross-sectional imaging is required once abnormalities are detected. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be as sensitive as CTA in detecting endoleaks. PMID:24429327

Rengier, Fabian; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Schoenhagen, Paul; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Karmonik, Christof; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Partovi, Sasan

2014-01-01

5

Imaging polar and dipolar sources of geophysical anomalies by probability tomography. Part II: Application to the Vesuvius volcanic area  

E-print Network

In the previous part I, we have developed the generalized theory of the probability tomography method to image polar and dipolar sources of a vector or scalar geophysical anomaly field. The purpose of the new method was to improve the core-and-boundary resolution of the most probable buried sources of the anomalies detected in a datum domain. In this paper, which constitutes the part II of the same study, an application of the new approach to the Vesuvius volcano (Naples, Italy) is illustrated in detail by analyzing geoelectrical, self-potential and gravity datasets collected over the whole volcanic area. The purpose is to get new insights into the shallow structure and hydrothermal system of Vesuvius, and the deep geometry of the tectonic depression within which the volcano grew.

Mauriello, P; Mauriello, Paolo; Patella, Domenico

2006-01-01

6

Image Restoration by the Method of Convex Projections: Part 2Applications and Numerical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better

M. I. Sezan; H. Stark

1982-01-01

7

User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

1986-01-01

8

Range Imaging without Moving Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected from the target would be focused by the receiver optical system onto an array of optical fibers matching the array in the transmitter. These optical fibers would couple the received light to one or more photodetector( s). Optionally, the receiver could include solid-state optical switches for choosing which optical fiber(s) would couple light to the photodetector(s). This instrument architecture is flexible and can be optimized for a wide variety of applications and levels of performance. For example, it is scalable to any number of pixels and pixel resolutions and is compatible with a variety of ranging and photodetection methodologies, including, for example, ranging by use of modulated (including pulsed and encoded) light signals. The use of fixed arrays of optical fibers to generate controlled illumination patterns would eliminate the mechanical complexity and much of the bulk of optomechanical scanning assemblies. Furthermore, digital control of the selection of the fiber-optic pathways for the transmitted beams could afford capabilities not seen in previous three-dimensional range-imaging systems. Instruments of this type could be specialized for use as, for example, proximity detectors, three-dimensional robotic vision systems, airborne terrain-mapping systems, and inspection systems.

Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

2008-01-01

9

Neutron Imaging and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Neutron Imaging and Applications offers an introduction to the basics of neutron beam production and instrumentation in addition to the wide scope of techniques that provide unique imaging capabilities over a broad and diverse range of applications. An instructional overview of neutron sources, optics and detectors, allows readers to delve more deeply into the discussions of radiography, tomography, phase contrast imaging and prospective applications using advanced neutron holography techniques and polarized beams. A section devoted to overviews in a growing range of applications describes imaging of fuel cells and hydrogen storage devices for a robust hydrogen economy; new directions in material science and engineering; the investigation of precious artifacts of cultural heritage importance; determination of plant physiology and growth processes; imaging of biological tissues and macromolecules, and the practical elements of neutron imaging for homeland security and contraband detection. Written by key experts in the field, researchers and engineers involved with imaging technologies will find Neutron Imaging and Applications a valuable reference.

Anderson, Ian S [ORNL; McGreevy, Robert L [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL

2009-04-01

10

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers bolts, rivets, screws, studs, nuts and washers, including their types, applications and installation methods. Technical drawings and other illustrations are included in the presentation. This is part one of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

2011-11-16

11

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides an introduction to fasteners in aviation. The material covers solid rivets, including their identification, installation and how they are used in fuselage repair. Materials selection and testing of aerospace fasteners is also included, along with the basic applications and needs of aerospace fasteners. Illustrative drawings and photographs are included in the presentation. This is part two of a two-part presentation; the other related documents may be found here.

2011-11-16

12

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

13

Interferometry by deconvolution: Part 2 --Theory for elastic waves and application to drill-bit seismic imaging  

E-print Network

-point boundary condition imposed by the deconvolution process. In seismic-while-drilling SWD practice, the goal is to determine the subsurface impulse re- sponse from drill-bit noise records. Most SWD technologies rely the data. Interferometry by deconvolution is of most use to SWD applications in which pilot records

Snieder, Roel

14

Use of modulated excitation signals in medical ultrasound. Part II: design and performance for medical imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.177-91 (2005). In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in

Thanassis Misaridis; Jørgen Arendt Jensen

2005-01-01

15

Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

2011-04-15

16

Adrenal imaging (Part 1): Imaging techniques and primary cortical lesions  

PubMed Central

Adrenal glands can be affected by a variety of lesions. Adrenal lesions can either be primary, of adrenal origin, or secondary to other pathologies. Primary adrenal lesions can further be either of cortical or medullary origin. Functioning adrenal lesions can also give clues to the histologic diagnosis and direct workup. Over the years, various imaging techniques have been developed that have increased diagnostic accuracy and helped in better characterization of adrenal lesions non-invasively. In the first part of the two part series, we review adrenal imaging techniques and adrenal cortical tumors such as adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, adrenal hyperplasia and oncocytomas. PMID:25593820

Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Dhamija, Ekta; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, A. K.

2015-01-01

17

CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

18

Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Terahertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) results of different human tissue types. Our results are part of an initial study to explore the potential of TPI for biomedical applications. A survey of different tissue types has demonstrated the various contrast mechanisms that are available in TPI, allowing different tissue types to be readily identified. This encourages the pursuit of further studies of TPI for a variety of biomedical applications.

Ciesla, Craig M.; Arnone, Donald D.; Corchia, Alessandra; Crawley, David A.; Longbottom, Christopher; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pepper, Michael

2000-05-01

19

Applications of Molecular Imaging  

PubMed Central

Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

Galbán, Craig; Galbán, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

2015-01-01

20

An Ultrasonic Adaptive Beamforming Method and its Application for Trans-skull Imaging of Certain Types of Head Injuries; Part I: Transmission Mode.  

PubMed

A new adaptive beamforming algorithm for imaging via small-aperture one-dimensional ultrasonic phased arrays through composite layered structures is reported. Such structures cause acoustic phase aberration and wave refraction at undulating interfaces and can lead to significant distortion of an ultrasonic field pattern produced by conventional beamforming techniques. This distortion takes the form of defocusing the ultrasonic field transmitted through the barrier and causes loss of resolution and overall degradation of image quality. To compensate for the phase aberration and the refractional effects, we developed and examined an adaptive beamforming algorithm for small-aperture linear phased arrays. After accurately assessing the barrier's local geometry and sound speed, the method calculates a new timing scheme to refocus the distorted beam at its original location. As a tentative application, implementation of this method for trans-skull imaging of certain types of head injuries through human skull is discussed. Simulation and laboratory results of applying the method on skull-mimicking phantoms are presented. Correction of up to 2.5cm focal point displacement at up to 10 cm depth under our skull phantom is demonstrated. Quantitative assessment of the method in a variety of temporal focusing scenarios is also reported. Overall temporal deviation on the order of a few nanoseconds was observed between the simulated and experimental results. The single-point adaptive focusing results demonstrate strong potential of our approach for diagnostic imaging through intact human skull. The algorithms were implemented on an ultrasound advanced open-platform (ULA-OP) controlling 64 active elements on a 128-element phased array. PMID:25423646

Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeff; Wydra, Adrian; Malyarenko, Eugene; Sinclair, Anthony N; Maev, Roman Gr

2014-11-20

21

Creation of DICOM--aware applications using ImageJ.  

PubMed

The demand for image-processing software for radiology applications has been increasing, fueled by advancements in both image-acquisition and image-analysis techniques. The utility of existing image-processing software is often limited by cost, lack of flexibility, and/or specific hardware requirements. In particular, many existing packages cannot directly utilize images formatted using the specifications in part 10 of the DICOM standard ("DICOM images"). We show how image analyses can be performed directly on DICOM images by using ImageJ, a free, Java-based image-processing package (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/). We demonstrate how plug-ins written in our laboratory can be used along with the ImageJ macro script language to create flexible, low-cost, multiplatform image-processing applications that can be directed by information contained in the DICOM image header. PMID:15827831

Barboriak, Daniel P; Padua, Anthony O; York, Gerald E; Macfall, James R

2005-06-01

22

CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF IMAGING RADAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current status of imaging radar systems deployed on spacecraft and airborne platforms, such as aircraft and unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). Imaging radar technology has advanced considerably over the last twenty years, and the user can now be fairly certain of finding a sensor ideal for a specifi c application. The objective of the paper is to

M. R. Inggs; R. T. Lord; WG VII

23

SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2  

PubMed Central

Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers. Conclusion With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20457793

de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

2013-01-01

24

BIOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING: PROGRESS AND APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

Application of bioluminescence imaging has grown tremendously in the past decade and has significantly contributed to the core conceptual advances in biomedical research. This technology provides valuable means for monitoring of different biological processes for immunology, oncology, virology and neuroscience. In this review, we will discuss current trends in bioluminescence and its application in different fields with emphasis on cancer research. PMID:21788092

Badr, Christian E.; Tannous, Bakhos A.

2015-01-01

25

JPEG2000 Part 10: volumetric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the JPEG2000 committee (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1) decided to start up a new standardization activity to support the encoding of volumetric and floating-point data sets: Part 10 - Coding Volumetric and Floating-point Data (JP3D). This future standard will support functionalities like resolution and quality scalability and region-of-interest coding, while exploiting the entropy in the additional third dimension to improve the rate-distortion performance. In this paper, we give an overview of the markets and application areas targeted by JP3D, the imposed requirements and the considered algorithms with a specific focus on the realization of the region-of-interest functionality.

Schelkens, Peter; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan P.

2003-11-01

26

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2004-01-01

27

Neuroscience Application Of Interactive Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of neuroscience is to understand how different parts of the brain are wired together and how they communicate with one another. Several recently developed techniques use a method known as autoradiography to create images of brain connectivity and function. These autoradiographic methods promise to be quantitative and comprehensive. HoweVer, the data appear as gray scale images, which presents certain data analysis problems. Through a collaborative effort between neuroscientists, engineers, and com-puter scientists, we have developed a computer-based quantitative image analysis system. We have designed an interactive menu-driven software pack-age. Our objective was to allow neuroscientists to quantitate, tabulate, and interpret the image data collected on autoradiographic files. A description of the hardware, the software package, and its application is presented.

Toga, Arthur W.; Goo, Robert L.; Murphy, Robert; Collins, Robert C.

1984-06-01

28

Applications of MR Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the introduction of digital imaging devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification (i.e., segmentation) have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical models, three-dimensional (3D) visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In

Tomi Heinonen; Prasun Dastidar; Harry Frey; Hannu Eskola

29

Industrial Applications of Terahertz Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter gives a concise overview of potential industrial applications for terahertz imaging that have been reported over the past decade with a discussion of the major advantages and limitations of each approach. In the second half of the chapter we discuss in more detail how terahertz imaging can be used to investigate the microstructure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. A particular focus in this context is the nondestructive measurement of the coating thickness of polymer coated tablets, both by means of high resolution offline imaging in research and development as well as for in-line quality control during production.

Zeitler, J. Axel; Shen, Yao-Chun

30

Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies  

E-print Network

Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies Nathan J. Pust and Joseph A. Shaw parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illus- trate a polarization image to provide support for previously published theories describing the polarization state

Shaw, Joseph A.

31

Spectral Edge Image Fusion: Theory and Applications  

E-print Network

-infrared images, and colour visualisation of MRI Diffusion-Tensor imaging. Keywords: Image fusion; gradient such as a colour monitor. This process is termed image fusion. Thus, in the image fusion problem, there can be 10Spectral Edge Image Fusion: Theory and Applications David Connah1 , Mark S. Drew2 , Graham D

Drew, Mark S.

32

A pornographic image filtering model based on erotic part  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with some deficiencies of the traditional filtering models using the features of skin color only, this paper presents a pornographic image filtering model based on erotic parts detection. And the information of face, skin color and trunk contour is utilized to implement the erotic part recognition. A decision tree classifier is also employed to identify porno image based on

Xuanjing Shen; Wei Wei; Qingji Qian

2010-01-01

33

Image wavelet decomposition and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

1989-01-01

34

Deformable part models for object detection in medical images  

PubMed Central

Background Object detection in 3-D medical images is often necessary for constraining a segmentation or registration task. It may be a task in its own right as well, when instances of a structure, e.g. the lymph nodes, are searched. Problems from occlusion, illumination and projection do not arise, making the problem simpler than object detection in photographies. However, objects of interest are often not well contrasted against the background. Influence from noise and other artifacts is much stronger and shape and appearance may vary substantially within a class. Methods Deformable models capture the characteristic shape of an anatomic object and use constrained deformation for hypothesing object boundaries in image regions of low or non-existing contrast. Learning these constraints requires a large sample data base. We show that training may be replaced by readily available user knowledge defining a prototypical deformable part model. If structures have a strong part-relationship, or if they may be found based on spatially related guiding structures, or if the deformation is rather restricted, the supporting data information suffices for solving the detection task. We use a finite element model to represent anatomic variation by elastic deformation. Complex shape variation may be represented by a hierarchical model with simpler part variation. The hierarchy may be represented explicitly as a hierarchy of sub-shapes, or implicitly by a single integrated model. Data support and model deformation of the complete model can be represented by an energy term, serving as quality-of-fit function for object detection. Results The model was applied to detection and segmentation tasks in various medical applications in 2- and 3-D scenes. It has been shown that model fitting and object detection can be carried out efficiently by a combination of a local and global search strategy using models that are parameterized for the different tasks. Conclusions A part-based elastic model represents complex within-class object variation without training. The hierarchy of parts may specify relationship to neighboring anatomical objects in object detection or a part-decomposition of a complex anatomic structure. The intuitive way to incorporate domain knowledge has a high potential to serve as easily adaptable method to a wide range of different detection tasks in medical image analysis. PMID:25077691

2014-01-01

35

images/logoetsf TDDFT Applications (ELS) Analysis  

E-print Network

images/logoetsf TDDFT Applications (ELS) Analysis Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;TDDFT Applications (ELS) Analysis Outline 1 TDDFT Motivations Linear Response Approach 2 Applications (ELS) 3 Analysis Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

Botti, Silvana

36

Planning applications in image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1994-01-01

37

49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General ...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2013-10-01

38

49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General ...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2012-10-01

39

49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General ...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2011-10-01

40

Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

41

Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

1975-01-01

42

RNS Application for Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we carry out a study on the RNS (residue number system) application in digital image processing and propose a RNS image coding scheme that offers high-speed and low-power VLSI implementation for secure image processing. The proposed scheme is more efficient than the RNS image coding scheme of Ammar et al. (2001) in that the proposed method encrypts

Wei Wang; M. N. S. Swamy; M. Omair Ahmad

2004-01-01

43

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

44

Adrenal imaging (Part 2): Medullary and secondary adrenal lesions  

PubMed Central

Adrenal malignancies can be either primary adrenal tumors or secondary metastases, with metastases representing the most common malignant adrenal lesion. While imaging cannot always clearly differentiate between various adrenal malignancies, presence of certain imaging features, in conjunction with appropriate clinical background and hormonal profile, can suggest the appropriate diagnosis. The second part of the article on adrenal imaging describes adrenal medullary tumors, secondary adrenal lesions, bilateral adrenal lesions, adrenal incidentalomas and provides an algorithmic approach to adrenal lesions based on current imaging recommendations. PMID:25593821

Dhamija, Ekta; Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Gupta, A. K.

2015-01-01

45

Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

46

Design of Multi-channel Fringing Electric Field Sensors for Imaging Part I: General Design Principles  

E-print Network

electric field (FEF) sensor array was used for multi-phase interface detection in [3]; a multi for electrical impedance and capacitance tomography applications. In cases where only one-sided access canDesign of Multi-channel Fringing Electric Field Sensors for Imaging ­ Part I: General Design

Mamishev, Alexander

47

GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

2008-01-01

48

PDE Based Image Segmentation for biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

PDE Based Image Segmentation for biomedical Applications S.Sch pp A.Elmoataz J. Fadili D. In this paper we address the problem of auto- matically segmenting intensity or color images from medical architecture or the determination of immunos- taining topography ? . Segmenting medical images of soft tissues

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers, part IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a continuation of past papers written on fundamental performance differences of scientific CMOS and CCD imagers. New characterization results presented below include: 1). a new 1536 × 1536 × 8?m 5TPPD pixel CMOS imager, 2). buried channel MOSFETs for random telegraph noise (RTN) and threshold reduction, 3) sub-electron noise pixels, 4) 'MIM pixel' for pixel sensitivity (V/e-) control, 5) '5TPPD RING pixel' for large pixel, high-speed charge transfer applications, 6) pixel-to-pixel blooming control, 7) buried channel photo gate pixels and CMOSCCDs, 8) substrate bias for deep depletion CMOS imagers, 9) CMOS dark spikes and dark current issues and 10) high energy radiation damage test data. Discussions are also given to a 1024 × 1024 × 16 um 5TPPD pixel imager currently in fabrication and new stitched CMOS imagers that are in the design phase including 4k × 4k × 10 ?m and 10k × 10k × 10 um imager formats.

Janesick, James; Pinter, Jeff; Potter, Robert; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Grygon, Mark; Keller, Dave

2010-07-01

50

A Method of Poisson's Ration Imaging Within a Material Part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention, longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to display the data.

Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

51

Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to present an overview of the current status of the MS imaging with different sampling ionization methods and to discuss the 3D imaging and quantitative imaging capabilities needed to be further developed, the importance of the multi-modal imaging, and a balance between the pursuit of the high imaging resolution and the practical application of MS imaging in biomedicine. PMID:23539099

Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

2013-01-01

52

Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

1997-01-01

53

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES General § 65.1 Application of part 65. (a) This part establishes procedures and methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized...

2012-10-01

54

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES General § 65.1 Application of part 65. (a) This part establishes procedures and methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized...

2011-10-01

55

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES General § 65.1 Application of part 65. (a) This part establishes procedures and methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized...

2014-10-01

56

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES General § 65.1 Application of part 65. (a) This part establishes procedures and methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized...

2013-10-01

57

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2013-10-01

58

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2010-10-01

59

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2014-10-01

60

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2012-10-01

61

43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to any program...

2011-10-01

62

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51...

2014-07-01

64

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51...

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51...

2013-07-01

66

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51...

2012-07-01

67

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51...

2011-07-01

68

40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1101 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A-X of part 51...

2012-07-01

69

40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through W of part 51...

2010-07-01

70

49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing each indirect air...

2012-10-01

71

49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.  

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing each indirect air...

2014-10-01

72

49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing each indirect air...

2010-10-01

73

49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing each indirect air...

2011-10-01

74

49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...Applicability of this part. This part prescribes aviation security rules governing each indirect air...

2013-10-01

75

Lens-Free Imaging for Biological Applications  

PubMed Central

Lens-free (or lensless) imaging is emerging as a cost-effective, compact, and lightweight detection method that can serve numerous biological applications. Lens-free imaging can generate high-resolution images within a field-portable platform, which is ideal for affordable point-of-care devices aiming at resource-limited settings. In this mini-review, we first describe different modes of operation for lens-free imaging and then highlight several recent biological applications of this emerging platform technology. PMID:22357607

Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Koo, Kyo-in; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali

2013-01-01

76

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

77

19 CFR 204.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of part. 204.1 Section 204.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.1 Applicability of...

2010-04-01

78

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.  

PubMed

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-31

79

Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

2010-04-01

80

Clinical applications of diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Advancements in diffusion-weighted imaging during the past decade have led to the use of diffusion tensor imaging to further characterize the structural integrity of neural tissue and to noninvasively trace neuronal tracts in the brain and spine. This has led to many clinical applications that have aided in surgical planning for brain and spinal cord tumors and has increased the diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging in disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and traumatic brain injury. PMID:23916498

Lerner, Alexander; Mogensen, Monique A; Kim, Paul E; Shiroishi, Mark S; Hwang, Darryl H; Law, Meng

2014-01-01

81

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications  

E-print Network

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser,sroubekf,zitova}@utia.cas.cz #12;Introduction The term fusion means in general an approach to extraction of information acquired in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal

Sroubek, Filip

82

Image Processing Applications for Geologic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data.

Michael Abrams; Annick Blusson; Veronique Carrere; Phu Thien Nguyen; Yves Rabu

1985-01-01

83

Industrial applications of process imaging and image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process imaging is the art of visualizing events inside closed industrial processes. Image processing is the art of mathematically manipulating digitized images to extract quantitative information about such processes. Ongoing advances in camera and computer technology have made it feasible to apply these abilities to measurement needs in the chemical industry. To illustrate the point, this paper describes several applications developed at DuPont, where a variety of measurements are based on in-line, at-line, and off-line imaging. Application areas include compounding, melt extrusion, crystallization, granulation, media milling, and particle characterization. Polymer compounded with glass fiber is evaluated by a patented radioscopic (real-time X-ray imaging) technique to measure concentration and dispersion uniformity of the glass. Contamination detection in molten polymer (important for extruder operations) is provided by both proprietary and commercial on-line systems. Crystallization in production reactors is monitored using in-line probes and flow cells. Granulation is controlled by at-line measurements of granule size obtained from image processing. Tomographic imaging provides feedback for improved operation of media mills. Finally, particle characterization is provided by a robotic system that measures individual size and shape for thousands of particles without human supervision. Most of these measurements could not be accomplished with other (non-imaging) techniques.

Scott, David M.; Sunshine, Gregg; Rosen, Lou; Jochen, Ed

2001-02-01

84

40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.  

...part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment...Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in subparts A through X of this part apply to areas for purposes of the PM2.5...

2014-07-01

85

Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled “Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy” to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study – the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on ? therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

2005-06-17

86

Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per

Richard Blackwell; Glen Franks; Daniel Lacroix; Sandra Hyland; Robert Murphy

2010-01-01

87

Bedside ultrasonography: Applications in critical care: Part I  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians. PMID:24914259

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

88

Computer image processing: Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

Abrams, M. J.

1978-01-01

89

Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy. PMID:25379515

Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun

2014-01-01

90

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 1: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials cover aerospace fasteners and their specifications, including the specifics of bolts, nuts, rivets and their applications in the industry.

2011-11-16

91

Aerospace Fastener Applications, Part 2: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides instructor notes to accompany a presentation on fastener applications in the aerospace industry. These notes are intended for use along with the PowerPoint presentation on the topic which is available for download here. These materials focus on use of rivets in the aerospace industry, including their identification and installation, as well as basic aerospace fasteners applications. Testing and standardization of materials is also covered.

2011-11-16

92

Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

Kircher, Moritz F.

2012-01-01

93

Applications of hydroforming processes to automobile parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroforming process recently draws attention of automotive industries due to its advantages like the increased strength, weight reduction, improved quality and reduced tooling cost. This paper summarizes some of our experiences of tube and sheet hydroforming process design by simulation technique through actual tryout. Parts included in this paper are tie bar, subframe and engine mount bracket. The simulations for

Soo-Ik Oh; Byung-Hee Jeon; Hyun-Yong Kim; Jae-Bong Yang

2006-01-01

94

ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF SPECTRAL IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of remote sensing using spectral imaging is just being realized through the investigation to a wide variety of environmental issues. Improved spectral and spatial resolution is very important to the detection of effects once regarded as unobservable. A current researc...

