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1

Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 1. The neuroradiologist's perspective  

PubMed Central

This article is concerned with the application and usage in clinical practice of techniques of detection and measurement of imaging biomarkers. Some commentaries in the article derive from a literature search and include summaries of recently published material compiled and linked to each other by extensive use of the text contained in the material examined.

Smith, E T S

2011-01-01

2

Grey-level hit-or-miss transforms—part II: Application to angiographic image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hit-or-miss transform (HMT) is a fundamental operation on binary images, widely used since 40 years. As it is not increasing, its extension to grey-level images is not straightforward, and very few authors have considered it. Moreover, despite its potential usefulness, very few applications of the grey-level HMT have been proposed until now. Part I of this paper (B. Naegel,

Benoît Naegel; Nicolas Passat; Christian Ronse

3

Functional and structural MR imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, Part 1: imaging techniques and their application in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

During the past decade, the application of advanced MR imaging techniques in neuropsychiatric disorders has seen a rapid increase. Disease-specific alterations in brain function can be assessed by fMRI. Structural GM and WM properties are increasingly investigated by DTI and voxel-based approaches like VBM. These methods provide neurobiologic correlates for brain architecture and function, evaluation tools for therapeutic approaches, and potential early markers for diagnosis. The aim of this review was to provide insight into the principles of functional and structural imaging and to delineate major findings in MCI, AD (Part 1), autism, and schizophrenia (Part 2), which are common psychiatric disorders covering different stages of the life span. Part 2 will conclude by summarizing current applications, limitations, and future prospects in the field of MR imaging-based neuroimaging. PMID:22173754

Mueller, S; Keeser, D; Reiser, M F; Teipel, S; Meindl, T

2012-11-01

4

A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.  

PubMed

This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×?) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1). PMID:22840977

Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

2012-11-01

5

Automated infrared imaging temperature measurement with application to upward flame spread studies. Part I  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a new experimental technique with wide application that has been proven for wall fires. To measure the spread rate of the pyrolysis front along vertically oriented flat and corner walls, it may be necessary to measure transient temperature profiles on the walls. Conventional thermocouple and visual observation methods, however, have limitations due to complexity of implementation and the inherent ambiguity of visual observations due to interference from flames. To overcome these limitations, an automated infrared imaging system was applied to obtain two-dimensional wall surface temperature data in a relatively large area. In addition, upward flame spread experiments were conducted over vertically oriented PMMA flat and color board corner walls; and surface thermocouple and infrared imaging temperature data were compared in the PMMA wall fires. All the results indicate that the infrared system with a (10.60.5[mu]m) bandpass filter successfully avoids interferences from the flame allowing measurements of temperature distribution on the fire-heated wall, from which the spread rate in any direction can be deduced. However, this technique will fail for flames whose emissivity is greater than 0.1.

Arakawa, A.; Saito, K.; Gruver, W.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1993-02-01

6

Range Imaging without Moving Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected from the target would be focused by the receiver optical system onto an array of optical fibers matching the array in the transmitter. These optical fibers would couple the received light to one or more photodetector( s). Optionally, the receiver could include solid-state optical switches for choosing which optical fiber(s) would couple light to the photodetector(s). This instrument architecture is flexible and can be optimized for a wide variety of applications and levels of performance. For example, it is scalable to any number of pixels and pixel resolutions and is compatible with a variety of ranging and photodetection methodologies, including, for example, ranging by use of modulated (including pulsed and encoded) light signals. The use of fixed arrays of optical fibers to generate controlled illumination patterns would eliminate the mechanical complexity and much of the bulk of optomechanical scanning assemblies. Furthermore, digital control of the selection of the fiber-optic pathways for the transmitted beams could afford capabilities not seen in previous three-dimensional range-imaging systems. Instruments of this type could be specialized for use as, for example, proximity detectors, three-dimensional robotic vision systems, airborne terrain-mapping systems, and inspection systems.

Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

2008-01-01

7

Meteorological image processing applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorologists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center are conducting an extensive program of research in weather and climate related phenomena. This paper focuses on meteorological image processing applications directed toward gaining a detailed understanding of severe weather phenomena. In addition, the paper discusses the ground data handling and image processing systems used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to support severe weather research activities and describes three specific meteorological studies which utilized these facilities.

Bracken, P. A.; Dalton, J. T.; Hasler, A. F.; Adler, R. F.

1979-01-01

8

Phase-space computation of multi-arrival traveltimes: Part II Implementation and application to angle-domain imaging  

E-print Network

imag- ing and model building in the petroleum industry for the last thirty years. Formulated in its target-oriented output and produce offset gathers. The stan- dard Kirchhoff kernel uses single 1The University of Texas at Austin 2The University of Texas at Austin (now at Total E&P) 3Total E

Vladimirsky, Alexander

9

Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Parts I and II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program provides the viewer with an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (mri). Included is a discussion of the principle of nmr, its differences from computed tomography and other imaging modalities, its current and future applications, specia...

1994-01-01

10

Mobile application part design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes theprincipIes which have been followed to spec@ the Mobile Application Part (MAP) protocol which is intended to support the pan-Eumpean digital cellular mobile system (GSMvstem). This was the first non-call relatedpmtbcoi to be srandardized. The fist part of the paper describes which services are requcrtcdfnnm the varwus layers of CCITTSignalhg System N7 and how they are used.

Bruno CHATRAS; Christian VERNHES

1990-01-01

11

An Incremental Structured Part Model for Image Classification  

E-print Network

classification, semantic parts, structural relationship, incremental learning 1 Introduction Image classification to improve the image classification performance via learning semantic parts of objects and exploring their structural relationship. It includes a feature learning method [13] to enrich the part description

Zhou, Jun

12

EDGE-PRESERVING IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR COHERENT IMAGING APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

EDGE-PRESERVING IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR COHERENT IMAGING APPLICATIONS M¨ujdat C¸etin , William C-preserving regularized reconstruction in coherent imaging systems. In our frame- work, image formation from measured data experimental results from three coherent imaging applications: digital holography, synthetic aperture radar

Willsky, Alan S.

13

Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

1983-10-01

14

SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2  

PubMed Central

Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio-polymers. Conclusion With the increasing use of small animals for evaluating new clinical imaging techniques as well as providing increased insights into patho-physiological phenomena, the availability of improved detection systems, scanning protocols and associated software, the repertoire of molecular imaging is greatly increased in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20457793

de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

2013-01-01

15

SDMS-An image processing application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lights! Camera! Action! constitute the basic fundamentals of Digital image processing. Digital image processing is a rapidly evolving field with growing applications in science and engineering. Image processing holds the possibility of developing the ultimate machine that could perform the visual functions of all living beings. Digital image processing has a broad spectrum of applications such as remote sensing via

Bhushan V. Patil; Kalpesh V. Joshi; Kiran H. Sonawane

2009-01-01

16

Image fusion for tactical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny R.; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

1998-10-01

17

Merging of range images for inspection or safety applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Range imagers provide useful information for part inspection, robot control, or human safety applications in industrial environments. However, some applications may require more information than range data from a single viewpoint. Therefore, multiple range images must be combined to create a three-dimensional representation of the scene. Although simple in its principle, this operation is not straightforward to implement in industrial systems, since each range image is affected by noise. In this paper, we present two specific applications where merging of range images must be performed. We use the same processing pipeline for both applications : conversion from range image to point clouds, elimination of degrees of freedom between different clouds, validation of the merged results. Nevertheless, each step in this pipeline requires dedicated algorithms for our example applications. The first application is high resolution inspection of large parts, where many range images are acquired sequentially and merged in a post-processing step, allowing to create a virtual model of the part observed, typically larger than the instrument's field of view. The key requirement in this application is high accuracy for the merging of multiple point clouds. The second application discussed is human safety in a human/robot environment: range images are used to ensure that no human is present in the robot’s zone of operation, and can trigger the robot's emergency shutdown when needed. In this case, range image merging is required to avoid uncertainties due to occlusions. The key requirement here is real-time operation, namely the merging operation should not introduce a significant latency in the data processing pipeline. For both application cases, the improvements brought by merging multiple range images are clearly illustrated.

Mure-Dubois, James; Hügli, Heinz

2008-08-01

18

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications  

E-print Network

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal. Image fusion has been used in many application areas. In remote sensing and in astronomy, multisensor

Sroubek, Filip

19

Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scannerless laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system is presently in development for applications at Sandia National Laboratories. This LADAR design eliminates the need for a mechanical laser beam scanner which is often the system component that limits the use of laser radars for many applications. Range to the target scene is determined in this approach by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical return compared to the reference. The approach used in this LADAR is unique because the method used to detect this phase shift is an array of time integrating detectors that also records the image of the target scene. An analytical model is presented that describes the LADAR system performance. Applications of this LADAR system also are reviewed. They include terminal guidance of advanced conventional munitions, perimeter surveillance of secure facilities, mapping potholes/cracks in the U.S. highway system for improved maintenance scheduling, active collision avoidance of commercial/private vehicles, robotic vision integrated into advanced manufacturing concepts, and a novel airborne multi-sensor system containing LADAR, SAR, and LIDAR to locate and measure the thickness of ocean oil spills.

Anthes, John P.; Garcia, Philip; Pierce, Joe T.; Dressendorfer, Paul V.

1993-10-01

20

A pornographic image filtering model based on erotic part  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with some deficiencies of the traditional filtering models using the features of skin color only, this paper presents a pornographic image filtering model based on erotic parts detection. And the information of face, skin color and trunk contour is utilized to implement the erotic part recognition. A decision tree classifier is also employed to identify porno image based on

Xuanjing Shen; Wei Wei; Qingji Qian

2010-01-01

21

An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

2009-02-01

22

Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

E-print Network

of Medicine and Radiology Director of Advanced CV Imaging Dartmouth 4pm, Wed, Jan. 31, 2007 AuditoriumAdvanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Justin D. Pearlman Professor of the Center for Imaging Science For Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy the goal is to identify where cardiac

Zanibbi, Richard

23

Principles and applications of unconventional laser imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this paper is to introduce sampled-aperture, coherent, laser imaging techniques for application to diverse technical and commercial problems that can benefit from the unique advantages of laser imaging. A brief overview is presented of the principles underlying sampled-aperture laser techniques and several example techniques are described along with a discussion of their attributes. Six potential applications are

David G. Voelz

1995-01-01

24

Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

Andreasen, Nancy C.

1988-01-01

25

Mass spectrometry imaging for biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

The development of mass spectrometry imaging technologies is of significant current research interest. Mass spectrometry potentially is capable of providing highly specific information about the distribution of chemical compounds on tissues at highly sensitive levels. The required in-situ analysis for the tissue imaging forced MS analysis being performed off the traditional conditions optimized in pharmaceutical applications with intense sample preparation. This critical review seeks to present an overview of the current status of the MS imaging with different sampling ionization methods and to discuss the 3D imaging and quantitative imaging capabilities needed to be further developed, the importance of the multi-modal imaging, and a balance between the pursuit of the high imaging resolution and the practical application of MS imaging in biomedicine. PMID:23539099

Liu, Jiangjiang; Ouyang, Zheng

2013-01-01

26

Terahertz Imaging and Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies could vastly improve the security of personnel checkpoints, because of the penetration through clothing and spatial resolution available in this spectral range. Since 9/11, the social need for improved checkpoint screening has been obvious and great. However, although efforts to develop such imagers had been underway for many years before that, practical low-cost systems, analogous to IR uncooled imagers, still don't exist. An emphasis on purely passive imaging places very stringent sensitivity requirements on such imagers. A number of long-term efforts, which I briefly mention, are underway to improve the sensitivity of such passive imagers. However, most of the emphasis in our program is on active imaging. With this approach, much simpler and lower-cost detectors, such as (uncooled) antenna-coupled microbolometers can be used, at the expense of incorporating slightly more complex optics and illumination components. I discuss several tradeoffs presented in the design of active imaging systems for the 100 to 1000 GHz frequency range, describe how we have addressed them in the design of a scanning, 95 GHz, bolometer-based imager for concealed weapons detection that is nearing completion, and describe how the system architecture can be modified to scale the operating frequency to the 650 GHz atmospheric window. Co-authors: Arttu Luukanen and Aaron Miller

Grossman, Erich

2005-03-01

27

Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

28

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

29

Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates – part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26–33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and ?-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies

M. Thoms

1999-01-01

30

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-01

31

Gold nanorods for applications in biological imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-Photon luminescence (TPL) from gold nanorods shows considerable potential in biological imaging for high resolution, low photo-damage, tunable near infra-red (NIR) longitudinal band, polarization dependence, ability to conjugate to bio-molecules and low toxicity. Here we demonstrate the application of gold nanorods as TPL imaging agents by studying the gold nanorods taken up by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells using both confocal imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The characteristic luminescence lifetime of gold nanorods is found to be less than 100 ps, which can be used to distinguish gold nanorods from other fluorescent labels and endogenous fluorophores in lifetime imaging.

Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.; Birch, D. J. S.; Chen, Y.

2011-03-01

32

Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

1997-01-01

33

Generalized diffraction enhanced imaging: application to tomography.  

PubMed

A simple generalization of the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) technique, called generalized DEI (GDEI), and its application to tomographic imaging are herein presented. In planar imaging, the GDEI algorithm combines three input images (acquired at different analyzer positions) to deliver three parametric images, providing information respectively on absorptive, refractive and ultra-small-angle scattering features of the sample. The application of the same algorithm in computed tomography (CT-GDEI), acquiring three tomographic datasets at different analyzer positions, is formally justified. Experimental tests have been conducted at the SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) by means of custom phantoms, featuring absorption, refraction and ultra-small-angle scattering. The results show that CT-GDEI provides a simple way to map the information relative to the three effects in three parametric tomographic images. PMID:18635330

Rigon, Luigi; Astolfo, Alberto; Arfelli, Fulvia; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik

2008-12-01

34

Lanthanide Complexes for Luminescence Imaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, imaging applications of luminescent complexes and recent advances in the design and photophysical behaviour of near?IR responsive complexes are reviewed. Various properties of the luminescent lanthanide complexes are also discussed in detail.

Stephen Faulkner; Simon J. A. Pope

2005-01-01

35

Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

2010-04-01

36

3D imaging system for biometric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

2010-04-01

37

Clinical applications in molecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging is aimed at the noninvasive in vivo characterization and measurement of processes at a cellular and molecular\\u000a level with clinical imaging methods. Contrast agents are constructed to target markers that are specific either for certain\\u000a diseases or for functional states of specialized tissues. Efforts are currently focused mainly on processes involved in angiogenesis,\\u000a inflammation, and apoptosis. Cell tracking

Carola Heneweer; Jan Grimm

2011-01-01

38

Holographic 3D imaging - methods and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, different techniques of three-dimensional holographic imaging with respect to particular applications are discussed. The realization techniques based on image synthesis at the hologram plane and at the observer's eye pupil plane are presented and compared with classical image holography approach. Each technique is accompanied with an example of the hologram, that was created using some of the in-house developed devices.

Svoboda, J.; Škere?, M.; Kv?to?, M.; Fiala, P.

2013-02-01

39

An imaging filter for biological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently developed post-column imaging filter optimized for biological electron microscopy is described. The filter uses a single magnetic prism, four strong quadrupole lenses and five sextupole lenses to form images and spectra free of all important aberrations and distortions of first and second order. The performance of the filter is illustrated with practical applications. It is shown that the

O. L. Krivanek; S. L. Friedman; A. J. Gubbens; B. Kraus

1995-01-01

40

Distinguishing different parts of objects by terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since every matter has its distinctive absorption and transmission capacity of terahertz, Terahertz time domain spectroscopy provides a powerful means to distinguish the different parts of objects. The transmittance of terahertz under different frequency can reflect the absorption distribution of the different parts of the samples. The phase shift of the terahertz wave indicates the change of optical thickness of the sample. Tree leaves, plastic ring, plastic convex lens and plastic piece with a small hole have been imaged by terahertz. As widespread samples, leaves are proved to be well imaged by terahertz wave. For the moisture content at different parts of leaves, such as mesophyll and vein, is not the same, the absorption of terahertz at these parts are quite different. At 1.4THz, the leaf's image is of good quality and the vein grids are well shown. The hole and defects in the plastic ring are also clearly shown in the THz image because the phase shifts of terahertz in different parts, such as air, defects or plastic region are not the same. It is also shown that objects with large radius of curvature are suitable for THz imagining and the scattering of THz does not affect THz phase information too much. In short, Terahertz imaging is a powerful technique to distinguish the different parts of most objects as long as the absorption of THz is not very strong.

Ge, Jin; Wang, Reng; Hu, Shuhong; Dai, Ning; Li, Dong; Ma, Hong; Ma, Guohong

2010-10-01

41

Image processing applications in NDE  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive examination (NDE) can be defined as a technique or collection of techniques that permits one to determine some property of a material or object without damaging the object. There are a large number of such techniques and most of them use visual imaging in one form or another. They vary from holographic interferometry where displacements under stress are measured to the visual inspection of an objects surface to detect cracks after penetrant has been applied. The use of image processing techniques on the images produced by NDE is relatively new and can be divided into three general categories: classical image enhancement; mensuration techniques; and quantitative sensitometry. An example is discussed of how image processing techniques are used to nondestructively and destructively test the product throughout its life cycle. The product that will be followed is the microballoon target used in the laser fusion program. The laser target is a small (50 to 100 ..mu..m - dia) glass sphere with typical wall thickness of 0.5 to 6 ..mu..m. The sphere may be used as is or may be given a number of coatings of any number of materials. The beads are mass produced by the millions and the first nondestructive test is to separate the obviously bad beads (broken or incomplete) from the good ones. After this has been done, the good beads must be inspected for spherocity and wall thickness uniformity. The microradiography of the glass, uncoated bead is performed on a specially designed low-energy x-ray machine. The beads are mounted in a special jig and placed on a Kodak high resolution plate in a vacuum chamber that contains the x-ray source. The x-ray image is made with an energy less that 2 keV and the resulting images are then inspected at a magnification of 500 to 1000X. Some typical results are presented.

Morris, R.A.

1980-01-01

42

Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy. PMID:25379515

Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun

2014-01-01

43

Computer image processing: Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

Abrams, M. J.

1978-01-01

44

Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

45

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Objective To place imaging–genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results Imaging–genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase enzyme. Work is then described on phenotype selection in imaging genetics. Conclusions Child psychiatry applications of imaging genetics are only beginning to emerge. The approach holds promise for advancing understandings of pathophysiology and therapeutics. PMID:20643311

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

46

Color Image Sharpening and Application to Eye Fundus Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to build an algorithm to sharpen a color digital image based on S-CIELAB extension. We use this method to segment the optic cup inside the optic disc, and the optic disc from the rest of the eye fundus image of glaucomatous eyes. S-CIELAB involves a series of smoothing spatial filters in the opponent color space to approximate the contrast sensitivity functions of the human vision system. The filters are linear combinations of Gaussian masks. We combine these spatial filters with the Laplacian operator in each opponent channel to obtain the sharpened image. The resulting image is then subtracted from the original image in each opponent channel and back transformed to the device independent representation space (XYZ) to obtain the final sharpened image. The application developed to segment the optic cup and the optic disc is intended to give assistance in the cup to disc ratio estimation of glaucomatous eyes. Often the contours of both the optic cup and disc are faint and intersected by entangled veins that make it difficult to draw their silhouettes. The method is based on the information of color, the color differences between neighbor pixels and the geometry of the areas involved. It includes the spatial filtering proposed in the S-CIELAB extension and uses the color image sharpening algorithm.

Valencia, Edison; Millán, María S.

2008-04-01

47

GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

SIMOES, F. J. M.; YANG, C. T.

2008-01-01

48

ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

2008-12-01

49

Nondestructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full potential of terahertz imaging systems for nondestructive aerospace imaging applications has not been realized due to the lack of data linking damage and defects to terahertz signatures coupled with the complexity of modeling the signatures. Terahertz systems (0.1 - 2.0 THz) may be ideally suited for NDI applications because of the ability of THz radiation to penetrate through substances commonly found on the surfaces of aircraft structures while maintaining the optical resolution required to detect defects. We will discuss several systems that we have used to study the signatures of a set of target samples with known defects.

Petkie, Douglas T.; Kemp, Izaak V.; Benton, Carla; Boyer, Christopher; Owens, Lindsay; Deibel, Jason A.; Stoik, Christopher D.; Bohn, Matthew J.

2009-09-01

50

Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

1988-01-01

51

Computer Vision, Image Analysis, and Master Art: Part 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-part series describes how a variety of methods adapted from computer vision, image analysis, and pattern recognition can be applied to visual arts and help answer questions in art history. In this final installment, David Stork discusses how shapes can be described. He outlines the challenges in quantifying shape and form analysis, and describes how techniques to compare shapes

David G. Stork; Marco F. Duarte

2007-01-01

52

Computer Vision, Image Analysis, and Master Art: Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can determine if some photographs have been doctored and then invalidate it as proof that two people were in the same place at the same time. But how true is realist art? In this second article of a three-part series, we describe how they have adapted techniques of forensic analysis of digital images to analyze paintings. By examining light

David G. Stork; Micah K. Johnson

2006-01-01

53

This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

54

Imaging systems and applications: introduction to the feature.  

PubMed

Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from design of stimuli for human perception, optics applications, and image enhancement to novel imaging modalities in both color and infrared spectral imaging, gigapixel imaging as well as a systems perspective to imaging. PMID:24921894

Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Skauli, Torbjørn; Tominaga, Shoji; Zalevsky, Zeev

2014-05-01

55

An imaging toolbox for smart phone applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a Digital Image Processing toolbox for cellular phones. It is intended for users dealing with imaging algorithms and allows the processing of real images taken by the camera phones. For example, users are able to analyze the images and selected regions of interest using different transforms including Discrete Fourier, Hartley, and Cosine Transforms. One can apply different filters such as median and moving average. Simple image enhancement techniques are also included in the toolbox. A handy user interface allows a suitable browsing through the images and operators. The toolbox is designed to be expandable and more operations will be included in the future targeting military and security applications. The toolbox is implemented using Series 60 Platform SDK for Symbian tm OS, for C++. It allows developers to quickly and efficiently run and test applications for devices that are compatible with the Series 60 Platform. The algorithms are first implemented on Series 60 Platform device emulator on the PC and then installed on the cell phone.

Panchul, Alexandr; Bhupathiraju, Deepthi; Agaian, Sos; Akopian, David

2006-05-01

56

Criterion independent hierarchical segmentation for unstructured 3D datasets -Application to range images  

E-print Network

an unstructured input data, rec- ognizing physical anomalies from medical 3D images and 3D scene modelling by robotics applications. Recognizing parts on assembly lines, recon- structing a CAD model from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Image fusion techniques for remote sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion refers to the acquisition, processing andsynergistic combination of information providedby various sensors or by the same sensor in many measuring contexts. The aim of this survey paper is to describe three typical applications of data fusion in remote sensing. The first study case considers the problem of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, where a pair of antennas

G. Simone; Alfonso Farina; Francesco Carlo Morabito; Sebastiano B. Serpico; Lorenzo Bruzzone

2002-01-01

58

Digital image processing: a primer for JVIR authors and readers: Part 3: Digital image editing.  

PubMed

This is the final installment of a three-part series on digital image processing intended to prepare authors for online submission of manuscripts. In the first two articles of the series, the fundamentals of digital image architecture were reviewed and methods of importing images to the computer desktop were described. In this article, techniques are presented for editing images in preparation for online submission. A step-by-step guide to basic editing with use of Adobe Photoshop is provided and the ethical implications of this activity are explored. PMID:14654480

LaBerge, Jeanne M; Andriole, Katherine P

2003-12-01

59

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall...

2012-01-01

60

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall...

2013-01-01

61

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall...

2011-01-01

62

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall...

2014-01-01

63

Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 --Basic principles and applications  

E-print Network

Tutorial on seismic interferometry: Part 1 -- Basic principles and applications Kees Wapenaar1 of the actual sources. INTRODUCTION In this two-part tutorial, we give an overview of the basic princi- ples

Snieder, Roel

64

Status of polycrystalline-diamond-compact bits: Part 2 - Applications  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 discussed the characteristics, development, and outlook for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. This second part treats applications of PDC bits, including suitable locations, types of hole, and uses.