95

Remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure for image compression applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote sensing image classification algorithm based on image activity measure is proposed, which is used for adaptive image compression applications. The image activity measure has been studied and the support vector machine(SVM) is introduced. Then, the relationship between the image activity measure and the distortion caused by quantization is discussed in our image compression experiments (JPEG2000, CCSDS and SPIHT). Another two image activity measures are proposed as well. Then a feature vector is constructed by image activity measures in order to describe the image compression features of different images. The test images are classified by support vector machine classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested using an image data set, which demonstrates the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

Tian, Xin; Wu, Lin; Li, Tao; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Li, Song

2013-10-01

96

Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

97

Microbubbles in Imaging: Applications Beyond Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction as ultrasound contrast agents, microbubbles have demonstrated the potential to revolutionise the use of ultrasound at the bedside. Aside from clinical application, where microbubbles are used to enhance ultrasonic assessment of myocardial perfusion, they have demonstrated potential in an exciting host of pre-clinical ultrasound imaging and therapeutic applications. These include the ability to target specific cellular markers of disease, provide dynamic blood flow estimation, deliver localised chemotherapy, potentiate the mechanisms of gene therapy, enhance lesion ablation through cavitation, and spatiotemporally permeabilise the blood-brain barrier. The unique and flexible construction of microbubbles not only enables a variety of ultrasound applications, but also opens the door to detection of microbubbles with modalities other than ultrasound. In this review, non-ultrasound imaging applications utilizing microbubbles are discussed, including MRI, PET, and DEI. These various imaging approaches illustrate novel applications of microbubbles, and may provide the groundwork for future multi-modality imaging or image-guided therapeutics. PMID:22328906

Kogan, Paul; Gessner, Ryan C.; Dayton, Paul A.

2012-01-01

98

Compact Tapered Slot Antennas for UWB microwave imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of compact Tapered Slot Antennas (TSAs) for application in an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) microwave imaging system. In the initial step, a conventional size-reduced TSA with an exponential taper for 3.1–10.6 GHz band is designed. From the radiation pattern analysis, it is found that this antenna exhibits poor directivity in the lower part of UWB.

Yifan Wang; Aslina Abu Bakar; Marek E. Bialkowski

2010-01-01

99

Part one Concepts, definitions, and applications  

E-print Network

used since the 1,840 s to erect the relative geological age of sedimentary rocks and hence to perform to provide nu- merical ages also in sedimentary rocks formed under Newsletter on Stratigraphy © Gebrüder in Earth sciences, applicable to a wide variety of sedimentary (but also volcanic) rock types formed under

Utrecht, Universiteit

100

Applications of Nanobiotechnology in Ophthalmology – Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and its applications in ophthalmology. It is evident that drug delivery, gene therapy, implantable devices and regenerative medicine are some of the key areas of active research. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited review work on this subject area in the current literature. To assist the interested

Pho Nguyen; M. Meyyappan; Samuel C. Yiu

2010-01-01

101

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

Perkins, W. D.

1987-01-01

102

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

SciTech Connect

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

1982-01-01

103

ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

2008-12-01

104

Data processing of vibrational chemical imaging for pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy (MIR, NIR and Raman) based hyperspectral imaging is one of the most powerful tools to analyze pharmaceutical preparation. Indeed, it combines the advantages of vibrational spectroscopy to imaging techniques and allows therefore the visualization of distribution of compounds or crystallization processes. However, these techniques provide a huge amount of data that must be processed to extract the relevant information. This review presents fundamental concepts of hyperspectral imaging, the basic theory of the most used chemometric tools used to pre-process, process and post-process the generated data. The last part of the present paper focuses on pharmaceutical applications of hyperspectral imaging and highlights the data processing approaches to enable the reader making the best choice among the different tools available. PMID:24809748

Sacré, P-Y; De Bleye, C; Chavez, P-F; Netchacovitch, L; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

2014-12-01

105

The fundamentals of fetal magnetic resonance imaging: Part 2.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of fetal anatomy by a combination of ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging offers the clinical teams and counselors caring for the patient information that can be critical for the management of both the mother and the fetus. In the second half of this 2-part review, we focus on space-occupying lesions in the fetal body. Because developing fetal tissues are programmed to grow rapidly, mass lesions can have a substantial effect on the formation of normal adjacent organs. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and lung masses, fetal teratoma, and intra-abdominal masses are discussed, with an emphasis on differential etiologies and on fundamental management considerations. PMID:24974309

Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

2014-01-01

106

Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

2008-01-01

107

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

Li, Shaofan

108

ALSEP Array E, PSK Transmitter Parts Application Analysis  

E-print Network

-1-71 This ATM document is the Reliability PAA (Parts Application Analysis) of the Teledyne Telemetry Company) was let to Teledyne Telemetry Company (TTC) to fulfill the requirements in the NASA Contract NAS9- 5829

Rathbun, Julie A.

109

Imaging spectrometry - Technology and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development history and current status of NASA imaging-spectrometer (IS) technology are discussed in a review covering the period 1982-1988. Consideration is given to the Airborne IS first flown in 1982, the second-generation Airborne Visible and IR IS (AVIRIS), the High-Resolution IS being developed for the EOS polar platform, improved two-dimensional focal-plane arrays for the short-wave IR spectral region, and noncollinear acoustooptic tunable filters for use as spectral dispersing elements. Also examined are approaches to solving the data-processing problems posed by the high data volumes of state-of-the-art ISs (e.g., 160 MB per 600 x 600-pixel AVIRIS scene), including intelligent data editing, lossless and lossy data compression techniques, and direct extraction of scientifically meaningful geophysical and biophysical parameters.

Solomon, Jerry E.

1989-08-01

110

University of Nevada Human Body Parts Tracking: Applications  

E-print Network

University of Nevada Reno Human Body Parts Tracking: Applications to Activity Recognition A thesis recommend that the thesis prepared under our supervision by Aras Dargazany Entitled Human Body Parts community is human activity recognition. In order to recognize human activities, we propose a human body

Berns, Karsten

111

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part...

2010-01-01

112

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part...

2011-01-01

113

Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

1976-01-01

114

Medical imaging: examples of clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical routine is currently producing a multitude of diagnostic digital images but only a few are used in therapy planning and treatment. Medical imaging is involved in both diagnosis and therapy. Using a computer, existing 2D images can be transformed into interactive 3D volumes and results from different modalities can be merged. Furthermore, it is possible to calculate functional areas that were not visible in the primary images. This paper presents examples of clinical applications that are integrated into clinical routine and are based on medical imaging fundamentals. In liver surgery, the importance of virtual planning is increasing because surgery is still the only possible curative procedure. Visualisation and analysis of heart defects are also gaining in significance due to improved surgery techniques. Finally, an outlook is provided on future developments in medical imaging using navigation to support the surgeon's work. The paper intends to give an impression of the wide range of medical imaging that goes beyond the mere calculation of medical images.

Meinzer, H. P.; Thorn, M.; Vetter, M.; Hassenpflug, P.; Hastenteufel, M.; Wolf, I.

115

Medical Image Science: Applications Medical Physics/Biomedical Engineering 574  

E-print Network

Medical Image Science: Applications Medical Physics/Biomedical Engineering 574 1022 WIMR, 9-0090 Email: sfain@wisc.edu This course presents the application of medical imaging theory to problems in medical imaging science including: concepts of digital image processing, image reconstruction

Walker, Thad G.

116

Scattered radiation emission imaging: Principles and applications  

E-print Network

Scattered radiation emission imaging: Principles and applications M. K. Nguyen, T. T. Truong, M, Division of Nuclear Medicine, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Applications of Imaging Interferometry Jason Reeda  

E-print Network

Schmitb , Sen Hanb , Josh Trokec , Michael Teitellc , William Klugd , and James Gimzewskia . a Department Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles CA 90095 ABSTRACT Here we report application of imaging interferometry Vol. 6293 629301-1 #12;Strobed LED Light Source Refre.ice Camera Translation System -- Objective Beam

Gimzewski, James

118

Passive Synthetic Aperture Hitchhiker Imaging of Ground Moving Targets - Part 2: Performance Analysis.  

PubMed

In Part 1 of this work, we present a passive synthetic aperture imaging and velocity estimation method for ground moving targets using a network of passive receivers. The method involves inversion of a Radon transform type forward model via a novel filtered backprojection approach combined with entropy optimization. The method is applicable to noncooperative transmitters of opportunity where the transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms are unknown. Furthermore, it can image multiple targets moving at different velocities in arbitrary imaging geometries. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the performance of our method. First the resolution analysis in position and velocity spaces is presented. The analysis identifies several factors that contribute positively or negativity towards position and velocity resolution. Next, we present a novel theory to analyze and predict smearing artifacts in position images due to error in velocity estimation of moving targets. Specifically, we show that small errors in the velocity estimation result in small positioning errors. We present extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretical results. While our primary interest lies in radar, the theory, methods and algorithms introduced in our work are also applicable to passive acoustic, seismic, and microwave imaging. PMID:25020091

Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

2014-07-01

119

Imaging heart failure: current and future applications.  

PubMed

A variety of cardiac imaging tests are used to help manage patients with heart failure (HF). This article reviews current and future HF applications for the major noninvasive imaging modalities: transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and computed tomography (CT). TTE is the primary imaging test used in the evaluation of patients with HF, given its widespread availability and reliability in assessing cardiac structure and function. Recent developments in myocardial strain, 3-dimensional TTE, and echo contrast appear to offer superior diagnostic and prognostic information. SPECT imaging is a common method employed to detect ischemia and viability in patients with HF; however, PET offers higher diagnostic accuracy for both. Ongoing study of sympathetic and molecular imaging techniques may enable early disease detection, better risk stratification, and ultimately targeted treatment interventions. CMR provides high-quality information on cardiac structure and function and allows the characterization of myocardial tissue. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement allows the determination of HF etiology and may predict patient outcomes and treatment response. Cardiac CT has become a reliable means for detecting coronary artery disease, and recent advances have enabled concurrent myocardial function, perfusion, and scar analyses. Overall, available imaging methods provide reliable measures of cardiac performance in HF, and recent advances will allow detection of subclinical disease. More data are needed demonstrating the specific clinical value of imaging methods and particularly subclinical disease detection in large-scale, clinical settings. PMID:23439018

Paterson, Ian; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; O'Meara, Eileen; So, Aaron; White, James A

2013-03-01

120

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

121

Image processing applications for geologic mapping  

SciTech Connect

The use of satellite data, particularly Landsat images, for geologic mapping provides the geologist with a powerful tool. The digital format of these data permits applications of image processing to extract or enhance information useful for mapping purposes. Examples are presented of lithologic classification using texture measures, automatic lineament detection and structural analysis, and use of registered multisource satellite data. In each case, the additional mapping information provided relative to the particular treatment is evaluated. The goal is to provide the geologist with a range of processing techniques adapted to specific mapping problems.

Abrams, M.; Blusson, A.; Carrere, V.; Nguyen, T.; Rabu, Y.

1985-03-01

122

Low complexity image recognition algorithm for handheld applications  

E-print Network

based image retrieval; CBIR; Alternative and Augmentative Communication; AAC; Handheld image recognition in Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). Further, the use of picture symbols (pictograms) has proved (CBIR) suitable for handheld applications. The target application is an Alternative and Augmentative

Lenstra, Arjen K.

123

Imaging coherent transport in graphene. Part II: probing weak localization.  

PubMed

Graphene has opened new avenues of research in quantum transport, with potential applications for coherent electronics. Coherent transport depends sensitively on scattering from microscopic disorder present in graphene samples: electron waves traveling along different paths interfere, changing the total conductance. Weak localization is produced by the coherent backscattering of waves, while universal conductance fluctuations are created by summing over all paths. In this work, we obtain conductance images of weak localization with a liquid-He-cooled scanning probe microscope, by using the tip to create a movable scatterer in a graphene device. This technique allows us to investigate coherent transport with a probe of size comparable to the electron wavelength. Images of magnetoconductance versus tip position map the effects of disorder by moving a single scatterer, revealing how electron interference is modified by the tip perturbation. The weak localization dip in conductivity at B = 0 is obtained by averaging magnetoconductance traces at different positions of the tip-created scatterer. The width Delta B(WL) of the dip yields an estimate of the electron coherence length L(phi) at fixed charge density. This 'scanning scatterer' method provides a new way of investigating coherent transport in graphene by directly perturbing the disorder configuration that creates these interferometric effects. PMID:20571201

Berezovsky, Jesse; Westervelt, Robert M

2010-07-01

124

Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

2010-01-01

125

Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

Simonett, D. S.

1976-01-01

126

Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging Systems and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports activities in the development of AOTF Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging (PHI) Systems at JPL along with field observation results for illustrating the technology capabilities and advantages in remote sensing. In addition, the technology was also used to measure thickness distribution and structural imperfections of silicon-on-silicon wafers using white light interference phenomenon for demonstrating the potential in scientific and industrial applications.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George; Baw, Clayton La; Li, G. P.

1996-01-01

127

Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing

Ming-Hong Chen; Guo-Ping Zhang; Hongxing Xia

2009-01-01

128

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Detecting Content Adaptive Scaling of Images for Forensic Applications Claude Fillion1,2 , Gaurav images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection

Sharma, Gaurav

129

Image deblurring using derivative compressed sensing for optical imaging application.  

PubMed

The problem of reconstruction of digital images from their blurred and noisy measurements is unarguably one of the central problems in imaging sciences. Despite its ill-posed nature, this problem can often be solved in a unique and stable manner, provided appropriate assumptions on the nature of the images to be recovered. In this paper, however, a more challenging setting is considered, in which accurate knowledge of the blurring operator is lacking, thereby transforming the reconstruction problem at hand into a problem of blind deconvolution. As a specific application, the current presentation focuses on reconstruction of short-exposure optical images measured through atmospheric turbulence. The latter is known to give rise to random aberrations in the optical wavefront, which are in turn translated into random variations of the point spread function of the optical system in use. A standard way to track such variations involves using adaptive optics. Thus, for example, the Shack-Hartmann interferometer provides measurements of the optical wavefront through sensing its partial derivatives. In such a case, the accuracy of wavefront reconstruction is proportional to the number of lenslets used by the interferometer and, hence, to its complexity. Accordingly, in this paper, we show how to minimize the above complexity through reducing the number of the lenslets while compensating for undersampling artifacts by means of derivative compressed sensing. Additionally, we provide empirical proof that the above simplification and its associated solution scheme result in image reconstructions, whose quality is comparable to the reconstructions obtained using conventional (dense) measurements of the optical wavefront. PMID:22434800

Rostami, Mohammad; Michailovich, Oleg; Wang, Zhou

2012-07-01

130

REPORT ON THE APPLICANT The Report on the Applicant (Referee Letter) is a critical part of the NSERC application.  

E-print Network

REPORT ON THE APPLICANT · The Report on the Applicant (Referee Letter) is a critical part of the NSERC application. · Two are required for each application. · The report cannot be completed% Communication, Interpersonal and Leadership Abilities 20% 20% NSERC ­ Report on Applicant (Referee Report) 1 #12

Haykin, Simon

131

A Generative Focus Measure With Application to Omnifocus Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a stack of registered images acquired using a range of focus settings (focal stack images), we propose a new focus measure to identify the most focused image. Although, most of the paper is concerned with the new focus measure, for evaluation purposes, we will present it in the context of an application to generating omnifocus images. An omnifocus image

Narendra Ahuja

2013-01-01

132

Definitions, properties and applications of finite-part integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using standard calculus, we discuss some definitions and properties of finite-part integrals, point out the essence of this concept and show how these integrals naturally arise in some integral equation applications. A couple of new examples are also described.

Monegato, G.

2009-07-01

133

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2010-04-01

134

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2011-04-01

135

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2014-04-01

136

Application of Titanium and Its Alloys for Automobile Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the R & D activities by Nippon Steel on the application of titanium mate- rials for automobile parts were introduced. Regarding exhaust pipes and mufflers, various material data needed to successfully handle commercially pure titanium was extensively accumulated while the manufacturing process by which products can show high performance inherent in titanium such as surface appearances was established.

Hideki FUJII; Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI; Yoshito YAMASHITA

2003-01-01

137

Applications of RFID Technology and Smart Parts in Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, industrial and consumer applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) are explored. The state-of-the-art and development in RFID technology is reviewed. A currently operative smart parts based manufacturing system is described which uses RFID as the key technology. The role of RFID in the emerging Wireless Internet Manufacturing field is highlighted.

Gadh, Rajit

138

Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.  

PubMed

A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ? Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ? Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ? Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ? Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ? Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ? Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ? The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm." PMID:25652302

Malone, James; Del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

2015-02-01

139

Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing characteristic of near-infrared image. The NIR imaging would be very useful in the nondestructive external and internal quality inspecting of agricultural products. It is important to detect stored-grain insects by the application of near-infrared spectroscopy. Computer vision detection base on the NIR imaging would be help to manage food logistics. Application of NIR imaging promoted quality management of agricultural products. In the further application research fields of NIR image in the agricultural engineering, Some advices and prospect were put forward.

Chen, Ming-hong; Zhang, Guo-ping; Xia, Hongxing

2009-07-01

140

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part I—Physical Principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most complex imaging technology available to clinicians. Whereas most imaging technologies depict differences in one, or occasionally two, tissue characteristics, MR imaging has five tissue variables—spin density, T1 and T2 relaxation times and flow and spectral shifts—from which to construct its images. These variables can be combined in various ways by selecting pulse sequences and pulse times to emphasize any desired combination of tissue characteristics in the image. This selection is determined by the user of the MR system before imaging data are collected. If the selection is not optimal, the imaging process must be repeated at a cost of time and resources. The optimal selection of MR imaging procedures and the proper interpretation of the resultant images require a thorough understanding of the basic principles of MR imaging. Included in this understanding should be at least the rudiments of how an MR imaging signal is produced and why it decays with time; the significance of relaxation constants; the principles of scanning methods such as saturation recovery, inversion recovery and spin echo; how data obtained by these methods are used to form an image, and how the imaging data are complied by multi-slice and volumetric processes. In selecting an MR imaging unit, information about different magnet designs (resistive, superconductive and permanent) is useful. Although no bioeffects are thought to be associated with an MR imaging examination, some knowledge of the attempts to identify bioeffects is helpful in alleviating concern in patients. Images PMID:6506686

Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

1984-01-01

141

A broadband imaging system for research applications.  

PubMed

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7x10(10) cm Hz(1/2)/W at a wavelength of 11.8 microm. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

Yefremenko, V; Gordiyenko, E; Shustakova, G; Fomenko, Yu; Datesman, A; Wang, G; Pearson, J; Cohen, E E W; Novosad, V

2009-05-01

142

Application of CMOS image sensor OV9620 in number recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image acquisition system is introduced, which consists of a color CMOS image sensor (OV9620), SRAM (CY62148), CPLD (EPM7128AE) and DSP (TMS320VC5509A). The CPLD implements the logic and timing control to the system. SRAM stores the image data, and DSP controls the image acquisition system through the SCCB (Omni Vision Serial Camera Control Bus). The timing sequence of the CMOS image sensor OV9620 is analyzed. The imaging part and the high speed image data memory unit are designed. The system structure and its application of CMOS image sensor OV9620 in paper currency number recognition are also introduced. The hardware and software design of the image acquisition and recognition system is given. In this system, we use the template matching character recognition method to guarantee fast recognition speed and high correct recognition probability.

Li, Yu-feng; Liang, Fei; Xue, Rong-kun

2009-11-01

143

Elastic ladar modeling for synthetic imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is a synthetic imagery generation model developed at the Center for Imaging Science (CIS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). It is a quantitative first principle based model that calculates the sensor reaching radiance from the visible through to the long wave infrared on a spectral basis. DIRSIG generates a very accurate representation of what a sensor would see by modeling all the processes involved in the imaging chain. Currently, DIRSIG only models passive sources such as the sun and blackbody radiation due to the temperature of an object. Active systems have the benefit of the user being able to control the illumination source and tailor it for specific applications. Remote sensing Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) systems that utilize a laser as the active source have been in existence for over 30 years. Recent advances in tunable lasers and infrared detectors have allowed much more sophisticated and accurate work to be done, but a comprehensive spectral LADAR model has yet to be developed. In order to provide a tool to assist in LADAR development, this research incorporates a first principle based elastic LADAR model into DIRSIG. It calculates the irradiance onto the focal plane on a spectral basis for both the atmospheric and topographic return, based on the system characteristics and the assumed atmosphere. The geometrical form factor, a measure of the overlap between the sensor and receiver field-of-view, is carefully accounted for in both the monostatic and bistatic cases. The model includes the effect of multiple bounces from topographical targets. Currently, only direct detection systems will be modeled. Several sources of noise are extensively modeled, such as speckle from rough surfaces. Additionally, atmospheric turbulence effects including scintillation, beam effects, and image effects are accounted for. To allow for future growth, the model and coding are modular and anticipate the inclusion of advanced sensor modules and inelastic scattering.

Burton, Robin R.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.

2002-11-01

144

Short-lag spatial coherence imaging on matrix arrays, part II: Phantom and in vivo experiments.  

PubMed

In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched Bmode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared with their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes, while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods. PMID:24960701

Jakovljevic, Marko; Byram, Brett C; Hyun, Dongwoon; Dahl, Jeremy J; Trahey, Gregg E

2014-07-01

145

Short-lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays Part II: Phantom and In Vivo Experiments  

PubMed Central

In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric Short-lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched B-mode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared to their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and CNR calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods. PMID:24960701

Jakovljevic, Marko; Byram, Brett C.; Hyun, Dongwoon; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

2014-01-01

146

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment...Copolymers Production Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHHHH, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63—Applicability...

2013-07-01

147

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhhhh... - Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63  

...false Applicability of the General Provisions to Part 63 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment...Copolymers Production Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHHHH, Table Table 4 to Subpart HHHHHHH of Part 63—Applicability of the...

2014-07-01

148

Biomedical Applications of NMR Imaging and Diffusion Studies  

E-print Network

Biomedical Applications of NMR Imaging and Diffusion Studies Using Thermal And Hyperpolarized Xenon by ..................................................................................................... David Nelson Chairman, Department of Physics #12;Biomedical Applications of NMR Imaging and Diffusion residence time in these compartments. Our successful generation of a magnetic resonance (MR) image of laser

Walsworth, Ronald L.

149

29 CFR 1928.21 - Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. 1928.21 Section 1928.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Applicability of Standards § 1928.21 Applicable standards in 29 CFR part 1910. (a) The following...