Feenstra, R.

1988-06-01

65

5 CFR 2425.1 - Applicability of this part.  

...1 Applicability of this part. This part applies to all arbitration cases in which exceptions are filed with the Authority, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 7122, on or after June 4, 2012. [77 FR 26434, May 4,...

2014-01-01

66

14 CFR 374a.8 - Prospective application of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.8 Prospective application of part. The provisions of this part shall...

2010-01-01

67

Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

Kircher, Moritz F.

2012-01-01

68

Acquisition and applications of 3D images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

2007-08-01

69

46 CFR 114.112 - Specific applicability for individual parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Specific applicability for individual parts. 114.112 Section 114.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.112 Specific applicability for individual...

2010-10-01

70

Image enhancement technology research for army applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared detector array and the sensitivity. Second, also the intervening atmosphere, in particular over longer ranges, has an impact on the image quality. It degrades the contrast, due to transmission effects, as well as it influences the resolution, due to turbulence blur, of the image. We present studies in the field of infrared image enhancement. Several techniques are described: noise reduction, super resolution, turbulence compensation, contrast enhancement, stabilization. These techniques operate in real-time on COTS/MOTS platforms. They are especially effective in the army theatre, where long horizontal paths, and short line-of-sight limited urban operations are both present. Application of these techniques on observation masts, such as on military camp sites, and on UAVs and moving ground vehicles are discussed. Examples will be presented from several trials in which these techniques were demonstrated, including the presentation of test results.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Schutte, Klamer

2013-06-01

71

Defining belief functions using mathematical morphology Application to image fusion  

E-print Network

Defining belief functions using mathematical morphology ­ Application to image fusion under morphology, dilation, erosion, belief functions, image fusion, spatial imprecision, fuzzy sets. 1 Introduction Information fusion in image processing has led to an increased interest during the last years

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging Systems and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports activities in the development of AOTF Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging (PHI) Systems at JPL along with field observation results for illustrating the technology capabilities and advantages in remote sensing. In addition, the technology was also used to measure thickness distribution and structural imperfections of silicon-on-silicon wafers using white light interference phenomenon for demonstrating the potential in scientific and industrial applications.

Cheng, Li-Jen; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George; Baw, Clayton La; Li, G. P.

1996-01-01

73

Imaging system applications of multichannel configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While multichannel configurations are well established for non-imaging applications, they have not been used yet for imaging applications. In this paper we present for the first time some of multichannel designs for imaging systems. The multichannel comprises discontinuous optical sections which are called channels. The phase-space representation of the bundle of rays going from the object to the image is discontinuous between channels. This phase-space ray-bundle flow is divided in as many paths as channels there are but it is a single wavefront both at the source and the target. Typically, these multichannel systems are at least formed by three optical surfaces: two of them have discontinuities (either in the shape or in the shape derivative) while the last is a smooth one. Optical surfaces discontinuities cause at the phase space the wave front split in separate paths. The number of discontinuities is the same in the two first surfaces: Each channel is defined by the smooth surfaces in between discontinuities, so the surfaces forming each separate channel are all smooth. Aplanatic multichannel designs are also shown and used to explain the design procedure.

Infante Herrero, Jose M.; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Benítez, Pablo; Biot, Guillermo; Ahmadpanahi, Hammed; Lin, Wang; Liu, JiaYao; Chaves, Julio C.; de la Fuente, Marta C.

2011-10-01

74

Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

Simonett, D. S.

1976-01-01

75

Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. While the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, these same optics induce significant aberrations that in most cases obviate cellular-resolution imaging. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. Applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, RPE cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here we review some of the advances made possible with AO imaging of the human retina, and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging. PMID:21057346

Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M.; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.; Carroll, Joseph

2010-01-01

76

Medical applications of digital image morphing.  

PubMed

The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion. PMID:17273920

Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

2007-09-01

77

Bedside ultrasonography: Applications in critical care: Part I  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to assess and guide the management of critically ill patients. The ability to carry out quick examinations by the bedside to answer specific clinical queries as well as repeatability are clear advantages in an acute care setting. In addition, delays associated with transfer of patients out of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and exposure to ionizing radiation may also be avoided. Ultrasonographic imaging looks set to evolve and complement clinical examination of acutely ill patients, offering quick answers by the bedside. In this two-part narrative review, we describe the applications of ultrasonography with a special focus on the management of the critically ill. Part I explores the utility of echocardiography in the ICU, with emphasis on its usefulness in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients. We also discuss lung ultrasonography - a vastly underutilized technology for several years, until intensivists began to realize its usefulness, and obvious advantages over chest radiography. Ultrasonography is rapidly emerging as an important tool in the hands of intensive care physicians. PMID:24914259

Chacko, Jose; Brar, Gagan

2014-01-01

78

Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of insecticides in biological tissues. Finally, in the microscale level, the penetration of household insecticides through different types of textiles fabrics. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectra, SFC and SEM showed that cotton-polyester (twill), cotton, wool and cotton thermal underwear were the least penetrable materials for the aerosols. On the other hand, acrylic and artificial silk (rayon) were the most penetrable cloth types. The most protective form of clothing will be more than one layer e.g. cotton/polyester type of clothing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

El-Demerdash, Aref M.

79

The fundamentals of fetal magnetic resonance imaging: Part 2.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of fetal anatomy by a combination of ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging offers the clinical teams and counselors caring for the patient information that can be critical for the management of both the mother and the fetus. In the second half of this 2-part review, we focus on space-occupying lesions in the fetal body. Because developing fetal tissues are programmed to grow rapidly, mass lesions can have a substantial effect on the formation of normal adjacent organs. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and lung masses, fetal teratoma, and intra-abdominal masses are discussed, with an emphasis on differential etiologies and on fundamental management considerations. PMID:24974309

Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

2014-01-01

80

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

Perkins, W. D.

1987-01-01

81

Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.  

PubMed

Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes. PMID:24572884

Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

2014-03-01

82

A broadband imaging system for research applications  

PubMed Central

We have developed a compact, computer-piloted, high sensitivity broadband imaging system for laboratory research that is compatible with various detectors. Mirror optics allow application from the visible to the far infrared spectral range. A prototype tested in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride detector exhibits a peak detectivity of 6.7×1010 cm Hz1?2?W at a wavelength of 11.8 ?m. Temperature and spatial resolutions of 0.06 K and 1.6 mrad, respectively, were demonstrated. PMID:19485541

Yefremenko, V.; Gordiyenko, E.; Shustakova, G.; Fomenko, Yu.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Cohen, E. E. W.; Novosad, V.

2009-01-01

83

Elastic ladar modeling for synthetic imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is a synthetic imagery generation model developed at the Center for Imaging Science (CIS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). It is a quantitative first principle based model that calculates the sensor reaching radiance from the visible through to the long wave infrared on a spectral basis. DIRSIG generates a very accurate representation of what a sensor would see by modeling all the processes involved in the imaging chain. Currently, DIRSIG only models passive sources such as the sun and blackbody radiation due to the temperature of an object. Active systems have the benefit of the user being able to control the illumination source and tailor it for specific applications. Remote sensing Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) systems that utilize a laser as the active source have been in existence for over 30 years. Recent advances in tunable lasers and infrared detectors have allowed much more sophisticated and accurate work to be done, but a comprehensive spectral LADAR model has yet to be developed. In order to provide a tool to assist in LADAR development, this research incorporates a first principle based elastic LADAR model into DIRSIG. It calculates the irradiance onto the focal plane on a spectral basis for both the atmospheric and topographic return, based on the system characteristics and the assumed atmosphere. The geometrical form factor, a measure of the overlap between the sensor and receiver field-of-view, is carefully accounted for in both the monostatic and bistatic cases. The model includes the effect of multiple bounces from topographical targets. Currently, only direct detection systems will be modeled. Several sources of noise are extensively modeled, such as speckle from rough surfaces. Additionally, atmospheric turbulence effects including scintillation, beam effects, and image effects are accounted for. To allow for future growth, the model and coding are modular and anticipate the inclusion of advanced sensor modules and inelastic scattering.

Burton, Robin R.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.

2002-11-01

84

Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification  

PubMed Central

Abstract. This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach. PMID:23856916

Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Netz, Uwe J.; Blaschke, Sabine; Muller, Gerhard A.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2013-01-01

85

Intelligent Mining in Image Databases, With Applications to Satellite Imaging and to Web  

E-print Network

Intelligent Mining in Image Databases, With Applications to Satellite Imaging and to Web Search analysis; text in web images; mosaicing satellite images 1 Introduction 1.1 It is necessary to apply data by adding new ideas to the main idea of FFT-based image processing. In this paper, we show how the existing

Kreinovich, Vladik

86

Intelligent Mining in Image Databases, With Applications to Satellite Imaging and to Web  

E-print Network

Intelligent Mining in Image Databases, With Applications to Satellite Imaging and to Web Search analysis; text in web images; mosaicing satellite images 1 Introduction 1.1 It is necessary to apply data by adding new ideas to the main idea of FFT­based image processing. In this paper, we show how the existing

Kreinovich, Vladik

87

A Novel Application of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24084063

Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Ferencek, Zrinka Greguric; Sikdar, Siddhartha

2013-01-01

88

IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In the vidicon tube, IR radiation is sensed by a pyroelectric target such as triglycine sulfate (TGS), which is read out by scanning an electron beam across the surface (current modulation). The TGS single crystal sensors used in pyroelectric vidicon applications are extremely difficult to fabricate in thin section and can be easily damaged during operation due to their brittle nature. Thus, pyrolectric polymers offer several advantages over TGS sensors in these applications due to their low cost and robustness. However, the pyroelectric polymers traditionally have lower sensitivity. Therefore, we are investigating the pyroelectric performance of a family of copolymers based on poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in the compositional range 75/25 to 50/50 moleperformance and sensitivity of these copolymers were compared to that of TGS active sensor elements. Since the sensitivity of these IR sensors is related in part to material thickness, pyroelectric polymers were spin cast from solution to thicknesses <1 micrometer and subsequently used as free-standing thin films. By applying surface treatments and absorptive coatings to the as-cast pyrolectric polymer films, the temperature resolution has been improved to the point where differences between healthy and damaged tissue in the human body can now be distinguished. Examples of IR images of the human body using these pyroelectric polymer vidicon targets will be presented and will be used to provide a direct comparison between TGS and the pyroelectric copolymers in these imaging applications.

Gregory, Otto

2004-03-01

89

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

Li, Shaofan

90

17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.  

...232. 232.10 Section 232.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.10 Application of part 232. (a)...

2014-04-01

91

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-12

92

Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications  

DOEpatents

Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-21

93

Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

2012-01-01

94

Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

1976-01-01

95

Purdue Ontology for Pharmaceutical Engineering: Part II. Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple steps in pharmaceutical product development generate a large amount of diverse information in various formats,\\u000a which hinders efficient decision-making. A major component of the solution is a common information model for the domain. Ontologies\\u000a were found to meet this need as described in Part I of this two-part paper. In Part II, we describe two applications of Purdue

Leaelaf Hailemariam; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2010-01-01

96

Image and video fingerprinting: forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fighting movie piracy often requires automatic content identification. The most common technique to achieve this uses watermarking, but not all copyrighted content is watermarked. Video fingerprinting is an efficient alternative solution to identify content, to manage multimedia files in UGC sites or P2P networks and to register pirated copies with master content. When registering by matching copy fingerprints with master ones, a model of distortion can be estimated. In case of in-theater piracy, the model of geometric distortion allows the estimation of the capture location. A step even further is to determine, from passive image analysis only, whether different pirated versions were captured with the same camcorder. In this paper we present three such fingerprinting-based forensic applications: UGC filtering, estimation of capture location and source identification.

Lefebvre, Frédéric; Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Diehl, Eric

2009-02-01

97

Introduction to VIIRS Imaging and Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the VIIRS imager that operates on the current U.S. Suomi NPP satellite and is planned for future JPSS environmental satellites. VIIRS has many advanced features that improve both spectral and spatial resolution and enable the delivery of consistent, high quality, and high resolution data to users worldwide. The lesson covers the enhanced capabilities of VIIRS and highlights some of its applications. These include single channel and multispectral products used to monitor dust, volcanic ash, convection, fog and low clouds, sea surface temperature, tropical cyclones, contrails, and ocean color. A special feature on VIIRS, the Day Night Band low-light visible channel, is also introduced. For more information on the channel and its capabilities, users are referred to the COMET lesson "Advances in Space-Based Nighttime Visible Observation."

Comet

2013-09-30

98

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

Deserno (ne Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (ne Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

99

Multifunction nanoconjugates for imaging applications and targeted treatment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to nanoconjugates. In particular, the present invention provides nanoconjugates for diagnostic (e.g., imaging), research, and clinical (e.g., targeted treatment) applications.

2013-10-15

100

iImage: An Image Based Information Retrieval Application for the iPhone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image processing is a powerful technology that can be used to analyze an image for many useful purposes. However, software like this is often out of the typical user's reach, ilmage directly confronts this problem. The ilmage application takes the sophisticated technologies of image analysis and identification based on MPEG-7 image feature tools and makes them readily available on the

S. Bock; S. Newsome; Q. Wang; W. Zeng; X. Lin; J. Lu

2010-01-01

101

Two satellite image sets for the training and validation of image processing systems for defense applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many image processing algorithms utilize the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to provide efficient compression and near-perfect reconstruction of image data. Defense applications often require the transmission of data at high levels of compression over noisy channels. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been utilized to optimize image transform filters that outperform standard wavelets for bandwidth-constrained compression of satellite images.

Michael R. Peterson; Shawn Aldridge; Britny Herzog; Frank Moore

2010-01-01

102

Biological Visual Attention Guided Automatic Image Segmentation with Application in Satellite Imaging  

E-print Network

Biological Visual Attention Guided Automatic Image Segmentation with Application in Satellite to the improvement of the performance of computational image processing systems. Computational models of visual a wide range of image content, characteristics and scales such as those encountered in satellite imaging

Payeur, Pierre

103

Learning to Detect Objects in Images via a Sparse, Part-Based Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of detecting objects in still, grayscale images. Our primary focus is development of a learning-based approach to the problem, that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; im- ages are then represented using parts from

Shivani Agarwal; Aatif Awan; Dan Roth

2004-01-01

104

Investigation of cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging part 1: Common phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has emerged as a useful tertiary imaging tool in the investigation of patients suspected of many different types of cardiomyopathies. CMRI sequences are now of a sufficiently robust quality to enable high spatial and temporal resolution image acquisition. This has led to CMRI becoming an effective non-invasive imaging gold standard for many cardiomyopathies. In this 2-part review, we outline the typical sequences used to image cardiomyopathy, and present the imaging spectrum of cardiomyopathy. Part 1 focuses on the current classification of cardiomyopathy, basic CMRI sequences used in evaluating cardiomyopathy and the imaging spectrum of common phenotypes. PMID:22558489

McDermott, Shaunagh; O'Neill, Ailbhe C; Ridge, Carole A; Dodd, Jonathan D

2012-01-01

105

Modeling and Imaging Techniques with Potential for Application in Bioterrorism  

E-print Network

Modeling and Imaging Techniques with Potential for Application in Bioterrorism H.T. Banks 1 , David signi#12;cant potential for applications related to bioterrorism. The #12;rst focuses on physiologically

106

Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting. PMID:21344060

Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2010-01-01

107

Structure localization in brain images: application to relevant image selection.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in imaging have lead to increases in the number of images/study. Automated methods to select relevant images are critical to effectively convey study results. The proposed method combines natural language processing (NLP) and automatic structure localization to identify relevant images of a MR brain study. NLP extracts relevant locations of findings. Two algorithms were implemented and evaluated for structure localization. The first method involves registration of patient dataset to a labeled atlas. The second method involves an eigenimage search using a training set of images. A prototype was developed and tested on MR brain studies of nine patients. With the registration method, slices containing the relevant structure agreed with expert selection in 98% of cases. Structure localization by eigenimage search was able to locate the lateral ventricles correctly in all the test cases. The proposed method provides an accurate method for identifying relevant slices of an imaging study. PMID:11837219

Sinha, U.; Taira, R.; Kangarloo, H.

2001-01-01

108

IMAGE DEBLURRING, SPECTRUM INTERPOLATION AND APPLICATION TO SATELLITE IMAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two complementary methods in noisy image deblurring: a nonlinear shrinkage of wavelet-packets coecients called FCNR and Rudin-Osher-Fatemi's variational method. The FCNR has for objective to obtain a restored image with a white noise. It will prove to be very ecient to restore an image after an invertible blur but limited in the opposite situation. Whereas the

Sylvain Durand; Bernard Roug

2000-01-01

109

Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

2011-10-01

110

Perfusion weighted imaging and its application in stroke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the technique and application of perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute stroke, 25 patients were examined by 1.5 T or 1.0 T MRI scanner. The Data analysis was done with "3D Med System" developed by our Lab to process the data and obtain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, cerebral blood volume (CBV) map, cerebral blood flow (CBF) map as well as mean transit time (MTT) map. In accute stage of stroke, normal or slightly hypointensity in T1-, hyperintensity in T2- and diffusion-weighted images were seen in the cerebral infarction areas. There were hypointensity in CBV map, CBF map and ADC map; and hyperintensity in MTT map that means this infarct area could be saved. If the hyperintensity area in MTT map was larger than the area in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the larger part was called penumbra and could be cured by an appropriate thrombolyitic or other therapy. The CBV, CBF and MTT maps are very important in the diagnosis and medical treatment of acute especially hyperacute stroke. Comparing with DWI, we can easily know the situation of penumbra and the effect of curvative therapy. Besides, we can also make a differential diagnosis with this method.

Li, Enzhong; Tian, Jie; Han, Ying; Wang, Huifang; Li, Xingfeng; Zhu, Fuping

2003-05-01

111

Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications  

SciTech Connect

Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

Melcher, C. L. [Scintillation Materials Research Center, University of Tennessee (United States)

2013-02-05

112

CT and MR Imaging Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Part II. Extracellular Agents, Hepatobiliary Agents, and Ancillary Imaging Features.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play critical roles in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The second article of this two-part review discusses basic concepts of diagnosis and staging, reviews the diagnostic performance of CT and MR imaging with extracellular contrast agents and of MR imaging with hepatobiliary contrast agents, and examines in depth the major and ancillary imaging features used in the diagnosis and characterization of HCC. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25247563

Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Jeong-Min; Sirlin, Claude B

2014-10-01

113

Color Image Sharpening and Application to Eye Fundus Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to build an algorithm to sharpen a color digital image based on S-CIELAB extension. We use this method to segment the optic cup inside the optic disc, and the optic disc from the rest of the eye fundus image of glaucomatous eyes. S-CIELAB involves a series of smoothing spatial filters in the opponent color space to approximate

Edison Valencia; María S. Millán

2008-01-01

114

Investigation of cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging part 2: Rare phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has emerged as a useful tertiary imaging tool in the investigation of patients suspected of many different types of cardiomyopathies. CMRI images are now of a sufficiently robust quality to enable high spatial and temporal resolution image acquisition. This has led to CMRI becoming an effective non-invasive imaging tool for many cardiomyopathies. In this two-part review we outline the typical sequences used to image cardiomyopathy and present the imaging spectrum of cardiomyopathy. Part?I?focused on the current classification of cardiomyopathy, the basic CMRI sequences used in evaluating cardiomyopathy and the imaging spectrum of common phenotypes. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of the more rare phenotypes. PMID:22655165

O'Neill, Ailbhe C; McDermott, Shaunagh; Ridge, Carole A; Keane, David; Dodd, Jonathan D

2012-01-01

115

Application of Uncooled Monolithic Thermoelectric Linear Arrays to Imaging Radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Identification of Incipient Failure of Railcar Wheels Technical Description of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Performance of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Initial Application Summary Imaging Radiometer for Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Description Operation Specifications Summary References INDEX CONTENTS OF VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES

Kruse, Paul W.

116

A real time image generation system and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time image generation system which generates images of shaded objects in three-dimensional space at a 60 fields\\/s rate is described. It features real time image generation, real time data update, programmable system flexibility, and stereoscopic animation. The system consists of engineering workstations, digital signal processing, and shading hardware. It is suitable for personal, public, and business applications, such

Hirofumi Ishida; Noriko Iwata; Keiji Nemoto

1990-01-01

117

Commercial applications for thermal imaging instruments: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared thermal imaging instruments were originally developed by the military for passive night vision and surveillance and, subsequently, found applications in weapons aiming and target tracking. Commercial applications for this technology dictate different rules and place different emphasis on instrument configuration and performance characteristics. This paper begins with a performance comparison between military night vision systems and typical commercial imaging

Herbert Kaplan

1994-01-01

118

Applications of Digital Image Processing 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique, digital image velocimetry, is proposed for the measurement of instantaneous velocity fields of time dependent flows. A time sequence of single-exposure images of seed particles are captured with a high-speed camera, and a finite number of the single-exposure images are sampled within a prescribed period in time. The sampled images are then digitized on an image processor, enhanced, and superimposed to construct an image which is equivalent to a multiple exposure image used in both laser speckle velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The superimposed image and a single-exposure Image are digitally Fourier transformed for extraction of information on the velocity field. A great enhancement of the dynamic range of the velocity measurement is accomplished through the new technique by manipulating the Fourier transform of both the single-exposure image and the superimposed image. Also the direction of the velocity vector is unequivocally determined. With the use of a high-speed video camera, the whole process from image acquisition to velocity determination can be carried out electronically; thus this technique can be developed into a real-time capability.

Cho, Y. -C.

1988-01-01

119

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part I--Physical Principles  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most complex imaging technology available to clinicians. Whereas most imaging technologies depict differences in one, or occasionally two, tissue characteristics, MR imaging has five tissue variables—spin density, T1 and T2 relaxation times and flow and spectral shifts—from which to construct its images. These variables can be combined in various ways by selecting pulse sequences and pulse times to emphasize any desired combination of tissue characteristics in the image. This selection is determined by the user of the MR system before imaging data are collected. If the selection is not optimal, the imaging process must be repeated at a cost of time and resources. The optimal selection of MR imaging procedures and the proper interpretation of the resultant images require a thorough understanding of the basic principles of MR imaging. Included in this understanding should be at least the rudiments of how an MR imaging signal is produced and why it decays with time; the significance of relaxation constants; the principles of scanning methods such as saturation recovery, inversion recovery and spin echo; how data obtained by these methods are used to form an image, and how the imaging data are complied by multi-slice and volumetric processes. In selecting an MR imaging unit, information about different magnet designs (resistive, superconductive and permanent) is useful. Although no bioeffects are thought to be associated with an MR imaging examination, some knowledge of the attempts to identify bioeffects is helpful in alleviating concern in patients. Images PMID:6506686

Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

1984-01-01

120

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2012-07-01

121

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2013-07-01

123

Medical Image Segmentation Based On Deformable Models And Its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformable models, including parametric deformable models and geometric deformable models, have been widely used for segmenting\\u000a and identifying anatomic structures in medical image analysis. This chapter discusses medical image segmentation based on\\u000a deformable models and its applications. We first study several issues and methods related to medical image segmentation and\\u000a then review deformable models in detail. Three applications in different

Yonggang Wang; Qiang Guo; Yun Zhu

124

Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image mosaicing and stabilization can be applied to many areas of industry, such as: surveillance, mapping, teleoperation, maintenance and inspection. The paper gives not only an introduction to key concepts in image mosaicing and stabilization, but also the formulation needed to create real-world systems. We also implemented systems for image mosaicing and stabilization; the implementation and results are also presented

Carlos Guestrin; Fabio Gagliardi Cozman; Marcelo Godoy Simões

1998-01-01

125

Practical applications of synthetic aperture imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture imaging has been a focus of research for almost 3 decades. The research carried out at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging has demonstrated that synthetic aperture focusing not only can be used in-vivo, but that it also yields superior B-mode and blood flow images. In the last years synthetic aperture focusing has moved from the lab to

Svetoslav Ivanov Nikolov; Jacob Kortbek; Jorgen Arendt Jensen

2010-01-01

126

Diffusion tensor imaging: Concepts and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is deeply rooted in the powerful concept that during their random, diffusion-driven displacements molecules probe tissue structure at a microscopic scale well beyond the usual image resolution. As diffusion is truly a three- dimensional process, molecular mobility in tissues may be anisotropic, as in brain white matter. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI),

Denis Le Bihan; Cyril Poupon; Chris A. Clark; Sabina Pappata; Nicolas Molko; Hughes Chabriat

2001-01-01

127

Permeation peptide conjugates for in vivo molecular imaging applications.  

PubMed

Rapid and efficient delivery of imaging probes to the cell interior using permeation peptides has enabled novel applications in molecular imaging. Membrane permeant peptides based on the HIV-1 Tat basic domain sequence, GRKKRRQRRR, labeled with fluorophores and fluorescent proteins for optical imaging or with appropriate peptide-based motifs or macrocycles to chelate metals, such as technetium for nuclear scintigraphy and gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging, have been synthesized. In addition, iron oxide complexes have been functionalized with the Tat basic domain peptides for magnetic resonance imaging applications. Herein we review current applications of permeation peptides in molecular imaging and factors influencing permeation peptide internalization. These diagnostic agents show concentrative cell accumulation and rapid kinetics and display cytosolic and focal nuclear accumulation in human cells. Combining methods, dual-labeled permeation peptides incorporating fluorescein maleimide and chelated technetium have allowed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular uptake. Imaging studies in mice following intravenous administration of prototypic diagnostic permeation peptides show rapid whole-body distribution allowing for various molecular imaging applications. Strategies to develop permeation peptides into molecular imaging probes have included incorporation of targeting motifs such as molecular beacons or protease cleavable domains that enable selective retention, activatable fluorescence, or targeted transduction. These novel permeation peptide conjugates maintain rapid translocation across cell membranes into intracellular compartments and have the potential for targeted in vivo applications in molecular imaging and combination therapy. PMID:16779965

Bullok, Kristin E; Gammon, Seth T; Violini, Stefania; Prantner, Andrew M; Villalobos, Victor M; Sharma, Vijay; Piwnica-Worms, David

2006-01-01

128

Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part II--nanomedicine: diagnostics and imaging at the nanoscale level.  

PubMed

THE NOTION OF nanotechnology has evolved since its inception as a fantastic conceptual idea to its current position as a mainstream research initiative with broad applications among all divisions of science. In the first part of this series, we reviewed the structures and principles that comprise the main body of knowledge of nanoscience and nanotechnology (58). This article reviews and discusses the applications of nanotechnology to biological systems that will undoubtedly transform the foundations of disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention in the future. Specific attention is given to developments in diagnostics and imaging at the nanoscale level. The use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials as biodetection agents for deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins is presented. In addition, nanodevices, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocantilevers, can be combined with nanoarrays and nanofluidics to create integrated and automated nanodetection platforms. Molecular imaging modalities based on quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles are also discussed. This technology has been extended to the imaging of intracranial neoplasms. Further innovation within these disciplines will form the basis for the development of mature nanomedicine. The final article of the series will focus on additional advancements in nanomedicine, namely nanotherapy and nanosurgery, and will cover the innovations that will lead to the eventual realization of nanoneurosurgery. PMID:16639314

Leary, Scott P; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

2006-05-01

129

Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging polarimetry has emerged over the past three decades as a powerful tool to enhance the information available in a variety of remote sensing applications. We discuss the foundations of passive imaging polarimetry, the phenomenological reasons for designing a polarimetric sensor, and the primary architectures that have been exploited for developing imaging polarimeters. Considerations on imaging polarimeters such as calibration, optimization, and error performance are also discussed. We review many important sources and examples from the scientific literature.

Tyo, J. Scott; Goldstein, Dennis L.; Chenault, David B.; Shaw, Joseph A.

2006-08-01

130

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2010-04-01

131

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2011-04-01

132

17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.  

...RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. ...Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act. [Reg. BW, 15 FR 281, Jan. 17,...

2014-04-01

133

Short-lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays Part II: Phantom and In Vivo Experiments  

PubMed Central

In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric Short-lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched B-mode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared to their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and CNR calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods. PMID:24960701

Jakovljevic, Marko; Byram, Brett C.; Hyun, Dongwoon; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

2014-01-01

134

Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

Madelin, Guillaume

2012-01-01

135

Versatile architecture for image recognition applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Architectures for the development of image recognition algorithms must support the implementation of systematic procedures for solving image recognition problems. All too often, designers develop image recognition architectures in an ad hoc fashion which lacks the structure to meet long term needs. Vendors typically supply customers with standard image processing libraries and display tools. Combining these tools and formulating development strategies have remained stumbling blocks in the design of complete image recognition algorithm development environments. In this paper, an architecture is presented which provides a well defined framework, and at the same time is sufficiently flexible to accommodate images of multiple sensor and data types. The primary components of the architecture are: ground-truthing, preprocessing (which includes image processing and segmentation), feature extraction, classification, and performance analysis. Powerful and well defined data structures are exploited for each of the primary components. Groups of programs called tasks manipulate one or more of these data structures, each task belonging to one of the primary components. Multiple tasks can be executed in an unsupervised mode over an entire database of images. Results are then subjected to performance analysis and feedback. A description of the primary components and how they are integrated to facilitate the rapid prototyping and development of image recognition algorithms is presented.

Sacramone, Anthony; Scola, Joseph; Shazeer, Dov J.

1992-03-01

136

BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant literature. Let's devote a few more words to the section on pedagogical applications. It is the usual perception that the use of IR cameras for educational purposes is limited primarily to help visualize processes in thermodynamics such as heat conduction, evaporation, radiation and convection. In this book the authors show that the range of pedagogical applications of IR cameras is much wider. They describe concrete examples (from the descriptions it is clear that the authors have performed all experiments themselves) from mechanics (friction, inelastic collisions), electromagnetism (eddy currents, thermoelectric effect, analysis of standing waves in the microwave oven), optics (specular and diffuse reflection, wave optics in the IR region) and modern physics (selective absorption in gases). Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. As said earlier, the decision to write a book for a wide range of readers requires authors to make certain compromises. The inclusion of interpretations and explanations at a basic level will certainly be welcomed by some readers, but due to the limited space some simplifications of this type of content were inevitable. Readers who might be put off by these simplifications should bear in mind that there are few authors who describe specialized topics such as this one and devote so much space to fundamentals. One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one.

Planinsic, Gorazd

2011-09-01

137

Emerging Applications of Conjugated Polymers in Molecular Imaging  

PubMed Central

In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties. Their size and emission wavelength tunability, brightness, photostability, and low toxicity have been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro sensing and cellular imaging applications, and have just begun to show impact in in vivo settings. In this Perspective, we summarize recent advances in engineering conjugated polymers as imaging contrast agents, their emerging applications in molecular imaging (referred to as in vivo uses in this paper), as well as our perspectives on future research. PMID:23860904

Li, Junwei; Liu, Jie; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liu, Bin; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

2013-01-01

138

Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

2010-01-01

139

Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

1997-04-01

140

Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

141

PHYS 178 2008 Week 6, Part 2 PIA00335: Voyager 1 image of  

E-print Network

Rings PHYS 178 ­ 2008 Week 6, Part 2 ! PIA00335: Voyager 1 image of Saturn and its ring four days of the images was necessary. Three images (red, green and blue) were taken of each of 42 locations of the northern dark side is just visible at top -- the illumination it receives being far less than the south

Wardle, Mark

142

Toward the Detection of Overlapping Body Parts in Infrared Images Sue Twelves1  

E-print Network

Toward the Detection of Overlapping Body Parts in Infrared Images Sue Twelves1 , Pierre Payeur2 region of the body. In addition to the medical imaging field, there has been research into IR. OVERLAPPING BODY SYSTEM Detection Four different images of overlapping limbs were used during the system

Payeur, Pierre

143

Infrared Thermography Based Image Construction for BioMedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning and imaging techniques, when applied to medicine, are helpful in diagnosis of some critical illnesses that affect human beings. Imaging techniques use the electromagnetic spectrum for the construction of internal anatomy, visibility of organs, and for detection of tumors and other such anomalies. Infrared Radiation (IR), which is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, is a potential alternative in medical

V. Umadevi; S. V. Raghavan

2009-01-01

144

Application of Wavelet Transform for Image Denoising of Spatially and Time Variable Astronomical Imaging Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our efforts to formulate algorithms for image signal processing with the spatially and time variant Point-Spread Function (PSF) and inhomogeneous noise of real imaging systems. In this paper we focus on application of the wavelet transform for denoising of the astronomical images with complicated conditions. They influence above all accuracy of the measurements and the new source detection ability. Our aim is to test the usefulness of Wavelet transform (as the standard image processing technique) for astronomical purposes.

Blažek, M.; Anisimova, E.; Páta, P.

145

Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

Burke, Ken

2005-01-01

146

1 INTRODUCTION Medical imaging is an integral part of diagnostics.  

E-print Network

(CT) involve the use of radiation (x­ rays), which may concern many patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging does not involve the use of x­rays, but like CT, it is an expensive procedure. CT and Magnetic. These modalities include radiography, Computed Tomography, fluoroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

147

Hybrid cardiac imaging: More than the sum of its parts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constant technological developments in noninvasive cardiac imaging over the past few decades have contributed toward our pathophysiologic understanding of many conditions. Particularly in coronary artery disease (CAD), management is based on the assessment of both the presence of coronary stenoses and their hemodynamic consequences. 1,2 Hence, noninvasive imaging helps guide therapeutic decisions by providing complementary information on coronary morphology

Oliver Gaemperli; Philipp A. Kaufmann

2008-01-01

148

Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging  

PubMed Central

We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

2009-01-01

149

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

150

Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1  

PubMed Central

Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (?Abs=782 nm, ?Fl=810 nm, ? = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ?Fl?0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

2013-01-01

151

Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des ondes, qui démontre l'aspect mésoscopique de leur propagation, est une limitation majeure pour les techniques d'imagerie conventionelles (imagerie médicale, sismique réflexion ou réfraction, tomographie...). La deuxième partie du document (Chaps. 3 5) est consacrée à une application de cette physique mésoscopique : le principe de l'imagerie passive. En effectuant la corrélation temporelle d'enregistrement de bruit ambiant ou d'ondes diffuses, il est possible de reconstruire la réponse impulsionnelle du milieu entre deux capteurs passifs comme si l'on avait placé une source en lieu et place d'un des capteurs. Cela offre la possibilité de faire de l'acoustique ou de la sismologie sans source. Plusieurs aspects sont présentés dans ce manuscrit : des aspects théoriques et numériques (Chaps. 3, 4), ensuite des aspects expérimentaux avec des applications (Chap. 5) à l'échelle des ultrasons (tomographie passive d'un milieu stratifié), et des applications à l'échelle de la sismologie (imagerie du sous-sol de la Californie, et même de la Lune).

Larose, É.

2006-05-01

152

Light field applications to 3-dimensional surface imaging  

E-print Network

The structure of light around a scene may be contained in a 4-dimensional array known as a light field. This thesis describes methods for acquiring and manipulating light fields for applications in 3-dimensional imaging. ...

Hong, Wenxian

2009-01-01

153

Fast neutron resonance radiography for element imaging : theory and applications  

E-print Network

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method, with immediate applications to detecting explosives and drugs in passenger suitcases. In the NRR method, the 2-D elemental mapping ...

Chen, Gongyin, 1968-

2001-01-01

154

Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy: Applications to Diseases Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Second Harmonic Generation microscopy has emerged as a powerful new optical imaging modality. This Feature describes its chemical and physical principles and highlights current applications in disease diagnostics. PMID:21446646

Campagnola, Paul

2011-01-01

155

Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. Methods IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. Results The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. Conclusion With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community. PMID:20037671

Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

2009-01-01

156

Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

1994-09-28

157

Using stereoscopic imaging for visualization applications  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of scientific visualization is to simplify the analysis of numerical data by rendering the information as an image. Even when the image is familiar, as in the case of terrain data, preconceptions about what the image should look like and deceptive image artifacts can create misconceptions about what information is actually contained in the scene. One way of aiding the development of unambiguous visualizations is to add stereoscopic depth to the image. Despite the recent proliferation of affordable stereoscopic viewing equipment, few researchers are at this time taking advantage of stereo in their visualizations. It is generally perceived that the rendering time will have to be doubled in order to generate the pair, and so stereoscopic viewing is sacrificed in the name of expedient rendering. We show that this perception is often invalid. The second half of a stereoscopic image can be generated from the first half for a fraction of the computational cost of complete rendering, usually no more than 50% of the cost and in many cases as little as 5%. Using the techniques presented here, the benefits of stereoscopy can be added to existing visualization systems for only a small cost over current single-frame rendering methods.

Adelson, S.J.

1994-02-01

158

Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric

2007-01-01

159

On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

2014-04-01

160

Advanced multifunctional detectors for laser-gated imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid pace of development in the field of long-range imaging is illustrated by two new detector technologies for passive and active imaging. Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called burst-illumination LIDAR or BIL. The SELEX solid state detector is based

Ian Baker; Peter Thorne; James Henderson; Jeremy Copley; David Humphreys; Alasdair Millar

2006-01-01

161

Neural Network based textural labeling of images in multimedia applications  

E-print Network

Neural Network based textural labeling of images in multimedia applications S.A. Karkanis+ , G perceptron type neural networks in the characterization of images by texture content. The paper is focused. An in depth experimental study is conducted comparing several well known textural feature extraction

Athens, University of

162

Particle Image Velocimetry in Concentrated Suspensions: Application to Local Rheometry  

E-print Network

Particle Image Velocimetry in Concentrated Suspensions: Application to Local Rheometry Fr and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements on concen- trated suspensions in a wide-gap Couette rheometer properties of the suspensions. Among these techniques, we may cite the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV)[1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Plasmonic Color Filters for CMOS Image Sensor Applications Sozo Yokogawa,,,  

E-print Network

Plasmonic Color Filters for CMOS Image Sensor Applications Sozo Yokogawa,,,§ Stanley P. Burgos, 243-0014, Japan ABSTRACT: We report on the optical properties of plasmonic hole arrays as they apply to requirements for plasmonic color filters designed for state-of-the-art Si CMOS image sensors. The hole arrays

Atwater, Harry

164

Imaging procedures for the inverse synthetic aperture radar application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the approaches used in the algorithm design of radar image processing. They are based on parametric and non-parametric spectral analysis and compared to each other using well-known example of simulated data for the inverse synthetic aperture radar application. The goal of the processing is meeting two requirements which are reducing smeared Doppler shifts and improving image resolution.

Maxim Konovalyuk; Yury Kuznetsov; Andrey Baev

2011-01-01

165

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

166

Study on the thermal imaging application of quantum cascade detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2D mechanical scanning setup was constructed, and was used to evaluate the potential of quantum cascade detector (QCD) for IR imaging. The peak responsivity of the studied QCD is 22.3 mA/W at 9.3 ?m, and the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) reaches 6.7×10-10W/Hz at temperature of 82 K. The Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) for this imaging system is estimated to be 102.6 mK. With this experimental setup, thermal images of an operating electric soldering iron and a projection lamp at about 310 K are obtained. The image of the projection lamp demonstrates the feasibility of human body imaging with this QCD. Our research provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of thermal imaging with QCDs and displays that QCDs are potentially useful for thermal imaging applications.

Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Jun-Qi; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Tan, Song; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

2014-03-01

167

Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

1999-01-01

168

Stereo imaging velocimetry for microgravity applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stereo imaging velocimetry is the quantitative measurement of three-dimensional flow fields using two sensors recording data from different vantage points. The system described in this paper, under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, uses two CCD cameras placed perpendicular to one another, laser disk recorders, an image processing substation, and a 586-based computer to record data at standard NTSC video rates (30 Hertz) and reduce it offline. The flow itself is marked with seed particles, hence the fluid must be transparent. The velocimeter tracks the motion of the particles, and from these we deduce a multipoint (500 or more), quantitative map of the flow. Conceptually, the software portion of the velocimeter can be divided into distinct modules. These modules are: camera calibration, particle finding (image segmentation) and centroid location, particle overlap decomposition, particle tracking, and stereo matching. We discuss our approach to each module, and give our currently achieved speed and accuracy for each where available.

Miller, Brian B.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Bethea, Mark D.

1994-01-01

169

Neural networks: Application to medical imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

Clarke, Laurence P.

1994-01-01

170

3D imaging system for biometric applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a

Kevin Harding; Gil Abramovich; Vijay Paruchura; Swaminathan Manickam; Arun Vemury

2010-01-01

171

Application of laser imaging for bio/geophysical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

1992-07-01

172

Semantic Learning Methods: Application to Image Retrieval  

E-print Network

xi can belong to several concepts. For instance on an image database, one can find buildings, cars, houses, or landscapes, but also cars in front of a building or a house, or houses in a landscape labels (a) (b) FIG. 1 ­ Toy example with 3 mixed concepts, blue = concept 1, red = concept 2, green

173

Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Imaging in Security Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively short wavelength of mm-wave and THz radiation coupled with good transmission through many dielectric materials allows images to be formed of concealed objects. This chapter gives an overview of the detectors, their associated circuitry, and system developments over the past 10 years, focussing on personnel security screening. We will discuss the phenomenology of imaging at these wavelengths, introduce the reader to the basic architectures being used and developed for image forming instruments, show examples of systems, and also discuss the feasibility of spectroscopic THz imaging for security screening applications.

Luukanen, Arttu; Appleby, Roger; Kemp, Mike; Salmon, Neil

174

Interferometric fiber optic sensors for biomedical applications of optoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

We present a non-metallic interferometric silica optical fiber ultrasonic wideband sensor for optoacoustic imaging applications. The ultrasonic sensitivity of this sensor has been characterized over the frequency range from 1 to 10 MHz. A comparative analysis has been carried out between this sensor and an array of piezoelectric transducers using optoacoustic signals generated from an optical absorbent embedded in a tissue mimicking phantom. Also, a two dimensional reconstructed image of the phantom using the fiber interferometric sensor is presented and compared to the image obtained using the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B. The feasibility of our fiber optic based sensor for wideband ultrasonic detection is demonstrated. PMID:21246745

Lamela, Horacio; Gallego, Daniel; Gutierrez, Rebeca; Oraevsky, Alexander

2011-03-01

175

A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

2003-01-01

176

Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

2013-01-01

177

Fast sensors for time-of-flight imaging applications.  

PubMed

The development of sensors capable of detecting particles and radiation with both high time and high positional resolution is key to improving our understanding in many areas of science. Example applications of such sensors range from fundamental scattering studies of chemical reaction mechanisms through to imaging mass spectrometry of surfaces, neutron scattering studies aimed at probing the structure of materials, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements to elucidate the structure and function of biomolecules. In addition to improved throughput resulting from parallelisation of data collection - imaging of multiple different fragments in velocity-map imaging studies, for example - fast image sensors also offer a number of fundamentally new capabilities in areas such as coincidence detection. In this Perspective, we review recent developments in fast image sensor technology, provide examples of their implementation in a range of different experimental contexts, and discuss potential future developments and applications. PMID:24002354

Vallance, Claire; Brouard, Mark; Lauer, Alexandra; Slater, Craig S; Halford, Edward; Winter, Benjamin; King, Simon J; Lee, Jason W L; Pooley, Daniel E; Sedgwick, Iain; Turchetta, Renato; Nomerotski, Andrei; John, Jaya John; Hill, Laura

2014-01-14

178

Recent applications of thermal imagers for security assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recent applications by Sandia National Laboratories of cooled and uncooled thermal infrared imagers to wide-area security assessment systems. Thermal imagers can solve many security assessment problems associated with the protection of high-value assets at military bases, secure installations, and commercial facilities. Thermal imagers can provide surveillance video from security areas or perimeters both day and night without expensive security lighting. Until fairly recently, thermal imagers required open-loop cryogenic cooling to operate. The high cost of these systems and associated maintenance requirements restricted their widespread use. However, recent developments in reliable, closed-loop, linear drive cryogenic coolers and uncooled infrared imagers have dramatically reduced maintenance requirements, extended MTBF, and are leading to reduced system cost. These technology developments are resulting in greater availability and practicality for military as well as civilian security applications.

Bisbee, T.L.

1997-06-01

179

Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.  

PubMed

In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation. PMID:24815619

Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

2014-06-01

180

Selected Applications of Planar Imaging Velocimetry in Combustion Test Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides an overview on the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) in combustion test facilities that are operated at pressures of up to 10 bar. Emphasis is placed on the experimental aspects of each application rather than the interpretation of the acquired flow-field data because many of the encountered problems and chosen solution strategies are unique to this area of velocimetry application. In particular, imaging configurations, seeding techniques, data-acquisition strategies as well as pre- and postprocessing methodologies are outlined.

Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Voges, Melanie; Klinner, Joachim; Schodl, Richard; Hassa, Christoph; Schürmans, Bruno; Güthe, Felix

181

Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

2010-01-01

182

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

183

Use of focused image holography for the nondestructive testing of electronic parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of focused-image holography (holographic interferometry) for monitoring the thermal and mechanical deformations of electronic parts is described and examples of the practical use of the method are presented.

I. S. Klimenko; E. G. Matinian; L. G. Dubitskii

1975-01-01

184

Applications of lentiviral vectors in molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging provides the ability of simultaneous visual and quantitative estimation of long term gene expression directly from living organisms. To reveal the kinetics of gene expression by imaging method, often sustained expression of the transgene is required. Lentiviral vectors have been extensively used over last fifteen years for delivery of a transgene in a wide variety of cell types. Lentiviral vectors have the well known advantages such as sustained transgene delivery through stable integration into the host genome, the capability of infecting non-dividing and dividing cells, broad tissue tropism, a reasonably large carrying capacity for delivering therapeutic and reporter gene combinations. Additionally, they do not express viral proteins during transduction, have a potentially safe integration site profile, and a relatively easy system for vector manipulation and infective viral particle production. As a result, lentiviral vector mediated therapeutic and imaging reporter gene delivery to various target organs holds promise for the future treatment. In this review, we have conducted a brief survey of important lentiviral vector developments in diverse biomedical fields including reproductive biology. PMID:24896320

Chatterjee, Sushmita; De, Abhijit

2014-01-01

185

Global shutter imagers for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global shutter image sensors offer significant advantages over rolling shutter imagers but their implementation needs careful consideration. Each pixel needs a storage element on which the signal is stored after the exposure period. To cope with low read noise requirements, it is essential that the pixel can still perform correlated double sampling or CDS. This requires a second memory element in the pixel, so that the reset reference level of the sense amplifier can be read before the charge is dumped onto the sense node. An important specification is the parasitic light sensitivity or shutter efficiency of the pixel. This is a measure how insensitive the memory cell in the pixel is to light. Depending on the pixel architecture, this may be especially difficult in combination with backside illumination. Other important pixel performance parameters related to pixel architecture are read noise and dark current. In this paper we will review global shutter pixel architectures, compare their performances and discuss future developments. We discuss the issues related to global shutter pixels for high dynamic range and backside illumination, and how the most advanced CMOS image sensor process technologies can offer new approaches.

Meynants, G.