2010-07-01

150

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-21

151

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-12

152

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

153

Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: part III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a status report on recent scientific CMOS imager developments since when previous publications were written. Focus today is being given on CMOS design and process optimization because fundamental problems affecting performance are now reasonably well understood. Topics found in this paper include discussions on a low cost custom scientific CMOS fabrication approach, substrate bias for deep depletion imagers, near IR and x-ray point-spread performance, custom fabricated high resisitivity epitaxial and SOI silicon wafers for backside illuminated imagers, buried channel MOSFETs for ultra low noise performance, 1 e- charge transfer imagers, high speed transfer pixels, RTS/ flicker noise versus MOSFET geometry, pixel offset and gain non uniformity measurements, high S/N dCDS/aCDS signal processors, pixel thermal dark current sources, radiation damage topics, CCDs fabricated in CMOS and future large CMOS imagers planned at Sarnoff.

Janesick, James; Pinter, Jeff; Potter, Robert; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Cheng, John; Bishop, Jeanne

2009-08-01

154

Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff

2013-02-01

155

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

156

Introduction to VIIRS Imaging and Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the VIIRS imager that operates on the current U.S. Suomi NPP satellite and is planned for future JPSS environmental satellites. VIIRS has many advanced features that improve both spectral and spatial resolution and enable the delivery of consistent, high quality, and high resolution data to users worldwide. The lesson covers the enhanced capabilities of VIIRS and highlights some of its applications. These include single channel and multispectral products used to monitor dust, volcanic ash, convection, fog and low clouds, sea surface temperature, tropical cyclones, contrails, and ocean color. A special feature on VIIRS, the Day Night Band low-light visible channel, is also introduced. For more information on the channel and its capabilities, users are referred to the COMET lesson "Advances in Space-Based Nighttime Visible Observation."

2014-09-14

157

Digital imaging processing for biophysical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological and biophysical experimental setups rely on digital imaging processing. The introduction of a new generation of digital cameras enables new experiments where time dependent processes can be detected with a high time resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. However, there are no software tools available with which the full potential of the digital cameras can be explored. Although the data streams of up to 24 MB/s are readily processed by the available hardware, they present an immense challenge to the current software packages. We present a software concept based on the object oriented paradigm, with which digital cameras can be controlled and full images at full rate are captured, processed, and displayed simultaneously over extended time periods, just limited by the capacity of the hard disk space. By implementing wavelet based compression algorithms the obstacle of archiving the immense amount of data is overcome. We present examples in which original data files are compressed to 10% of its original size without loss of information. The modular character of the object based program enables the implementation of a wide range of different applications into the program.

Schilling, Jörg; Sackmann, Erich; Bausch, Andreas R.

2004-09-01

158

Overview of the ISO/IEC programmer's imaging kernel system application program interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Programmer's Imaging Kernel System (PIKS) is an application program interface (API) for image processing. It is one of three parts of a standard for Image Processing and Interchange being developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper presents an overview of the API; companion papers discuss the imaging architecture and image interchange parts of the standard. PIKS contains a rich set of operators, tools, and utilities. PIKS operators are functional elements that perform manipulations of images or of data objects extracted from images in order to enhance, restore, or assist in the extraction of information from images. These operators range from primitive operators such as convolution and histogram generation to complex, higher level operators such as adaptive histogram equalization and texture feature extraction. PIKS tools are elements that create data objects to be used by PIKS operators, e.g., the generation of filter transfer functions. PIKS utilities are elements that perform basic mechanical implementation tasks such as extracting pixels from an image. PIKS provides a fundamental operator model that supports match point translation of images prior to processing, image-related region-of-interest processing control, image/operator coordinate index assignment, and the ability to define reusable chains of operators.

Pratt, William K.

1992-04-01

159

Multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of remote sensing technology has facilitated us the acquisition of remote sensing images with higher and higher spatial resolution, but how to automatically understand the image contents is still a big challenge. In this paper, we develop a practical and rotation-invariant framework for multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors (COPD). The COPD is composed of a set of representative and discriminative part detectors, where each part detector is a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier used for the detection of objects or recurring spatial patterns within a certain range of orientation. Specifically, when performing multi-class geospatial object detection, we learn a set of seed-based part detectors where each part detector corresponds to a particular viewpoint of an object class, so the collection of them provides a solution for rotation-invariant detection of multi-class objects. When performing geographic image classification, we utilize a large number of pre-trained part detectors to discovery distinctive visual parts from images and use them as attributes to represent the images. Comprehensive evaluations on two remote sensing image databases and comparisons with some state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the developed framework.

Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei; Zhou, Peicheng; Guo, Lei

2014-12-01

160

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

2010-05-01

161

Imaging informatics for personalised medicine: applications and challenges  

PubMed Central

Imaging informatics has emerged as a major research theme in biomedicine in the last few decades. Currently, personalised, predictive and preventive patient care is believed to be one of the top priorities in biomedical research and practice. Imaging informatics plays a major role in biomedicine studies. This paper reviews main applications and challenges of imaging informatics in biomedicine. PMID:19862353

Peng, Hanchuan; Zhou, Xiaobo

2009-01-01

162

Active MMW multi-parametric imaging technique for security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active millimeter wave (MMW) imaging is currently being considered as a technology that can essentially contribute to security applications in both outdoor and indoor scenarios. Proposed novel active quasi-optical imaging technique being based on multi-parametric encoded illumination of observed scenes adds principally new possibilities for imaging of the scenes. The technique allows to reveal multiple distinctive features of threat objects

Leonid V. Volkov; Alexander I. Voronko; N. L. Berendakova

2008-01-01

163

Fast Statistical Level Sets Image Segmentation for Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

Fast Statistical Level Sets Image Segmentation for Biomedical Applications Sophie Sch level intensity or color images from medical microscopy. An automatic segmentation method combining to provide the interesting objects to be measured. Segmenting medical images of soft tissues to form regions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Robust image modeling techniques with an image restoration application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust parameter-estimation algorithm for a nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) autoregressive model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is presented. The convergence of the estimation algorithm is proved. An algorithm to estimate parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the impulse-noise-corrupted image, where the model governing the image is not available, is also

RANGASAMI L. KASHYAP; Kie-Bum Eom

1988-01-01

165

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. 4290.1940 Section...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. (a) Intergovernmental...the National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in...

2012-01-01

166

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. 4290.1940 Section...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. (a) Intergovernmental...the National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in...

2010-01-01

167

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. 4290.1940 Section...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. (a) Intergovernmental...the National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in...

2014-01-01

168

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. 4290.1940 Section...part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs. (a) Intergovernmental...the National Appeals Division within the USDA of adverse decisions, as defined in...

2013-01-01

169

10 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pre-Application Early Review of Site Suitability Issues Q Appendix Q to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ...OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. Q Appendix Q to Part 50—Pre-Application Early...

2010-01-01

170

5 CFR 3201.109 - Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation employees...INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.109 Provisions of 5 CFR part 2635 not applicable to Corporation...

2010-01-01

171

Geometric Distortion-Resilient Image Hashing Scheme and Its Applications on  

E-print Network

and authentication is studied. In addition, we further investigate several media hashing issues, including robustness: Authentication, Copy detection, Geometric distortion, Hash, Robustness, Searching This paper was, in partGeometric Distortion-Resilient Image Hashing Scheme and Its Applications on Copy Detection

Chen, Sheng-Wei

172

Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

Helstrom, C. W.

1973-01-01

173

Medical Image Segmentation Based On Deformable Models And Its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformable models, including parametric deformable models and geometric deformable models, have been widely used for segmenting\\u000a and identifying anatomic structures in medical image analysis. This chapter discusses medical image segmentation based on\\u000a deformable models and its applications. We first study several issues and methods related to medical image segmentation and\\u000a then review deformable models in detail. Three applications in different

Yonggang Wang; Qiang Guo; Yun Zhu

174

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part 108....

2011-01-01

175

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

...this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part...

2014-01-01

176

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part 108....

2010-01-01

177

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part 108....

2012-01-01

178

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Diagnostic and Interventional Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The advent of ultra-fast imaging techniques has extended the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a static and\\u000a purely diagnostic status to an imaging modality ideally suited for a number of therapeutic applications. These advances—along\\u000a with the recent development and refinement of miniature intravascular imaging catheters and MRI-compatible guidewires, balloon\\u000a catheters, and radiofrequency ablation catheters—have created an exciting

Albert C. Lardo

2000-01-01

179

Multifocusing homeomorphic imaging. Part 2. Multifold data set and multifocusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we continue the construction of the multifocusing technique which is devoted to correlation and stacking of body wavefields, and determination of their kinematic attributes and amplitudes. In the first part of the work (Gelchinsky et al., 2000a), we obtain the local time correction formula for a pair of traces (the first is fixed and the second is any trace recorded in the vicinity of the first). The formula contains certain parameters, common for all traces and belonging to the so-called spherical vicinity and a pair of dual curvatures of two cross-sections of a ray tube surrounding the central ray and associated with the considered pair of traces. It was proved that an infinite family of the dual curvatures associated with the fixed central ray can be parameterized. The parameterization formulae contain, as parameters, the dual curvatures of the pair of fundamental ray tubes. The formula variable determining each ray tube is measured along the central ray. The parameterization formulae are only determined on the central ray. In order to use the formulae for the time correction, it is necessary to continue them in the vicinity of the central ray. A main idea behind this continuation is the establishment of a unique correspondence between each pair of traces consisting of the fixed central trace and another current trace recorded in its vicinity by a multifold acquisition system and a certain ray tube surrounding a central ray. More specifically, the establishment of this correlation means finding a formula for the parameterization variable for any trace recorded in the vicinity of a central trace. If the variable is known, then the values of the dual curvatures for a specific ray tube can be calculated using the parameterization formulae. In the first stage, the equation establishing the functional dependence between offsets of source and receiver is derived. This equation contains, as a parameter, the parameterization variable mentioned above. The equation derived is applied to the determination of special configurations of source-receiver pairs situated on two straight lines in the vertical plane. In the next stage, the solution of the equation with respect to the parameterization variable is found. The formula obtained facilitates calculation of the value of the variable for any trace, for which offsets of source and receiver are given and the parameters of the ray tube family are fixed. These parameters are the angles of departure and entry, the pair of two dual curvatures for two fixed fundamental ray tubes, if configuration with a nonzero offset central ray is considered. In the case of a zero offset normal central ray, the parameters are the angle of entry, and the Common Evolute Element (CEE) and Common Reflecting Element (CRE) curvatures. We also present a kinematic analysis of the obtained formulae. In particular, we show that the parameterization variable has a geometrical meaning as a focusing parameter. In order to make the consideration of the vicinity of a central ray more applicable, the Multifocusing Stacking Chart is proposed. It is shown that all traces recorded by an arbitrary acquisition system could be time-corrected. The number of traces corrected by multifocusing is the product of a multifolding degree and the number of traces in the CSP seismogram. Thus, in the case of modern acquisition systems, the number of stacked traces may vary from many hundreds to dozens of thousands. The flow chart of multifocusing correlation and the stacking algorithm is presented and discussed. Its output is a set of time sections presenting optimally stacked wavefields, angle of entry (anglegram), CEE and CRE radii (CEE and CRE radiusgrams) and maximum semblance (semblancegram) as 2D functions of coordinates of central traces and zero times. Thus, the procedure of optimal correlation and stack facilitates transformation of a set of hundreds or thousands of traces recorded near each central trace into an ensemble of time sections of different types presenting kinematics and averaged attributes of wavef

Gelchinsky, Boris; Berkovitch, Alexander; Keydar, Shmariahu

1999-12-01

180

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section...ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This...

2010-04-01

181

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section...ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This...

2011-04-01

182

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section...ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This...

2012-04-01

183

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

...2014-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section...ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This...

2014-04-01

184

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section...ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This...

2013-04-01

185

Application of homomorphism to secure image sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new approach for sharing images between l players by exploiting the additive and multiplicative homomorphic properties of two well-known public key cryptosystems, i.e. RSA and Paillier. Contrary to the traditional schemes, the proposed approach employs secret sharing in a way that limits the influence of the dealer over the protocol and allows each player to participate with the help of his key-image. With the proposed approach, during the encryption step, each player encrypts his own key-image using the dealer's public key. The dealer encrypts the secret-to-be-shared image with the same public key and then, the l encrypted key-images plus the encrypted to-be shared image are multiplied homomorphically to get another encrypted image. After this step, the dealer can safely get a scrambled image which corresponds to the addition or multiplication of the l + 1 original images ( l key-images plus the secret image) because of the additive homomorphic property of the Paillier algorithm or multiplicative homomorphic property of the RSA algorithm. When the l players want to extract the secret image, they do not need to use keys and the dealer has no role. Indeed, with our approach, to extract the secret image, the l players need only to subtract their own key-image with no specific order from the scrambled image. Thus, the proposed approach provides an opportunity to use operators like multiplication on encrypted images for the development of a secure privacy preserving protocol in the image domain. We show that it is still possible to extract a visible version of the secret image with only l-1 key-images (when one key-image is missing) or when the l key-images used for the extraction are different from the l original key-images due to a lossy compression for example. Experimental results and security analysis verify and prove that the proposed approach is secure from cryptographic viewpoint.

Islam, Naveed; Puech, William; Hayat, Khizar; Brouzet, Robert

2011-09-01

186

Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators Part I: Colour quaternions  

E-print Network

Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological is the first part of a series of studies which focus on defining colour total orderings based on geometric algebra represen- tations of colour images. In particular, in this article we focus on real quaternions

Angulo,Jesús

187

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN  

E-print Network

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

Ruf, Christopher

188

Imaging and Spectrophotometry of NGC1566-PART II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow band [O III] 5007A, nearby offband, and UV continuum PC images will be used to resolve the narrow and broad line regions. These data will test the ability to resolve the narrow regions of Seyfert 1 galaxies in the vicinity of a bright unresolved nucleus. Small aperture FOS spectra of the nucleus will be used to determine how well the emission from the broad line region can be separated from the narrow line region given the degraded spatial resolution. The spectra will be compared to published ground-based (optical) and IUE (ultraviolet) spectrophhotometry of the nucleus.

Ford, Holland

1990-12-01

189

Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: Part 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In depth characterization of CMOS arrays is unveiling many characteristics not observed in CCD imagers. This paper is the first of a series of papers that will discuss unique CMOS characteristics related to fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers with emphasis on scientific arrays. The first topic will show that CMOS read noise is ultimately limited by a phenomenon referred to as random telegraph signal (RTS) noise. RTS theory and experimental data discuss its creation, time and frequency domain characteristics, wide variance from pixel to pixel and magnitude on the sensor's overall read noise floor. Specific operating parameters that control and lower RTS noise are identified. It is shown how correlated double sampling (CDS) signal processing responds to RTS noise and demonstrate that sub electron CMOS read noise performance is possible. The paper also discusses CMOS sensitivity (V/e-) nonlinearity, an effect not familiar to CCD users. The problem plays havoc on conventional photon transfer analysis that leads to serious measurement errors. New photon transfer relations are developed to deal with the problem. Nonlinearity for custom CMOS pixels is shown to be beneficial for lowering read noise and extending dynamic range. The paper closes with a section on the high performance CMOS array used to generated data products presented.

Janesick, James; Andrews, James T.; Elliott, Tom

2006-06-01

190

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

191

An image denoising application using shearlets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical imaging is a multidisciplinary field related to computer science, electrical/electronic engineering, physics, mathematics and medicine. There has been dramatic increase in variety, availability and resolution of medical imaging devices for the last half century. For proper medical imaging highly trained technicians and clinicians are needed to pull out clinically pertinent information from medical data correctly. Artificial systems must be designed to analyze medical data sets either in a partially or even a fully automatic manner to fulfil the need. For this purpose there has been numerous ongoing research for finding optimal representations in image processing and computer vision [1, 18]. Medical images almost always contain artefacts and it is crucial to remove these artefacts to obtain healthy results. Out of many methods for denoising images, in this paper, two denoising methods, wavelets and shearlets, have been applied to mammography images. Comparing these two methods, shearlets give better results for denoising such data.

Sevindir, Hulya Kodal; Yazici, Cuneyt

2013-10-01

192

Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

Tilton, James C.

1988-01-01

193

Imaging the lymphatic system: possibilities and clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymphatic system is anatomically complex and difficult to image. Lymph ducts are responsible for the drainage of part of the body’s interstitial fluid. Lymph nodes account for the enrichment of lymph fluid, and can be involved in a large variety of diseases, especially cancer. For a long time, lymphatic imaging was limited to the sole use of conventional lymphography

Olivier Clément; Alain Luciani

2004-01-01

194

Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications  

SciTech Connect

As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chung, H.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-11

195

Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: Part II.  

PubMed

The advent of high through-put screening in the drug discovery process has resulted in compounds with high lipophilicity and poor solubility. Increasing the solubility of such compounds poses a major challenge to formulation scientists. Various approaches have been adopted to address this including preparation of solid dispersions and solid solutions. Hot-melt extrusion is an efficient technology for producing solid molecular dispersions with considerable advantages over solvent-based processes such as spray drying and co-precipitation. Hot-melt extrusion has been demonstrated to provide sustained, modified, and targeted drug delivery. Improvements in bioavailability utilizing the hot-melt extrusion technique demonstrate the value of the technology as a potential drug delivery processing tool. The interest in hot-melt extrusion technology for pharmaceutical applications is evident from the increasing number of patents and publications in the scientific literature. Part II of this article reviews the myriad of hot-melt extrusion applications for pharmaceutical dosage forms including granules, pellets, tablets, implants, transmucosal, and transdermal systems. PMID:17963112

Repka, Michael A; Battu, Sunil Kumar; Upadhye, Sampada B; Thumma, Sridhar; Crowley, Michael M; Zhang, Feng; Martin, Charles; McGinity, James W

2007-10-01

196

A novel method of testing image randomness with applications to image shuffling and encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the problem of testing the degree of randomness within an image, particularly for a shuffled or encrypted image. Its key contributions are: 1) a mathematical model of perfectly shuffled images; 2) the derivation of the theoretical distribution of pixel differences; 3) new hypothesis tests based approach to differentiate whether or not a test image is perfectly shuffled; and 4) a randomized algorithm to unbiasedly evaluate the degree of image randomness. Simulation results show that the proposed method is robust and effective in evaluating the degree of image randomness, and may often be more suitable for image applications than commonly used testing schemes designed for binary data like NIST 800-22 test suites. The developed method may be also useful as a first step to determine whether or not an image shuffling or encryption scheme is suitable for a particular cryptographic application.

Wu, Yue; Agaian, Sos; Noonan, Joseph P.

2013-05-01

197

BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

Planinsic, Gorazd

2011-09-01

198

Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. Methods IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. Results The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. Conclusion With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community. PMID:20037671

Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

2009-01-01

199

49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2012-10-01

200

49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2010-10-01

201

49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2013-10-01

202

49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2011-10-01

203

49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.  

...SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...of this part. (a) This part prescribes aviation security rules governing the following:...

2014-10-01

204

Use of modulated excitation signals in medical ultrasound. Part III: high frame rate imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.II, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.192-207 (2005). This paper, the last from a series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound, investigates the possibility of increasing the frame rate in ultrasound imaging by using modulated excitation signals. Linear array-coded imaging and sparse synthetic transmit aperture imaging are considered, and the trade-offs between frame

Thanassis Misaridis; Jørgen Arendt Jensen

2005-01-01

205

In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

Cote, Daniel

2010-08-01

206

Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging  

PubMed Central

We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

207

Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine, E-mail: naj@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States); Kruecker, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.kruecker@philips.com [Philips Research North America (United States); Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada); Kobeiter, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.kobeiter@gmail.com [CHU Henri Mondor, UPEC, Departments of Radiology and d'imagrie medicale (France); Venkatesan, Aradhana M., E-mail: VenkatesanA@cc.nih.gov; Levy, Elliot, E-mail: levyeb@cc.nih.gov; Wood, Bradford J., E-mail: bwood@cc.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Radiology and Imaging Sciences (United States)

2012-10-15

208

Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des ondes, qui démontre l'aspect mésoscopique de leur propagation, est une limitation majeure pour les techniques d'imagerie conventionelles (imagerie médicale, sismique réflexion ou réfraction, tomographie...). La deuxième partie du document (Chaps. 3 5) est consacrée à une application de cette physique mésoscopique : le principe de l'imagerie passive. En effectuant la corrélation temporelle d'enregistrement de bruit ambiant ou d'ondes diffuses, il est possible de reconstruire la réponse impulsionnelle du milieu entre deux capteurs passifs comme si l'on avait placé une source en lieu et place d'un des capteurs. Cela offre la possibilité de faire de l'acoustique ou de la sismologie sans source. Plusieurs aspects sont présentés dans ce manuscrit : des aspects théoriques et numériques (Chaps. 3, 4), ensuite des aspects expérimentaux avec des applications (Chap. 5) à l'échelle des ultrasons (tomographie passive d'un milieu stratifié), et des applications à l'échelle de la sismologie (imagerie du sous-sol de la Californie, et même de la Lune).

Larose, É.

2006-05-01

209

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

210

Retinal image analysis: Concepts, applications and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it

Niall Patton; Tariq M. Aslam; Thomas MacGillivray; Ian J. Deary; Baljean Dhillon; Robert H. Eikelboom; Kanagasingam Yogesan; Ian J. Constable

2006-01-01

211

Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

212

Application of Parallel Imaging to Murine Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

feed of this "dual-plane pair" element also eliminates the need for baluns in this case. The use of the element design in a 10-channel adjustable array coil for mouse imaging is presented, styled as a human cardiac top-bottom half-rack design...

Chang, Chieh-Wei 1980-

2012-09-21

213

TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

1984-01-01

214

Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy: Applications to Diseases Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Second Harmonic Generation microscopy has emerged as a powerful new optical imaging modality. This Feature describes its chemical and physical principles and highlights current applications in disease diagnostics. PMID:21446646

Campagnola, Paul

2011-01-01

215

Estimation of generalized mixtures and its application in image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce in this work the notion of a generalized mixture and propose some methods for estimating it, along with applications to unsupervised statistical image segmentation. A distribution mixture is said to be \\

Yves Delignon; Abdelwaheb Marzouki; Wojciech Pieczynski

1997-01-01

216

Light field applications to 3-dimensional surface imaging  

E-print Network

The structure of light around a scene may be contained in a 4-dimensional array known as a light field. This thesis describes methods for acquiring and manipulating light fields for applications in 3-dimensional imaging. ...

Hong, Wenxian

2009-01-01

217

Google Earth on your Cellphone: Imaging Science Applications  

E-print Network

Google Earth on your Cellphone: Imaging Science Applications in Modern Cartography Don Cooke such as Mapquest or Google Earth, and on personal-navigation, in- vehicle, and cell-phone mapping displays. All

Zanibbi, Richard

218

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2014-06-01

219

Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

2014-06-01

220

Application of ASAP in integral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral imaging (II) is a technique that is capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. At present Integral Imaging is a popular three-dimensional imaging technology. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. The micro-lens array is used in recording and replaying 3D scene information in this technique with true color, simply reconstruction and non-relevant light source. In order to research really many precision instrument are required. But the price is too high to set up a complicated authentic imaging system. In the same time the imaging condition is very difficult to satisfy. ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) is an advanced imitates optical software to solve reality optical questions. It is used in many research territories. In this paper the ASAP software is proposed to simulate and model the micro-lens array sheet. The ray tracing and energy distribution is completed. According to the study results we can optimum lens designing through modifying the focal length, aperture size and imaging position. We hope the study cost can be reduced and the efficiency can be improved through the use of simulation method to optical design software ASAP.

Wang, Hong-xia; Xu, Zhi-li; Wen, Shao-jie; Wu, Chun-hong

2012-10-01

221

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

222

Application of electrical capacitance tomography for imaging industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical tomography is, in certain cases, the most attractive method for real imaging of industrial processes, because of\\u000a its inherent simplicity, rugged construction of the tomographer and high-speed capability. This paper presents examples illustrating\\u000a applications of electrical tomography for imaging fluidized beds, bubble columns and pneumatic conveyors. Electrical tomography\\u000a opens up new ways for processing, imaging and modelling multi-phase flows

Dyakowski Tom

2005-01-01

223

Application of Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy to Radiation Biology  

PubMed Central

Optical imaging and spectroscopy is a diverse field that has been of critical importance in a wide range of areas in radiation research. It is capable of spanning a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and has the sensitivity and specificity needed for molecular and functional imaging. This review will describe the basic principles of optical imaging and spectroscopy, highlighting a few relevant applications to radiation research. PMID:22360397

Palmer, Gregory M.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Dewhirst, Mark W.

2013-01-01

224

Tomographic Imaging based on Capacitance Measurement and Industrial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitance-based tomographic imaging, which is commonly called electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), has been developed for two decades. This paper briefly introduces ECT sensors, capacitance measuring circuits, image reconstruction algorithms, and a wide range of challenging applications, including multi-phase measurement of oil pipelines, wet gas pipelines, wet gas separators, milk production lines, pneumatic conveyors, cyclone separators and fluidized beds. A recent

Wuqiang Yang

2007-01-01

225

Morphological grayscale reconstruction in image analysis: applications and efficient algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different formal definitions of gray-scale reconstruction are presented. The use of gray-scale reconstruction in various image processing applications discussed to illustrate the usefulness of this transformation for image filtering and segmentation tasks. The standard parallel and sequential approaches to reconstruction are reviewed. It is shown that their common drawback is their inefficiency on conventional computers. To improve this situation,

Luc Vincent

1993-01-01

226

Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

2006-05-01

227

Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

2008-08-01

228

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

PubMed Central

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

Sechopoulos, Ioannis

2013-01-01

229

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

SciTech Connect

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2013-01-15

230

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR...

2013-07-01

231

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR...

2012-07-01

232

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

... false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR...

2014-07-01

233

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR...

2011-07-01

234

Imaging ‘the lost tribe’: a review of adolescent cancer imaging. Part 1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although a small proportion of all cancer registrations, malignancy in adolescence and young adulthood remains the most common natural cause of death in this age group. Advances in the management and outcomes of childhood cancer have not been matched within the adolescent population, with increasing incidence and poorer survival seen amongst teenagers with cancer compared with other populations. There have been increasing moves towards specific adolescent oncology centres, with the aim of centralising expertise, however, ‘adolescent imaging’ does not exist as a speciality in the same way that paediatric imaging does, with responsibility for imaging adolescent patients sometimes falling to paediatric radiologists and sometimes to ‘adult’ radiologists, usually with a specific interest in a tumour type or body system. In this article, imaging of the more common malignancies, encountered in adolescent patients is reviewed. Complications of treatment are reviewed in another article to give an overview of adolescent oncology imaging practice. PMID:19933020

Zerizer, I.

2009-01-01

235

Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have been the main design goals of the two programs. In particular the NH90 TTH Thermal Imager is a compact camera operating in the 8 divided by 12 micrometers bandwidth with a single wide field of view. The thermal imager developed for the ATR42 MPA features a three remotely switchable fields of view objective equipped with diffractive optics. Performance goals, innovative design aspects and test results of these two thermal imagers are reported.

Uda, Gianni; Livi, Massimo; Olivieri, Monica; Sabatini, Maurizio; Torrini, Daniele; Baldini, Stefano; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Falli, Pietro; Maestrini, Mauro

1999-07-01

236

Preclinical Whole-body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence sampling of cellular function is widely used in all aspects of biology, allowing the visualization of cellular and sub-cellular biological processes with spatial resolutions in the range from nanometers up to centimeters. Imaging of fluorescence in vivo has become the most commonly used radiological tool in all pre-clinical work. In the last decade, full-body pre-clinical imaging systems have emerged with a wide range of utilities and niche application areas. The range of fluorescent probes that can be excited in the visible to near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum continues to expand, with the most value for in vivo use being beyond the 630 nm wavelength, because the absorption of light sharply decreases. Whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging has not yet reached a state of maturity that allows its routine use in the scope of large-scale pre-clinical studies. This is in part due to an incomplete understanding of what the actual fundamental capabilities and limitations of this imaging modality are. However, progress is continuously being made in research laboratories pushing the limits of the approach to consistently improve its performance in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification. This paper reviews this imaging technology with a particular emphasis on its potential uses and limitations, the required instrumentation, and the possible imaging geometries and applications. A detailed account of the main commercially available systems is provided as well as some perspective relating to the future of the technology development. Although the vast majority of applications of in vivo small animal imaging are based on epi-illumination planar imaging, the future success of the method relies heavily on the design of novel imaging systems based on state-of-the-art optical technology used in conjunction with high spatial resolution structural modalities such as MRI, CT or ultra-sound. PMID:20031443

Leblond, Frederic; Davis, Scott C.; Valdés, Pablo A.; Pogue, Brain W.

2013-01-01

237

Using stereoscopic imaging for visualization applications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of scientific visualization is to simplify the analysis of numerical data by rendering the information as an image. Even when the image is familiar, as in the case of terrain data, preconceptions about what the image should look like and deceptive image artifacts can create misconceptions about what information is actually contained in the scene. One way of aiding the development of unambiguous visualizations is to add stereoscopic depth to the image. Despite the recent proliferation of affordable stereoscopic viewing equipment, few researchers are at this time taking advantage of stereo in their visualizations. It is generally perceived that the rendering time will have to be doubled in order to generate the pair, and so stereoscopic viewing is sacrificed in the name of expedient rendering. We show that this perception is often invalid. The second half of a stereoscopic image can be generated from the first half for a fraction of the computational cost of complete rendering, usually no more than 50% of the cost and in many cases as little as 5%. Using the techniques presented here, the benefits of stereoscopy can be added to existing visualization systems for only a small cost over current single-frame rendering methods.

Adelson, S.J.

1994-02-01

238

Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spectroscopy is a tool that has been used for decades to identify, understand, and quantify solid, liquid, or gaseous materials, especially in the laboratory. In disciplines ranging from astronomy to chemistry, spectroscopic measurements are used to detect absorption and emission features due to specific chemical bonds, and detailed analyses are used to determine the abundance and physical state of the detected absorbing/emitting species. Spectroscopic measurements have a long history in the study of the Earth and planets. Up to the 1990s remote spectroscopic measurements of Earth and planets were dominated by multispectral imaging experiments that collect high-quality images in a few, usually broad, spectral bands or with point spectrometers that obtained good spectral resolution but at only a few spatial positions. However, a new generation of sensors is now available that combines imaging with spectroscopy to create the new discipline of imaging spectroscopy. Imaging spectrometers acquire data with enough spectral range, resolution, and sampling at every pixel in a raster image so that individual absorption features can be identified and spatially mapped (Goetz et al., 1985).

Clark, R.N.; Boardman, J.; Mustard, J.; Kruse, F.; Ong, C.; Pieters, C.; Swayze, G.A.

2006-01-01

239

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General...part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a...Designated official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport...

2011-10-01

240

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General...part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a...Designated official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport...

2012-10-01

241

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General...part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a...Designated official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport...

2010-10-01

242

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General...part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a...Designated official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport...

2013-10-01

243

49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.  

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General...part. This part describes aviation security rules governing: (a...Designated official for Civil Aviation Security. (d) Each airport...

2014-10-01

244

Locomotion of microspheres for imaging and light focusing applications  

E-print Network

Super-resolution imaging using sub-diffraction field localization by micron sized transparent beads (microspheres) was recently demonstrated [1]. Practical applications in microscopy require control over the positioning of the microspheres. We present a simple method of positioning and controllable movement of a microsphere by using a glass micropipette. This allows sub-diffraction imaging at arbitrary points in three dimensions, as well as the ability to track moving objects. The results are relevant to a broad scope of applications, including sample inspection, and bio-imaging.

Krivitsky, Leonid A; Wang, Zengbo; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

2013-01-01

245

An in-line optical image translator with applications in x-ray videography.  

PubMed

Many applications in radiography require, or would benefit from, the ability to translate, i.e. move, an optical image in the detector plane. In this paper, we describe the design and characterization of a prism-based optical image translator for insertion into existing XRII-video imaging systems. A pair of prisms rotatable about the optical axis form a very compact in-line optical image translator for installation in the parallel light path between an x-ray image intensifier and its video camera. Rotation of the prisms translates the XRII optical image on the camera target. With the addition of x-ray and light collimators to limit the image to a single video line, x-ray streak images may be acquired. By rotating an object in the x-ray beam during a streak, a complete computed tomography (CT) data set may be acquired. This image translator can translate an image anywhere in the focal plane of a 50-mm-output lens within a 40-mm-diam circle. The prisms have an aperture of 50 mm, permitting an optical speed of F/2 with a 50-mm output lens. The design is insensitive to angular alignment errors. This image translator is achromatic, since the spectral width of the output phosphorus of image intensifiers is sufficient to introduce blurring in a nonacrhomatic design. A prism-based image translator introduces image distortion, since the prisms do not operate at minimum deviation. The distortion is less than 4% over all parts of a typical detector area, and less than 1% in the central region of the image.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2280741

Picot, P A; Cardinal, H N; Fenster, A

1990-01-01

246

Palliative wound care, part 2: application of principles.  

PubMed

In part 1 of this 2-part series, we discussed principles of palliative care to help understand the goals of treatment in developing a plan of care. This article, Part 2, aims to provide knowledge of practical topical wound management by common wound etiologies and symptoms among persons who would benefit from palliative wound care. PMID:24685751

Emmons, Kevin R; Dale, Barbara; Crouch, Cathy

2014-04-01

247

Application of VMI in Supply Chain of Automobile Spare Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the basic principle of vendor managed inventory (VMI), this article applies VMI in the supply chain of automobile spare parts to seek its operation mode in the supply chain of automobile spare parts and introduces VMI of automobile spare parts supply assisted by third party logistics (TPL).

Wen Feng; Zhijun Tian

2008-01-01

248

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

249

Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

1999-01-01

250

IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In

Otto Gregory

2004-01-01

251

A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

2003-01-01

252

Application of laser imaging for bio/geophysical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

1992-07-01

253

Application of Laser Imaging for Bio/geophysical Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

1992-01-01

254

Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

2013-01-01

255

Image characteristics in applications utilizing dilute subaperture arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a large aperture is synthesized with an array of smaller subapertures for high-resolution imaging applications, it is important not only to arrange the subapertures to achieve minimal spatial frequency redundancy but also to choose the size of the subapertures (i.e., the dilution ratio) necessary to achieve the best possible image quality. Spurious or ghost images often occur even for nonredundant dilute subaperture arrays. We show that array configurations producing a uniform modulation transfer function will not exhibit these undesirable ghost images. A prescription that is unique and original (to the best of our knowledge) is then presented for constructing both one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations of dilute subaperture arrays that results in a uniform spatial frequency response with an arbitrarily high spatial resolution for reciprocal path-imaging applications.

Harvey, James E.; Kotha, Anita; Phillips, Ronald L.

1995-06-01

256

Review of polarization imaging for international military application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization is a primary characteristic of electromagnetic wave. Polarization is another field of the light except the intensity, wavelength, and coherence. Polarization can indicate the different attributions that decided by objects, such as surface features, roughness, shading, shape and so on. Polarization Imaging is a useful complement to traditional intensity and spectral imaging methods with great potential in many application fields. In the future war, the advantages of polarization are significant for target detection and recognition in the increasingly complicated battlefield environment. In this paper, the research progress is generally introduced in military application in four fields: 1) target polarization characteristics and simulationenhance contrast, distinguish the target and background; 2) polarization transmission characteristics- observe target through the smoke and fog of War; 3) polarization imaging detection methods- improve the imaging quality, enhance the information available; 4) polarization image processing- improve detection and tracking performance.

Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Mo, Chunhe; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Dan

2013-08-01

257

Fast sensors for time-of-flight imaging applications.  

PubMed

The development of sensors capable of detecting particles and radiation with both high time and high positional resolution is key to improving our understanding in many areas of science. Example applications of such sensors range from fundamental scattering studies of chemical reaction mechanisms through to imaging mass spectrometry of surfaces, neutron scattering studies aimed at probing the structure of materials, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements to elucidate the structure and function of biomolecules. In addition to improved throughput resulting from parallelisation of data collection - imaging of multiple different fragments in velocity-map imaging studies, for example - fast image sensors also offer a number of fundamentally new capabilities in areas such as coincidence detection. In this Perspective, we review recent developments in fast image sensor technology, provide examples of their implementation in a range of different experimental contexts, and discuss potential future developments and applications. PMID:24002354

Vallance, Claire; Brouard, Mark; Lauer, Alexandra; Slater, Craig S; Halford, Edward; Winter, Benjamin; King, Simon J; Lee, Jason W L; Pooley, Daniel E; Sedgwick, Iain; Turchetta, Renato; Nomerotski, Andrei; John, Jaya John; Hill, Laura

2014-01-14

258

7 CFR 4290.1940 - Integration of this part with other regulations applicable to USDA's programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary has not delegated this responsibility to SBA pursuant to § 4290.45 of this part. (c) Clean Air Act and Water Pollution Control Act requirements. To the extent applicable to this part, the Secretary will comply with the...

2011-01-01

259

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

260

Stereo imaging velocimetry for microgravity applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stereo imaging velocimetry is the quantitative measurement of three-dimensional flow fields using two sensors recording data from different vantage points. The system described in this paper, under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, uses two CCD cameras placed perpendicular to one another, laser disk recorders, an image processing substation, and a 586-based computer to record data at standard NTSC video rates (30 Hertz) and reduce it offline. The flow itself is marked with seed particles, hence the fluid must be transparent. The velocimeter tracks the motion of the particles, and from these we deduce a multipoint (500 or more), quantitative map of the flow. Conceptually, the software portion of the velocimeter can be divided into distinct modules. These modules are: camera calibration, particle finding (image segmentation) and centroid location, particle overlap decomposition, particle tracking, and stereo matching. We discuss our approach to each module, and give our currently achieved speed and accuracy for each where available.

Miller, Brian B.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Bethea, Mark D.

1994-01-01

261

Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

Wood, C.C.

1997-10-01

262

MEM application to IRAS CPC images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for applying the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to Chopped Photometric Channel (CPC) IRAS additional observations is illustrated. The original CPC data suffered from problems with repeatability which MEM is able to cope with by use of a noise image, produced from the results of separate data scans of objects. The process produces images of small areas of sky with circular Gaussian beams of approximately 30 in. full width half maximum resolution at 50 and 100 microns. Comparison is made to previous reconstructions made in the far-infrared as well as morphologies of objects at other wavelengths. Some projects with this dataset are discussed.

Marston, A. P.

1994-01-01

263

Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

Iskandrian, A.S.

1987-01-01

264

Four-Dimensional MR Cardiovascular Imaging: Method and Applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. Three-dimensional cardiovascular MRI in real-time, or 4D cardiovascular MRI without cardiac and respiratory gating or triggering, remains an important technological goal of the MR cardiovascular research community. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve 4D cardiovascular MR imaging in unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This breakthrough is made possible through a creative use of sparse sampling theory and parallel imaging with phased array coils and a novel implementation of data acquisition and image reconstruction. We have successfully used the technique to perform 4D cardiovascular imaging on rats, achieving 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution with a frame rate of 67 fps. This capability enables simultaneous imaging of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and first-pass myocardial perfusion. This in turn allows multiple cardiac assessments including measurement of ejection fraction, cardiac output, and myocardial blood flow in a single experiment. We believe that the proposed technique can open up many important applications of cardiovascular imaging and have significant impact on the field. PMID:22255151

Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Haosen; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

2012-01-01

265

Providing image management and communication functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective delivery of health care has become increasingly dependent on a wide range of medical data which includes a variety of images. Manual and computer-based medical records ordinarily do not contain image data, leaving the physician to deal with a fragmented patient record widely scattered throughout the hospital. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is currently installing a prototype hospital information system (HIS) workstation network to demonstrate the feasibility of providing image management and communications (IMAC) functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system. The core of this system is a database management system adapted to handle images as a new data type. A general model for this integration is discussed and specifics of the hospital-wide network of image display workstations are given.

Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.

1990-08-01

266

Application of Digital Image Processing Methods for Portal Image Quality Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The different processing methods which could increase the contrast (unsharp mask, histogram equalization, and deconvolution) and reduce noise (median filter) were analysed. An application which allows the importation of BeamView files (ACR-NEMA 2.0 format) and the application of the above mentioned methods were developed. The main objective was to obtain the most accurate comparison of Beamview images with Digitally Received Radiograms. The preliminary results of image processing methods are presented.

Gorlachev, G. E. [Radiology Department, N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kosyrev, D. S. [Radiology Department, N.N. Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Medical Physics Department, Moscow Engineering Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-11-26

267

Infrared scanning images: An archeological application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial infrared scanner images of an area near the Little Colorado River in north-central Arizona disclosed the existence of scattered clusters of parallel linear features in the ashfall area of Sunset Crater. The features are not obvious in conventional aerial photographs, and only one cluster could be recognized on the ground. Soil and pollen analyses reveal that they are prehistoric agricultural plots.

Schaber, G.G.; Gumerman, G.J.

1969-01-01

268

Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important

Peter W. Norton; Stephen Cox; Bob Murphy; Kevin Grealish; Mike Joswick; Brian Denley; Frank Feda; Loriann Elmali; Margaret Kohin

2006-01-01

269

Image analysis: Applications in materials engineering  

SciTech Connect

This new practical book describes the basic principles of image acquisition, enhancement, measurement, and interpretation in very simple nonmathematical terms. it also provides solution-oriented algorithms and examples and case histories from industry and research, along with quick reference information on various specific problems. Included are numerous tables, graphs, charts, and working examples in detection of grain boundaries, pores, and chain structures.

Wojnar, L.

1999-07-01

270

Development of prototype shielded cervical intracavitary brachytherapy applicators compatible with CT and MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is an integral part of the treatment regimen for cervical cancer and, generally, outcome in terms of local disease control and complications is a function of dose to the disease bed and critical structures, respectively. Therefore, it is paramount to accurately determine the dose given via ICBT to the tumor bed as well as critical structures. This is greatly facilitated through the use of advanced three-dimensional imaging modalities, such as CT and MR, to delineate critical and target structures with an ICBT applicator inserted in vivo. These methods are not possible when using a shielded applicator due to the image artifacts generated by interovoid shielding. The authors present two prototype shielded ICBT applicators that can be utilized for artifact-free CT image acquisition. They also investigate the MR amenability and dosimetry of a novel tungsten-alloy shielding material to extend the functionality of these devices. Methods: To accomplish artifact-free CT image acquisition, a ''step-and-shoot'' (S and S) methodology was utilized, which exploits the prototype applicators movable interovoid shielding. Both prototypes were placed in imaging phantoms that positioned the applicators in clinically applicable orientations. CT image sets were acquired of the prototype applicators as well as a shielded Fletcher-Williamson (sFW) ovoid. Artifacts present in each CT image set were qualitatively compared for each prototype applicator following the S and S methodology and the sFW. To test the novel tungsten-alloy shielding material's MR amenability, they constructed a phantom applicator that mimics the basic components of an ICBT ovoid. This phantom applicator positions the MR-compatible shields in orientations equivalent to the sFW bladder and rectal shields. MR images were acquired within a gadopentetate dimeglumine-doped water tank using standard pulse sequences and examined for artifacts. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to match the attenuation due to the thickness of this new shield type with current, clinically utilized ovoid shields and a {sup 192}Ir HDR/PDR source. Results: Artifact-free CT images could be acquired of both generation applicators in a clinically applicable geometry using the S and S method. MR images were acquired of the phantom applicator containing shields, which contained minimal, clinically relevant artifacts. The thickness required to match the dosimetry of the MR-compatible and sFW rectal shields was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusions: Utilizing a S and S imaging method in conjunction with prototype applicators that feature movable interovoid shields, they were able to acquire artifact-free CT image sets in a clinically applicable geometry. MR images were acquired of a phantom applicator that contained shields composed of a novel tungsten alloy. Artifacts were largely limited to regions within the ovoid cap and are of no clinical interest. The second generation A{sup 3} utilizes this material for interovoid shielding.

Price, Michael J.; Jackson, Edward F.; Gifford, Kent A.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); and Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2009-12-15

271

A probabilistic approach for color correction in image mosaicking applications.  

PubMed

Image mosaicking applications require both geometrical and photometrical registrations between the images that compose the mosaic. This paper proposes a probabilistic color correction algorithm for correcting the photometrical disparities. First, the image to be color corrected is segmented into several regions using mean shift. Then, connected regions are extracted using a region fusion algorithm. Local joint image histograms of each region are modeled as collections of truncated Gaussians using a maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Then, local color palette mapping functions are computed using these sets of Gaussians. The color correction is performed by applying those functions to all the regions of the image. An extensive comparison with ten other state of the art color correction algorithms is presented, using two different image pair data sets. Results show that the proposed approach obtains the best average scores in both data sets and evaluation metrics and is also the most robust to failures. PMID:25438315

Oliveira, Miguel; Sappa, Angel Domingo; Santos, Vitor

2015-02-01

272

Distributed computing in image analysis using open source frameworks and application to image sharpness assessment of histological whole slide images  

PubMed Central

Background Automated image analysis on virtual slides is evolving rapidly and will play an important role in the future of digital pathology. Due to the image size, the computational cost of processing whole slide images (WSIs) in full resolution is immense. Moreover, image analysis requires well focused images in high magnification. Methods We present a system that merges virtual microscopy techniques, open source image analysis software, and distributed parallel processing. We have integrated the parallel processing framework JPPF, so batch processing can be performed distributed and in parallel. All resulting meta data and image data are collected and merged. As an example the system is applied to the specific task of image sharpness assessment. ImageJ is an open source image editing and processing framework developed at the NIH having a large user community that contributes image processing algorithms wrapped as plug-ins in a wide field of life science applications. We developed an ImageJ plug-in that supports both basic interactive virtual microscope and batch processing functionality. For the application of sharpness inspection we employ an approach with non-overlapping tiles. Compute nodes retrieve image tiles of moderate size from the streaming server and compute the focus measure. Each tile is divided into small sub images to calculate an edge based sharpness criterion which is used for classification. The results are aggregated in a sharpness map. Results Based on the system we calculate a sharpness measure and classify virtual slides into one of the following categories - excellent, okay, review and defective. Generating a scaled sharpness map enables the user to evaluate sharpness of WSIs and shows overall quality at a glance thus reducing tedious assessment work. Conclusions Using sharpness assessment as an example, the introduced system can be used to process, analyze and parallelize analysis of whole slide images based on open source software. PMID:21489186

2011-01-01

273

Imaging applications of the sparse FFT  

E-print Network

The sparse Fourier transform leverages the intrinsic sparsity of the frequency spectrum in many natural applications to compute the discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) in sub-linear time. Consequently, it has the potential ...