2014-05-01

186

Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology\\u000a stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods\\u000a of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies,\\u000a nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the

Sarah Power; Michael M. Slattery; Michael J. Lee

2011-01-01

187

Satellite Image Processing Applications in MedioGRID  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high level architectural specification of MedioGRID, a research project aiming at implementing a real-time satellite image processing system for extracting relevant environmental and meteorological parameters on a grid system. The presentation focuses on the key architectural decisions of the GRID-aware satellite image processing system, highlighting the technologies for each of the major components. An essential part

Ovidiu Muresan; textbfFlorin Pop; Dorian Gorgan; Valentin Cristea

2006-01-01

188

A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

2011-10-01

189

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN  

E-print Network

HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

Ruf, Christopher

190

Lateral organic photodetectors for imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductor detectors have always been in active research interest of researchers due to its low fabrication cost. Vertical organic detectors have been studied in the past but not much of the works have been done on lateral organic detectors. The lateral design has an advantage over the vertical design that it is easy to fabricate and can be easily integrated with the backplane TFT imager circuit. Integrating an organic photodetectors with TFT imager can improve the over all sensitivity of the imager. However the lateral design limits the fill-factor. Here in our work we propose a new bilayered lateral organic photodetectors with Copper-Phthalocyanine (CUPC) as top and Perylene- Tetracarboxylic Bis- Benzimidazole (PTCBI) as the bottom layer organic material. The bottom organic semiconductor layer work as both, charge transport layer and photon absorption layer. The top and bottom layer provides and heterojunction a potential gradient enough to separate the photo generated excitons in to electrons and holes. The incident photons are absorbed in the two layers active layers giving an exciton. These excitons see a potential barrier at the CUPC-PTCBI heterojunction and separated into holes and electrons. The separated electrons are directed by the external applied electric field and thus give a increase in photocurrent. Lateral organic photodetectors are simple to design and have low dark current. The photo-response of these photo detectors is observed approximately three orders higher in magnitude compare able to its dark response. The dual layer has an advantage of tuning the devices for different absorption wavelengths and were observed more stable comparable to vertical devices.

Shafique, Umar; Karim, Karim S.

2011-03-01

191

Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

2013-03-01

192

Nanoparticles for Applications in Cellular Imaging  

PubMed Central

In the following review we discuss several types of nanoparticles (such as TiO2, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) and their impact on the ability to image biological components in fixed cells. The review also discusses factors influencing nanoparticle imaging and uptake in live cells in vitro. Due to their unique size-dependent properties nanoparticles offer numerous advantages over traditional dyes and proteins. For example, the photostability, narrow emission peak, and ability to rationally modify both the size and surface chemistry of Quantum Dots allow for simultaneous analyses of multiple targets within the same cell. On the other hand, the surface characteristics of nanometer sized TiO2allow efficient conjugation to nucleic acids which enables their retention in specific subcellular compartments. We discuss cellular uptake mechanisms for the internalization of nanoparticles and studies showing the influence of nanoparticle size and charge and the cell type targeted on nanoparticle uptake. The predominant nanoparticle uptake mechanisms include clathrin-dependent mechanisms, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. PMID:21794189

2007-01-01

193

Elastic models application for thorax image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work consist of the implementation and evaluation of elastic alignment algorithms of biomedical images, which were taken at thorax level and simulated with the 4D NCAT digital phantom. Radial Basis Functions spatial transformations (RBF), a kind of spline, which allows carrying out not only global rigid deformations but also local elastic ones were applied, using a point-matching method. The applied functions were: Thin Plate Spline (TPS), Multiquadric (MQ) Gaussian and B-Spline, which were evaluated and compared by means of calculating the Target Registration Error and similarity measures between the registered images (the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD) and correlation coefficient (CC)). In order to value the user incurred error in the point-matching and segmentation tasks, two algorithms were also designed that calculate the Fiduciary Localization Error. TPS and MQ were demonstrated to have better performance than the others. It was proved RBF represent an adequate model for approximating the thorax deformable behaviour. Validation algorithms showed the user error was not significant.

Correa Prado, Lorena S.; Andrés Valdez Díaz, E.; Romo, Raúl

2007-11-01

194

Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a technique for the stand-off detection of trace analytes and residues (explosives, hazardous chemicals, drugs, etc.) using photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). Herein, we refer to this technique as "RED" for "Remote Explosives Detection" or "Resonance Enhanced Detection". This approach leverages recent developments in critical enabling micro and nano-technology components. The first component, a compact IR quantum cascade laser (QCL), is tuned to fundamental absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate a surface of interest. The second component, an IR focal plane array (FPA), is used to image the surface and detect any small increase in the thermal emission upon laser illumination. We have demonstrated the technique at up to 30 meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). In this manuscript we detail several recent improvements to the method and system, as well as some recent results for explosives on complex substrates such as car panels and fabrics. We also introduce a computational framework for modeling and simulating the optical and thermal phenomena associated with the photothermal process.

Kendziora, C. A.; Jones, Robert M.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

2012-06-01

195

A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications  

SciTech Connect

A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

1992-10-01

196

A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications  

SciTech Connect

A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

1992-01-01

197

The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce  

PubMed Central

Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

198

Hyperspectral Image Processing for Automatic Target Detection Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

? This article presents an overview of the theoretical and practical issues associated with the development, analysis, and application of detection algorithms to exploit hyperspectral imaging data. We focus on techniques that exploit spectral information exclusively to make decisions regarding the type of each pixel—target or nontarget—on a pixel-by-pixel basis in an image. First we describe the fundamental structure of

Dimitris Manolakis; David Marden; Gary A. Shaw

2003-01-01

199

3D Winding Number: Theory and Application to Medical Imaging  

PubMed Central

We develop a new formulation, mathematically elegant, to detect critical points of 3D scalar images. It is based on a topological number, which is the generalization to three dimensions of the 2D winding number. We illustrate our method by considering three different biomedical applications, namely, detection and counting of ovarian follicles and neuronal cells and estimation of cardiac motion from tagged MR images. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation emphasizes the reliability of the results. PMID:21317978

Becciu, Alessandro; Fuster, Andrea; Pottek, Mark; van den Heuvel, Bart; ter Haar Romeny, Bart; van Assen, Hans

2011-01-01

200

Magnetic resonance diffusion–weighted imaging: extraneurological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffsion–weighted (Dw) imaging has for a number of years been a diagnostic tool in the field of neuroradiology, yet only since\\u000a the end of the 1990s, with the introduction of echoplanar imaging (EPI) and the use of sequences capable of performing diffusion\\u000a studies during a single breath hold, has it found diagnostic applications at the level of the abdomen. The

S. Colagrande; S. F. Carbone; L. M. Carusi; M. Cova; N. Villari

2006-01-01

201

12 CFR 116.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

...applications under this part? The OCC processes applications under this part using... (b) [Reserved] (c) Your composite rating is 3, 4, or 5. The composite rating is the composite numeric rating that the OCC or...

2014-01-01

202

33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements  

...Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. G Appendix G to Part 157—Timetables for Application...

2014-07-01

203

37 CFR 7.25 - Sections of part 2 applicable to extension of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sections of part 2 applicable to extension of protection. 7.25 Section 7...INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION OF MARKS Extension of Protection to the United States § 7.25 Sections of part 2 applicable to extension of protection. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.  

...Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6 Section... WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. (a)...

2014-07-01

205

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)  

...Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21) D Appendix D to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Pt. 122, App. D Appendix D to Part 122—NPDES Permit Application...

2014-07-01

206

Recent coastline changes at the eastern part of the Meghna Estuary using PALSAR and Landsat images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we have focused on the recent coastline changes at the eastern part of the Meghna Estuary of Bangladesh through the application of PALSAR (The Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat images. The area under concern is very dynamic where the combined processes of erosion and accretion take place under the influence of river discharge with heavy sediment load, wind waves and tides. It falls under the macro-tidal zone with tidal range varying from 4 m to 6 m or even higher. Many parts of the area is covered with intertidal mudflats. They are inundated during the high tides and get exposed during the low tides. So for the detection coastline change consideration of tidal phase is quite important which has been done in the present study. Coastline change from the year 2007 to 2013 has been presented in this paper. From the analyses of satellite images the areas of erosion and accretion of the four major offshore islands have been calculated during the above mentioned period. It has been found that the annual rate of accretion of Urir Char island has decreased from 5.84 km2 per year between 2007~2010 to 1.05 km2 per year between 2010~2013. On the other hand, Sandwip island has been eroding at a higher rate of 3.15 km2 per year between 2010~2013 compared to 0.34 km2 per year between 2007~2010. Overall, the total area of Urir Char, Sandwip and Jahajir Char island increased by about 120 km2 from 2007 to 2013, mainly contributed by the drastic expansion of Jahajir Char island during this period.

Hussain, M. A.; Tajima, Y.; Gunasekara, K.; Rana, S.; Hasan, R.

2014-06-01

207

Geo-spatial image analysis applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the field of spectral sensing technology have elucidated the benefits of multispectral and hyperspectral sensing the military and civil user community. These advancements, when properly exploited can provide the additional and improved automated terrain analysis, image understanding, object detection, and material characterization capabilities. the U.S. Army has established a Center of Excellence for Spectral Sensing Technology. This Center conducts collaborative research on, and development and demonstration of spectral sensing, processing and exploitation techniques. The Center's collaborative efforts integrate programs across multiple disciplines and form a baseline program consisting of coordinated technology thrusts. Existing efforts span the domains of sensor hardware, data processing architectures, algorithms, and signal processing and exploitation technologies across wide spectral regions. These thrusts in turn enable progress and performance improvement in the automated analysis, understanding, classification, discrimination, and identification of terrestrial objects, and materials. The participants draw upon common scientific processes and disciplines to approach similar problems related to different categories and domains of phenomenology.

Roper, William E.

2000-07-01

208

Phase Sensitive X-Ray Imaging: Towards its Interdisciplinary Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray phase imaging including phase tomography has been attracting increasing attention during the past few decades. The advantage of X-ray phase imaging is that an extremely high sensitivity is achieved for weakly absorbing materials, such as biological soft tissues, which generate a poor contrast by conventional schemes. Especially for such living samples, where the reduction of the applied dose is of paramount interest, phase sensitive measurements schemes have an inherent potential for a significant dose reduction combined with an image quality enhancement. Several methods have been invented for x-ray phase contrast imaging that either use an approach based on interferometry, diffraction or wave-field propagation. Some of these techniques have a potential for commercial applications, such as in medicine, non-destructive testing, security and inspection. The scope of this manuscript thus deals with one particular such technique that measures the diffraction caused by the specimen by means of a grating interferometer. Examples of measurements are shown that depict the potential of phase contrast imaging for future commercial applications, such as in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and inspection for quality control. The current state of the technology is briefly reviewed as well as its shortcomings to be overcome with regard to the applications.

Kottler, C.; Revol, V.; Kaufmann, R.; Urban, C.; Knop, K.; Sennhauser, U.; Jerjen, I.; Lüthi, T.; Cardot, F.; Niedermann, P.; Morel, J.-P.; Maake, C.; Walt, H.; Knop, E.; Blanc, N.

2010-04-01

209

The image of the physicist in modern drama (Part 2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an earlier paper, we reviewed a number of post-World War II plays which focused on the role scientists, and more particularly physicists, ought to play in modern society. In this article we continue this type of review, concentrating on the plays of Charles Morgan, Archibald MacLeish, Carl Zuckmayer, and Tom Stoppard, using Thomas Shadwell's classic play The Virtuoso to set the stage for the more modern plays. These plays portray, in the eyes of the playwrights, something of the image of science as a way of gaining knowledge about nature, but focus more strongly on the difficult choices faced by scientists in a world in which the social implications of scientific discoveries have become almost overwhelming.

Brouwer, W.

1994-03-01

210

Application of image enhancement techniques to potential field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the application of image enhancement techniques to potential field data is briefly described and two improved enhancement methods are introduced. One method is derived from the histogram equalization technique and automatically determines the color spectra of geo- physical maps. Colors can be properly distributed and visual effects and resolution can be enhanced by the method. The other method is based on the modified Radon transform and gradient calculation and is used to detect and enhance linear features in gravity and magnetic images. The method facilites the detection of line segments in the transform domain. Tests with synthetic images and real data show the methods to be effective in feature enhancement.

Zhang, Lili; Hao, Tianyao; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Jialin

2005-09-01

211

The future of imaging spectroscopy - Prospective technologies and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new applications monitoring transitional ecological zones, where human impact and disturbance have highest impact as well as in monitoring changes in our natural resources and environment We conclude that imaging spectroscopy enables mapping of biophysical and biochemical variables of the Earth's surface and atmospheric composition with unprecedented accuracy.

Schaepman, M.E.; Green, R.O.; Ungar, S.G.; Curtiss, B.; Boardman, J.; Plaza, A.J.; Gao, B.-C.; Ustin, S.; Kokaly, R.; Miller, J.R.; Jacquemoud, S.; Ben-Dor, E.; Clark, R.; Davis, C.; Dozier, J.; Goodenough, D.G.; Roberts, D.; Swayze, G.; Milton, E.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.

2006-01-01

212

Fast-scanning THz medical imaging system for clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for terahertz (THz) medical imaging have proliferated over the past few years due to advancements in source/detector technology and vigorous application development. While considerable effort has been applied to improving source output power and detector sensitivity, significantly less work has been devoted to improving image acquisition method and time. The majority of THz medical imaging systems in the literature typically acquire pixels by translating the target of interest beneath a fixed illumination beam. While this single-pixel whiskbroom methodology is appropriate for in vitro models, it is unsuitable for in vivo large animal and patient imaging due to practical constraints. This paper presents a scanned beam imaging system based on prior work that enables for reduced image acquisition time while allowing the source, target and detector to remain stationary. The system employs a spinning polygonal mirror and a set of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) objective lenses, and operates at a center illumination frequency of 525GHz with ~125GHz of 3dB bandwidth. The system achieves a focused beam diameter of 1.66mm and a large depth of field of <25 mm. Images of characterization targets and ex vivo tissue samples are presented and compared to results obtained with conventional fixed beam scanning systems.

Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Fokwa, Nuhba; Tewari, Priyamvada; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Nowroozi, Bryan; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

2012-10-01

213

Application of a Cumulative Method for Car Borders Specification in Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with low-level car detection methods in images. The car detection is an integral part of all intelligent car cruise systems. This article describes the method for suppression of the edges produced by classical edge's operators, based on application of the cumulative method. The designed method uses the non-stationary property of the picture background in time-realizations of the

Martin DOBROVOLNÝ; Martin HÁJEK

2008-01-01

214

13 CFR 108.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 108.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...part 108. 108.20 Section 108.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.20 Legal basis and applicability of this part...

2012-01-01

215

Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II  

E-print Network

Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part) fuse original RGB color (EO) images and IR images based on image fusion algorithms; (3) blend the fused. Therein, the image fusion step will be conducted by the quantitative (Yang et al. proposed adaptive multi

216

Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system matched the clinical results. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software has good perspective for application in biomechanical research, which has the advantage of simple optical setup, no-contact, high precision, and no special requirement of test environment.

Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

2008-03-01

217

Theory of real space imaging of Fermi surface parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scanning tunneling microscope can be used to visualize in real space effects provided by Fermi surfaces with buried impurities far below substrates acting as local probes [Weismann ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1168738 323, 1190 (2009)]. After scattering at buried impurities, anisotropic electronic wave oscillations are observed on the surface as hot spots: The experiments exhibit strongly enhanced intensities in certain directions and much weaker intensities in other directions. A theory describing these features is developed based on the stationary phase approximation for the Friedel oscillations and taking into account the band structure of the host material. It is demonstrated how the Fermi surface of a material, for instance, through Fermi contours’ critical points, acts as a mirror focusing electrons that scatter at hidden impurities which allow the projection of parts of the Fermi surface, a quantity defined in reciprocal space, onto real space.

Lounis, Samir; Zahn, Peter; Weismann, Alexander; Wenderoth, Martin; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Mertig, Ingrid; Dederichs, Peter H.; Blügel, Stefan

2011-01-01

218

Neutron detection with imaging plates Part I. Image storage and readout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of neutrons with imaging plates is based on a sequence of physical processes, which are happening during the neutron exposure and the readout of the image information. These processes are investigated in detail starting with the neutron absorption and conversion to secondary radiation by various neutron converter materials and ending with the detection of the photostimulated luminescence, which

M. Thoms; D. Myles; C. Wilkinson

1999-01-01

219

All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1\\/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1\\/2. For

Karsten J. Siebert; Torsten Löffler; Holger Quast; Mark Thomson; Tobias Bauer; Rainer Leonhardt; Stephanie Czasch; Hartmut G. Roskos

2002-01-01

220

Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Terahertz (THz) imaging,is being adopted for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications in aerospace and other government,and industrial settings [1-3]. NASA is currently employing ,THz reflection NDE to examine ,the space shuttle external tank sprayed on foam insulation (SOFI) for voids and disbonds. Homeland security applications such as the inspection of personnel[2], the detection of concealed explosives[2], biological agents, chemical weapons,

David Zimdars; Jeffrey S. White; G. stuk; A. chernovsky; G. Fichter; S. Williamson

2006-01-01

221

Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays, Part I: Beamforming Methods and Simulation Studies  

PubMed Central

Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 × 8 elements in size on a 64 × 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 × 8, 4 × 4, and 2 × 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming. PMID:24960700

Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

222

Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

2014-03-01

223

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

224

Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

2011-09-01

225

12 CFR 516.5 - Do the same procedures apply to all applications under this part?  

...applications under this part? OTS processes applications under this... If * * * Then OTS will process your application under...treatment. (c) Your composite rating is 3, 4, or 5. The composite rating is the...

2014-01-01

226

Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

Radparvar, M.

1995-06-06

227

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

PubMed Central

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process. PMID:23298126

Sechopoulos, Ioannis

2013-01-01

228

A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process  

SciTech Connect

Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Upper Gate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

2013-01-15

229

Multiphoton Biomedical Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy: Agents & Applications  

E-print Network

Multiphoton Biomedical Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy: Agents & Applications Kevin D. Belfield-reactive model Hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy #12;"Two-photon laser scanning at the focus of the scanning pulsed-infrared laser beam, resulting in a much less harmful light dose during

Van Stryland, Eric

230

Perspectives on Imaging: Advanced Applications. Introduction and Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of six articles that address relationships between electronic imaging technology and information science. Articles discuss the areas of technology; applications in the fields of visual arts, medicine, and textile history; conceptual foundations; and future visions, including work in virtual reality and cyberspace. (LRW)

Lynch, Clifford A.; Lunin, Lois F.

1991-01-01

231

Correlation-based watermarking method for image authentication applications  

E-print Network

, necessitates the authentication and integrity of digital media, in addition to the usual quality. Unlike digital signatures, though, image signatures are usually computed from some content-dependent using a digital watermarking3 technique. Depending on the application, a watermark can be fragile

Ahmed, Farid

232

A 76GHz PLL for mm-wave imaging applications  

E-print Network

A 76 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) was designed in 0.13 ?m IBM BiCMOS8HP technology with the intended application of millimeter-wave imaging. The PLL has a type II second order loop filter. The voltage-controlled oscillator ...

Nguyen, Khoa M.

233

Mapping from space — cartographic applications of satellite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital as well as photographic satellite image data offer a high potential of topographic and thematic information. The paper discusses the application of such data for mapping purposes. For the compilation of conventionalTopographic Maps the requirements concerning the geometrical accuracy can easily be met for 1 : 50,000 or even 1 : 25,000. However, the interpretability of the features that

Joerg Albertz; Ruediger Tauch

1994-01-01

234

CASpatch: A SAR image simulation code to support ATR applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, A SAR image simulation code of 3D complex targets named CASpatch is introduced. This code is based on the high frequency technique of shooting and bouncing rays (SBR). The original purpose to design the code is for SAR automatic target recognition (ATR) applications, but it can also be used for RCS prediction and high resolution range profile

Rui Zhang; Jun Hong; Feng Ming

2009-01-01

235

The generalized Fibonacci transformations and application to image scrambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a subfamily of the generalized Fibonacci sequence family, which we call the distinguished generalized Fibonacci sequence. Two members of this subfamily, the Fibonacci sequence and the Lucas sequence, are considered and two transformations, based on these sequences, are introduced. The applications of these transformations to image scrambling are studied in detail. It is found that these transformations

Jiancheng Zou; Rabab K. Ward; Dongxu Qi

2004-01-01

236

Application of Infrared Thermal Imaging in the Sleep Improvement Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing assessing technique convenient to use is of great significance to sleep study. Successful application of infrared thermal imaging (ITI) demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengan capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with sleep improvement function, on

Ziru Li; Xusheng Zhang

2009-01-01

237

Flash lamp planar imaging for high speed flow applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flash lamp planar imaging system used for near sonic flows is discussed. The technique tailors light from an arc lamp to form a filament which is then spread making a light lamina. The 1-microsec pulse duration and estimated 250-watt intensity level permit visualization of transient gas jet phenomena. The method is illustrated by application to atmospheric gas discharges at

A. J. Saber

1989-01-01

238

Clinical applications for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiotherapy treatment of several key clinical sites, including those of the central nervous system, the head and neck, the prostate, and the cervix. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is an imaging technique that is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance owing to its ease and wide availability. DWI measures the mobility of water within tissue at the cellular level without the need of any exogenous contrast agent. For radiotherapy treatment planning, DWI improves upon conventional imaging techniques, by better characterization of tumor tissue properties required for tumor grading, diagnosis, and target volume delineation. Because DWI is also a sensitive marker for alterations in tumor cellularity, it has potential clinical applications in the early assessment of treatment response following radiation therapy. PMID:24931097

Tsien, Christina; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas

2014-07-01

239

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.  

PubMed

In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis. PMID:24972360

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2014-06-01

240

Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2014-06-01

241

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

2014-01-01

242

Fast imaging applications in the nuclear test program  

SciTech Connect

Applications of fast imaging employ both streak cameras and fast framing techniques. Image intensifier tubes are gated to provide fast two-dimensional shutters of 2-3 ns duration with shatter ratios of greater than 10/sup 6/ and resolution greater than 10/sup 4/ pixels. Shutters of less than 1 ns have been achieved with experimental tubes. Characterization data demonstrate the importance of tube and pulser design. Streak cameras are used to simultaneously record temporal and intensity information from up to 200 spatial points. Streak cameras are combined with remote readout for downhole uses and are coupled to fiber optic cables for uphole uses. Optical wavelength multiplexing is being studied as a means of compressing additional image data onto optical fibers. Performance data demonstrate trade-offs between image resolution and system sensitivity.

Lear, R.

1984-02-01

243

Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application  

PubMed Central

As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

2013-01-01

244

Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

1999-09-01

245

Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

2013-06-01

246

Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications  

SciTech Connect

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-18

247

Evaluation of a CMOS image detector for low-cost and power medical x-ray imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in CMOS image detectors are changing the way digital imaging is performed for many applications. The replacement of charge coupled devices (CCDs), with CMOS detectors is a desirable paradigm shift that will depend on the ability to match the high performance characteristics of CCDs. Digital X-ray imaging applications (chest X-ray, mammography) would benefit greatly from this shift because

Scott T. Smith; Daniel R. Bednarek; Darold C. Wobschall; Myoungki Jeong; Hyunkeun Kim; Stephen Rudin

1999-01-01

248

Medical imaging data reconciliation, part 2: clinical order entry and imaging report data reconciliation.  

PubMed

Data reconciliation in medical imaging is designed to ensure the accuracy and integrity of data across multiple steps in the imaging cycle, ultimately leading to improved continuity of patient care. An integral component of this data reconciliation is tied to the steps of clinical order entry and radiology report creation. The clinical data presented at order entry by the referring clinician influence a number of important imaging decisions, including examination selection, protocol design, image acquisition and processing, and interpretation of the imaging data set. The subsequent data derived from the radiology report have a profound impact on diagnosis, treatment, and overall clinical management. As a result, the reconciliation of clinical order entry and radiology report data affect health care delivery and in many respects are dependent on each other for optimal outcomes. The creation of a standardized reconciliation database that proactively records, tracks, analyzes, and provides feedback to radiologists and clinicians offers the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of patient care, while providing objective accountability measures for individual and institutional health care providers. PMID:21962788

Reiner, Bruce I

2011-10-01

249

Wideband optical detector of ultrasound for medical imaging applications.  