Shi, Lixin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

274

Techniques for Fusion of Multimodal Images: Application to Breast Imaging Karl G. Baum', Maria Helguera', Joseph P. Hornak', John P. Kerekes', Ethan D. Montag',  

E-print Network

- Visualization, Biomedical imaging, Biomedical image processing, Positron emission tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Biomedical nuclear imaging, Medical decision-making, Medical diagnosis 1. INTRODUCTIONTechniques for Fusion of Multimodal Images: Application to Breast Imaging Karl G. Baum', Maria

Kerekes, John

275

Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

1987-01-01

276

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1988-01-01

277

19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gross national product of less than $1,500 in 1998, as measured by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable 1-year period” means the 12-month...

2010-04-01

278

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

279

Real-time identification and localization of body parts from depth images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the problem of detecting and iden- tifying body parts in depth images at video frame rates. Our solution involves a novel interest point detector for mesh and range data that is particularly well suited for analyzing human shape. The interest points, which are based on identifying geodesic extrema on the surface mesh, coincide with salient points of

Christian PlagemannVarun; Varun Ganapathi; Daphne Koller; Sebastian Thrun

2010-01-01

280

Bistatic radar imaging of the marine environment. Part II: simulation and results analysis  

E-print Network

1 Bistatic radar imaging of the marine environment. Part II: simulation and results analysis present a bistatic, polarimetric and real aper- ture Marine Radar Simulator (MaRS) producing pseudo-raw radar signal. The simulation takes the main elements of the environment into account (sea temperature

Boyer, Edmond

281

New dimensions in endodontic imaging: Part 2. Cone beam computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patel S. New dimensions in endodontic imaging: part 2. Cone beam computed tomography. International Endodontic Journal. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been specifically designed to produce undistorted three- dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a significantly lower effective radiation dose compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). Periapi- cal disease may be

S. Patel

2009-01-01

282

Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance. PMID:24521904

Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

2014-01-01

283

Displaying radiologic images on personal computers: practical applications and uses.  

PubMed

This is the fifth and final article in our series for radiologists and imaging scientists on displaying, manipulating, and analyzing radiologic images on personal computers (PCs). There are many methods of transferring radiologic images into a PC, including transfer over a network, transfer from an imaging modality storage archive, using a frame grabber in the image display console, and digitizing a radiograph or 35-mm slide. Depending on the transfer method, the image file may be an extended gray-scale contrast, 16-bit raster file or an 8-bit PC graphics file. On the PC, the image can be viewed, analyzed, enhanced, and annotated. Some specific uses and applications include making 35-mm slides, printing images for publication, making posters and handouts, facsimile (fax) transmission to referring clinicians, converting radiologic images into medical illustrations, creating a digital teaching file, and using a network to disseminate teaching material. We are distributing a 16-bit image display and analysis program for Macintosh computers, Dr Razz, that illustrates many of the principles discussed in this review series. The program is available for no charge by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp). PMID:7524690

Gillespy, T; Richardson, M L; Rowberg, A H

1994-08-01

284

Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have

Gianni Uda; Massimo Livi; Monica Olivieri; Maurizio Sabatini; Daniele Torrini; Stefano Baldini; Riccardo Bardazzi; Pietro Falli; Mauro Maestrini

1999-01-01

285

X-ray imaging for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

Evans, J. Paul

2004-01-01

286

Smart imaging using laser targeting: a multiple barcodes application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the best of our knowledge, proposed is a novel variable depth of field smart imager design using intelligent laser targeting for high productivity multiple barcodes reading applications. System smartness comes via the use of an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal-Length Lens (ECVFL) to provide an agile pixel (and/or pixel set) within the laser transmitter and optical imaging receiver. The ECVFL in the receiver gives a flexible depth of field that allows clear image capture over a range of barcode locations. Imaging of a 660 nm wavelength laser line illuminated 95-bit one dimensional barcode is experimentally demonstrated via the smart imager for barcode target distances ranging from 10 cm to 54 cm. The smart system captured barcode images are evaluated using a proposed barcode reading algorithm. Experimental results after computer-based post-processing show a nine-fold increase in barcode target distance variation range (i.e., range variation increased from 2.5 cm to 24.5 cm) when compared to a conventional fixed lens imager. Applications for the smart imager include industrial multiple product tracking, marking, and inspection systems.

Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

2014-05-01

287

State-of-the-art aortic imaging: part I - fundamentals and perspectives of CT and MRI.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, imaging of the aorta has undergone a clinically relevant change. As part of the change non-invasive imaging techniques have replaced invasive intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography as the former imaging gold standard for aortic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the backbone of pre- and postoperative aortic imaging because they allow for imaging of the entire aorta and its branches. The first part of this review article describes the imaging principles of CT and MRI with regard to aortic disease, shows how both technologies can be applied in every day clinical practice, offering exciting perspectives. Recent CT scanner generations deliver excellent image quality with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Technical developments have resulted in CT scan performed within a few seconds for the entire aorta. Therefore, CT angiography (CTA) is the imaging technology of choice for evaluating acute aortic syndromes, for diagnosis of most aortic pathologies, preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up after endovascular aortic repair. However, radiation dose and the risk of contrast induced nephropathy are major downsides of CTA. Optimisation of scan protocols and contrast media administration can help to reduce the required radiation dose and contrast media. MR angiography (MRA) is an excellent alternative to CTA for both diagnosis of aortic pathologies and postoperative follow-up. The lack of radiation is particularly beneficial for younger patients. A potential side effect of gadolinium contrast agents is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In patients with high risk of NSF unenhanced MRA can be performed with both ECG- and breath-gating techniques. Additionally, MRI provides the possibility to visualise and measure both dynamic and flow information. PMID:24220116

Rengier, Fabian; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Karmonik, Christof; Schoenhagen, Paul; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Partovi, Sasan

2013-11-01

288

Mining remote-image repositories with application to Mars Rover stereoscopic image datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of December 2008, the two Mars rover spacecraft Spirit and Opportunity have collected more than 4 years worth of data from nine imaging instruments producing greater than 200k images which includes both raw image data from spacecraft instruments and images generated by post-processing algorithms developed by NASA's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). This paper describes a prototype software system that allows scientists to browse and data-mine the images produced from NASA's Mars Exploratory Rover (MER) missions with emphasis on the automatic detection of images containing rocks that are of interest for geological research. We highlight two aspects of our prototype system: (1) software design for mining remote data repositories, (2) a computationally efficient image search engine for detecting MER images that containing rocks. Datatype abstractions made at the software design level allow users to access and visualize the source data through a single simple-to-use interface when the underlying data may originate from a local or remote image repository. Data mining queries into the MER image data are specified over chronological intervals denoted (sols) as each interval is a solar day. As in other mining applications, an automatic detection and classification algorithm is used to compute a relevance score that represents how relevant a given recorded image is to the user-specified query. Query results are presented as list of records, sorted by their relevance score, which the user may then visualize and investigate to extract information of interest. Several standard image analysis tools are provided for investigation of 2D images (e.g., histogram equalization, edge detection, etc.) and, when available, stereoscopic data is integrated with the image data using multiple windows which show both the 2D image and 3D surface geometry. The combination of data mining and a high-quality visualization interface provides MER researchers unprecedented access to the recorded data.

Willis, Andrew; Shadid, Waseem; Eppes, Martha C.

2009-02-01

289

Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

2013-03-01

290

Investigating clutter reduction for unmanned systems applications using imaging polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proliferation of unmanned systems in recent years has sparked increased interest in multiple areas of research for on-board image processing including autonomous navigation, surveillance, detection, and tracking to name a few. For these applications, techniques for reducing scene clutter provide an increased level of robustness for autonomous systems and reduced operator burden for tele-operated systems. Because imaging polarimetry frequently provides complementary information to the standard radiometric image, it is anticipated that this technology is well suited to provide a significant reduction in scene clutter. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of imaging polarimetry under a number of representative scenarios to assess the utility of this technology for unmanned system applications.

Hanks, Jonathan B.; Aycock, Todd M.; Chenault, David B.

2014-06-01

291

Magnetic resonance imaging features of alveolar soft part sarcoma: report of 14 cases  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the magnetic resonance imaging findings of alveolar soft part sarcoma. Methods Magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven alveolar soft part sarcoma in 14 patients were retrospectively reviewed, including lesion location, size and shape, border definition, signals on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, presence or absence of peritumoral and intratumoral flow voids, and enhancement pattern. Results Patients included five women and nine men, ranging in age from 27 to 54 years, with a mean age of 36 years. A slow-growing mass without pain was the chief complaint. Eight patients had pulmonary metastases at presentation. Ten lesions arose from the extremities, two were located in the gluteal regions, one affected the presacral space and one occurred in the back. The mean maximal size of the lesions was 9.8 cm, ranging from 6.2 to 16 cm. All lesions appeared as a round (n?=?2), ovoid (n?=?8) or irregular (n?=?4) shape with ill-defined margins. The lesions mainly demonstrated isointense or mildly hyperintense compared to muscle on T1-weighted images, and heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Peritumoral edemas were observed in six patients. Ten lesions showed intense inhomogeneous enhancement after contrast. Intra- and peritumoral tubular flow voids representing tortuous dilated vessels with rapid blood flow were present in all cases. Conclusions Alveolar soft part sarcoma has some distinctive magnetic resonance imaging features including a slow-growing, large mass in the soft tissue of the extremities in young adults, with numerous signal voids on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, and strong enhancement after contrast. PMID:24517100

2014-01-01

292

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-08-15

293

QUANTITATIVE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING OF HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS: TECHNIQUE AND APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imaging describes the technique of photographing an object using several well-defined optical bands in a broad spectral range. Using satellite- and aircraft-based instruments, macro-scale hyperspectral imaging is well established for geo-observation with applications in many different fields such as geology, archaeology and defence. Microscope-based hyperspectral instruments and analysis techniques are successfully employed in bio-medical research. In order to transfer

R. Padoan; A. G. Steemers; M. E. Klein; B. J. Aalderink; G. de Bruin

294

Ultra wideband horn antenna for microwave imaging application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, high-contrast and high-resolution microwave imaging has been extensively studied in the detection of early breast cancer, This method is based on the contrast in electrical properties of healthy fatty breast tissues and malignant tissues. In this paper we design a new TEM double-ridged horn antenna for microwave imaging application. Proposed antenna is simulated with two commercially available packages, namely

Hana Amjadi; Farzad Tavakkol Hamedani

2011-01-01

295

3D Winding Number: Theory and Application to Medical Imaging  

PubMed Central

We develop a new formulation, mathematically elegant, to detect critical points of 3D scalar images. It is based on a topological number, which is the generalization to three dimensions of the 2D winding number. We illustrate our method by considering three different biomedical applications, namely, detection and counting of ovarian follicles and neuronal cells and estimation of cardiac motion from tagged MR images. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation emphasizes the reliability of the results. PMID:21317978

Becciu, Alessandro; Fuster, Andrea; Pottek, Mark; van den Heuvel, Bart; ter Haar Romeny, Bart; van Assen, Hans

2011-01-01

296

Magnetic resonance diffusion–weighted imaging: extraneurological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffsion–weighted (Dw) imaging has for a number of years been a diagnostic tool in the field of neuroradiology, yet only since\\u000a the end of the 1990s, with the introduction of echoplanar imaging (EPI) and the use of sequences capable of performing diffusion\\u000a studies during a single breath hold, has it found diagnostic applications at the level of the abdomen. The

S. Colagrande; S. F. Carbone; L. M. Carusi; M. Cova; N. Villari

2006-01-01

297

Wideband fractal antennas for holographic imaging and rectenna applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have

Kyle J. Bunch; Douglas L. McMakin; David M. Sheen

2008-01-01

298

Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Simulation Technology Research Dept.

1997-09-01

299

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

300

X-ray characterization of CMOS imaging detector with high resolution for fluoroscopic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS)-based X-ray imaging detectors with high spatial resolution for medical imaging application. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS imaging sensor has been fabricated by using a 0.35 ?m 1 Poly 4 Metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 ?m×100 ?m and the pixel array format is 24×96 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 9.6 mm×2.4 mm. The 14.3-bit extend counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. Both thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were used as converters for incident X-rays to visible light photons. The optical property and X-ray imaging characterization such as X-ray to light response as a function of incident X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution and X-ray images of objects were measured under different X-ray energy conditions. The measured results suggest that our developed CMOS-based X-ray imaging detector has the potential for fluoroscopic imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging applications.

Cha, Bo Kyung; Kim, Cho Rong; Jeon, Seongchae; Kim, Ryun Kyung; Seo, Chang-Woo; Yang, Keedong; Heo, Duchang; Lee, Tae-Bum; Shin, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Boo; Kwon, Oh-Kyung

2013-12-01

301

Phase Sensitive X-Ray Imaging: Towards its Interdisciplinary Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray phase imaging including phase tomography has been attracting increasing attention during the past few decades. The advantage of X-ray phase imaging is that an extremely high sensitivity is achieved for weakly absorbing materials, such as biological soft tissues, which generate a poor contrast by conventional schemes. Especially for such living samples, where the reduction of the applied dose is of paramount interest, phase sensitive measurements schemes have an inherent potential for a significant dose reduction combined with an image quality enhancement. Several methods have been invented for x-ray phase contrast imaging that either use an approach based on interferometry, diffraction or wave-field propagation. Some of these techniques have a potential for commercial applications, such as in medicine, non-destructive testing, security and inspection. The scope of this manuscript thus deals with one particular such technique that measures the diffraction caused by the specimen by means of a grating interferometer. Examples of measurements are shown that depict the potential of phase contrast imaging for future commercial applications, such as in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and inspection for quality control. The current state of the technology is briefly reviewed as well as its shortcomings to be overcome with regard to the applications.

Kottler, C.; Revol, V.; Kaufmann, R.; Urban, C.; Knop, K.; Sennhauser, U.; Jerjen, I.; Lüthi, T.; Cardot, F.; Niedermann, P.; Morel, J.-P.; Maake, C.; Walt, H.; Knop, E.; Blanc, N.

2010-04-01

302

17 CFR 290.1 - Applicability of this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

This part (Regulation EBRD) prescribes the reports to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (“EBRD”) pursuant to section 9(a) of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development...

2010-04-01

303

47 CFR 65.1 - Application of part 65.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...methodologies for Commission prescription of an authorized unitary interstate exchange access rate of return and individual rates of return for the interstate exchange access rates of certain carriers pursuant to § 65.102. This part shall apply...

2010-10-01

304

42 CFR 86.21 - Applicability of 45 CFR part 74.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. 86.21 Section 86.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.21 Applicability of 45 CFR part 74. The provisions of 45...

2010-10-01

305

33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables for Application of Double Hull...

2010-07-01

306

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2013-07-01

307

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2011-07-01

308

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2010-07-01

309

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2012-07-01

310

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110...App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

2014-07-01

311

Elastic models application for thorax image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work consist of the implementation and evaluation of elastic alignment algorithms of biomedical images, which were taken at thorax level and simulated with the 4D NCAT digital phantom. Radial Basis Functions spatial transformations (RBF), a kind of spline, which allows carrying out not only global rigid deformations but also local elastic ones were applied, using a point-matching method. The applied functions were: Thin Plate Spline (TPS), Multiquadric (MQ) Gaussian and B-Spline, which were evaluated and compared by means of calculating the Target Registration Error and similarity measures between the registered images (the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD) and correlation coefficient (CC)). In order to value the user incurred error in the point-matching and segmentation tasks, two algorithms were also designed that calculate the Fiduciary Localization Error. TPS and MQ were demonstrated to have better performance than the others. It was proved RBF represent an adequate model for approximating the thorax deformable behaviour. Validation algorithms showed the user error was not significant.

Correa Prado, Lorena S.; Andrés Valdez Díaz, E.; Romo, Raúl

2007-11-01

312

Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

In the following review we discuss several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also discusses factors influencing nanoparticle imaging and uptake in live cells in vitro. Due to their unique size-dependent properties nanoparticles offer numerous advantages over traditional dyes and proteins. For example, the photostability, narrow emission peak, and ability to rationally modify both the size and surface chemistry of Quantum Dots allow for simultaneous analyses of multiple targets within the same cell. On the other hand, the surface characteristics of nanometer sized TiO2allow efficient conjugation to nucleic acids which enables their retention in specific subcellular compartments. We discuss cellular uptake mechanisms for the internalization of nanoparticles and studies showing the influence of nanoparticle size and charge and the cell type targeted on nanoparticle uptake. The predominant nanoparticle uptake mechanisms include clathrin-dependent mechanisms, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. PMID:21794189

2007-01-01

313

Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology  

PubMed Central

The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials. PMID:21483100

Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

2012-01-01

314

Near-infrared fluorescence: application to in vivo molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging often relies on the use of targeted and activatable reporters to quantitate and visualize targets, biological processes, and cells in vivo. The use of optical probes with near-infrared fluorescence allows for improved photon penetration through tissue and minimizes the effects of tissue autofluorescence. There are several parameters that define the effectiveness of imaging agents in vivo. These factors include probe targeting, activation, pharmacokinetics, biocompatibility, and photophysics. Recent advances in our understanding of these variables as they pertain to the application of optical reporters for in vivo imaging are discussed in this review. PMID:19879798

Hilderbrand, Scott A; Weissleder, Ralph

2010-02-01

315

Tailored liquid crystal devices for specific imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the mature liquid crystals (LCs) display technology, there is a significant interest in implementing these devices into other non-display applications. Hence the emerging field of LC photonics is becoming increasingly active in which the strong electrooptic properties of LCs are harnessed for these applications particularly for imaging such as the use of SLMs, tunable focus lenses, tunable filters and polarization control devices. In this paper we review our recently developed LC devices integrated into full field optical coherence tomography system, into multi-spectral skin diagnosis system and in extended depth of focus imaging system.

Safrani, A.; Abuleil, M.; Isaac, S.; Solodar, A.; Klapp, I.; Kirzhner, M. G.; Abdulhalim, I.

2014-10-01

316

All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed. PMID:12452562

Siebert, Karsten J; Löffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

2002-11-01

317

Hyperpolarized MR imaging: neurologic applications of hyperpolarized metabolism.  

PubMed

Hyperpolarization is the general term for a method of enhancing the spin-polarization difference of populations of nuclei in a magnetic field. No less than 5 distinct techniques (dynamic nuclear polarization [DNP]; parahydrogen-induced polarization-parahydrogen and synthesis allow dramatically enhanced nuclear alignment [PHIP-PASADENA]; xenon/helium polarization transfer; Brute Force; (1)H hyperpolarized water) are currently under exhaustive investigation as means of amplifying the intrinsically (a few parts per million) weak signal intensity used in conventional MR neuroimaging and spectroscopy. HD-MR imaging in vivo is a metabolic imaging tool causing much of the interest in HD-MR imaging. The most successful to date has been DNP, in which carbon-13 ((13)C) pyruvic acid has shown many. PHIP-PASADENA with (13)C succinate has shown HD-MR metabolism in vivo in tumor-bearing mice of several types, entering the Krebs-tricarboxylic acid cycle for ultrafast detection with (13)C MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, and chemical shift imaging. We will discuss 5 promising preclinical studies: (13)C succinate PHIP in brain tumor; (13)C ethylpyruvate DNP and (13)C acetate; DNP in rodent brain; (13)C succinate PHIP versus gadolinium imaging of stroke; and (1)H hyperpolarized imaging. Recent developments in clinical (13)C neurospectroscopy encourage us to overcome the remaining barriers to clinical HD-MR imaging. PMID:19875468

Ross, B D; Bhattacharya, P; Wagner, S; Tran, T; Sailasuta, N

2010-01-01

318

Fast-scanning THz medical imaging system for clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for terahertz (THz) medical imaging have proliferated over the past few years due to advancements in source/detector technology and vigorous application development. While considerable effort has been applied to improving source output power and detector sensitivity, significantly less work has been devoted to improving image acquisition method and time. The majority of THz medical imaging systems in the literature typically acquire pixels by translating the target of interest beneath a fixed illumination beam. While this single-pixel whiskbroom methodology is appropriate for in vitro models, it is unsuitable for in vivo large animal and patient imaging due to practical constraints. This paper presents a scanned beam imaging system based on prior work that enables for reduced image acquisition time while allowing the source, target and detector to remain stationary. The system employs a spinning polygonal mirror and a set of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) objective lenses, and operates at a center illumination frequency of 525GHz with ~125GHz of 3dB bandwidth. The system achieves a focused beam diameter of 1.66mm and a large depth of field of <25 mm. Images of characterization targets and ex vivo tissue samples are presented and compared to results obtained with conventional fixed beam scanning systems.

Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Fokwa, Nuhba; Tewari, Priyamvada; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Nowroozi, Bryan; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

2012-10-01

319

Aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology, part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design\\/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large

N. J. Groom; C. P. Britcher

1991-01-01

320

Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications  

PubMed Central

In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas–Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography. PMID:24587692

Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

2014-01-01

321

Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

2014-01-01

322

Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

Wood, L.L.

1993-06-07

323

Application of whole blood image speckle analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When coherent light is incident upon an optically thick biological fluid having scattering centers (SC) in suspension, like whole blood, the backscattered light can be recorded, resulting an image speckle. A program was written to extract the time series from each pixel of the CDD conversion matrix. The autocorrelation time of the series was calculated and the autocorrelation time was determined on blood samples from different human subjects. The autocorrelation time was analyzed and compared with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measured during a standard laboratory test using the modified Westergren method. A different procedure to record the time series, using a detector and a data acquisition system was used as well and the autocorrelation time was calculated for the time series recorded using this procedure. The results of the work performed so far indicate that the two properties appear to be slightly correlated. A fast procedure for assessing the ESR is suggested.

Chicea, Dan

2008-03-01

324

All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1\\/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1\\/2. For

Karsten J. Siebert; Torsten Löffler; Holger Quast; Mark Thomson; Tobias Bauer; Rainer Leonhardt; Stephanie Czasch; Hartmut G. Roskos

2002-01-01

325

On combining image-based and ontological semantic dissimilarities for medical image retrieval applications.  

PubMed

Computer-assisted image retrieval applications can assist radiologists by identifying similar images in archives as a means to providing decision support. In the classical case, images are described using low-level features extracted from their contents, and an appropriate distance is used to find the best matches in the feature space. However, using low-level image features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases is challenging and the semantic gap between these features and the high-level visual concepts in radiology may impair the system performance. To deal with this issue, the use of semantic terms to provide high-level descriptions of radiological image contents has recently been advocated. Nevertheless, most of the existing semantic image retrieval strategies are limited by two factors: they require manual annotation of the images using semantic terms and they ignore the intrinsic visual and semantic relationships between these annotations during the comparison of the images. Based on these considerations, we propose an image retrieval framework based on semantic features that relies on two main strategies: (1) automatic "soft" prediction of ontological terms that describe the image contents from multi-scale Riesz wavelets and (2) retrieval of similar images by evaluating the similarity between their annotations using a new term dissimilarity measure, which takes into account both image-based and ontological term relations. The combination of these strategies provides a means of accurately retrieving similar images in databases based on image annotations and can be considered as a potential solution to the semantic gap problem. We validated this approach in the context of the retrieval of liver lesions from computed tomographic (CT) images and annotated with semantic terms of the RadLex ontology. The relevance of the retrieval results was assessed using two protocols: evaluation relative to a dissimilarity reference standard defined for pairs of images on a 25-images dataset, and evaluation relative to the diagnoses of the retrieved images on a 72-images dataset. A normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) score of more than 0.92 was obtained with the first protocol, while AUC scores of more than 0.77 were obtained with the second protocol. This automatical approach could provide real-time decision support to radiologists by showing them similar images with associated diagnoses and, where available, responses to therapies. PMID:25036769

Kurtz, Camille; Depeursinge, Adrien; Napel, Sandy; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Rubin, Daniel L

2014-10-01

326

Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed according to a specification which defines the metrics levels to reach, such as the local contrast ?T RSS (NVESD metric), the Signal to Clutter Ratio, or the masking ratio target/mask. An integrated calibrated sensor model simulates the sensor degradations by using the pre and post-filter MTF, and the 3D noise parameters of the camera. The image generation comes with the construction of a ground truth file which indicates all the parameter values defining the image scenario. A large quantity of images can be generated accordingly, leading to a meaningful statistical evaluation. A key feature is that this technique allows to build learning and testing databases with comparable difficulty, in the sense of the chosen image metrics. The theoretical interest of this technique is presented in the paper, compared to the classical ones which use real or simulated data. An application is also presented, within the CALADIOM project (terrestrial target detection with programmable artificial IR retina combined with IR ATR system). Over 38,000 images were processed by this ATR for training and testing, involving seven armored vehicles as targets.

Landeau, Stéphane; Dagobert, Tristan

2006-05-01

327

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-05-15

328

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1987-01-01

329

Driving micro-optical imaging systems towards miniature camera applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, multi channel imaging systems have been increasingly studied and approached from various directions in the academic domain due to their promising large field of view at small system thickness. However, specific drawbacks of each of the solutions prevented the diffusion into corresponding markets so far. Most severe problems are a low image resolution and a low sensitivity compared to a conventional single aperture lens besides the lack of a cost-efficient method of fabrication and assembly. We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated modules achieve a VGA resolution with 700x550 pixels within an optical package of 6.8mm x 5.2mm and a total track length of 1.4mm. The partial images that are separately recorded within different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. These software tools allow to correct the distortion of the individual partial images so that the final image is also free of distortion. The so-called electronic cluster eyes are realized by state-of-the-art microoptical fabrication techniques and offer a resolution and sensitivity potential that makes them suitable for consumer, machine vision and medical imaging applications.

Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Leitel, Robert; Bräuer, Andreas

2010-05-01

330

Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

2014-03-01

331

Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

2004-06-01

332

Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

2004-11-01

333

Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines. PMID:23901144

Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

2014-02-01

334

Landsat image registration for agricultural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

1982-01-01

335

Imaging ‘the lost tribe’: a review of adolescent cancer imaging. Part 2: imaging of complications of cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adolescent cancers are treated with a host of chemotherapy agents, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The complications of these treatments may contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality in this age group, with imaging playing a role in identifying some of these complications. This second article reviews the imaging of acute and early complications relating to adolescent cancer treatment, many of which may also be seen in the treatment of paediatric patients. Late effects involving endocrine and reproductive systems or psychosocial considerations are not discussed in this paper, although these are clearly important issues in long-term survivors. PMID:19933021

Zerizer, I.

2009-01-01

336

A possible application of magnetic resonance imaging for pharmaceutical research.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive method, the experiment can be conducted in situ and allows the studying of the sample and the different processes in vitro or in vivo. 1D, 2D or 3D imaging can be undertaken. MRI is nowadays most widely used in medicine as a clinical diagnostic tool, but has still seen limited application in the food and pharmaceutical sciences. The different imaging pulse sequences of MRI allow to image the processes that take place in a wide scale range from ms (dissolution of compact tablets) to hours (hydration of drug delivery systems) for mobile as well as for rigid spins, usually protons. The paper gives examples of MRI application of in vitro imaging of pharmaceutical dosage based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose which have focused on water-penetration, diffusion, polymer swelling, and drug release, characterized with respect to other physical parameters such as pH and the molecular weight of polymer. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as a model drug. NMR imaging of density distributions and fast kinetics of the dissolution behavior of compact tablets is presented for paracetamol tablets. PMID:21195171

Kowalczuk, Joanna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

2011-03-18

337

A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

Grossmann, Christoph M.

2010-02-01

338

The Future of Imaging Spectroscopy Prospective Technologies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new

Michael E. Schaepman; Robert O. Green; Stephen G. Ungar; Brian Curtiss; Joe Boardman; Antonio J. Plaza; Bo-Cai Gao; Susan Ustin; Raymond Kokaly; John R. Miller; Stéphane Jacquemoud; Eyal Ben-Dor; Roger Clark; Curtiss Davis; Jeff Dozier; David G. Goodenough; Dar Roberts; Gregg Swayze; Edward J. Milton; Alex F. H. Goetz

2006-01-01

339

A System for Understanding Imaged Infographics and Its Applications  

E-print Network

A System for Understanding Imaged Infographics and Its Applications Weihua Huang School +65-65162900 tancl@comp.nus.edu.sg ABSTRACT Information graphics, or infographics, are visual representations of information, data or knowledge. Understanding of infographics in documents is a relatively new

Tan, Chew Lim

340

The generalized Fibonacci transformations and application to image scrambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a subfamily of the generalized Fibonacci sequence family, which we call the distinguished generalized Fibonacci sequence. Two members of this subfamily, the Fibonacci sequence and the Lucas sequence, are considered and two transformations, based on these sequences, are introduced. The applications of these transformations to image scrambling are studied in detail. It is found that these transformations

Jiancheng Zou; Rabab K. Ward; Dongxu Qi

2004-01-01

341

Application of Image Reconstruction Techniques to Mars Neutron Spectroscopy Data  

E-print Network

-loaded plastic scintillators to detect neutrons. The use of a Cd-filter, self-shielding, and spacecraft motion enable the spectrometer to separately measure fast, epithermal, and thermal neutrons. The spectrometerApplication of Image Reconstruction Techniques to Mars Neutron Spectroscopy Data Meredith Curtis

Salvaggio, Carl

342

A 76GHz PLL for mm-wave imaging applications  

E-print Network

A 76 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) was designed in 0.13 ?m IBM BiCMOS8HP technology with the intended application of millimeter-wave imaging. The PLL has a type II second order loop filter. The voltage-controlled oscillator ...

Nguyen, Khoa M.

343

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking  

E-print Network

Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking R. D structured materials, termed metamaterials (MM), has dramati- cally expanded our view of electromagnetic with metamaterials provides a promising approach--from a device perspective--towards fill- ing this gap

344

NANO REVIEW Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

E-print Network

NANO REVIEW Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging K. Ted Thurn Ã? Eric M. B. Brown Ã? and nanomaterials. Therefore, cellular studies provide a preliminary step for nanoparticle use in in vivo several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact

Brown, Eric

345

Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in process engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques to problems of relevance to the process industries has been identified. The particular strengths of NMR techniques are their ability to distinguish between different chemical species and to yield information simultaneously on the structure, concentration distribution and flow processes occurring within a given process unit. In this

Lynn F. Gladden; Paul Alexander

1996-01-01

346

Perspectives on Imaging: Advanced Applications. Introduction and Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)

Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.

1991-01-01

347

[Uses of MTA, a review. Part 2: Clinical applications].  

PubMed

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used in dentistry for the last five to eight years. Because of its high biocompatibility, its good sealing ability, and the fact that cemental tissues grow on this material, it has a relatively wide range of applications in endodontics. MTA may be used to cap exposed vital pulps, to seal open apices or perforations, or as a retro-filling material in apical surgery. These applications are presented in the current article, and discussed based on case reports. PMID:15106500

Göhring, Kathrin Schönenberger; Lehnert, Birgit; Zehnder, Matthias

2004-01-01

348

Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications  

SciTech Connect

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-18

349

Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

2013-06-01

350

Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

1999-09-01

351

Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

Tilton, James C.

2010-01-01

352

Demand Side Dispatching, Part 2: An Industrial Application  

E-print Network

DEMAND SIDE DISPATCHING, Part 2: AN INDUSTRIAL APPUCATION Ravi Nath Donald A. Cerget Edward T. Henderson Sr. Consultant Sr. Account Executive Sr. Engineer Linnhoff March, Inc. Detroit Edison Detroit Edison Houston, TX Detroit, M1 Detroit, M1... and the sponsoring utility (1). Details of development and deployment of such a program sponsored by Detroit Edison for a local refinery are presented in this paper. INTRODUCTION In 1989, Detroit Edison embarked on a five year demand side management (DSM) pilot...

Nath, R.; Cerget, D. A.; Henderson, E. T.

353

Advanced infrared detectors for multimode active and passive imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called laser-gated imaging (LGI) or burst-illumination LIDAR (BIL). The SELEX solid state detector is based on an array of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes, and a custom-designed CMOS multiplexer to perform the fast gating and photon signal capture. This paper describes two recent developments. The first is aimed at reducing the size, weight, power and cost of steerable platforms which often have to contain a large number of electrooptic tools such as lasers, range finders, BIL, thermal imaging and visible cameras. A dual-mode infrared detector has been developed with the aim of shrinking the system to one camera. The detector can be switched to operate as a passive thermal imager, a laser-gated imager or a solar flux imager. The detector produces a sensitivity in the MW thermal band of 16-18mK and a sensitivity in the BIL mode as low as 10 photons rms, in other words close to the performance of dedicated imagers. A second development was to extend the current BIL capability to 3D. In complex scenes, with camouflage and concealment, the ability to generate 3D images provides a signal-to-clutter advantage. Also in airborne applications, especially, it is useful to have 3D information to provide agile, feedback control of the range gating in a dynamic environment. This report describes the development of the 3D detector and camera, and the results of field trials using a prototype system.

Baker, Ian; Owton, Daniel; Trundle, Keith; Thorne, Peter; Storie, Kevin; Oakley, Philip; Copley, Jeremy

2008-04-01

354

Part 2 : Scientific Information Main applicant: Nierstrasz, Oscar  

E-print Network

-model for object-oriented systems with entities that specifically model JSP and EJB. We also intend to build complex software systems, enterprise applications need to continuously change to adapt to new requirements technologies, (e.g. Enterprise Java Beans -- EJB or Java Server Pages -- JSP) using several languages, (e

Nierstrasz, Oscar

355

PROPER ORTHOGONAL DECOMPOSITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS—PART I: THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the increasing popularity of the application of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods in engineering fields and the loose description of connections among the POD methods, the purpose of this paper is to give a summary of the POD methods and to show the connections among these methods. Firstly, the derivation and the performance of the three POD

Y. C. LIANG; H. P. LEE; S. P. LIM; W. Z. LIN; K. H. LEE; C. G. WU

2002-01-01

356

Scientific Applications of the Apple Game Port: Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Apple game port has two types of inputs: the paddle input and the button input. Scientific applications of these input-output units are discussed, examining analog inputs (potentiometers, thermistors, and photoresistors), single bit digital inputs, and single-bit outputs. (JN)

Ratzlaff, Kenneth

1984-01-01

357

Digital Micro-mirror Device-based broadband optical image sensor for robust imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the best of the authors' knowledge, presented for the first time is the design of a robust broadband optical image sensor using a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD). Electronic focus control of the imaging lens and full programmability of the spatial sampling aperture shape, size, and location on the DMD plane that mechanically scans the incident incoherent optical irradiance distribution lead to imaging smartness. Dual port single-point photo-detection design provides imaging operation robustness to the global light irradiance variations such as via environmental effects, e.g., moving clouds. As the Texas Instruments (TI) DMD can provide light modulation over 400 nm to 2500 nm wavelengths, visible, Near Infrared (NIR), and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands can be simultaneously processed to generate three independent band images via three point photo-detectors. A proof-of-concept experiment in the SWIR band at 1580 nm is conducted using an incoherent heart-shaped target that is sampled using the DMD imager set for a 68.4 ?m side square moving pinhole. A 60 × 60 pixel image from the proposed imager produces a 0.94 cross-correlation peak when compared to an optically attenuated heart shape image produced by a near 9 ?m pixel size phosphor coated Charge Coupled Device (CCD) imager. Using the dual-detection method, robust 633 nm visible light imaging of an Air Force (AF) Chart figure is successfully demonstrated for 3 Hz global light fluctuation. Applications for the proposed imager include optical sensing in the fields of astronomy, defense, medicine, and security.

Riza, Nabeel A.; Reza, Syed Azer; Marraccini, Philip J.

2011-01-01

358

Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic petrology developed as coal petrology at the beginning of the 20th century dedicated mainly to the study of coals because of their utilization in industry. Coal petrology was then considered a branch of coal science. Later, with the development of specialized nomenclature, classification of coal components, and the standardization and improvement of analytical (microscopical) methods, this discipline expanded in interests and name, becoming organic petrology. Organic petrology carries a broader context, being as well a tool applied in the study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks due to its importance in exploration for fossil fuel resources. At present, organic petrology is a discipline widely recognized for its role in fundamental and applied research with respect to both coal utilization and in geosciences. Throughout the 20th century several important monographs have been published on the discipline of organic petrology, including “Stach's textbook of coal petrology” (1st edition 1935, 2nd 1975, 3rd 1982), updated as the more general “Organic petrology” by Taylor et al. (1998). More recently, the text “Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization” was published by Suárez-Ruiz and Crelling (2008). This review is the first in a two-part review series that describes and updates the role of organic petrology in geosciences. A second part complementing this one and focused on the applications of organic petrology to other scientific fields will follow.

Suárez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

2012-01-01

359

Reconstruction of a ring applicator using CT imaging: impact of the reconstruction method and applicator orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the method of applicator reconstruction and/or the applicator orientation influence the dose calculation to points around the applicator for brachytherapy of cervical cancer with CT-based treatment planning. A phantom, containing a fixed ring applicator set and six lead pellets representing dose points, was used. The phantom was CT scanned with the ring applicator at four different angles related to the image plane. In each scan the applicator was reconstructed by three methods: (1) direct reconstruction in each image (DR), (2) reconstruction in multiplanar reconstructed images (MPR) and (3) library plans, using pre-defined applicator geometry (LIB). The doses to the lead pellets were calculated. The relative standard deviation (SD) for all reconstruction methods was less than 3.7% in the dose points. The relative SD for the LIB method was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the DR and MPR methods for all but two points. All applicator orientations had similar dose calculation reproducibility. Using library plans for applicator reconstruction gives the most reproducible dose calculation. However, with restrictive guidelines for applicator reconstruction the uncertainties for all methods are low compared to other factors influencing the accuracy of brachytherapy.

Paulsen Hellebust, Taran; Tanderup, Kari; Stabell Bergstrand, Eva; Helge Knutsen, Bjørn; Røislien, Jo; Rune Olsen, Dag

2007-08-01

360

Antenna applicator design for microwave imaging of the interior of human breasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a waveguide antenna applicator design intended to be placed on the surface or in close proximity to a human breast for imaging purposes. Hence, the antenna needs to be compact for easy placement. The design process is carefully carried out dividing the antenna applicator into separate parts, allowing closer analysis towards improved synthesis. A mode applicator antenna was concluded to be necessary, employing a TE10 mode type with minimized near-field and surface (Zennek) wave excitation. Numerical simulations have been used throughout and show that the proposed ridged waveguide antenna is capable of fulfilling the design requirements and the performance goals. Modelling has been carried out using a scenario with a simple breast model and confirms the applicator's capability.

Petrovi?, N.; Otterskog, M.; Risman, P. O.

2014-09-01

361

A DCT image fidelity metric and its application to a text-based scheme for image display  

E-print Network

A DCT image fidelity metric and its application to a text- based scheme for image display D. Amnon The discrete cosine transform (DCT) can be used to transform two images into a space where it is easy to obtain of a gray-scale image. Each segment was converted into a DCT coefficient matrix which was compared

Klein, Stanley

362

A generic discriminative part-based model for geospatial object detection in optical remote sensing images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting geospatial objects with complex structure has been explored for years and it is still a challenging task in high resolution optical remote sensing images (RSI) interpretation. In this paper, we mainly focus on the problem of rotation variance in detecting geospatial objects and propose a generic discriminative part-based model (GDPBM) to build a practical object detection framework. In our model, a geospatial object with arbitrary orientation is divided into several parts and represented via three terms: the appearance features, the spatial deformation features and the rotation deformation features. The appearance features characterize the local patch appearance of the object and parts, and we propose a new kind of rotation invariant feature to represent the appearance using the local intensity gradients. The spatial deformation features capture the geometric deformation of parts by representing the relative displacements among parts. The rotation deformation features define the pose variances of the parts relative to the objects based on their dominant orientations. In generating the two deformation features, we introduce the statistic methods to encode the features in the category level. Concatenating the three terms of the features, a classifier based on the support vector machine is learned to detect geospatial objects. In the experiments, two datasets in optical RSI are used to evaluate the performance of our model and the results demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness.

Zhang, Wanceng; Sun, Xian; Wang, Hongqi; Fu, Kun

2015-01-01

363

Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.  

PubMed

Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services. PMID:23847587

Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

2013-01-01

364

Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2014-01-01

365

Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

366

Clinical applications of spectral molecular imaging: potential and challenges.  

PubMed

Spectral molecular imaging is a new X-ray-based imaging technology providing highly specific 3D imaging at high spatial resolution that has the potential to measure disease activity and response to treatment noninvasively. The ability to identify and quantify components of tissue and biomarkers of disease activity derive from the properties of the photon-processing detector. Multiple narrow sections of the energy spectrum are sampled simultaneously, providing a range of energy dependent Hounsfield units. As each material has a specific measurable X-ray spectrum, spectroscopic imaging allows for multiple materials to be quantified and differentiated from each other simultaneously. The technology, currently in its infancy, is set to grow rapidly, much as magnetic resonance did. The critical clinical applications have not yet been established, but it is likely to play a major role in identifying and directing treatment for unstable atherosclerotic plaque, assessing activity and response to treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases, and monitoring biomarkers of cancer and its treatment. If combined with Positron-emission tomography (PET), spectral molecular imaging could have a far greater effective role in cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring than PET-CT does at present. It is currently used for small animal and specimen imaging. There are many challenges to be overcome before spectral imaging can be introduced into clinical medicine - these include technological improvements to detector design, bonding to the semiconductor layer, image reconstruction and display software, identifying which biomarkers are of most relevance to the disease in question, and accelerating drug discovery enabled by the new capabilities provided by spectral imaging. PMID:24470290

Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P

2014-01-01

367

Resonance-induced failure of entrapment: Application to industrial parts feeding  

SciTech Connect

Parts feeders are devices used in automated assembly lines to present component parts to the assembly machinery in a consistent and predetermined orientation. The process of converting a randomly oriented set of parts (as obtained from a vendor) into an ordered array is called parts feeding. There are many different types of feeders and feeding techniques used in the industry. This paper deals with a particular feeding process referred to here as vibratory entrapment. It describes a particular cause of failure of vibratory entrapment, namely, resonance. Failure due to resonance was first observed in high-speed video images of the entrapment phenomenon. This paper provides a description of the mechanics of failure of entrapment due to resonance. The mechanics is introduced with the simple example of a ping-pong ball in a cup and extended to real parts in a parts feeder. Conditions for resonance are derived and experimentally verified for a simple part shape and vibration pattern.

Krishnasamy, J.; Jakiela, M.J.

2000-05-01

368

Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II  

PubMed Central

Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice – in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures. PMID:24987237

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

369

PET/CT imaging in cancer: current applications and future directions.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radiotracer imaging method that yields quantitative images of regional in vivo biology and biochemistry. PET, now used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) in PET/CT devices, has had its greatest impact to date on cancer and is now an important part of oncologic clinical practice and translational cancer research. In this review of current applications and future directions for PET/CT in cancer, the authors first highlight the basic principles of PET followed by a discussion of the biochemistry and current clinical applications of the most commonly used PET imaging agent, (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Then, emerging methods for PET imaging of other biologic processes relevant to cancer are reviewed, including cellular proliferation, tumor hypoxia, apoptosis, amino acid and cell membrane metabolism, and imaging of tumor receptors and other tumor-specific gene products. The focus of the review is on methods in current clinical practice as well as those that have been translated to patients and are currently in clinical trials. PMID:24947987

Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A; Mankoff, David A

2014-11-15

370

Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery, 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several areas of applications of image processing to astronomy were identified and discussed. These areas include: (1) deconvolution for atmospheric seeing compensation; a comparison between maximum entropy and conventional Wiener algorithms; (2) polarization in galaxies from photographic plates; (3) time changes in M87 and methods of displaying these changes; (4) comparing emission line images in planetary nebulae; and (5) log intensity, hue saturation intensity, and principal component color enhancements of M82. Examples are presented of these techniques applied to a variety of objects.

Lorre, J. J.

1979-01-01

371

Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.

Antcliffe, G. A.

1975-01-01

372

Fractal Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fractal images made for the most part using a software application called Flarium24. Galleries contain about 15 images each and should be viewed in hi-color or truecolor settings. Tilable images that can be downloaded?for wallpaper are also available.

Forum, Math; Webb, Sharon

2000-01-01

373

Techniques for Fusion of Multimodal Images: Application to Breast Imaging Karl G. Baum1  

E-print Network

Engineering and Computer Science, Syracuse University 3 Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical this information. In this paper we examine the benefits of a multimodality approach in the context of breast cancer fusion options. 1.1. Multimodality Breast Cancer Imaging Application of a multimodality approach

374

Application of holographic particle image velocimetry in bubbly flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the velocity field of a bubbly flow is of major importance in many industrial applications like, bubble column reactors. Traditional PIV setup is limited to single plane measurements. The present study involved extension of the existing holographic PIV method to two-phase flow velocimetry. The objective of the present study was to conduct velocity measurements using in-line holographic microscopy arrangement to analyze a flow consisting of an air bubble rising through stagnant water in a rectangular column. Neutrally buoyant 8 microm sized hollow glass spheres are scattered uniformly in the continuous phase and are used as seed particles for image analysis. Double-pulsed hologram is taken with a 2K by 2K pixels CCD sensor with 200micros in between the two frames, which allows only a small movement of both the particles (in the continuous phase) and that of the dispersed phase itself. Holograms are reconstructed at different distances to produce images at every millimeter of the measurement volume. An averaging technique is developed to process the images to reduce the noise in reconstructed holographic images and make it useful for cross-correlation analysis. The image pairs are cross correlated and velocity vectors are obtained for the continuous phase. The dispersed phase velocity is measured using the shift in the center of the bubble. After analyses of all the image pairs throughout the measurement volume, a two component three dimensional velocity field is produced for the two-phase flow.