PubMed

Optical sensors of ultrasound are a promising alternative to piezoelectric techniques, as has been recently demonstrated in the field of optoacoustic imaging. In medical applications, one of the major limitations of optical sensing technology is its susceptibility to environmental conditions, e.g. changes in pressure and temperature, which may saturate the detection. Additionally, the clinical environment often imposes stringent limits on the size and robustness of the sensor. In this work, the combination of pulse interferometry and fiber-based optical sensing is demonstrated for ultrasound detection. Pulse interferometry enables robust performance of the readout system in the presence of rapid variations in the environmental conditions, whereas the use of all-fiber technology leads to a mechanically flexible sensing element compatible with highly demanding medical applications such as intravascular imaging. In order to achieve a short sensor length, a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating is used, which acts as a resonator trapping light over an effective length of 350 µm. To enable high bandwidth, the sensor is used for sideway detection of ultrasound, which is highly beneficial in circumferential imaging geometries such as intravascular imaging. An optoacoustic imaging setup is used to determine the response of the sensor for acoustic point sources at different positions. PMID:24895083

Rosenthal, Amir; Kellnberger, Stephan; Omar, Murad; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

2014-01-01

250

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of such things as fog, bad weather and clothing, millimeter-wave imaging provides a powerful tool for both airborne and security type applications. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image through bad weather or detect concealed weapons and articles all without generating any form of radiation that might either help an enemey or raise health concerns. In this paper we will show imagery from our second generation state-of-the-art unit and discuss the technology involved.

Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.; Kolinko, Vladimir G.

2003-08-01

251

Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.

Antcliffe, G. A.

1975-01-01

252

Improved tensor scale computation with application to medical image interpolation.  

PubMed

Tensor scale (t-scale) is a parametric representation of local structure morphology that simultaneously describes its orientation, shape and isotropic scale. At any image location, t-scale represents the largest ellipse (an ellipsoid in three dimensions) centered at that location and contained in the same homogeneous region. Here, we present an improved algorithm for t-scale computation and study its application to image interpolation. Specifically, the t-scale computation algorithm is improved by: (1) enhancing the accuracy of identifying local structure boundary and (2) combining both algebraic and geometric approaches in ellipse fitting. In the context of interpolation, a closed form solution is presented to determine the interpolation line at each image location in a gray level image using t-scale information of adjacent slices. At each location on an image slice, the method derives normal vector from its t-scale that yields trans-orientation of the local structure and points to the closest edge point. Normal vectors at the matching two-dimensional locations on two adjacent slices are used to compute the interpolation line using a closed form equation. The method has been applied to BrainWeb data sets and to several other images from clinical applications and its accuracy and response to noise and other image-degrading factors have been examined and compared with those of current state-of-the-art interpolation methods. Experimental results have established the superiority of the new t-scale based interpolation method as compared to existing interpolation algorithms. Also, a quantitative analysis based on the paired t-test of residual errors has ascertained that the improvements observed using the t-scale based interpolation are statistically significant. PMID:20961733

Xu, Ziyue; Sonka, Milan; Saha, Punam K

2011-01-01

253

Unsupervised color image segmentation: with application to skin tumor borders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The images used in this research were digitized from 35mm color photographic slides obtained from a private dermatology practice and from New York University. The authors compared 6 color segmentation methods and their effectiveness as part of an overall border-finding algorithm. The PCT\\/median cut and adaptive thresholding algorithms provided the lowest average error and show the most promise for further

G. A. Hance; S. E. Umbaugh; R. H. Moss; W. V. Stoecker

1996-01-01

254

Providing image management and communication functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective delivery of health care has become increasingly dependent on a wide range of medical data which includes a variety of images. Manual and computer-based medical records ordinarily do not contain image data, leaving the physician to deal with a fragmented patient record widely scattered throughout the hospital. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is currently installing a prototype hospital information system (HIS) workstation network to demonstrate the feasibility of providing image management and communications (IMAC) functionality as an integral part of an existing hospital information system. The core of this system is a database management system adapted to handle images as a new data type. A general model for this integration is discussed and specifics of the hospital-wide network of image display workstations are given.

Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.

1990-08-01

255

Using Attachable Humanoid Parts for Realizing Imaginary Intention and Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to human-robot interaction (HRI) in which a common target object is anthropomorphized using attachable\\u000a humanoid parts. With this approach, the user perceives that the target has an intention and senses what the imaginary body\\u000a of the target looks like through the attached body parts. We experimented how users accepted the intentions and imaginary\\u000a body image

Hirotaka Osawa; Ren Ohmura; Michita Imai

2009-01-01

256

Recursive image registration with application to motion estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for real-time recursive estimation of the two-dimensional shift between successive images in an image sequence occurring, e.g., in a down-looking airborne TV sensor, is presented. The shift, which is linearly related to ground velocity, is adaptively tracked by means of the gradient of a similarity function relating the two successive images. An implementation is presented in which substantial memory capacity and computational complexity are saved by using only a single line in the image frame and by binary quantization of the video signal. A detailed analysis of the algorithm is presented using stochastic mathematical models for the terrain texture, image noise, and velocity variations. Under some simplifying assumptions, closed-form solutions for the error statistics, including temporal power spectral density, are derived. The probability of loss of lock in tracking and the expected time for its reacquisition are evaluated and are found to be low at typical operating conditions. The analysis also indicates considerable robustness of the algorithm to widely different image statistics. Numerical examples indicate very good performance in autonomous navigation applications.

Bresler, Yoram; Merhav, Shmuel J.

1987-01-01

257

New applications of magnetic resonance imaging for thoracic oncology.  

PubMed

Since the clinical introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the chest has been one of its most challenging applications, and since the 1980s many physicists and radiologists have been trying to evaluate images for various lung diseases as well as mediastinal and pleural diseases. However, thoracic MRI could not yield image quality sufficient for a convincing diagnosis within an acceptable examination time, so MRI did not find acceptance as a substitute for computed tomography (CT) and other modalities. Until the 2000, thoracic MRI was generally used only for select, minor clinical indications. Within the past decade, however, technical advances in sequencing, scanners and coils, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, utilization of contrast media, and development of postprocessing tools have been developed. In addition, pulmonary functional MRI has been extensively researched, and MR is being assessed as a new research and diagnostic tool for pulmonary diseases. State-of-the art thoracic MRI now has the potential as a substitute for traditional imaging techniques and/or to play a complimentary role in patient management. In this review, we focus on these advances in MRI for thoracic oncologic imaging, especially for pulmonary nodule assessment, lung cancer staging, mediastinal tumor diagnosis and malignant mesothelioma evaluation, prediction of postoperative lung function, and prediction or evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness. We also discuss the potential and limitations of these advances for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, or nuclear medicine studies. PMID:24481757

Ohno, Yoshiharu

2014-02-01

258

Feasibility of telemammography as biomedical application for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammographic screening is an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer. The migration of mammography from the current mode of x-ray mammography using a film screen image detector and display to a digital technology provides an opportunity to improve access and performance of breast cancer screening. The sheer size and volume of the typical screening exam, the need to have previous screening data readily available, and the need to view other breast imaging data together to provide a common consensus and to plan treatment, make telemammography an ideal application for breast imaging. For telemammography to be a viable option, it must overcome the technical challenges related to transmission, archiving, management, processing and retrieval of large data sets. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Chicago and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems/Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a framework for transmission of large-scale medical images over high-speed networks, leveraged existing high-speed networks between research and medical facilities; tested the feasibility of point-to-point transmission of mammographic images in a near-real time environment; evaluated network performance and transmission scenarios; and investigated the impact of image preprocessing on an experimental computer-aided diagnosis system. Results of the initial study are reported here.

Beckerman, Barbara G.; Batsell, Stephen G.; MacIntyre, Lawrence P.; Sarraf, Hamed S.; Gleason, Shaun S.; Schnall, Mitchell D.

1999-07-01

259

Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

2006-02-01

260

40 CFR 91.903 - Applicability to part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability to part 85, subpart T. 91.903 Section 91.903 Protection...903 Applicability to part 85, subpart T. (a) Marine SI engines subject to...requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 85, subpart T, except for the items set forth in...

2010-07-01

261

40 CFR 91.903 - Applicability to part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability to part 85, subpart T. 91.903 Section 91.903 Protection...903 Applicability to part 85, subpart T. (a) Marine SI engines subject to...requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 85, subpart T, except for the items set forth in...

2012-07-01

262

40 CFR 89.803 - Applicability of part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability of part 85, subpart T. 89.803 Section 89.803 Protection...803 Applicability of part 85, subpart T. (a) Nonroad engines subject to provisions...requirements specified in part 85, subpart T of this chapter, except for the items...

2011-07-01

263

40 CFR 91.903 - Applicability to part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability to part 85, subpart T. 91.903 Section 91.903 Protection...903 Applicability to part 85, subpart T. (a) Marine SI engines subject to...requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 85, subpart T, except for the items set forth in...

2011-07-01

264

40 CFR 89.803 - Applicability of part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability of part 85, subpart T. 89.803 Section 89.803 Protection...803 Applicability of part 85, subpart T. (a) Nonroad engines subject to provisions...requirements specified in part 85, subpart T of this chapter, except for the items...

2012-07-01

265

40 CFR 89.803 - Applicability of part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability of part 85, subpart T. 89.803 Section 89.803 Protection...803 Applicability of part 85, subpart T. (a) Nonroad engines subject to provisions...requirements specified in part 85, subpart T of this chapter, except for the items...

2010-07-01

266

40 CFR 91.903 - Applicability to part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability to part 85, subpart T. 91.903 Section 91.903 Protection...903 Applicability to part 85, subpart T. (a) Marine SI engines subject to...requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 85, subpart T, except for the items set forth in...

2013-07-01

267

40 CFR 89.803 - Applicability of part 85, subpart T.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability of part 85, subpart T. 89.803 Section 89.803 Protection...803 Applicability of part 85, subpart T. (a) Nonroad engines subject to provisions...requirements specified in part 85, subpart T of this chapter, except for the items...

2013-07-01

268

A Regional Planning Application of Satellite Image Processing in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of the city and regional planning applications, the traditional methods for the assessment of land cover\\/land use are labour-intensive, time consuming and expensive. Their credibility is often questionable especially in developing countries; (such as Pakistan), these data are quite insufficient and inconsistent. Nowadays in various parts of the world, satellite data have been successfully used for the appraisal

Mudassar Hassan Arsalan; Mohammed Raza Mehdi; Mubushar Hussain

2006-01-01

269

Antenna applicator design for microwave imaging of the interior of human breasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a waveguide antenna applicator design intended to be placed on the surface or in close proximity to a human breast for imaging purposes. Hence, the antenna needs to be compact for easy placement. The design process is carefully carried out dividing the antenna applicator into separate parts, allowing closer analysis towards improved synthesis. A mode applicator antenna was concluded to be necessary, employing a TE10 mode type with minimized near-field and surface (Zennek) wave excitation. Numerical simulations have been used throughout and show that the proposed ridged waveguide antenna is capable of fulfilling the design requirements and the performance goals. Modelling has been carried out using a scenario with a simple breast model and confirms the applicator's capability.

Petrovi?, N.; Otterskog, M.; Risman, P. O.

2014-09-01

270

Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.  

SciTech Connect

The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

2004-11-01

271

Applications of three-dimensional display techniques in medical imaging.  

PubMed

This paper outlines some of the current uses of three-dimensional techniques in medical imaging applications and their potential for the future. As an example, three-dimensional imaging is described using a CT scanner, as it applies to a case involving craniofacial surgery. This includes defining the relationship between the requirements on the data acquisition system, as well as the specification of the hardware and software for the display. A currently used algorithm is described for the display of surfaces as a function of local position, orientation of the surface and the position of a virtual light source. This includes the use of transparency and cut plane greyscale techniques, in addition to the display of the surfaces. A speculation is made regarding the use of a three-dimensional display as the standard viewing mode in CT, with slice and multiplanar imaging as submodes. PMID:2348712

Strong, A B; Lobregt, S; Zonneveld, F W

1990-05-01

272

PET/CT imaging in cancer: Current applications and future directions.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radiotracer imaging method that yields quantitative images of regional in vivo biology and biochemistry. PET, now used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) in PET/CT devices, has had its greatest impact to date on cancer and is now an important part of oncologic clinical practice and translational cancer research. In this review of current applications and future directions for PET/CT in cancer, the authors first highlight the basic principles of PET followed by a discussion of the biochemistry and current clinical applications of the most commonly used PET imaging agent, (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Then, emerging methods for PET imaging of other biologic processes relevant to cancer are reviewed, including cellular proliferation, tumor hypoxia, apoptosis, amino acid and cell membrane metabolism, and imaging of tumor receptors and other tumor-specific gene products. The focus of the review is on methods in current clinical practice as well as those that have been translated to patients and are currently in clinical trials. Cancer 2014;120:3433-3445. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:24947987

Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A; Mankoff, David A

2014-11-15

273

Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

Valdivia, F.; Crépeault, B.; Duchesne, S.

2012-02-01

274

A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications  

SciTech Connect

The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects.

Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

1994-08-01

275

A Conic Section Classifier and its Application to Image Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in computer vision involving recognition and\\/or classification can be posed in the general frame- work of supervised learning. There is however one as- pect of image datasets, the high-dimensionality of the data points, that makes the direct application of off-the-shelf learning techniques problematic. In this paper, we present a novel concept class and a companion tractable algo- rithm

Arunava Banerjee; Santhosh Kodipaka; Baba C. Vemuri

2006-01-01

276

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

277

A novel color image fusion QoS measure for multi-sensor night vision applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color image fusion of visible and infra-red imagery can play an important role in multi-sensor night vision systems that are an integral part of modern warfare. Image fusion minimizes the amount of required bandwidth by transmitting the fused image rather than multiple sensor images. Color image fusion can be achieved by combining inputs from original colored sensors or by employing

I. Gondal; M. Murshed

2010-01-01

278

State-of-the-art aortic imaging: part I - fundamentals and perspectives of CT and MRI.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, imaging of the aorta has undergone a clinically relevant change. As part of the change non-invasive imaging techniques have replaced invasive intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography as the former imaging gold standard for aortic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the backbone of pre- and postoperative aortic imaging because they allow for imaging of the entire aorta and its branches. The first part of this review article describes the imaging principles of CT and MRI with regard to aortic disease, shows how both technologies can be applied in every day clinical practice, offering exciting perspectives. Recent CT scanner generations deliver excellent image quality with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Technical developments have resulted in CT scan performed within a few seconds for the entire aorta. Therefore, CT angiography (CTA) is the imaging technology of choice for evaluating acute aortic syndromes, for diagnosis of most aortic pathologies, preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up after endovascular aortic repair. However, radiation dose and the risk of contrast induced nephropathy are major downsides of CTA. Optimisation of scan protocols and contrast media administration can help to reduce the required radiation dose and contrast media. MR angiography (MRA) is an excellent alternative to CTA for both diagnosis of aortic pathologies and postoperative follow-up. The lack of radiation is particularly beneficial for younger patients. A potential side effect of gadolinium contrast agents is nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In patients with high risk of NSF unenhanced MRA can be performed with both ECG- and breath-gating techniques. Additionally, MRI provides the possibility to visualise and measure both dynamic and flow information. PMID:24220116

Rengier, Fabian; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Karmonik, Christof; Schoenhagen, Paul; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Partovi, Sasan

2013-11-01

279

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2013-07-01

280

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2014-07-01

281

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2011-07-01

282

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2010-07-01

283

40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart H of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks Pt. 63, Subpt H, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart H of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2012-07-01

284

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2012-07-01

286

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2011-07-01

287

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

...Part 63 General Provisions 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2014-07-01

288

Ambient mass spectrometry imaging: plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and its applications.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been widely used in many research areas for the advantages of providing informative molecular distribution with high specificity. Among the recent progress, ambient MSI has attracted increasing interests owing to its characteristics of ambient, in situ, and nonpretreatment analysis. Here, we are presenting the ambient MSI for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and authentication of work of art and documents using plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS). Compared with current ambient MSI methods, an excellent average resolution of 60 ?m × 60 ?m pixel size was achieved using this system. The feasibility of PALDI-based MSI was confirmed by seal imaging, and its authentication applications were demonstrated by imaging of printed Chinese characters. Imaging of the Radix Scutellariae slice showed that the two active components, baicalein and wogonin, mainly were distributed in the epidermis of the root, which proposed an approach for distinguishing TCMs' origins and the distribution of active components of TCMs and exploring the environmental effects of plant growth. PALDI-MS imaging provides a strong complement for the MSI strategy with the enhanced spatial resolution, which is promising in many research fields, such as artwork identification, TCMs' and botanic research, pharmaceutical applications, etc. PMID:24670045

Feng, Baosheng; Zhang, Jialing; Chang, Cuilan; Li, Liping; Li, Min; Xiong, Xingchuang; Guo, Chengan; Tang, Fei; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

2014-05-01

289

Fast method for brain image segmentation: application to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

The interpretation of brain metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is assisted by knowledge of the percentage of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within each MRSI voxel. Usually, this information is determined from T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) that have a much higher spatial resolution than the MRSI data. While this approach works well, it is time-consuming. In this article, a rapid data acquisition and analysis procedure for image segmentation is described, which is based on collection of several, thick slice, fast spin echo images (FSE) of different contrast. Tissue segmentation is performed with linear "Eigenimage" filtering and normalization. The method was compared to standard segmentation techniques using high-resolution 3D T(1)-weighted MRI in five subjects. Excellent correlation between the two techniques was obtained, with voxel-wise regression analysis giving GM: R2 = 0.893 +/- 0.098, WM: R2 = 0.892 +/- 0.089, ln(CSF): R2 = 0.831 +/- 0.082). Test-retest analysis in one individual yielded an excellent agreement of measurements with R2 higher than 0.926 in all three tissue classes. Application of FSE/EI segmentation to a sample proton MRSI dataset yielded results similar to prior publications. It is concluded that FSE imaging in conjunction with Eigenimage analysis is a rapid and reliable way of segmenting brain tissue for application to proton MRSI. PMID:16187272

Bonekamp, David; Horská, Alena; Jacobs, Michael A; Arslanoglu, Atilla; Barker, Peter B

2005-11-01

290

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-08-15

291

Automatic segmentation of medical images using image registration: diagnostic and simulation applications.  

PubMed

Automatic identification of the boundaries of significant structure (segmentation) within a medical image is an are of ongoing research. Various approaches have been proposed but only two methods have achieved widespread use: manual delineation of boundaries and segmentation using intensity values. In this paper we describe an approach based on image registration. A reference image is prepared and segmented, by hand or otherwise. A patient image is registered to the reference image and the mapping then applied to ther reference segmentation to map it back to the patient image. In general a high-resolution nonlinear mapping is required to achieve accurate segmentation. This paper describes an algorithm that can efficiently generate such mappings, and outlines the uses of this tool in two relevant applications. An important feature of the approach described in this paper is that the algorithm is independent of the segmentation problem being addresses. All knowledge about the problem at hand is contained in files of reference data. A secondary benefit is that the continuous three-dimensional mapping generated is well suited to the generation of patient-specific numerical models (e.g. finite element meshes) from the library models. Smoothness constraints in the morphing algorithm tend to maintain the geometric quality of the reference mesh. PMID:15804853

Barber, D C; Hose, D R

2005-01-01

292

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3...false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit...

2013-07-01

293

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3...false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit...

2010-07-01

294

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3...false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit...

2011-07-01

295

33 CFR Appendix B to Part 331 - Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3...false Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit B Appendix B to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS...Applicant Options With Initial Proffered Permit...

2012-07-01

296

78 FR 63501 - Request To Submit a Two-Part Application-Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a Two-Part Application--Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...August 9, 2013, letter from Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC (NWMI). In this letter...permit application for a [[Page 63502

2013-10-24

297

19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...product of less than $1,500 in 1998, as measured by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable 1-year period” means the 12-month period beginning...

2010-04-01

298

19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...product of less than $1,500 in 1998, as measured by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Botswana; and Namibia. (c) Applicable 1-year period. The term “applicable 1-year period” means the 12-month period beginning...

2011-04-01

299

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1988-01-01

300

Optical-parametric-amplification applications to complex images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast optical pulses have many useful features. One in particular is their ability to exploit nonlinear processes due to their extremely short durations. We have used ultrafast optical pulses, primarily focused on the nonlinear processes of Polarization Gating and of Optical Parametric Amplification, one for measurement and the other for imaging purposes. For measurement, we have demonstrated a robust method of measurement to simultaneously measure both optical pulses used in a pump-probe type configuration. In these measurements, no initial information beyond the nonlinear interaction between the pulses is required. We refer to this method of pulse measurement as Double-Blind Polarization Gating FROG[1]. We have demonstrated this single-shot method for measuring two unknown pulses using one device. We have demonstrated this technique on three separate pulse pairs. We measured two Gaussian pulses with different amounts of chirp. We measured two double pulses with different pulse separations, and we have measured two extremely different pulses, where one was simple Gaussian and the other was a pulse train produced by an etalon. This method has no non-trivial ambiguities, has a reliable algorithm, and is automatically phase matched for all spectral bandwidths. In simulations[2], this method has proven to be extremely robust, measuring very complicated pulses with TBPs of ˜100 even in the presence of noise. In addition to pulse measurement, we have demonstrated the processes of Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) applicability to imaging of complex objects[3]. We have done this where the Fourier transform plane is used during the interaction. We have amplified and wavelength converted a complex image. We report imaging of spatial features from 1.1 to 10.1 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) in the vertical dimension and from 2.0 to 16.0 lp/mm in the horizontal dimension. We observe a gain of ˜100, and, although our images were averaged over many shots, we used a single-shot geometry, capable of true single-shot OPA imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first Fourier-plane OPA imaging of more than a single spatial-frequency component of an image. We observe more than 30 distinct spatial frequency components in both our amplified image and our wavelength shifted image. The two-dimensional SBP for our Fourier-plane OPA imaging system was ˜46,000. We have demonstrated all-optical spatial filtering for these complex images[4]. We have demonstrated that direct Fourier filtering of spatial features is possible by using a shaped pump beam. We have simply used a line shaped pump beam generated by a use of cylindrical lens. Further, the phase matching leads to interesting image-processing results, which are controlled by rotation of the crystal angle. The phase matching condition acts like a ring-shaped physical aperture on the image. We can isolate certain portions of the image simply by rotating the crystal. The Fourier plane of interaction allows for both spatial-frequency and spatial-feature filtering, with wide latitude available in the spatial-frequency transfer function through the use of exotic shaped pump beams.

Vaughan, Peter M.

301

Adaptation of web pages and images for mobile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce our new visualization service which presents web pages and images on arbitrary devices with differing display resolutions. We analyze the layout of a web page and simplify its structure and formatting rules. The small screen of a mobile device is used much better this way. Our new image adaptation service combines several techniques. In a first step, border regions which do not contain relevant semantic content are identified. Cropping is used to remove these regions. Attention objects are identified in a second step. We use face detection, text detection and contrast based saliency maps to identify these objects and combine them into a region of interest. Optionally, the seam carving technique can be used to remove inner parts of an image. Additionally, we have developed a software tool to validate, add, delete, or modify all automatically extracted data. This tool also simulates different mobile devices, so that the user gets a feeling of how an adapted web page will look like. We have performed user studies to evaluate our web and image adaptation approach. Questions regarding software ergonomics, quality of the adapted content, and perceived benefit of the adaptation were asked.

Kopf, Stephan; Guthier, Benjamin; Lemelson, Hendrik; Effelsberg, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

302

24 CFR 883.105 - Applicability of part 883 in effect as of February 29, 1980.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROGRAM-STATE HOUSING AGENCIES Summary and Guide § 883.105 Applicability of part...Projects for which applications or proposals were submitted before the February...promptly modified the application(s) and proposal(s) to comply. (b) Subpart...

2012-04-01

303

24 CFR 883.105 - Applicability of part 883 in effect as of February 29, 1980.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAM-STATE HOUSING AGENCIES Summary and Guide § 883.105 Applicability of part...Projects for which applications or proposals were submitted before the February...promptly modified the application(s) and proposal(s) to comply. (b) Subpart...