Banerjee, Atanu

375

40 CFR 91.603 - Applicability of part 91, subpart F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.603 Applicability of part 91, subpart F. (a) For purposes of selective enforcement...

2010-07-01

376

10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability...cooperative agreement. (2) 10 CFR part 606—debarment and suspension requirements apply because they cover nonprocurement...

2011-01-01

377

10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability...cooperative agreement. (2) 10 CFR part 606—debarment and suspension requirements apply because they cover nonprocurement...

2010-01-01

378

10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.  

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability...cooperative agreement. (2) 10 CFR part 606—debarment and suspension requirements apply because they cover nonprocurement...

2014-01-01

379

10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability...cooperative agreement. (2) 10 CFR part 606—debarment and suspension requirements apply because they cover nonprocurement...

2013-01-01

380

10 CFR 603.125 - Applicability of other parts of the DOE Assistance Regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General § 603.125 Applicability...cooperative agreement. (2) 10 CFR part 606—debarment and suspension requirements apply because they cover nonprocurement...

2012-01-01

381

13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 4290.1920 - RBIC's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 4290.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exemption from a regulation in this part 4290. 4290.1920 Section 4290.1920 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 4290.1920 RBIC's application for exemption from a...

2010-01-01

383

13 CFR 107.1920 - Licensee's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 107.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exemption from a regulation in this part 107. 107.1920 Section 107.1920 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Miscellaneous § 107.1920 Licensee's application for exemption from a...

2010-01-01

384

Fission matrix capability for MCNP, Part II - Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the initial experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix is obtained at essentially no cost during the normal simulation for criticality calculations. It can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode power distribution, the reactor dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode spatial eigenfunctions. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. Numerous examples are presented. A companion paper (Part I - Theory) describes the theoretical basis for the fission matrix method. (authors)

Carney, S. E. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

385

Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

1982-01-01

386

Guided wave imaging of part-thickness defects in large structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed guided ultrasonic wave array systems allow for the efficient structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures, such as aircraft or ship hulls. Permanently attached sensor arrays have been applied for the detection and imaging of corrosion and fatigue damage. A hybrid model has been developed for the efficient prediction of the sensitivity of guided wave array systems to detect through thickness and part-through fatigue cracks in plate structures. The influence of the orientation of the crack relative to the transducer elements had been predicted from localized 3D Finite Element simulations and verified experimentally. Using the hybrid model, detection and imaging capabilities can be predicted for various defect depths, and the sensor layout and signal processing optimized. This has been demonstrated from laboratory experiments. Part-thickness notches and holes of increasing depth were machined into an aluminum plate and imaged using distributed sensors for the A0 Lamb wave mode. Based on the model predictions the sensitivity for shallow defects can be optimized. The influence of the scattering characteristics on the minimum defect depth that can be imagined has been discussed.

Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

387

Fatigue analysis and life prediction of bridges with structural health monitoring data — Part II: application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a continuation of the paper titled “FATIGUE ANALYSIS AND LIFE PREDICTION OF BRIDGES WITH STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING DATA — PART I: METHODOLOGY AND STRATEGY” with the emphasis on application of the developed method to the fatigue damage assessment of the Tsing Ma Bridge. Based on the methodology and strategy of the fatigue analysis presented in Part I,

T. H. T. Chan; Z. X. Li; J. M. Ko

2001-01-01

388

Shape-From-Silhouette Across Time Part II: Applications to Human Modeling and Markerless Motion Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part I of this paper we developed the theory and algorithms for performing Shape-From-Silhouette (SFS) across time. In this second part, we show how our temporal SFS algorithms can be used in the applications of human modeling and markerless motion tracking. First we build a system to acquire human kinematic models consisting of precise shape (constructed using the temporal

German K. M. Cheung; Simon Baker; Takeo Kanade

2005-01-01

389

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H...

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to...

2010-07-01

391

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

392

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its APPLICATIONS—PART i: Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the increasing popularity of the application of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods in engineering fields and the loose description of connections among the POD methods, the purpose of this paper is to give a summary of the POD methods and to show the connections among these methods. Firstly, the derivation and the performance of the three POD methods: Karhunen-Loève decomposition (KLD), principal component analysis (PCA), and singular value decomposition (SVD) are summarized, then the equivalence problem is discussed via a theoretical comparison among the three methods. The equivalence of the matrices for processing, the objective functions, the optimal basis vectors, the mean-square errors, and the asymptotic connections of the three methods are demonstrated and proved when the methods are used to handle the POD of discrete random vectors.

LIANG, Y. C.; LEE, H. P.; LIM, S. P.; LIN, W. Z.; LEE, K. H.; WU, C. G.

2002-05-01

393

Planar Magnetic Metamaterial Slabs for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of planar magnetic metamaterial is proposed with a square winding microstructure as a superlens for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. A direct magnetic field mapping measurement demonstrates that the radio-frequency magnetic field passing through the superlens is increased by as high as 46.9% at the position of about 3 cm behind the superlens. The resonance frequency of the fabricated slabs is found to be in good agreement with the target frequency (63.6 MHz) for a 1.5T MRI system. MRI experiments with the magnetic superlens show that the intensity of the image and the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) are both enhanced, implying promising MRI applications of our planar magnetic superlens.

Li, Chun-Lai; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Quan-Qiang; Ma, Wei-Tao; Miao, Xi-Gen; Zhao, Zhi-Ya; Luan, Lin

2014-07-01

394

GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

2008-01-01

395

Call for Papers Special Issue on Microscopy Image Analysis for Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

Call for Papers Special Issue on Microscopy Image Analysis for Biomedical Applications Overview of biomedical applications. The proposed Special Issue will bring together the latest research in image analysis There is a growing interest in developing image analysis tools for digital microscopy images customized for a variety

Rajpoot, Nasir

396

Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

Valdivia, F.; Crépeault, B.; Duchesne, S.

2012-02-01

397

[The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field. PMID:16850607

Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

2006-04-01

398

Silicon integrated patch antennas for terahertz imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patch antennas for 0.65 THz imaging applications have been implemented in the silicon-oxide backend of a 0.25 ?m BiCMOS technology. Integrated transistor-based square-law detectors are used to characterize the co- and cross-polarization radiation patterns of differentially fed patch elements arranged in a 3 × 5 pixel array. Each element of the array provides a ±50 degree E-plane and ±30 degree

Neda Baktash; E. O?jefors; H. M. Keller; U. R. Pfeiffer

2010-01-01

399

Application of adaptive constructive neural networks to image compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper is the application of an adaptive constructive one-hidden-layer feedforward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to image compression. Comparisons with fixed structure neural networks are performed to demonstrate and illustrate the training and the generalization capabilities of the proposed adaptive constructive networks. The influence of quantization effects as well as comparison with the baseline JPEG scheme are also

Liying Ma; K. Khorasani

2002-01-01

400

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

401

Engineered Biocompatible Nanoparticles for in Vivo Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Iron?platinum alloy nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are extremely promising candidates for the next generation of contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) diagnostic imaging and MR-guided interventions, including hyperthermic ablation of solid cancers. FePt has high Curie temperature, saturation magnetic moment, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, and chemical stability. We describe the synthesis and characterization of a family of biocompatible FePt NPs suitable for biomedical applications, showing and discussing that FePt NPs can exhibit low cytotoxicity. The importance of engineering the interface of strongly magnetic NPs using a coating allowing free aqueous permeation is demonstrated to be an essential parameter in the design of new generations of diagnostic and therapeutic MRI contrast agents. We report effective cell internalization of FePt NPs and demonstrate that they can be used for cellular imaging and in vivo MRI applications. This opens the way for several future applications of FePt NPs, including regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy in addition to enhanced MR diagnostic imaging. PMID:20919679

2010-01-01

402

Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 ?m to 150 ?m. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

2013-03-01

403

26 CFR 1.761-2 - Exclusion of certain unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of...unincorporated organizations from the application of all or part of subchapter K of chapter 1 of...paragraph may be excluded from the application of all or a part of the provisions...

2010-04-01

404

Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 ?m × 60 ?m pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc. PMID:24670045

Feng, Baosheng; Zhang, Jialing; Chang, Cuilan; Li, Liping; Li, Min; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Tang, Fei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

2014-05-01

405

Application of Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion on digital radiographic image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a very useful and efficient denoising technique if the parameters are properly selected. Overestimating the parameters may cause oversmoothed and underestimating it may leave unfiltered noise. This makes the selection of parameters a crucial process. In this paper the PMAD model is solved using a finite difference scheme The discretized model is evaluated using different diffusion coefficient of exponential and quadratic on defective radiographic images in terms of quality and efficiency. In the application of the PMAD model on image data, a set of defective radiographic images of welding is used as input data. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Measure (SSIM) and temporal time are used to evaluate the performance of the model. The implementation of the experiment has been carried out using MATLAB R2009a. In terms of quality, results show that the Quadratic Diffusion Coefficient Function (QDCF) provides better results compared with the Exponential Diffusion Coefficient Function (EDCF). In conclusion, the denoising effect using PMAD model based on finite difference scheme shows able to improve image quality by removing noise in the defective radiographic image.

Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abdul; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Manurung, Yupiter HP

2014-07-01

406

Line scan CCD image processing for biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood samples are frequently analyzed for the blood disorders or other diseases in the research and clinic applications. Most of the analyses are related to blood cell counts and blood cell sizes. In this paper, the line scan CCD imaging system is developed, which is based on the Texas Instruments' TMS320C6416T (DSP6416), a high performance digital signal processor and Altera's Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) EP3C25F324. It is used to acquire and process the images of blood cells for counting the number of cells, sizing and positioning them. The cell image is captured by line scan CCD sensor and then the digital image data converted by Analogue Front-End (AFE) are transferred into FPGA, after pre-processing they are transferred into DSP6416 through the interface of First In First Out (FIFO) in FPGA and External Memory Interfaces (EMIF) of DSP6416. Then the image data are processed in DSP6416. Experimental results show that this system is useful and efficient.

Lee, Choon-Young; Yan, Lei; Lee, Sang-Ryong

2010-02-01

407

HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

2004-08-01

408

Single event upset injection simulation and fault-tolerant design for image compression applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a SEU fault injection framework. Based on the assumption of SEU effects and SEU distribution, the quantitative analysis between measured data and simulation model is investigated. By adjusting some parameters in the simulation-based framework, the proposed framework can be very possibly close to the published data and some accelerated radiation experiments. Furthermore, how the JPEG2000 based hardware architecture is sensitive to SEUs can be found out. In terms of hardware resources and operating frequencies, some fault-tolerant techniques can be introduced to the more sensitive parts, which show the framework's effectiveness in fault-tolerant design for image compression applications.

Guo, Jie; Li, Yunsong; Liu, Kai; Lei, Jie; Wu, Chengke

2012-10-01

409

Adaptation of web pages and images for mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce our new visualization service which presents web pages and images on arbitrary devices with differing display resolutions. We analyze the layout of a web page and simplify its structure and formatting rules. The small screen of a mobile device is used much better this way. Our new image adaptation service combines several techniques. In a first step, border regions which do not contain relevant semantic content are identified. Cropping is used to remove these regions. Attention objects are identified in a second step. We use face detection, text detection and contrast based saliency maps to identify these objects and combine them into a region of interest. Optionally, the seam carving technique can be used to remove inner parts of an image. Additionally, we have developed a software tool to validate, add, delete, or modify all automatically extracted data. This tool also simulates different mobile devices, so that the user gets a feeling of how an adapted web page will look like. We have performed user studies to evaluate our web and image adaptation approach. Questions regarding software ergonomics, quality of the adapted content, and perceived benefit of the adaptation were asked.

Kopf, Stephan; Guthier, Benjamin; Lemelson, Hendrik; Effelsberg, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

410

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddd of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart DDD of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2010-07-01

411

Three-part differential of unlabeled leukocytes with a compact lens-free imaging flow cytometer.  

PubMed

A compelling clinical need exists for inexpensive, portable haematology analyzers that can be utilized at the point-of-care in emergency settings or in resource-limited settings. Development of a label-free, microfluidic blood analysis platform is the first step towards such a miniaturized, cost-effective system. Here we assemble a compact lens-free in-line holographic microscope and employ it to image blood cells flowing in a microfluidic chip, using a high-speed camera and stroboscopic illumination. Numerical reconstruction of the captured holograms allows classification of unlabeled leukocytes into three main subtypes: lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. A scale-space recognition analysis to evaluate cellular size and internal complexity is also developed and used to build a 3-part leukocyte differential. The lens-free image-based classification is compared to the 3-part white blood cell differential generated by using a conventional analyzer on the same blood sample and is found to be in good agreement with it. PMID:25537881

Vercruysse, Dries; Dusa, Alexandra; Stahl, Richard; Vanmeerbeeck, Geert; de Wijs, Koen; Liu, Chengxun; Prodanov, Dimiter; Peumans, Peter; Lagae, Liesbet

2015-02-01

412

Indocyanine Green Loaded Nanoconstructs for Optical Imaging and Phototherapeutic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Optically active nanoparticles are widely pursued as exogenous chromophores in diagnostic imaging and phototherapeutic applications. However, the blood circulation time of nanoparticles remains limited due to the rapid clearance of the nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Coating with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a strategy to extend the circulation time of nanoparticles. Here, we report PEGylation of polymeric-based nanocapsules loaded with Indocyanine green (ICG) and effect of PEG's molecular weight on the uptake of these nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages and hepatocytes using flow cytometry. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging in mice and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG. Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents using surface modified nanovectors has been explored immensely in recent years. The growing demand for site-specific and efficient delivery of nanovectors entails stable surface conjugation of targeting moieties. Our ICG-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) have potential for covalent coupling of various targeting moieties and materials due to presence of amine groups on the surface. Here, we covalently bioconjugate PEG-coated ICG-NCs with monoclonal anti- HER2 through reductive amination-mediated procedures. The targeting abilities of HER2 functionalized ICG-NCs toward ovarian cancer was investigated in-vitro. Since these functionalized nanoconstructs have potential applications in laser-induced photodestruction of ovarian cancer cells, we studies NIR laser induced phototherapy of ovarian cancer cells in-vitro. Other than polymeric theranostic nano-constructs, here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate ICG. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions.

Bahmani, Baharak

413

MIRIADS: miniature infrared imaging applications development system description and operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cooperative effort between the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Nova Research, Inc., the Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) and Optics 1, Inc. has successfully produced a miniature infrared camera system that offers significant real-time signal and image processing capabilities by virtue of its modular design. This paper will present an operational overview of the system as well as results from initial testing of the 'Modular Infrared Imaging Applications Development System' (MIRIADS) configured as a missile early-warning detection system. The MIRIADS device can operate virtually any infrared focal plane array (FPA) that currently exists. Programmable on-board logic applies user-defined processing functions to the real-time digital image data for a variety of functions. Daughterboards may be plugged onto the system to expand the digital and analog processing capabilities of the system. A unique full hemispherical infrared fisheye optical system designed and produced by Optics 1, Inc. is utilized by the MIRIADS in a missile warning application to demonstrate the flexibility of the overall system to be applied to a variety of current and future AFRL missions.

Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.; Couture, Michael E.

2001-10-01

414

Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

2004-06-01

415

Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results to baseline data using F-statistics. Self-parings over time are also useful. Special and common causes are identified apart from aging in applying the statistical methods. In the future, implementation of imaging measurement methods by research staff, doctors, and concerned patient partners result in improved health diagnosis, reporting, and cause determination. The long-term prospects for quantified measurements are better quality in imaging analysis with applications of higher utility for heath care providers.

Hoeller, Timothy L.

2009-02-01

416

Advances in myelin imaging with potential clinical application to pediatric imaging  

PubMed Central

White matter development and myelination are critical processes in neurodevelopment. Myelinated white matter facilitates the rapid and coordinated brain messaging required for higher-order cognitive and behavioral processing. Whereas several neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis are associated with gross white matter damage and demyelination, other disorders such as epilepsy may involve altered myelination in the efferent or afferent white matter pathways adjoining epileptic foci. Current MRI techniques including T1 weighting, T2 weighting, FLAIR, diffusion tensor imaging, and MR spectroscopy permit visualization of gross white matter abnormalities and evaluation of underlying white matter fiber architecture and integrity, but they provide only qualitative information regarding myelin content. Quantification of these myelin changes could provide new insight into disease severity and prognosis, reveal information regarding spatial location of foci or lesions and the associated affected neural systems, and create a metric to evaluate treatment efficacy. Multicomponent analysis of T1 and T2 relaxation data, or multicomponent relaxometry (MCR), is a quantitative imaging technique that is sensitive and specific to myelin content alteration. In the past, MCR has been associated with lengthy imaging times, but a new, faster MCR technique (mcDESPOT) has made quantitative analysis of myelin content more accessible for clinical research applications. The authors briefly summarize traditional white matter imaging techniques, describe MCR and mcDESPOT, and discuss current and future clinical applications of MCR, with a particular focus on pediatric epilepsy. PMID:23544415

Spader, Heather S.; Ellermeier, Anna; O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean, Douglas C.; Dirks, Holly; Boxerman, Jerrold L.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Deoni, Sean C. L.

2013-01-01

417

Nanostructure-based optical filters for multispectral imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral imaging technologies rely on interference-based optical filters or grating structures that add cost, size and weight to multispectral camera systems. Nanostructures offer an attractive alternative since their optical properties can be specified precisely during fabrication and nanostructures are suitable for integration into present camera technologies. However, nanostructure-based optical filters have broad-band transmission properties and poor out-of-band blocking that reduce their spectroscopic performance and therefore limit their usefulness in multispectral imaging applications. In an attempt to break through these barriers, our group has developed a series of nanostructure-based optical filters with progressively improved optical transmission properties. The devices rely on the principle of index matching to reduce the transmission bandwidth and improve the out-of-band blocking. We have investigated the effect of packing the optical filters in proximity to one another, as well as the use of a tiled arrangement of several thousand optical filters for snapshot multispectral imaging in chemical analysis. Based on these studies, we conclude that nanostructure-based optical filters are suitable for multispectral imaging in the near infrared. In the future, nanostructure-based optical filters may be useful for integration into diagnostic instrumentation.

Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena

2014-03-01

418

DSP filters in FPGAs for image processing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time video-rate image processing requires orders of magnitude performance beyond the capabilities of general purpose computers. ASICs deliver the required performance, however they have the drawback of fixed functionality. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are reprogrammable SRAM based ICs capable of real-time image processing. FPGAs deliver the benefits of hardware execution speeds and software programmability. An FPGA program creates a custom data processor, which executes the equivalent of hundreds to thousands of lines of C code on the same clock tick. FPGAs emulate circuits which are normally built as ASICs. Multiple real-time video streams can be processed in Giga Operations' Spectrum Reconfigurable Computing (RC) PlatformTM. The Virtual Bus ArchitectureTM enables the same hardware to be configured into many image processing architectures, including 32-bit pipelines, global busses, rings, and systolic arrays. This allows an efficient mapping of data flows and memory access for many image processing applications and the implementation of many real-time DSP filters, including convolutions, morphological operators, and recoloring and resampling algorithms. FPGAs provide significant price/performance benefits versus ASICs where time to market, cost to market, and technical risk are issues. And FPGA descriptions migrate efficiently and easily into ASICs for downstream cost reduction.

Taylor, Brad

1996-10-01

419

Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.  

PubMed

Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner. PMID:24051776

Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

2013-12-01

420

New fractional matrix with its applications in image encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, new fractional matrix generation by using different the periodic matrix sequences are considered. For a periodic matrix with period P, its integer forms and fractional forms can constitute different periodic matrix sequences. The series of the periodic matrix sequence can be used to compute and construct different fractional matrices, which is depended on the relationship between the period and the size of the periodic matrix sequence. The proposed fractional matrix generation method is general and can be used to any periodic matrices. Then, we extend the new fractional matrices to multi-order forms, which can be used in image encryption. Simulation results and the application example in image encryption using the obtained new fractional matrix are also presented.

Zhang, Feng; Hu, Yang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

2014-12-01

421

Clinical Application of Image-Based CFD for Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the convergence of medical imaging and computational modeling technologies has enabled tremendous progress in the development and application of image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling of patient-specific blood flows. These techniques have been used for studying the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases, for studying possible ways to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of patients by incorporating hemodynamics information to the anatomical data typically available, and for the development of computational tools that can be used to improve surgical and endovascular treatment planning. However, before these technologies can have a significant impact on the routine clinical practice, it is still necessary to demonstrate the connection between the extra information provided by the models and the natural progression of vascular diseases and the outcome of interventions. This paper summarizes some of our contributions in this direction, focusing in particular on cerebral aneurysms. PMID:21822465

Cebral, JR; Mut, F; Sforza, D; Löhner, R; Scrivano, E; Lylyk, P; Putman, CM

2010-01-01

422

Application of phase stepping imaging polarimetry technique in ophthalmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cornea is the outermost segment of the eyeball. Due to it's lamellar structure the cornea indicates the optical anisotropy and effect of birefringence. We have applied phase stepping imaging polarimetry to measure birefringence of the human cornea in vivo and in vitro. Investigation of the corneal birefringence could be useful for examining the inner corneal structure, its lamellar arrangement and in medical diagnosing of corneal pathologies. There are also some potential applications of this method in transplantation of human corneas and refractive surgery procedures. The phase stepping imaging polarimetry technique used here, allows calculating azimuth angle, phase retardation and transmission coefficient of the sample. The method uses simple setup, sample at rest, and enables fast and accurate acquisition of data. The theory of the method is included. Experimental results of azimuth angle and phase retardation distribution for human cornea in vivo and in vitro are also presented.

Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

1999-08-01

423

A THz heterodyne instrument for biomedical imaging applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-wide-dynamic-range heterodyne imaging system operating at 2.5 THz is described. The instrument employs room temperature Schottky barrier diode mixers and far infrared gas laser sources developed for NASA space applications. A dynamic range of over 100dB at fixed intermediate frequencies has been realized. Amplitude/phase tracking circuitry results in stability of 0.02 dB and +-2 degrees of phase. The system is being employed to characterize biological (human and animal derived tissues) and a variety of materials of interest to NASA. This talk will describe the instrument and some of the early imaging experiments on everything from mouse tail to aerogel.

Siegel, Peter H.

2004-01-01

424

Biological visual attention guided automatic image segmentation with application in satellite imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking inspiration from the significantly superior performance of humans to extract and interpret visual information, the exploitation of biological visual mechanisms can contribute to the improvement of the performance of computational image processing systems. Computational models of visual attention have already been shown to significantly improve the speed of scene understanding by attending only the regions of interest, while distributing the resources where they are required. However, there are only few attention-based computational systems that have been used in practical applications dealing with real data and up to now, none of the computational attention models was demonstrated to work under a wide range of image content, characteristics and scales such as those encountered in satellite imaging. This paper outlines some of the difficulties that the current generation of visual attention-inspired models encounter when dealing with satellite images. It then proposes a novel algorithm for automatic image segmentation and regions of interest search that combines elements of human visual attention with Legendre moments applied on the probability density function of color histograms. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach obtains better results than one of the most evolved current computational attention model proposed in the literature.