2011-04-01

304

24 CFR 883.105 - Applicability of part 883 in effect as of February 29, 1980.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAM-STATE HOUSING AGENCIES Summary and Guide § 883.105 Applicability of part...Projects for which applications or proposals were submitted before the February...promptly modified the application(s) and proposal(s) to comply. (b) Subpart...

2010-04-01

305

24 CFR 883.105 - Applicability of part 883 in effect as of February 29, 1980.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAM-STATE HOUSING AGENCIES Summary and Guide § 883.105 Applicability of part...Projects for which applications or proposals were submitted before the February...promptly modified the application(s) and proposal(s) to comply. (b) Subpart...

2013-04-01

306

24 CFR 883.105 - Applicability of part 883 in effect as of February 29, 1980.  

...PROGRAM-STATE HOUSING AGENCIES Summary and Guide § 883.105 Applicability of part...Projects for which applications or proposals were submitted before the February...promptly modified the application(s) and proposal(s) to comply. (b) Subpart...

2014-04-01

307

Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging: extraneurological applications.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted (Dw) imaging has for a number of years been a diagnostic tool in the field of neuroradiology, yet only since the end of the 1990s, with the introduction of echoplanar imaging (EPI) and the use of sequences capable of performing diffusion studies during a single breath hold, has it found diagnostic applications at the level of the abdomen. The inherent sensitivity to motion and the magnetic susceptibility of Dw sequences nonetheless still create problems in the study of the abdomen due to artefacts caused by the heartbeat and intestinal peristalsis, as well as the presence of various parenchymal-gas interfaces. With regard to focal liver lesions, a review of the literature reveals that Dw imaging is able to differentiate lesions with high water content (cysts and angiomas) from solid lesions. With regard to the latter, although there are differences between benign forms [focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma] and malignant forms [metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] in their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the average values for histological type, there is a significant overlap in values when lesions are assessed individually, with the consequent problem of their correct identification. One promising aspect is the possibility of quantifying the degree of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis given that the deposit of collagen fibres "restricts" the motion of water molecules and therefore reduces ADC values. However, even in this field, studies can only be considered preliminary and far from real clinical applications. The retroperitoneum is less affected by motion artefacts and similarly deserves the attention of Dw imaging. Here it is possible to differentiate mucin-producing tumours of the pancreas from pseudocystic forms on the basis of ADC values even though the limited spatial resolution of Dw imaging does not enable the identification of small lesions. Dw imaging may be applied to the study of the kidney to differentiate hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis and with regard to tumours, solid from pseudocystic forms. In addition, given that renal parenchyma has significantly variable ADC values on the basis of the anatomic section and physiological conditions, the possibility of assessing functional alterations is currently being studied. Indeed, a good correlation has been found between ADC values and glomerular filtration rate. With regard to musculoskeletal applications, the absence of motion artefacts in the regions studied has enabled the development of sequences less sensitive to magnetic susceptibility and with greater spatial resolution than EPI. Attempts have therefore been made to use Dw imaging in the characterization of soft-tissue tumours although the findings so far have been disputed. Greater agreement has been found regarding sensitivity of the technique in assessing response of these tumours to chemotherapy: tumour necrosis is thought to increase ADC whereas the persistence of vital neoplastic tissue tends to lower it. One of the most promising applications of Dw imaging is without doubt the assessment of vertebral collapse where a high ADC has been shown to be associated with an osteoporotic cause and a low ADC with a neoplastic cause. Nonetheless, even here, a moderate overlap between ADC values of the two types has been encountered. Dw imaging has also been used in the assessment of bone marrow cellularity: areas of tightly packed cells show a higher ADC value than hypocellular areas. In particular, no significant difference in ADC is noted between normal hypercellular bone marrow and hypercellular bone marrow secondary to lymphomatous infiltration whereas this difference is significant between hypocellular, normocellular and haematopoietic hypercellular bone marrow. With regard to the study of joints, the limited structure dimensions, particularly cartilage, creates technical difficulties related to spatial resolution and an adequate signal-to-noise ratio, problems that can only be solved by further technological developments. Last

Colagrande, S; Carbone, S F; Carusi, L M; Cova, M; Villari, N

2006-04-01

308

A martian case study of segmenting images automatically for granulometry and sedimentology, Part 1: Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary exploration, delineating individual grains in images via segmentation is a key path to sedimentological comparisons with the extensive terrestrial literature. Samples that contain a substantial fine grain component, common at Meridiani and Gusev at Mars, would involve prohibitive effort if attempted manually. Unavailability of physical samples also precludes standard terrestrial methods such as sieving. Furthermore, planetary scientists have been thwarted by the dearth of segmentation algorithms customized for planetary applications, including Mars, and often rely on sub-optimal solutions adapted from medical software. We address this with an original algorithm optimized to segment whole images from the Microscopic Imager of the Mars Exploration Rovers. While our code operates with minimal human guidance, its default parameters can be modified easily for different geologic settings and imagers on Earth and other planets, such as the Curiosity Rover’s Mars Hand Lens Instrument. We assess the algorithm’s robustness in a companion work.

Karunatillake, Suniti; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Husch, Jonathan M.; Hardgrove, Craig; Skok, J. R.

2014-02-01

309

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-05-15

310

Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

2004-06-01

311

Binaural cue coding-Part II: Schemes and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binaural Cue Coding (BCC) is a method for multi- channel spatial rendering based on one down-mixed audio channel and side information. The companion paper (Part I) covers the psy- choacoustic fundamentals of this method and outlines principles for the design of BCC schemes. The BCC analysis and synthesis methods of Part I are motivated and presented in the framework of

Christof Faller; Frank Baumgarte

2003-01-01

312

42 CFR 423.458 - Application of Part D rules to certain Part D plans on and after January 1, 2006.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.458 Application of Part D rules to certain Part D plans...

2010-10-01

313

Content-based image retrieval systems have become a reliable tool for many image database applications. There  

E-print Network

image database systems. For example, many applications such as medical imagery, criminology, satellite (classification). Pre-processing becomes necessary when we have images that are corrupted by some kind of distortion. Images with noise, bad illumination, blurred are some examples when preprocessing is needed. Pre-processing

Farag, Aly A.

314

Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

Groom, Nelson J. (editor); Britcher, Colin P. (editor)

1991-01-01

315

Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images  

PubMed Central

Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter. PMID:19812704

Benameur, S.; Mignotte, M.; Meunier, J.; Soucy, J. -P.

2009-01-01

316

Clinical Application of Image-Based CFD for Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the convergence of medical imaging and computational modeling technologies has enabled tremendous progress in the development and application of image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling of patient-specific blood flows. These techniques have been used for studying the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular diseases, for studying possible ways to improve the diagnosis and evaluation of patients by incorporating hemodynamics information to the anatomical data typically available, and for the development of computational tools that can be used to improve surgical and endovascular treatment planning. However, before these technologies can have a significant impact on the routine clinical practice, it is still necessary to demonstrate the connection between the extra information provided by the models and the natural progression of vascular diseases and the outcome of interventions. This paper summarizes some of our contributions in this direction, focusing in particular on cerebral aneurysms. PMID:21822465

Cebral, JR; Mut, F; Sforza, D; Lohner, R; Scrivano, E; Lylyk, P; Putman, CM

2010-01-01

317

New fractional matrix with its applications in image encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, new fractional matrix generation by using different the periodic matrix sequences are considered. For a periodic matrix with period P, its integer forms and fractional forms can constitute different periodic matrix sequences. The series of the periodic matrix sequence can be used to compute and construct different fractional matrices, which is depended on the relationship between the period and the size of the periodic matrix sequence. The proposed fractional matrix generation method is general and can be used to any periodic matrices. Then, we extend the new fractional matrices to multi-order forms, which can be used in image encryption. Simulation results and the application example in image encryption using the obtained new fractional matrix are also presented.

Zhang, Feng; Hu, Yang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

2014-12-01

318

Beam Combination for Stellar Imager and its Application to Full-Aperture Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar Imager (SI) will be a Space-Based telescope consisting of 20 to 30 separated apertures. It is designed for UV/Optical imaging of stellar surfaces and asteroseismology. This report describes details of an alternative optical design for the beam combiner, dubbed the Spatial Frequency Remapper (SFR). It sacrifices the large field of view of the Fizeau combiner. In return, spectral resolution is obtained with a diffraction grating rather than an array of energy-resolving detectors. The SFR design works in principle and has been implemented with MIRC at CHARA for a small number of apertures. Here, we show the number of optical surfaces can be reduced and the concept scales gracefully to the large number of apertures needed for Stellar Imager. We also describe a potential application of this spatial frequency remapping to improved imaging with filled aperture systems. For filled-aperture imaging, the SFR becomes the core of an improved aperture masking system. To date, aperture-masking has produced the best images with ground-based telescopes but at the expense of low sensitivity due to short exposures and discarding most of the light collected by the telescope. This design eliminates the light-loss problem previously claimed to be inherent in all aperture-masking designs. We also argue that at least in principle, the short-integration time limit can also be overcome. With these improvements, it becomes an ideal camera for TPF-C; since it can form speckle-free images in the presence of wavefront errors, it should significantly relax the stability requirements of the current designs.

Mozurkewich, D.; Carpenter, K. G.; Lyon, R. G.

2007-01-01

319

A Multimode Optical Imaging System for Preclinical Applications In Vivo: Technology Development, Multiscale Imaging, and Chemotherapy Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several established optical imaging approaches have been applied, usually in isolation, to preclinical studies; however, truly useful in vivo imaging may require a simultaneous combination of imaging modalities to examine dynamic characteristics of cells and tissues. We developed a new multimode optical imaging system designed to be application-versatile, yielding high sensitivity, and specificity molecular imaging. Procedures We integrated several optical imaging technologies, including fluorescence intensity, spectral, lifetime, intravital confocal, two-photon excitation, and bioluminescence, into a single system that enables functional multiscale imaging in animal models. Results The approach offers a comprehensive imaging platform for kinetic, quantitative, and environmental analysis of highly relevant information, with micro-to-macroscopic resolution. Applied to small animals in vivo, this provides superior monitoring of processes of interest, represented here by chemo-/nanoconstruct therapy assessment. Conclusions This new system is versatile and can be optimized for various applications, of which cancer detection and targeted treatment are emphasized here. PMID:21874388

Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Ljubimova, Julia; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

320

22 CFR Appendix B to Part 201 - Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11)  

... false Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) B Appendix B to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY...Part 201—Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) EC06OC91.007 EC06OC91.008 EC06OC91.009...

2014-04-01

321

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01... false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210...OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01...

2012-04-01

322

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01... false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210...OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01...

2010-04-01

323

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01... false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210...OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01...

2014-04-01

324

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01... false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210...OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01...

2011-04-01

325

17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01... false Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). 210.1-01 Section 210...OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01...

2013-04-01

326

Applications of image processing and visualization in the evaluation of murder and assault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in image processing and visualization are of increasing use in the investigation of violent crime. The Digital Image Processing Laboratory at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in collaboration with groups at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are actively exploring visualization applications including image processing of trauma images, 3D visualization, forensic database management and telemedicine. Examples of recent applications are presented. Future directions of effort include interactive consultation and image manipulation tools for forensic data exploration.

Oliver, William R.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Boxwala, Aziz; Stotts, David; Smith, John; Soltys, Mitchell; Symon, James; Cullip, Tim; Wagner, Glenn

1994-09-01

327

47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...table of frequency allocations and special requirements in International regulations, agreements, and treaties. This part also contains standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment...

2010-10-01

328

14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 of this chapter as if those noise levels were part 36 noise levels. (c) Sections 91...this subpart prescribe operating noise limits and related requirements that apply to any civil subsonic jet (turbojet) airplane...

2013-01-01

329

14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...5 of this chapter as if those noise levels were part 36 noise levels. (c) Sections 91...this subpart prescribe operating noise limits and related requirements that apply to any civil subsonic jet (turbojet) airplane...

2012-01-01

330

14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5 of this chapter as if those noise levels were part 36 noise levels. (c) Sections 91...this subpart prescribe operating noise limits and related requirements that apply to any civil subsonic jet (turbojet) airplane...

2011-01-01

331

22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation  

22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY...and Urban Programs, Agency for International Development,...

2014-04-01

332

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2010-04-01

333

22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY...and Urban Programs, Agency for International Development,...

2011-04-01

334

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation  

22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...Appendix A to Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2014-04-01

335

22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY...and Urban Programs, Agency for International Development,...

2012-04-01

336

22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY...and Urban Programs, Agency for International Development,...

2010-04-01

337

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...Appendix A to Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2012-04-01

338

22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY...and Urban Programs, Agency for International Development,...

2013-04-01

339

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2012-04-01

340

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation  

22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2014-04-01

341

22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC...Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington,...

2013-04-01

342

Calibration of Small Plastic Scintillators for Imaging Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications. The scintillator is equivalent to a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator. A gamma calibration is presented to determine the voltage to be applied on each detector to ensure uniform detector operation. Time of flight measurements performed with a Cf-252 source are also presented. Comparisons between experimental data and data from the Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement for time lags of 0 to 70 ns.

Pozzi, S.

2005-01-19

343

Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: physical foundations and applications of restriction spectrum imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000s. Before its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neurooncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions about the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neurooncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent in diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology and surgical planning. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." PMID:25183788

White, Nathan S; McDonald, Carrie R; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J Kellogg; Chen, Clark C; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J; Kaine, Christopher J; Carter, Bob S; Bradley, William G; Dale, Anders M

2014-09-01

344

Using XML and JSON with Android, Part 2: Deliver hybrid Android applications with JSON  

E-print Network

Using XML and JSON with Android, Part 2: Deliver hybrid Android applications with JSON Mix JavaScript, JSON, callback functions, Android-SDK Java code for flexible mobile apps Skill Level: IntermediateScript Object Notation (JSON), on the Android platform. Part 1 covered the basics of XML and JSON. Part 2

345

15 CFR 8.2 - Application of this part.  

... 8.2 Section 8.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION IN...PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE...Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to...

2014-01-01

346

Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

Denton, Judith S. (compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (compiler); Vereen, Mary (compiler)

1987-01-01

347

A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

Grossmann, Christoph M.

2010-02-01

348

Green Production of CFRP Parts by Application of Inductive Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Long process times, high energy consumption, low automation level and high costs for textiles, resin and production tools\\u000a are the main reasons for the low acceptance of fiber-reinforced plastics (frp) in high-volume production, especially in automotive\\u000a applications. This paper presents the potential of the application of inductive heating techniques for the reduction of process\\u000a time and energy consumption in different

Michael Frauenhofer; Stefan Kreling; Holger Kunz; Klaus Dilger

349

Atmospheric correction algorithm for CHRIS images application to CASI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer CHRIS sensor was launched on board of PROBA (PROject for on Board Autonomy) the 22nd of October 2001. CHRIS will acquire sets of images over the Belgian coastal zone near Oostende. Within this context CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) images was used as prototype of CHRIS data. This is to assess the performance of an atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral ocean-color sensors (i.e. CHRIS). This approach couples the atmospheric attenuation processes with the underlying physics of water inherent optical properties. The algorithm employed the 6S code (second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum) to simulate the atmospheric and surface reflectance and the gaseous transmittances. Relationships between the water leaving reflectances at 860 870 and 880 nm are proposed. This is to estimate the water signals at these near infrared (NIR) bands, hence the aerosol reflectances. These negligible water-leaving signals were found to be very important for a reliable atmospheric-correction-algorithm over turbid waters. The choice of this NIR part of the spectrum was to satisfy a certain condition related to the corresponding water absorption coefficient. A look-up-table of total gaseous transmittance has been generated for 42 values of column water vapour. This table was used with a two-band ratio technique to estimate the contribution of water vapour to the total gaseous transmittance. The aerosol optical thicknesses were estimated by fitting calculated atmospheric reflectances at the water vapour window (860-880 nm) to 20 candidates of maritime aerosol models. The performance of the atmospheric correction is being investigated with other sensors (DASI and ROSIS) and in situ measurements.

Salama, Suhyb; Monbaliu, Jaak

2002-11-01

350

Calibrated imaging radar polarimetry - Technique, examples, and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors developed a calibration procedure for imaging radar polarimeters and applied it to a set of images acquired by the NASA DC-8 multifrequency radar system. The technique requires the use of ground reflectors known cross-section for absolute calibration, that is, solution for sigma exp 0; however, the image data themselves can usually provide all information necessary for phase calibration and for antenna crosstalk correction. The accuracy of the approach, as measured by calculating the cross-section residuals of known targets in each calibrated scene, is on the order of +/- 1-2 dB at P- and C-band, but improves to +/- 0.5 dB at L-band. The authors present the results of applying this technique to radar scenes of lava flows of varying roughness, temperate and tropical rain forests, and ocean water surfaces. They also present several example applications which are feasible with calibrated data but which would be difficult to implement with uncalibrated data.

Zebker, Howard A.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Durden, Stephen L.; Norikane, Lynne

1991-01-01

351

Design of PLGA Based Nanoparticles for Imaging Guided Applications.  

PubMed

An amphiphilic Gd(III) complex has been efficiently loaded in polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) to yield a novel, high sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for imaging guided drug delivery applications. As the Gd(III) complex is soluble in organic solvents, the nanoparticles were prepared as oil/water emulsions. PLGA-NPs were stable, in buffer, for more than 1 week without any release of the incorporated agents. The millimolar relaxivity of the Gd(III) complex incorporated in the particles (140 nm diameter) was of 21.7 mM(-1) s(-1) at 21.5 MHz, a value that is about 5 times higher than that observed with the commercially available contrast agents used in clinic. The relaxometric efficiency of these particles resulted inversely proportional to the particle size measured by dynamic light scattering. The high stability and sensitivity of PLGA-NPs allowed their accumulation in vivo in murine melanoma xenograft as shown in the corresponding MR images. Once loaded with drug and contrast agents, PLGA nanoparticles can be proposed as efficient theranostic MRI agents. PMID:25225751

Mariano, Rodolfo Nicolás; Alberti, Diego; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Aime, Silvio

2014-11-01

352

Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

Esposito, B. J.; McCafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

1992-11-01

353

NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DLP® hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

2011-03-01

354

Application of sonic IR imaging in civil structure health assurance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic Infrared (Sonic IR) Imaging is a novel NDE technology. It employs an ultrasonic transducer to excite samples with a short pulse of 15 - 40 kHz sound. This short pulse of high power sound will excite the crack and cause the crack surfaces to rub and generate heat. An Infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change caused by the friction heating and therefore 'sees' the crack. We have seen promising results with Sonic IR imaging on both metal and composite structures including turbine discs, turbine blades and airplane fuselage panels. We have also explored new applications with Sonic IR technology. In this paper, the authors present the results of Sonic IR imaging technology applied on large size civil engineering structures. Results from multiple experiments have also shown the potential of Sonic IR technology as a future tool of structure health monitoring (SHM). With further development, Sonic IR could play an important role as a SHM tool for civil infrastructure health assurance [1].

He, Qi; Han, Xiaoyan

2012-05-01

355

Applications of electronic imaging; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17-19, 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in electronic imaging technology are surveyed. Topics reviewed include the physics and statistics of medical imaging, technology issues in low-bandwidth teleconferencing, electronic color printer technologies, vision systems for robotic applications, and image correlation systems. Consideration is given to imaging spectroscopy, flat-panel display devices, high-definition TV, electronic still imaging systems, and ultrahigh-speed single-shot electronic imaging.

Urbach, John C.

356

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

357

Environment Sensing Merocyanine Dyes for Live Cell Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent biosensors based on environmentally sensitive dyes enable visualization and quantification of endogenous protein activation within living cells. Merocyanine dyes are especially useful for live cell imaging applications as they are extraordinarily bright, have long wavelengths of excitation and emission, and can exhibit readily detectable fluorescence changes in response to environment. We sought to systematically examine the effects of structural features on key photophysical properties, including dye brightness, environmental responsiveness, and photostability, through the synthesis of a library of 25 merocyanine dyes, derived from combinatorial reaction of 5 donor and 5 acceptor heterocycles. Four of these dyes showed optimal properties for specific imaging applications and were subsequently prepared with reactive side chains and enhanced aqueous solubility using a one-pot synthetic method. The new dyes were then applied within a biosensor design for Cdc42 activation, where dye mero60 showed a remarkable 1470% increase in fluorescence intensity on binding activated Cdc42 in vitro. The dye-based biosensors were used to report activation of endogenous Cdc42 in living cells. PMID:23297747

MacNevin, Christopher J.; Gremyachinskiy, Dmitriy; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Li, Li; Rougie, Marie; Davis, Tamara T.; Hahn, Klaus M.

2013-01-01

358

An Investigation into Graph Cut Parameter Optimisation for Image-Fusion Applications  

E-print Network

An Investigation into Graph Cut Parameter Optimisation for Image-Fusion Applications Xiao Bao Clark problems. The algorithm has yielded particularly impressive results in the field of image fusion, e algorithms in different image fusion applications. We list and classify rel- evant parameters, suggest new

Sun, Jing

359

Taylor expansion and its application in missile-borne SAR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taylor expansion is an efficient tool in SAR imaging, which makes it convenient to analyze the characteristics of the received signal and study imaging algorithms. This paper proves the feasibility of the application of Taylor expansion in SAR imaging, and so establishes the theoretical foundations for the application. Then, Taylor expansion is applied to analyze the signal characteristics of missile-borne

Huaying Xie; Hongzhong Zhao; Qiang Fu

2009-01-01

360

Characterisation of image fusion quality metrics for surveillance applications over bandlimited channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is finding increasing application in areas such as medical imaging, remote sensing or military surveillance using sensor networks. Many of these applications demand highly compressed data combined with error resilient coding due to the characteristics of the communication channel. In this respect, {JPEG2000} has many advantages over previous image coding standards. This paper evaluates and compares quality metrics

E. Fernandez Canga; S. G. Nikolov; C. N. Canagarajah; D. R. Bull; T. D. Dixon; J. M. Noyes; T. Troscianko

2005-01-01

361

A CMOS image sensor for low light applications Honghao Ji, Pamela A. Abshire  

E-print Network

A CMOS image sensor for low light applications Honghao Ji, Pamela A. Abshire Department pixel for high speed, low light imaging applications. The new pixel achieves lower dark current integration node. An image sensor with a 256 Ã? 256 array of these pixels was designed for a commercially

Maryland at College Park, University of

362

A multiresolution spline with application to image mosaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a multiresolution spline technique for combining two or more images into a larger image mosaic. In this procedure, the images to be splined are first decomposed into a set of band-pass filtered component images. Next, the component images in each spatial frequency hand are assembled into a corresponding bandpass mosaic. In this step, component images are joined using

Peter J. Burt; Edward H. Adelson

1983-01-01

363

Detection of Multiple, Partially Occluded Humans in a Single Image by Bayesian Combination of Edgelet Part Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method for human detection in crowded scene from static images. An individual human is modeled as an assembly of natural body parts. We introduce edgelet features, which are a new type of silhouette oriented features. Part detectors, based on these features, are learned by a boosting method. Responses of part detectors are combined to form a

Bo Wu; Ramakant Nevatia

2005-01-01

364

Image-Based Vehicle Identification Technology for Homeland Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

The threat of terrorist attacks against US civilian populations is a very real, near-term problem that must be addressed, especially in response to possible use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Several programs are now being funded by the US Government to put into place means by which the effects of a terrorist attack could be averted or limited through the use of sensors and monitoring technology. Specialized systems that detect certain threat materials, while effective within certain performance limits, cannot generally be used efficiently to track a mobile threat such as a vehicle over a large urban area. The key elements of an effective system are an image feature-based vehicle identification technique and a networked sensor system. We have briefly examined current uses of image and feature recognition techniques to the urban tracking problem and set forth the outlines of a proposal for application of LLNL technologies to this critical problem. The primary contributions of the proposed work lie in filling important needs not addressed by the current program: (1) The ability to create vehicle ''fingerprints,'' or feature information from images to allow automatic identification of vehicles. Currently, the analysis task is done entirely by humans. The goal is to aid the analyst by reducing the amount of data he/she must analyze and reduce errors caused by inattention or lack of training. This capability has broad application to problems associated with extraction of useful features from large data sets. (2) Improvements in the effectiveness of LLNL's WATS (Wide Area Tracking System) by providing it accurate threat vehicle location and velocity. Model predictability is likely to be enhanced by use of more information related to different data sets. We believe that the LLNL can accomplish the proposed tasks and enhance the effectiveness of the system now under development.

Clark, G A

2002-10-08

365

Noninvasive Imaging of Treated Cerebral Aneurysms, Part I: MR Angiographic Follow-Up of Coiled Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

many instances, these same noninvasive data can be used to plan subsequent treatment. After treatment has been com- pleted, the application of these powerful noninvasive imaging techniques becomes much more challenging owing to the in- teraction of the various therapeutic devices (ie, aneurysm clips, embolic coils, and\\/or stents) with the proton relaxation signalintensityorphotonfluxinMRimagingandCT,respec- tively, in the region of the treated

R. C. Wallace; J. P. Karis; S. Partovi; D. Fiorella

2007-01-01

366

Application of functional safety on railways part II: Software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As well as modelling & designing part, software development process is another major process in development of railway signalization systems. Early mechanical railway interlocking systems do not need such software development processes where all train traffic is controlled directly from signalboxes via mechanical tools and signalmen. Along with rising train speeds and densities the need of reliable and safe signalization

Ugur Yildirim; Mustafa Seckin Durmus; Mehmet Turan Soylemez

2011-01-01

367

24 CFR 245.10 - Applicability of part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Except as otherwise expressly limited in this section, this part applies in its entirety to a mortgagor of any multifamily housing project that meets the following— (1) Project subject to HUD insured or held mortgage under the National Housing Act. The project has a mortgage...

2010-04-01

368

Three-Dimensional Imaging and Image Displays: Surgical Application of Advanced Technologies.  

PubMed

One of the cornerstones of modern technology that was ushered in by laparoscopic surgery is the use of the video image. The importance of this "virtual representation" of the patient goes well beyond the application to laparoscopic surgery, and lies at the very heart of the revolution of surgery into the Information Age. Real objects, organs and patients can be represented as 2 and 3-dimensional computer generated images and viewed upon displays beyond the simple video monitor which permit a level of clinical practice not possible on the actual patients. These fundamental concepts that form the foundation of the revolution in surgery are placed in a framework for the future of surgery, and illustrate how their implementation can dramatically improve patient care. PMID:10401122

Satava

1996-09-01

369

Application of image analysis to Neogene planktonic foraminiferal bioseries  

SciTech Connect

The morphological characteristics of fossil foraminiferal tests are the basis for making phylogenetic and taxonomic, as well as paleoecological inferences about fossil species. A complete understanding of the taxonomic and paleoenvironmental information contained in morphology of foraminifera depends heavily on quantitative methods to describe phenotypic and ecophenotypic variation. Automated image analysis is used to quantify the shape characteristics of planktonic and benthic foraminifera. There are three main components to the authors' quantitative image analysis system: (1) computer based image digitizer; (2) Fourier series analysis in closed form; and (3) multivariate statistical analysis. The advantages of such a system are that shape characteristics can be objectively determined and that large numbers of specimens can be analyzed. The focus of their research has been to improve the utility of foraminifera in paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphic application. The Globorotalia menardii/Globorotalia tumida group and the Globigerinoides obliquus/Globigerinoides extremus complex from Neogene sediments from DSDP Site 502 in the Caribbean have been examined via image analysis. In both groups they were able to determine distinct morphotypes that change relative proportion with time. This information is utilized to define morphotypes within each group that are independent of taxonomically defined zones. Changes in the proportions of each end member are also correlated with paleoceanographic events of the Neogene such as the initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the Messinian event. Signal processing techniques, such as cross correlation, spectral analysis, and cross spectral analysis are also used in their investigations. Applying these techniques to the data in conjunction with stable isotope record for Site 502 allows them to determine correlations with the isotopic record and the similarities in the frequencies in the morphological records.

Healy-Williams, N.; Cline, C.E. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States))

1991-03-01

370

An Iterative Image Registration Technique with an Application to Stereo Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image registration finds a variety of applications in computer vision. Unfortunately, traditional image registration techniques tend to be costly. We present a new image registration technique that makes use of the spatial intensity gradient of the images to find a good match using a type of Newton-Raphson iteration. Our technique is taster because it examines far fewer potential matches between

Bruce D. Lucas; Takeo Kanade

1981-01-01

371

A Variational Approach to Exploit Prior Information in Object-Background Segregation: Application to Retinal Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in image segmentation is to adapt prior knowledge about the objects\\/regions that are likely to be present in an image, in order to obtain more precise detec- tion and recognition. Typical applications of such knowledge- based segmentation include partitioning satellite images and microscopy images, where the context is generally well de- fined. In particular, we

Luca Bertelli; Jiyun Byun; B. S. Manjunath

2007-01-01

372

Line image sensors for spectroscopic applications in the extreme ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral range of extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV or EUV) is an active area of research incorporating many scientific fields such as microscopy, lithography or reflectometry. During the last decade, a lot of effort has been put into transferring many of the known techniques developed at linear accelerators into the laboratory using discharge-produced plasmas (DPPs) or laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) as an alternative light source. In particular, the semiconductor industry is in need of on-site tools in the shorter wavelength range for production and inspection of structured surfaces with nanometer resolution. Here traditional charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors are inapplicable as detectors because of the strong absorption of XUV by matter prohibiting any generation of electron-hole pairs inside a deep lying p-n junction. As a solution, two-dimensional backthinned CCDs are available in the market offering high sensitivity to XUV light. Although for many applications a one-dimensional line scanning image sensor would be sufficient, they are non-existent for XUV. It is only lately that manufacturers have started to adopt the principle of backthinning to CCD line sensors to enhance sensitivity in the long wavelength UV range (>200 nm). Here we show that generally these compact sensors offer good quantum efficiencies in the XUV which make them a candidate for many spectroscopic applications and future industrial inline inspection tools for which costly two-dimensional CCDs are oversized. We have successfully implemented a compact sensor device into a laboratory XUV spectrometer and reflectometer. Our measurements compare the quantum efficiency of a state-of-the-art XUV array CCD to a phosphor-coated line sensor and a new backthinned line sensor. Additionally, we show recorded spectra from a laboratory DPP source to demonstrate the potential of a wide range of applications.

Banyay, Matus; Brose, Sascha; Juschkin, Larissa

2009-10-01

373

Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods. PMID:23456006

Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

2013-01-01

374

Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide: dextran) within wet, asymmetric polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes. Information from filtration flux profiles and cross-sectional CLSM images of the membranes that processed single-component solutions and mixtures agreed with each other. Concentration profiles versus depth for each individual component present in the feed solution were developed from the analysis of the CLSM images at different levels of fouling for single-component solutions and mixtures. CLSM provided visual information that helped elucidate the role of each component on membrane fouling and provided a better understanding of how component interactions impact the fouling profiles. Finally, Chapter 4 extends the application of my cross-sectional CLSM imaging protocol to study the fouling of asymmetric polyethersulfone membranes during the microfiltration of protein, polyphenol, and polysaccharide mixtures to better understand the solute-solute and solute-membrane interactions leading to fouling in beverage clarification processes. Again, cross-sectional CLSM imaging provided information on the location and extent of fouling throughout the entire thickness of the PES membrane. Quantitative analysis of the cross-sectional CLSM images provided a measurement of the masses of foulants deposited throughout the membrane. Moreover, flux decline data collected for different mixtures of casein, tannic acid and beta-cyclodextrin were analyzed with standard fouling models to determine the fouling mechanisms at play when processing different combinations of foulants. Results from model analysis of flux data were compared with the quantitative visual analysis of the correspondent CLSM images. This approach, which couples visual and performance measurements, is expected to provide a better understanding of the causes of fouling that, in turn, is expected to aid in the design of new membranes with tailored structure or surface chemistry that prevents the deposition of the foulants in "prone to foul" regions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Marroquin, Milagro

375

[The digital image archive--its clinical applications and importance in cardiology consulting by telemedicine].  

PubMed

The revolution in digital technology is rapidly changing the world of telecommunications. Its applications to Medicine, and in particular to Cardiology, offer enormous benefits since communication is an essential part of medical practice. The need to improve the management of medical information is critical because of the explosion of medical knowledge, and the need to provide comprehensive documentation on patient care. The availability of a network offers many possibilities for clinical, research and teaching activities. Relevant, up-to-date scientific information is instantly available for analysis and interaction. The authors review the issue of digital communications as well as its potential application to Telemedicine, and present their preliminary experience with digital analysis and storage of echocardiographic images. PMID:9138462

Fiuza, M; de Pádua, F; Lopes, M G

1997-02-01

376

17 CFR 232.10 - Application of part 232.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the uniform application form for access codes to file on EDGAR, and (2) File, by uploading as a Portable Document Format (PDF) attachment to the Form ID filing or by faxing to (202) 504-2474 or (703) 914-4240 within two business days...

2010-04-01

377

Image applications for coastal resource planning: Elkhorn Slough Pilot Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the utility of digital spectral imagery at two levels of resolution for large scale, accurate, auto-classification of land cover along the Central California Coast. Although remote sensing technology offers obvious advantages over on-the-ground mapping, there are substantial trade-offs that must be made between resolving power and costs. Higher resolution images can theoretically be used to identify smaller habitat patches, but they usually require more scenes to cover a given area and processing these images is computationally intense requiring much more computer time and memory. Lower resolution images can cover much larger areas, are less costly to store, process, and manipulate, but due to their larger pixel size can lack the resolving power of the denser images. This lack of resolving power can be critical in regions such as the Central California Coast where important habitat change often occurs on a scale of 10 meters. Our approach has been to compare vegetation and habitat classification results from two aircraft-based spectral scenes covering the same study area but at different levels of resolution with a previously produced ground-truthed land cover base map of the area. Both of the spectral images used for this project were of significantly higher resolution than the satellite-based LandSat scenes used in the C-CAP program. The lower reaches of the Elkhorn Slough watershed was chosen as an ideal study site because it encompasses a suite of important vegetation types and habitat loss processes characteristic of the central coast region. Dramatic habitat alterations have and are occurring within the Elkhorn Slough drainage area, including erosion and sedimentation, land use conversion, wetland loss, and incremental loss due to development and encroachnnent by agriculture. Additonally, much attention has already been focused on the Elkhorn Slough due to its status as a National Marine Education and Research Reserve and as part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These destinations have resulted in a rich collection of prior spatial and temporal habitat data.

Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sharp, Gary D.; VanCoops, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Michael

1995-01-01

378

Guided wave imaging of part-thickness defects in large structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed guided ultrasonic wave array systems allow for the efficient structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures, such as aircraft or ship hulls. Permanently attached sensor arrays have been applied for the detection and imaging of corrosion and fatigue damage. A hybrid model has been developed for the efficient prediction of the sensitivity of guided wave array systems to detect through thickness and part-through fatigue cracks in plate structures. The influence of the orientation of the crack relative to the transducer elements had been predicted from localized 3D Finite Element simulations and verified experimentally. Using the hybrid model, detection and imaging capabilities can be predicted for various defect depths, and the sensor layout and signal processing optimized. This has been demonstrated from laboratory experiments. Part-thickness notches and holes of increasing depth were machined into an aluminum plate and imaged using distributed sensors for the A0 Lamb wave mode. Based on the model predictions the sensitivity for shallow defects can be optimized. The influence of the scattering characteristics on the minimum defect depth that can be imagined has been discussed.

Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

379

Techniques for Fusion of Multimodal Images: Application to Breast Imaging Karl G. Baum', Maria Helguera', Joseph P. Hornak', John P. Kerekes', Ethan D. Montag',  

E-print Network

Techniques for Fusion of Multimodal Images: Application to Breast Imaging Karl G. Baum', Maria discuss the options for performing such fusion in the context of multimodal breast imaging. Index Terms registration. Combining the registered images into a single image is called image fusion. The advantage

Kerekes, John

380

New Reasons for Doctors to Like Imaging: Applications in Cardiology and Neurology  

E-print Network

New Reasons for Doctors to Like Imaging: Applications in Cardiology and Neurology Rob MacLeod Assoc (Cardiology) at the University of Utah. He is an associate director of the Scientific Computing and Imaging

Zanibbi, Richard

381

Optimization of a Hardware Implementation for Pulse Coupled Neural Networks for Image Applications  

E-print Network

Pulse Coupled Neural Networks are a very useful tool for image processing and visual applications, since it has the advantages of being invariant to image changes as rotation, scale, or certain distortion. Among other ...

Warde, Cardinal

382

Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

1982-01-01

383

Auditing Naturalistic Inquiries: Some Preliminary Applications. Part 1: Development of the Process. Part 2: Case Study Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how a naturalistic inquirer can demonstrate rigor, or trustworthiness, and how an auditor might assess it. Looking at both inquiry products and processes, Part 1 of this paper describes how an audit may assess whether an inquiry's findings and conclusions are grounded in the raw data, and whether appropriate conventions were…

Halpern, Edward S.

384

Multiscale contrast enhancement with applications to image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method used to merge images from different sensing modalities for visual display is outlined. The method produces a fused image by nonlinear recombination of the RoLP (Ratio of Low-Pass) pyramidal decompositions of the original images. The appearance of merged images that are produced by this scheme is highly dependent on the contrast and mean luminance of the input images.

Alexander Toet

1992-01-01

385

A comprehensive human computation framework: with application to image labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image and video labeling is important for computers to understand images and videos and for image and video search. Manual labeling is tedious and costly. Automatically image and video labeling is yet a dream. In this paper, we adopt a Web 2.0 approach to labeling images and videos efficiently: Internet users around the world are mobilized to apply their \\

Yang Yang; Bin B. Zhu; Rui Guo; Linjun Yang; Shipeng Li; Nenghai Yu

2008-01-01

386

Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 ?m to 150 ?m. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

2013-03-01

387

Nanotechnology in medical imaging: probe design and applications  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles have become more and more prevalent in reports of novel contrast agents, especially for molecular imaging, the detection of cellular processes. The advantages of nanoparticles include their potency to generate contrast, the ease of integrating multiple properties, lengthy circulation times and the possibility to include high payloads. As the chemistry of nanoparticles has improved over the past years more sophisticated examples of nano-sized contrast agents have been reported, such as paramagnetic, macrophage targeted quantum dots or ?v?3-targeted, MRI visible microemulsions that also carry a drug to suppress angiogenesis. The use of these particles is producing greater knowledge of disease processes and the effects of therapy. Along with their excellent properties, nanoparticles may produce significant toxicity, which must be minimized for (clinical) application. In this review we discuss the different factors that are considered when designing a nanoparticle probe and highlight some of the most advanced examples. PMID:19057023

Cormode, David P.; Skajaa, Torjus; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

2010-01-01

388

A Novel Application of Ultrasonic Imaging to Study Smoldering Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic imaging technique has been developed to examine the propagation of a smolder reaction within a porous combustible material. The technique provides information about the location of a propagating smolder front, as well as line-of-sight average permeability variations of the smoldering material. The method utilizes the observation that transmission of an ultrasonic signal through a porous material increases with permeability. Since a propagating smolder reaction leaves behind char with a higher permeability than the original material, ultrasound transmission can be employed to monitor smolder progress. The technique can also be used to track the char evolution as it continues to react. Experiments are presented where the technique is applied to smoldering combustion in a two-dimensional geometry. The results have furthered the understanding of two-dimensional smolder, especially in identifying the controlling mechanisms leading to the transition from smoldering to flaming. The applicability of ultrasonic tomography to smoldering combustion has also been investigated.

Tse, S. D.; Anthenien, R. A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Miyasaka, K.

1997-01-01

389

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

2011-02-01

390

Pixelated-anode for direct MCP readout in imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel IonCCDTM, a charged-particle-sensitive pixelated detector, was used as an anode to directly read out the electrons exiting from the back of a micro-channel plate (MCP). The IonCCD chip is a 51-mm-long linear array of 2126 pixels, each of 21-?m width and 1.5-mm height, resulting in a 24-?m pitch. Both simulations and experiments were performed to assess MCP-IonCCD performance. The assembled MCP-IonCCD test apparatus consisted of a standard, off-the-shelf, 25-mm-diameter circular MCP. The IonCCD was mounted at proximity focus. The IonCCD eliminates the requirement for a phosphorus screen (after glow and electrons-to-photons conversion), as well as the need for a transformer lens or fiber coupling, as commonly used in imaging devices such as electro-optical ion detector systems (EOIDs). Another advantage is the elimination of the rather high voltages (~5-kV) that are typically needed for effective electron-to-photon conversion. Finally, the IonCCD should preclude any photon-scattering-induced spatial resolution degradation. Our early MCP-IonCCD tests showed that the MCP permits an immediate 103-104 gain, with virtually no additional noise beyond that attributed to the IonCCD alone. The high gain allows the use of lower IonCCD integration times, which will motivate the development of faster IonCCD readout speeds (currently at 2.7 ms) to match the 2-kHz 1D chip. The presented detector system exhibits a clear potential not only as a trace analysis detector in scan-free mass spectrometry, ion mobility and electron spectroscopy but more importantly as a means to achieve simpler, more compact and robust 2D imaging detectors for photon and particle imaging applications.

Hadjar, Omar

2012-06-01

391

Raman imaging at biological interfaces: applications in breast cancer diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most important areas of Raman medical diagnostics is identification and characterization of cancerous and noncancerous tissues. The methods based on Raman scattering has shown significant potential for probing human breast tissue to provide valuable information for early diagnosis of breast cancer. A vibrational fingerprint from the biological tissue provides information which can be used to identify, characterize and discriminate structures in breast tissue, both in the normal and cancerous environment. Results The paper reviews recent progress in understanding structure and interactions at biological interfaces of the human tissue by using confocal Raman imaging and IR spectroscopy. The important differences between the noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues were found in regions characteristic for vibrations of carotenoids, fatty acids, proteins, and interfacial water. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives as well as carotenoids and interfacial water. Conclusions We demonstrate that Raman imaging has reached a clinically relevant level in regard to breast cancer diagnosis applications. The results presented in the paper may have serious implications on understanding mechanisms of interactions in living cells under realistically crowded conditions of biological tissue. PMID:23705882

2013-01-01

392

Imaging monitoring techniques applications in the transient gratings detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies of Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in iodine vapor at atmospheric pressure and 0? and 25? are reported. The Laser-induced grating (LIG) studies are carried out by generating the thermal grating using a pulsed, narrow bandwidth, dye laser .A new image processing system for detecting forward DFWM spectroscopy on iodine vapor is reported. This system is composed of CCD camera, imaging processing card and the related software. With the help of the detecting system, phase matching can be easily achieved in the optical arrangement by crossing the two pumps and the probe as diagonals linking opposite corners of a rectangular box ,and providing a way to position the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) . Also it is practical to know the effect of the pointing stability on the optical path by monitoring facula changing with the laser beam pointing and disturbs of the environment. Finally the effects of Photostability of dye laser on the ration of signal to noise in DFWM using forward geometries have been investigated in iodine vapor. This system makes it feasible that the potential application of FG-DFWM is used as a diagnostic tool in combustion research and environment monitoring.

Zhao, Qing-ming

2009-07-01

393

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

394

Application of Geostatistical Simulation to Enhance Satellite Image Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the deployment of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites that provide daily, global imagery, there is increasing interest in defining the limitations of the data and derived products due to its coarse spatial resolution. Much of the detail, i.e. small fragments and notches in boundaries, is lost with coarse resolution imagery such as the EOS MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Higher spatial resolution data such as the EOS Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and airborne sensor imagery provide more detailed information but are less frequently available. There are, however, both theoretical and analytical evidence that burn scars and other fragmented types of land covers form self-similar or self-affine patterns, that is, patterns that look similar when viewed at widely differing spatial scales. Therefore small features of the patterns should be predictable, at least in a statistical sense, with knowledge about the large features. Recent developments in fractal modeling for characterizing the spatial distribution of undiscovered petroleum deposits are thus applicable to generating simulations of finer resolution satellite image products. We will present example EOS products, analysis to investigate self-similarity, and simulation results.

Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thirulanambi, Rajkumar; Roy, David

2004-01-01

395

Application of parametric statistical weights in CAD imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PURPOSE: To propose a method for Parametric Statistical Weights (PSW) estimations and analyze its statistical impact in Computer-Aided Diagnosis Imaging Systems based on a Relative Similarity (CADIRS) classification approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Multifactor statistical method was developed and applied for Parametric Statistical Weights calculations in CADIRS. The implemented PSW method was used for statistical estimations of PSW impact when applied to a clinically validated breast ultrasound digital database of 332 patients' cases with biopsy proven findings. The method is based on the assumption that each parameter used in Relative Similarity (RS) classifier contributes to the deviation of the diagnostic prediction proportionally to the normalized value of its coefficient of multiple regression. The calculated by CADIRS Relative Similarity values with and without PSW were statistically estimated, compared and analyzed (on subset of cases) using classic Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis methods. RESULTS: When CADIRS classification scheme was augmented with PSW the Relative Similarity the calculated values were 2-5% higher in average. Numeric estimations of PSW allowed decomposition of statistical significance for each component (factor) and its impact on similarity to the diagnostic results (biopsy proven). CONCLUSION: Parametric Statistical Weights in Computer-Aided Diagnosis Imaging Systems based on a Relative Similarity classification approach can be successfully applied in an effort to enhance overall classification (including scoring) outcomes. For the analyzed cohort of 332 cases the application of PSW increased Relative Similarity to the retrieved templates with known findings by 2-5% in average.

Galperin, Michael

2005-04-01

396

17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2013-04-01

397

17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

...2014-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix A to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2014-04-01

398

17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt...Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization...

2012-04-01

399

40 CFR 91.603 - Applicability of part 91, subpart F.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.603 Applicability of part 91, subpart F. (a) For purposes of selective enforcement...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2012-07-01

401

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2013-07-01

403

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

...Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2014-07-01

404

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 307 - Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for Preauthorization of a CERCLA Response Action A Appendix A to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

2010-07-01

405

Developing novel polymer architectures for applications In magnetic resonance imaging and self-assembly  

E-print Network

Macromolecular scaffolds for drug delivery, self-assembly, and imaging applications have attracted significant attention over the last several decades. As polymerization techniques become more sophisticated, it becomes ...

McCombs, Jessica R. (Jessica Rose)

2013-01-01

406

Fission matrix capability for MCNP, Part II - Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the initial experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix is obtained at essentially no cost during the normal simulation for criticality calculations. It can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode power distribution, the reactor dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode spatial eigenfunctions. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. Numerous examples are presented. A companion paper (Part I - Theory) describes the theoretical basis for the fission matrix method. (authors)

Carney, S. E. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [University of Michigan, NERS Department, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01

407

Prodrug enzymes and their applications in image-guided therapy of cancer: tracking prodrug enzymes to minimize collateral damage  

PubMed Central

Many cytotoxic therapies are available to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, these also inflict significant damage on normal cells. Identifying highly effective cancer treatments that have minimal or no side effects continues to be a major challenge. One of the strategies to minimize damage to normal tissue is to deliver an activating enzyme that localizes only in the tumor and converts a nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent locally in the tumor. Such strategies have been previously tested but with limited success due in large part to the uncertainty in the delivery and distribution of the enzyme. Imaging the delivery of the enzyme to optimize timing of the prodrug administration to achieve image-guided prodrug therapy would be of immense benefit for this strategy. Here, we have reviewed advances in the incorporation of image guidance in the applications of prodrug enzymes in cancer treatment. These advances demonstrate the feasibility of using clinically translatable imaging in these prodrug enzyme strategies. PMID:23646292

Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Li, Cong; Winnard, Paul T.

2013-01-01

408

32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National...Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone I Zone II Total package...