Sina, M. I.; Cretu, A.-M.; Payeur, P.

2012-03-01

425

Scaling images using their background ratio. An application in statistical comparisons of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of two medical images often requires image scaling as a pre-processing step. This is usually done with the scaling-to-the-mean or scaling-to-the-maximum techniques which, under certain circumstances, in quantitative applications may contribute a significant amount of bias. In this paper, we present a simple scaling method which assumes only that the most predominant values in the corresponding images belong to their background structure. The ratio of the two images to be compared is calculated and its frequency histogram is plotted. The scaling factor is given by the position of the peak in this histogram which belongs to the background structure. The method was tested against the traditional scaling-to-the-mean technique on simulated planar gamma-camera images which were compared using pixelwise statistical parametric tests. Both sensitivity and specificity for each condition were measured over a range of different contrasts and sizes of inhomogeneity for the two scaling techniques. The new method was found to preserve sensitivity in all cases while the traditional technique resulted in significant degradation of sensitivity in certain cases.

Kalemis, A.; Binnie, D.; Bailey, D. L.; Flower, M. A.; Ott, R. J.

2003-06-01

426

Beam Combination for Stellar Imager and its Application to Full-Aperture Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and discarding most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

2007-01-01

427

Impact of an etched EUV mask black border on imaging: part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (ReMa) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from its image border overlaps with the edges of neighboring dies affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack has 1-3% reflectance for actinic light. For a 55nm thick absorber the induced CD drop at the edges is found to be 4-5 nm for 27 nm dense lines. In this work we will show an overview of the absorber reflection impact on CD at the edge of the field across EUV scanner generations, for several imaging nodes and multiple absorber heights. Increasing spacing between dies on the wafer would prevent the unwanted exposure but results in an unacceptable loss of valuable wafer real estate thereby reducing the yield per wafer and is thus not a viable manufacturing solution. In order to mitigate the reflection from the image border one needs to create a so called black border. The most promising approach is removal of the absorber and the underlying multilayer down to the low reflective LTEM substrate by multilayer etching. It was shown in the previous study that the impact on CD was reduced essentially for 27 nm dense lines exposed on ASML NXE:3100. In this work we will continue the study of a multilayer etched black border impact on imaging. In particular, 22 nm lines/spaces imaging on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner will be investigated in the areas close to the black border as well as die to die effects. We will look closer into the CD uniformity impact by DUV Out-of-Band light reflected from black border and its mitigation. A possible OPC approach will also be evaluated.

Davydova, Natalia; de Kruif, Robert; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Fukugami, Norihito; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Connolly, Brid; van Gestel, Dries; Oorschot, Dorothe; Rio, David; Zimmerman, John; Harned, Noreen

2013-09-01

428

Chinese Restaurant Game - Part II: Applications to Wireless Networking, Cloud Computing, and Online Social Networking  

E-print Network

In Part I of this two-part paper [1], we proposed a new game, called Chinese restaurant game, to analyze the social learning problem with negative network externality. The best responses of agents in the Chinese restaurant game with imperfect signals are constructed through a recursive method, and the influence of both learning and network externality on the utilities of agents is studied. In Part II of this two-part paper, we illustrate three applications of Chinese restaurant game in wireless networking, cloud computing, and online social networking. For each application, we formulate the corresponding problem as a Chinese restaurant game and analyze how agents learn and make strategic decisions in the problem. The proposed method is compared with four common-sense methods in terms of agents' utilities and the overall system performance through simulations. We find that the proposed Chinese restaurant game theoretic approach indeed helps agents make better decisions and improves the overall system performan...

Wang, Chih-Yu; Liu, K J Ray

2011-01-01

429

Space application research of EMCCDs for bioluminescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of bioluminescense is widely used on the ground, while the detection of bioluminescence in space is still at the stage of detecting bright bioluminescense. With the rapid development of research in Space Life Sciences, it will be necessary to develop a detection technology to detect weak bioluminescense. Compared to other low-light detection techniques for ground, there are more advantages of EMCCDs for space application. Build a space bioluminescence imaging detection system, analysis the feasibility and capability of its will be significant. Co-Author:Xie Zongbao,Zheng Weibo

Zhang, Tao

430

(19)F applications in drug development and imaging - a review.  

PubMed

To control drugs in vivo, new approaches are needed. Considerable progress has been made towards the applications of fluorine ((19)F) in pharmacotherapy in this regard. To date, many authors have showed that by using (19)F labelled drugs and non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques together, drug biodistribution can be tracked. This review presents methods for (19)F incorporation into pharmaceuticals by forming C-F bonds and drug fluorine oil-water emulsions. Inadequate drug delivery is a major cause of drug resistance, which can be improved using approaches discussed herein aided by (19)F MRI. PMID:25107839

Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David

2014-07-01

431

Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Rafecas, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular Y Nuclear, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Stankova, V.; Solaz, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - IFIC-CSIC/UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Bisogni, M. G.; Del Guerra, A. [Universite di Pisa, INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

2011-07-01

432

Applications of Non-Imaging Micro-Optic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While imaging optics necessarily transmit a clear image of an object, non-imaging optics manipulate light in many different ways. Two important applications are illumination and concentration. In this thesis, I cover an application in each of these areas involving small-scale optics. Extremely low birth weight infants typically require intubation, but existing laryngoscopes for viewing the airway are not suited to this population. Small commercial cameras can fit within the required geometry, but need high illumination with low heating. Repurposing the mechanical structure of the laryngoscope as a waveguide for an LED source meets both these requirements. Concentrator photovoltaic systems accept sunlight over a large aperture and focus it to a proportionally small photovoltaic cell. This kind of configuration allows the cost of expensive but highly efficient multijunction cells to be amortized over a large area module, resulting in cost-effective, high efficiency systems. A prior design from our lab uses a lenslet array and mirrored micro-prisms to concentrate sunlight within a glass waveguide. This enables high efficiency concentration with a compact form factor compatible with mass fabrication and eliminating problems associated with discrete PV cells. I first adapt the basic planar concentrator design for specific applications. One-dimensional polar tracking is an attractive design space, and either passive optical tracking or mechanical micro-tracking can be used to adapt the concentrator for this framework. The concentrator can also be used in solar thermal rather than photovoltaic applications with the addition of an output coupler. I also address a completely different approach to concentrator tracking. This non-imaging system is nonlinear, implementing a reactive cladding layer to enable the system to self-track the sun. I present design studies to quantify the requirements of such a material, then present a candidate materials system to meet these requirements: high index particle concentration through optically-induced dielectrophoresis. Experimental results demonstrate the plausibility of the approach. Finally, I investigate the use of a conformal cladding to simplify fabrication and potentially improve performance. Experimental results using silica aerogel successfully demonstrate a low-index, conformal coating, but a metallic coating on top has low reflectivity.

Baker, Katherine Anne

433

Generalized scale: theory, algorithms, and application to image inhomogeneity correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scale is a fundamental concept useful in almost all image processing and analysis tasks including segmentation, filtering, interpolation, registration, visualization, and quantitative analysis. Broadly speaking, scale related work can be divided into three categories: (1) multi-scale or scale-space representation, (2) local scale, and (3) locally adaptive scale. The original formulation of scale in the form of scale-space theory came from the presence of multiple scales in nature and the desire to represent measured signals at multiple scales. However, since this representation did not suggest how to select appropriate scales, the notion of local scale was proposed to pick the right scale for a particular application from the multi-scale representation of the image. Recently, there has been considerable interest in developing locally adaptive scales, the idea being to consider the local size of object in carrying out whatever local operations that are to be done on the image. However, existing locally adaptive models are limited by shape, size, and anisotropic constraints. In this work, we propose a generalized scale model which is adaptive like other local morphometric models, and yet possesses the global spirit of multi-scale representations. We postulate that this semi-locally adaptive nature of generalized scale confers it certain distinct advantages over other global and local scale formulations. Further, generalized scale can be easily applied to solve a range of image processing problems. One such problem that we address in this paper is inhomogeneity correction in MR images. We qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the superiority of our generalized scale-based correction method over an existing scale-based correction technique, while retaining all the advantages of the existing scale-based method over those published in the literature.

Madabhushi, Anant; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Souza, Andre

2004-05-01

434

Model-based estimation of ultrasonic echoes. Part II: Nondestructive evaluation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Part I see ibid., vol.48, no.3, pp.787-802 (2001). Accurate estimation of the ultrasonic echo pattern leading to the physical property of the object is desirable for ultrasonic NDE (nondestructive evaluation) applications. In Part I of this study, we have presented a generalized parametric ultrasonic echo model, composed of a number of Gaussian echoes corrupted by noise, and algorithms for

Ramazan Demirli; Jafar Saniie

2001-01-01

435

Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: physical foundations and applications of restriction spectrum imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000s. Before its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neurooncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions about the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neurooncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent in diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology and surgical planning. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." PMID:25183788

White, Nathan S; McDonald, Carrie R; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J Kellogg; Chen, Clark C; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J; Kaine, Christopher J; Carter, Bob S; Bradley, William G; Dale, Anders M

2014-09-01

436

Discrete Singular Convolution and Its Application to the Analysis of Plates with Internal Supports. Part 2: Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Part 2 of this series of two papers presents the applications of the discrete singular convolution (DSC) algorithm. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the utility, test the accuracy and examine the convergence of the proposed approach for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with internal supports. Both partial internal line supports and complex internal supports

Y. Xiang; Yibao Zhao; G. W. Wei

2002-01-01

437

Multivariate statistical model for 3D image segmentation with application to medical images.  

PubMed

In this article we describe a statistical model that was developed to segment brain magnetic resonance images. The statistical segmentation algorithm was applied after a pre-processing stage involving the use of a 3D anisotropic filter along with histogram equalization techniques. The segmentation algorithm makes use of prior knowledge and a probability-based multivariate model designed to semi-automate the process of segmentation. The algorithm was applied to images obtained from the Center for Morphometric Analysis at Massachusetts General Hospital as part of the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR). The developed algorithm showed improved accuracy over the k-means, adaptive Maximum Apriori Probability (MAP), biased MAP, and other algorithms. Experimental results showing the segmentation and the results of comparisons with other algorithms are provided. Results are based on an overlap criterion against expertly segmented images from the IBSR. The algorithm produced average results of approximately 80% overlap with the expertly segmented images (compared with 85% for manual segmentation and 55% for other algorithms). PMID:14752607

John, Nigel M; Kabuka, Mansur R; Ibrahim, Mohamed O

2003-12-01

438

MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF BUFFERING TRADE-OFFS FOR HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

processing applications based on dataflow analysis. The efforts described above make useful contributionsMODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF BUFFERING TRADE-OFFS FOR HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING, 20742, USA. ABSTRACT As modern image and video processing applications handle increasingly higher image

Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

439

Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a measured air-kerma rate. Conclusions: The novel output verification methods described in this work will reduce uncertainties in dose delivery for treatments with these kinds of surface applicators, ultimately improving patient care.

Fulkerson, Regina K., E-mail: rmkenned@gmail.com; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2014-02-15

440

The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: application of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology.  

PubMed

This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse turnover and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse turnover costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse turnover that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention. PMID:15647669

Jones, Cheryl Bland

2005-01-01

441

Application of Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry to Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) is a powerful measurement technique, which can be used as an alternative or complementary approach to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) in a wide range of research applications. The instantaneous planar velocity measurements obtained with PIV make it an attractive technique for use in the study of the complex flow fields encountered in turbomachinery. Many of the same issues encountered in the application of LDV to rotating machinery apply in the application of PIV. Techniques for optical access, light sheet delivery, CCD camera technology and particulate seeding are discussed. Results from the successful application of the PIV technique to both the blade passage region of a transonic axial compressor and the diffuser region of a high speed centrifugal compressor are presented. Both instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields were obtained. The 95% confidence intervals for the time-averaged velocity estimates were also determined. Results from the use of PIV to study surge in a centrifugal compressor are discussed. In addition, combined correlation/particle tracking results yielding super-resolution velocity measurements are presented.

Wernet, Mark P.

1999-01-01

442

Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods. PMID:23456006

Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

2013-01-01

443

NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DLP® hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

2011-03-01

444

Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis is widely used in chemistry, both for rapid qualitative evaluations using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and for quantitative purposes such as well-plate measurements of analyte concentrations or fragment-size determinations in gel electrophoresis. This paper describes a programmable system for image acquisition and processing that is currently used in the laboratories of our organic and physical chemistry courses. It has also been used in student research projects in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. The potential range of applications is illustrated by brief presentations of four examples: (1) using well-plate optical transmission data to construct a standard concentration absorbance curve; (2) the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen in Tylenol and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin using TLC with fluorescence detection; (3) the analysis of electrophoresis gels to determine DNA fragment sizes and amounts; and, (4) using color change to follow reaction kinetics. The supplemental material in JCE Online contains information on two additional examples: deconvolution of overlapping bands in protein gel electrophoresis, and the recovery of data from published images or graphs. The JCE Online material also presents additional information on each example, on the system hardware and software, and on the data analysis methodology.

Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian

2003-06-01

445

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

446

Environment Sensing Merocyanine Dyes for Live Cell Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent biosensors based on environmentally sensitive dyes enable visualization and quantification of endogenous protein activation within living cells. Merocyanine dyes are especially useful for live cell imaging applications as they are extraordinarily bright, have long wavelengths of excitation and emission, and can exhibit readily detectable fluorescence changes in response to environment. We sought to systematically examine the effects of structural features on key photophysical properties, including dye brightness, environmental responsiveness, and photostability, through the synthesis of a library of 25 merocyanine dyes, derived from combinatorial reaction of 5 donor and 5 acceptor heterocycles. Four of these dyes showed optimal properties for specific imaging applications and were subsequently prepared with reactive side chains and enhanced aqueous solubility using a one-pot synthetic method. The new dyes were then applied within a biosensor design for Cdc42 activation, where dye mero60 showed a remarkable 1470% increase in fluorescence intensity on binding activated Cdc42 in vitro. The dye-based biosensors were used to report activation of endogenous Cdc42 in living cells. PMID:23297747

MacNevin, Christopher J.; Gremyachinskiy, Dmitriy; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Li, Li; Rougie, Marie; Davis, Tamara T.; Hahn, Klaus M.

2013-01-01

447

Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

Nagatani, Hiroyuki

2010-02-01

448

Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide: dextran) within wet, asymmetric polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes. Information from filtration flux profiles and cross-sectional CLSM images of the membranes that processed single-component solutions and mixtures agreed with each other. Concentration profiles versus depth for each individual component present in the feed solution were developed from the analysis of the CLSM images at different levels of fouling for single-component solutions and mixtures. CLSM provided visual information that helped elucidate the role of each component on membrane fouling and provided a better understanding of how component interactions impact the fouling profiles. Finally, Chapter 4 extends the application of my cross-sectional CLSM imaging protocol to study the fouling of asymmetric polyethersulfone membranes during the microfiltration of protein, polyphenol, and polysaccharide mixtures to better understand the solute-solute and solute-membrane interactions leading to fouling in beverage clarification processes. Again, cross-sectional CLSM imaging provided information on the location and extent of fouling throughout the entire thickness of the PES membrane. Quantitative analysis of the cross-sectional CLSM images provided a measurement of the masses of foulants deposited throughout the membrane. Moreover, flux decline data collected for different mixtures of casein, tannic acid and beta-cyclodextrin were analyzed with standard fouling models to determine the fouling mechanisms at play when processing different combinations of foulants. Results from model analysis of flux data were compared with the quantitative visual analysis of the correspondent CLSM images. This approach, which couples visual and performance measurements, is expected to provide a better understanding of the causes of fouling that, in turn, is expected to aid in the design of new membranes with tailored structure or surface chemistry that prevents the deposition of the foulants in "prone to foul" regions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Marroquin, Milagro

449

Application of Kohonen network for automatic point correspondence in 2D medical images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a generalized application of Kohonen Network for automatic point correspondence of unimodal medical images is presented. Given a pair of two-dimensional medical images of the same anatomical region and a set of interest points in one of the images, the algorithm detects effectively the set of corresponding points in the second image, by exploiting the properties of

Vasiliki E. Markaki; Pantelis A. Asvestas; George K. Matsopoulos

2009-01-01

450

Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised

Abdullah M. Iliyasu

2013-01-01

451

Continuum generation in optical fibers for high-resolution holographic coherence domain imaging application  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pulse energy continuum generation in conventional multimode optical fibers has been studied for potential applications to a holographic optical coherence imaging system. As a new imaging modality for the biological tissue imaging, high-resolution holographic optical coherence imaging requires a broadband light source with a high brightness, a relatively low spatial coherence and a high stability. A broadband femtosecond laser

Linghui Li; Vitaly Gruzdev; Ping Yu; J. K. Chen

2009-01-01

452

An Iterative Image Registration Technique with an Application to Stereo Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image registration finds a variety of applications in computer vision. Unfortunately, traditional image registration techniques tend to be costly. We present a new image registration technique that makes use of the spatial intensity gradient of the images to find a good match using a type of Newton-Raphson iteration. Our technique is taster because it examines far fewer potential matches between

Bruce D. Lucas; Takeo Kanade

1981-01-01

453

Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel: Digital image processing, part 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of digital image processing techniques and processing systems for aerodynamic images has been conducted. These images covered many types of flows and were generated by many types of flow diagnostics. These include laser vapor screens, infrared cameras, laser holographic interferometry, Schlieren, and luminescent paints. Some general digital image processing systems, imaging networks, optical sensors, and image computing chips were briefly reviewed. Possible digital imaging network systems for the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel were explored.

Lee, George

1993-01-01

454

Automatic metal parts inspection: Use of thermographic images and anomaly detection algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully-automatic approach based on the use of induction thermography and detection algorithms is proposed to inspect industrial metallic parts containing different surface and sub-surface anomalies such as open cracks, open and closed notches with different sizes and depths. A practical experimental setup is developed, where lock-in and pulsed thermography (LT and PT, respectively) techniques are used to establish a dataset of thermal images for three different mockups. Data cubes are constructed by stacking up the temporal sequence of thermogram images. After the reduction of the data space dimension by means of denoising and dimensionality reduction methods; anomaly detection algorithms are applied on the reduced data cubes. The dimensions of the reduced data spaces are automatically calculated with arbitrary criterion. The results show that, when reduced data cubes are used, the anomaly detection algorithms originally developed for hyperspectral data, the well-known Reed and Xiaoli Yu detector (RX) and the regularized adaptive RX (RARX), give good detection performances for both surface and sub-surface defects in a non-supervised way.

Benmoussat, M. S.; Guillaume, M.; Caulier, Y.; Spinnler, K.

2013-11-01

455

Three-dimensional display from cross-sectional tomographic images: an application to magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to facilitate three-dimensional visualizations of tomographic image data. Tomographic techniques yield parallel planes of data at discrete locations; thus, a series of images comprises a three-dimensional database. From this database, a system has been developed to perform three-dimensional calculations, measurements, and display. The system consists of a conventional two-dimensional video monitor, a digitizing tablet for user interaction and region-of-interest (ROI) definition, application-oriented computational software, and an image display system for true three-dimensional database visualization. The three-dimensional display makes use of a varifocal mirror system with vector graphics capability. Through the use of specialized contouring software, we illustrate the utility of this system in the specific examples of displays prepared from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain and carotid arteries. It can be concluded that this system will provide valuable diagnostic and physiologic information that will provide added insight into normal and abnormal structure and its relationship to function. PMID:18230439

Kennedy, D N; Nelson, A C

1987-01-01

456

An application of fuzzy morphology for enhancement of aerial images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach for structure based separation of image objects using fuzzy morphology for aerial images. With set operators in fuzzy context, we apply an adaptive alpha-cut morphological processing for edge detection and image enhancement. A Top-hat transform is first applied to the input image and the resulting image is thresholded to a binary form. The image is

Atif Bin Mansoor; Zohaib Khan; Adil Khan

2008-01-01

457

75 FR 14212 - Proposed Generic Communications; Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 Requirements to Applicants for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applicant or holder referencing that design certification in addition to...or failure to comply with its design certification and it does not...applicant or holder referencing the design certification of the identified...provided within five working days of this determination so...

2010-03-24

458

Three-Dimensional Imaging and Image Displays: Surgical Application of Advanced Technologies.  

PubMed

One of the cornerstones of modern technology that was ushered in by laparoscopic surgery is the use of the video image. The importance of this "virtual representation" of the patient goes well beyond the application to laparoscopic surgery, and lies at the very heart of the revolution of surgery into the Information Age. Real objects, organs and patients can be represented as 2 and 3-dimensional computer generated images and viewed upon displays beyond the simple video monitor which permit a level of clinical practice not possible on the actual patients. These fundamental concepts that form the foundation of the revolution in surgery are placed in a framework for the future of surgery, and illustrate how their implementation can dramatically improve patient care. PMID:10401122

Satava

1996-09-01

459

Land application driven performance requirements for airborne imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years, a joint Swiss/Belgium ESA initiative resulted in a project to build a precursor mission of future spaceborne imaging spectrometers, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment). APEX is designed to be an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the solar reflected wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm. The system is optimized for land applications including limnology, snow, soil, amongst others. The baseline for the requirements of APEX are built on various land requirements and subsequently modelled to at-sensor specific radiances. The model is based on existing biophysical and -chemical retrieval algorithms and assumes no physical limitation of the sensor system. Final technology limitations are discussed using system tradeoffs. The absolute radiance calibration of APEX includes the use of pre- and post-data acquisition internal calibration facility as well as a laboratory calibration and a performance model serving as a stable reference. We will discuss the instrument's present status in its breadboarding phase, including some new results with respect to the detector development and design optimization for imaging spectrometers. In the same framework of APEX, a complete processing and archiving facility (PAF) is developed. The PAF not only includes imaging spectrometer data processing up to physical units, but also geometric and atmospheric correction for each scene, as well as calibration data input. The PAF software includes an Internet based web-server and provides interfaces to data users as well as instrument operators and programmers. The software design, the tools and its life cycle is discussed as well. Further we will discuss particular instrument requirements (resampling, bad pixel treatment, etc.) in view of the operation of the PAF as well as their consequences on the product quality. Finally we will discuss a combined approach for geometric and atmospheric correction including BRDF (or view angle) related effects.

Schaepman, M. E.; Schläpfer, D.; Kaiser, J. W.; Brazile, J.; Itten, K. I.

2003-04-01

460

The application of virtual reality to product development of automobile parts and spares  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper establishes a developing system of car door lock with catch in a virtual environment to meet the requirements of virtual manufacturing for virtual reality urgently needed by Chinese enterprises. The application of virtual reality to product development of automobile parts and spares is thus discussed

Xiao Pei; Li Gangyang; Yang Mingzhong

1997-01-01