2010-07-01

409

Modular multispectral imaging system for multiple missions and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy recently began investing in the design of mission-specific payloads for the Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (STUAS). STUAS is a Tier II size UAS with a roughly 35 pound mission payload and a gimbaled general-purpose electro optical/infrared (EO/IR) system. The EO/IR system is likely composed of a video camera in the visible, a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and/or a long-wave infrared (LWIR) for night operations, and an infrared marker and laser range finder. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT), in a series of SBIR efforts, has developed a modular, multi-channel imaging system for deployment on airborne and UAV platforms. ACT's system, called EYE5, demonstrates how an EO/IR system combined with an on-board, real-time processor can be tailored for specific applications to produce real-time actionable data. The EYE5 sensor head and modular real-time processor descriptions are presented in this work. Examples of the system's abilities in various Navy-relevant applications are reviewed.

Schoonmaker, Jon; Podobna, Yuliya; Boucher, Cynthia; Saggese, Steve; Oakley, Daniel; Medeiros, Dustin

2011-05-01

410

Hybrid Magnetic Nanostructures (MNS) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R1 or R2 sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T1-PET, T2-PET T1-optical, T2-optical, T1–T2 agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T2 magnetic nanostructure development, T1/T2-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T1–T2 hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T2 materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T1 agents. PMID:21851844

De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.

2011-01-01

411

Exempting Spacecraft Units from Thermal Vacuum Testing - Part 2: Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft electronic boxes have historically been subjected to thermal cycle and thermal vacuum testing at the unit level. In an effort to reduce costs and shorten development schedules, many unit developers are deferring the thermal vacuum test to a higher level of testing. When it can be demonstrated that the unit's design and performance are insensitive to vacuum, eliminating the unit-level thermal vacuum test may be performed without a significant risk increase to the program. In this event, it is assumed that unit-level failure detection and performance verification are accomplished in the thermal cycle test. In this work, the application of thermal-sensitivity criteria is demonstrated with design and performance data from actual electronic boxes.

Welch, J.

2004-08-01

412

GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

YANG, C. T.; SIMOES, F. J. M.

2008-01-01

413

40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart G of... - Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 1A Table 1A to Subpart G of Part 63—Applicable 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions 40...

2010-07-01

414

Exercise 2 Photogrammetry & Machine Vision The passive sensor This part mainly consists of acquiring images and calculating a relative Orientation.  

E-print Network

Exercise 2 ­ Photogrammetry & Machine Vision ­ The passive sensor This part mainly consists of acquiring images and calculating a relative Orientation. In a first step you will take a camera of these images in Photomodeler. Once this has been done, you can see the 3D points that you used to create

Giger, Christine

415

Application-driven Spectral Image Quality Assessment and Prediction  

E-print Network

image quality metric is discussed with an approach proposed. Quality is divided into fidelity. ©2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (110.3000) Image quality assessment; (110 of the Earth [4]. In this context, spectral imaging includes both multispectral imaging systems

Kerekes, John

416

Multisensor image fusion in remote sensing: concepts, methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of multisensor, multitemporal, multiresolution and multifrequency image data from operational Earth observation satellites the fusion of digital image data has become a valuable tool in remote sensing image evaluation. Digital image fusion is a relatively new research field at the leading edge of available technology. It forms a rapidly developing area of research in remote sensing. This

C. Pohl; J. L. Van Genderen

1998-01-01

417

Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of

Don D. Arnone; Craig M. Ciesla; Alessandra Corchia; S. Egusa; M. Pepper; J. Martyn Chamberlain; C. Bezant; E. H. Linfield; R. Clothier; N. Khammo

1999-01-01

418

Atmospheric correction algorithm for CHRIS images application to CASI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer CHRIS sensor was launched on board of PROBA (PROject for on Board Autonomy) the 22nd of October 2001. CHRIS will acquire sets of images over the Belgian coastal zone near Oostende. Within this context CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) images was used as prototype of CHRIS data. This is to assess the performance of

Suhyb Salama; Jaak Monbaliu

2002-01-01

419

Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general framework for anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images is presented. We propose an evolution equation where, at each point in time, the directions and magnitudes of the maximal and minimal rate of change in the vector-image are first evaluated. These are given by eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the first fundamental form in the given image metric. Then, the image

Guillermo Sapiro; Dario L. Ringach

1996-01-01

420

Applications of time-frequency processing to radar imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution radar image is always demanded. To achieve high resolution, wideband signal and longer imaging time are required. However, due to time-varying behavior of returned radar signals and due to multiple backscattering behavior of targets, radar image resolution can be significantly degraded and images become blurred. The conventional radar processor uses the Fourier transform to retrieve Doppler information. In

Victor C. Chen

1996-01-01

421

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Part 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions to Subpart JJJJ  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Part 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63—Applicability of 40 CFR Part 63 General...

2010-07-01

423

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau  

E-print Network

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau 1 of Article 7-2 of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, I hereby apply for the certificate Japanese education history (Fill in the followings when the applicant plans to study in high school

Kaji, Hajime

424

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau  

E-print Network

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau 1 to reside with applicant or not Pursuant to the provisions of Article 7-2 of the Immigration Control education Organization Period from Others 25 Japanese education history (Fill in the followings when

Banbara, Mutsunori

425

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau  

E-print Network

For applicant, part 1 Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan Regional Immigration Bureau 1-2 of the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, I hereby apply for the certificate showing eligibility Organization Period from Others 25 Japanese education history (Fill in the followings when the applicant

Kaji, Hajime

426

Impact of an etched EUV mask black border on imaging: part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (ReMa) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from its image border overlaps with the edges of neighboring dies affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack has 1-3% reflectance for actinic light. For a 55nm thick absorber the induced CD drop at the edges is found to be 4-5 nm for 27 nm dense lines. In this work we will show an overview of the absorber reflection impact on CD at the edge of the field across EUV scanner generations, for several imaging nodes and multiple absorber heights. Increasing spacing between dies on the wafer would prevent the unwanted exposure but results in an unacceptable loss of valuable wafer real estate thereby reducing the yield per wafer and is thus not a viable manufacturing solution. In order to mitigate the reflection from the image border one needs to create a so called black border. The most promising approach is removal of the absorber and the underlying multilayer down to the low reflective LTEM substrate by multilayer etching. It was shown in the previous study that the impact on CD was reduced essentially for 27 nm dense lines exposed on ASML NXE:3100. In this work we will continue the study of a multilayer etched black border impact on imaging. In particular, 22 nm lines/spaces imaging on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner will be investigated in the areas close to the black border as well as die to die effects. We will look closer into the CD uniformity impact by DUV Out-of-Band light reflected from black border and its mitigation. A possible OPC approach will also be evaluated.

Davydova, Natalia; de Kruif, Robert; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Fukugami, Norihito; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Connolly, Brid; van Gestel, Dries; Oorschot, Dorothe; Rio, David; Zimmerman, John; Harned, Noreen

2013-09-01

427

A New Robust Operator for Computer Vision: Application to Range and Intensity Images  

E-print Network

A New Robust Operator for Computer Vision: Application to Range and Intensity Images Charles V that produce: (1) large numbers of outliers, (2) points from multiple surfaces interspersed over large image also showed that MINPRAN often favors a single fit bridging multiple surfaces when the data in an image

Bystroff, Chris

428

Information Fusion on Oversegmented Images: An Application for Urban Scene Understanding  

E-print Network

Information Fusion on Oversegmented Images: An Application for Urban Scene Understanding Philippe. In this paper, an original fusion framework working on segments of over-segmented images and based on the theory of be- lief functions is presented. The problem is posed as an image labeling one. It will first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Application of structured light imaging for high resolution mapping of underwater archaeological sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from recent work using structured light laser profile imaging to create high resolution bathymetric maps of underwater archaeological sites. Documenting the texture and structure of submerged sites is a difficult task and many applicable acoustic and photographic mapping techniques have recently emerged. This effort was completed to evaluate laser profile imaging in comparison to stereo imaging

Chris Roman; Gabrielle Inglis; James Rutter

2010-01-01

430

New Cloud Detection Algorithm for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Images: Application to  

E-print Network

New Cloud Detection Algorithm for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Images: Application to ENVISAT that faces the problem of accurate identification of location and abundance of clouds in multispectral images inevitable that many of these images present cloud covers. The objective of this work is to develop

Camps-Valls, Gustavo

431

Image Upconversion from the Visible to the UV Domain: Application to Dynamic UV Microstereolithography.  

PubMed

We present what to our knowledge is a new application of optical frequency upconversion of images in quadratic materials to dynamic UV microstereolithography. A 150 x 150 point visible image transmitted by a liquid-crystal display was upconverted in a lithium triborate crystal, and the UV image was successfully used to polymerize a commercial stereolithographic resin. PMID:18364772

Devaux, F; Mosset, A; Lantz, E; Monneret, S; Le Gall, H

2001-10-01

432

Image fusion for a digital camera application based on wavelet domain hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional image fusion for a digital camera application may not be satisfactory to classify pixels in the source image by the statistical techniques. In this paper, we present a technique, based on wavelet domain hidden Markov models (HMMs) and max-likelihood estimation. The method presented here consists of deciding the quality of pixels in source images directly from the statistical

S. X. Hu; Z. W. Liao; Y. Y. Tang

2004-01-01

433

Nonrigid image registration in shared-memory multiprocessor environments with application to brains, breasts, and bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major problem with nonrigid image registra- tion techniques is their high computational cost. Because of this, these methods have found limited application to clinical situations where fast execution is required, e.g., intraoperative imaging. This paper presents a parallel implementation of a nonrigid image reg- istration algorithm. It takes advantage of shared-memory multi- processor computer architectures using multithreaded program- ming

Torsten Rohlfing

2003-01-01

434

A low-cost large-aperture optical receiver for remote sensing and imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive large aperture (10 m class) receiver for optical wavelength imaging and remote sensing applications is discussed. The design was developed for active (laser illumination) imaging of remote objects using pupil plane measurement techniques, where relatively low optical quality collecting elements can be used. The approach is also well suited for conventional imaging at lower resolutions when light collection

Stephen A. Hanes

2003-01-01

435

Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between destination image and destination personality. While brand image and brand personality studies are well documented in the generic marketing literature, application of branding theories to places, in particular to tourism destinations, is relatively new. Using tourism destinations as a setting, this study contributes to the debate on the brand image–brand personality relationship. Results indicate

Sameer Hosany; Yuksel Ekinci; Muzaffer Uysal

2006-01-01

436

Boosted multi-task learning for face verification with applications to web image and video search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face verification has many potential applications including filtering and ranking image\\/video search results on celebrities. Since these images\\/videos are taken under uncontrolled environments, the problem is very challenging due to dramatic lighting and pose variations, low resolutions, compression artifacts, etc. In addition, the available number of training images for each celebrity may be limited, hence learning individual classifiers for each

Xiaogang Wang; Cha Zhang; Zhengyou Zhang

2009-01-01

437

Boosted multi-task learning for face verification with applications to web image and video search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face verification has many potential applications in- cluding filtering and ranking image\\/video search results on celebrities. Since these images\\/videos are taken under un- controlled environments, the problem is very challenging due to dramatic lighting and pose variations, low resolu- tions, compression artifacts, etc. In addition, the available number of training images for each celebrity may be lim- ited, hence learning

Xiaogang Wang; Cha Zhang; Zhengyou Zhang

2009-01-01

438

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Application to the Study of the Developing Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its application to the study of white matter in the developing brain in both healthy and clinical samples. Method: The development of DTI and its application to brain imaging of white matter tracts is discussed. Forty-eight studies using DTI to examine diffusion properties of…

Cascio, Carissa J.; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

2007-01-01

439

Research on spatial coding compressive spectral imaging and its applicability for rural survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compressive spectral imaging combines traditional spectral imaging method with new concept of compressive sensing thus has the advantages such as reducing acquisition data amount, realizing snapshot imaging for large field of view and increasing image signal-to-noise and its preliminary application effectiveness has been explored by early usage on the occasions such as high-speed imaging and fluorescent imaging. In this paper, the application potentiality for spatial coding compressive spectral imaging technique on rural survey is revealed. The physical model for spatial coding compressive spectral imaging is built on which its data flow procession is analyzed and its data reconstruction issue is concluded. The existing sparse reconstruction methods are reviewed thus specific module based on the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm is built so as to execute the imaging data reconstruction. The simulating imaging experiment based on AVIRIS visible band data of a specific selected rural scene is carried out. The spatial identification and spectral featuring extraction capacity for different ground species are evaluated by visual judgment of both single band image and spectral curve. The data fidelity evaluation parameters (RMSE and PSNR) are put forward so as to verify the data fidelity maintaining ability of this compressive imaging method quantitatively. The application potentiality of spatial coding compressive spectral imaging on rural survey, crop monitoring, vegetation inspection and further agricultural development demand is verified in this paper.

Chen, Yuheng; Ji, Yiqun; Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Shen, Weimin

440

L1 Unmixing and its Application to Hyperspectral Image Enhancement  

E-print Network

enforcing it. We present results on HYDICE images in Section 4 and conclude by suggesting directions-4m resolution for HYDICE images, it is reasonable to assume that a single pixel may contain several

Soatto, Stefano

441

Application of Data Mining Techniques for Medical Image Classification  

E-print Network

techniques, neural networks and association rule mining, for anomaly detec- tion and classification 70% percent for both techniques. More- over, the experiments we conducted demonstrate the use, association rule mining, neural networks, image categorization, image mining. 1. Introduction The high

Zaiane, Osmar R.

442

A study of CMOS technologies for image sensor applications  

E-print Network

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Silicon) imager technology, as compared with mature CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) imager technology, has the advantages of higher circuit integration, lower power consumption, and potentially ...

Wang, Ching-Chun, 1969-

2001-01-01

443

Application of Diffusion Kernel in Multimodal Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an approach to negotiate the gap between low-level image features and the human interpretation of the image. Taking the cue from text-based retrieval techniques, we construct \\

Rajeev Agrawal; William Grosky; Farshad Fotouhi; Changhua Wu

2007-01-01

444

Content-Based Image Retrieval: Theory and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in data storage and image acquisition technologies have enabled the cre- ation of large image datasets. In this scenario, it is necess ary to develop appropri- ate information systems to efficiently manage these collect ions. The commonest ap- proaches use the so-called Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems . Basically, these systems try to retrieve images similar to a user-define

Ricardo Da Silva Torres; Alexandre X. Falcão

2006-01-01

445

Molecular Imaging of Hypoxia: Strategies for Probe Design and Application  

PubMed Central

Tumor hypoxia is a negative prognostic factor and its precise imaging is of great relevance to therapy planning. The present review summarizes various strategies of probe design for imaging hypoxia with a variety of techniques such as PET, SPECT and fluorescence imaging. Synthesis of some important probes that are used for preclinical and clinical imaging and their mechanism of binding in hypoxia are also discussed. PMID:22347839

Apte, Sandeep; Chin, Frederick T.; Graves, Edward E.

2012-01-01

446

A Conic Section Classifier and its Application to Image Datasets.  

PubMed

Many problems in computer vision involving recognition and/or classification can be posed in the general framework of supervised learning. There is however one aspect of image datasets, the high-dimensionality of the data points, that makes the direct application of off-the-shelf learning techniques problematic. In this paper, we present a novel concept class and a companion tractable algorithm for learning a suitable classifier from a given labeled dataset, that is particularly suited to high-dimensional sparse datasets. Each member class in the dataset is represented by a prototype conic section in the feature space, and new data points are classified based on a distance measure to each such representative conic section that is parameterized by its focus, directrix and eccentricity. Learning is achieved by altering the parameters of the conic section descriptor for each class, so as to better represent the data. We demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by comparing it to several well known classifiers on multiple public domain datasets. PMID:19212457

Banerjee, Arunava; Kodipaka, Santhosh; Vemuri, Baba C

2006-01-01

447

Online Multimodal Deep Similarity Learning with Application to Image Retrieval  

E-print Network

Recent years have witnessed extensive studies on distance metric learning (DML) for improving similarity search in multimedia information retrieval tasks. Despite their successes, most existing DML methods suffer from two critical limitations: (i) they typically attempt to learn a linear distance function on the input feature space, in which the assumption of linearity limits their capacity of measuring the similarity on complex patterns in real-world applications; (ii) they are often designed for learning distance metrics on uni-modal data, which may not effectively handle the similarity measures for multimedia objects with multimodal representations. To address these limitations, in this paper, we propose a novel framework of online multimodal deep similarity learning (OMDSL), which aims to optimally integrate multiple deep neural networks pretrained with stacked denoising autoencoder. In particular, the proposed framework explores a unified two-stage online learning scheme that consists of (i) learning a flexible nonlinear transformation function for each individual modality, and (ii) learning to find the optimal combination of multiple diverse modalities simultaneously in a coherent process. We conduct an extensive set of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms for multimodal image retrieval tasks, in which the encouraging results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Pengcheng Wu; Steven C. H. Hoi; Hao Xia; Peilin Zhao; Dayong Wang; Chunyan Miao

448

Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

Wrigley, Robert C.

1993-01-01

449

Development of a digital panoramic X-ray imaging system of adaptive image layers for dental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a continuation of our digital radiographic sensor R&D, we have developed a prototyped digital panoramic X-ray imaging system for dental applications. The imaging system consists of a slit-collimated X-ray generator with a 0.4 mm focal spot size and a 3.5 mm Al filtration, a linear-array typed CMOS imager with a 48×48 ?m 2 pixel size and a 128 (in the scan direction)×3072 (in the vertical direction) pixel format, a series of microstep motors for the precise motion control of the imaging system, and the designed sequences for the motion control and pixel readout required to make a specific plane of interest (POI) to be focused. With the several test phantoms we designed, we obtained useful digital panoramic X-ray images by moving the X-ray generator and the CMOS imager along a continuously sliding rotational center. In this study, we demonstrated that the prototype system can be applicable to any shaped POI or multi-POIs simultaneously to be focused, provided that adequate sequences for motion control and pixel readout are designed. We expect that the imaging system will be useful for our ongoing applications of dental panoramic radiography and nondestructive testing.

Choi, S. I.; Park, Y. O.; Cho, H. S.; Oh, J. E.; Cho, H. M.; Hong, D. K.; Lee, M. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Je, U. K.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, H. K.

2011-10-01

450

Spectral extrapolation of spatially bounded images [MRI application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectral extrapolation algorithm for spatially bounded images is presented. An image is said to be spatially bounded when it is confined to a closed region and is surrounded by a background of zeros. With prior knowledge of the spatial domain zeros, the extrapolation algorithm extends the image's spectrum beyond a known interval of low-frequency components. The result, which is

Sylvia K. Plevritis; Albert Macovski

1995-01-01

451

Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been

Olivier Saint-Pe; Michel Tulet; Robert Davancens; Franck Larnaudie; Pierre Magnan; Philippe Martin-Gonthier; Franck Corbiere; Pierre Belliot; Magali Estribeau

2004-01-01

452

Deformable Multi Template Matching with Application to Portal Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact positioning of patients during radiotherapy is essential for high precision treatment. The registration of portal image sequences (megavoltage X-ray images) can help to control the patient position. The particular problem of portal imaging devices is that the y provide imagery with extremely low contrast. Therefore, feature extraction followed by binary feature mat ching is a difficult task. To

Martin Berger; Gaudenz Danuser

1997-01-01

453

Functionalized nanoparticles for biological imaging and detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained tremendous attention in the last decade as a result of their size-dependent spectroscopic properties. These nanoparticles have been a subject of intense study to bridge the gap between macroscopic and atomic behavior, as well as to generate new materials for novel applications in therapeutics, biological sensing, light emitting devices, microelectronics, lasers, and solar cells. One of the most promising areas for the use of these nanoparticles is in biotechnology, where their size-dependent optical properties are harnessed for imaging and sensing applications. However, these nanoparticles, as synthesized, are often not stable in aqueous media and lack simple and reliable means of covalently linking to biomolecules. The focus of this work is to advance the progress of these nanomaterials for biotechnology by synthesizing them, characterizing their optical properties and rendering them water-soluble and functional while maintaining their coveted optical properties. QDs were synthesized by an organometallic chemical procedure that utilizes coordinating solvents to provide brightly luminescent nanoparticles. The optical interactions of these QDs were studied as a function of concentration to identify particle size-dependent optimal concentrations, where scattering and indirection excitation are minimized and the amount light observed per particle is maximized. Both QDs and AuNPs were rendered water-soluble and stable in a broad range of biologically relevant conditions by using a series of ligands composed of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) appended to poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether. By studying the stability of the surface modified AuNPs, we revealed some interesting information regarding the role of the surface ligand on the nanoparticle stability (i.e. solubility in high salt concentration, resistance to dithiothreitol competition and cyanide decomposition). Furthermore, the nanoparticles were functionalized using a series of bifunctional ligands that contain a dithiol group (DHLA) for surface binding, a PEG segment to instill water-solubility and a terminal functional group for easy bioconjugation (i.e. NH2, COOH, or biotin). Finally, a sensing application was demonstrated to detect the presence of microbial DNA (unmethlylated CpG) by using Toll-like receptor 9 proteins as the recognition components and the QDs as the transduction elements via Forster Resonance Energy Transfer.

Mei, Bing C.

454

Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel: Digital image processing, part 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of digital image processing techniques and processing systems for aerodynamic images has been conducted. These images covered many types of flows and were generated by many types of flow diagnostics. These include laser vapor screens, infrared cameras, laser holographic interferometry, Schlieren, and luminescent paints. Some general digital image processing systems, imaging networks, optical sensors, and image computing chips were briefly reviewed. Possible digital imaging network systems for the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel were explored.

Lee, George

1993-01-01

455

Calibration and application of airborne pushbroom hyperspectral imager (PHI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imaging technology is a new method to acquire the imaging spectrum data. Based on the area CCD technology, pushbroom imager can provide the higher SNR and more bands. Since 1995, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics was developing the Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager. In the paper, two generation of pushbroom hyperspectral imager (PHI) and the principle of instrument are introduced. The method and result of spectral calibration and radiation calibration are written in detail. PHI had been used in remote sensing of environment monitoring, geology study, oil and gas prospecting, vegetation, ocean observation, city layout, fine agriculture, forest fireproofing at home and abroad.

Shu, Rong; Xue, Yong-Qi; Yang, Yi-De

2004-02-01

456

Simultaneous image fusion and reconstruction using wavelets applications to SPOT + LANDSAT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a technique, based on multiresolution wavelet decomposition, for the merging and data fusion of two images. The images to merge are a high-resolution panchromatic image and a low-resolution multispectral image. The method consists of adding the wavelet coefficients of the high-resolution image to the multispectral (low-resolution) data. We applied the method to merge SPOT and

Jorge Núñez; Xavier Otazu; Octavifors; Albert Prades

1997-01-01

457

Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

2012-10-01

458

Parallel Algorithms and Software for Nuclear, Energy, and Environmental Applications. Part II: Multiphysics Software  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.

Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson

2012-09-01

459

THz optical design considerations and optimization for medical imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz imaging system design will play an important role making possible imaging of targets with arbitrary properties and geometries. This study discusses design consideration and imaging performance optimization techniques in THz quasioptical imaging system optics. Analysis of field and polarization distortion by off-axis parabolic (OAP) mirrors in THz imaging optics shows how distortions are carried in a series of mirrors while guiding the THz beam. While distortions of the beam profile by individual mirrors are not significant, these effects are compounded by a series of mirrors in antisymmetric orientation. It is shown that symmetric orientation of the OAP mirror effectively cancels this distortion to recover the original beam profile. Additionally, symmetric orientation can correct for some geometrical off-focusing due to misalignment. We also demonstrate an alternative method to test for overall system optics alignment by investigating the imaging performance of the tilted target plane. Asymmetric signal profile as a function of the target plane's tilt angle indicates when one or more imaging components are misaligned, giving a preferred tilt direction. Such analysis can offer additional insight into often elusive source device misalignment at an integrated system. Imaging plane tilting characteristics are representative of a 3-D modulation transfer function of the imaging system. A symmetric tilted plane is preferred to optimize imaging performance.

Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Llombart, Nuria; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary D.

2014-09-01