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Sample records for imaging dopamine transmission

  1. Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-07-01

    Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

  2. Prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission is decreased in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such working memory, attention, inhibitory control and risk/reward decisions--all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies in alcoholics that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, we hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in alcoholism. To test this hypothesis, we used amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in a group of 21 recently abstinent alcoholics and matched healthy controls. Methods [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BPND) was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg−1 of d-amphetamine. Results Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (Δ BPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in alcoholics compared to healthy controls. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in alcoholics included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Conclusions The results of this study for the first time unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism. PMID:24874293

  3. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  4. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling in the striatum as a potential modulator of dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine signaling, measured as a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding as well as blunted dopamine release in the striatum. These alterations in dopamine transmission have clinical relevance, and have been shown to correlate with cocaine-seeking behavior and response to treatment for cocaine dependence. However, the mechanisms contributing to the hypodopaminergic state in cocaine addiction remain unknown. Here we review the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies showing alterations in D2 receptor binding potential and dopamine transmission in cocaine abusers and their significance in cocaine-seeking behavior. Based on animal and human studies, we propose that the kappa receptor/dynorphin system, because of its impact on dopamine transmission and upregulation following cocaine exposure, could contribute to the hypodopaminergic state reported in cocaine addiction, and could thus be a relevant target for treatment development. PMID:23760592

  5. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  6. The role of D2-autoreceptors in regulating dopamine neuron activity and transmission.

    PubMed

    Ford, C P

    2014-12-12

    Dopamine D2-autoreceptors play a key role in regulating the activity of dopamine neurons and control the synthesis, release and uptake of dopamine. These Gi/o-coupled inhibitory receptors play a major part in shaping dopamine transmission. Found at both somatodendritic and axonal sites, autoreceptors regulate the firing patterns of dopamine neurons and control the timing and amount of dopamine released from their terminals in target regions. Alterations in the expression and activity of autoreceptors are thought to contribute to Parkinson's disease as well as schizophrenia, drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which emphasizes the importance of D2-autoreceptors in regulating the dopamine system. This review will summarize the cellular actions of dopamine autoreceptors and discuss recent advances that have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms by which D2-receptors control dopamine transmission. PMID:24463000

  7. Cortical Dopamine Transmission as Measured with the [11C]FLB 457 – Amphetamine PET Imaging Paradigm Is Not Influenced by COMT Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Tumuluru, Divya; May, Maureen A.; Chowdari, Kodavali V.; Himes, Michael L.; Fasenmyer, Kelli; Frankle, W. Gordon; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2016-01-01

    Basic investigations link a Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene to not only its enzymatic activity, but also to its dopaminergic tone in the prefrontal cortex. Previous PET studies have documented the relationship between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BP), and interpreted them in terms of dopaminergic tone. The use of baseline dopamine D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND) as a proxy for dopaminergic tone is problematic because they reflect both endogenous dopamine levels (a change in radiotracer's apparent affinity) and receptor density. In this analysis of 31 healthy controls genotyped for the Val158Met polymorphism (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met), we used amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 as a direct measure of dopamine release. Our analysis failed to show a relationship between COMT genotype status and prefrontal cortical dopamine release. COMT genotype was also not predictive of baseline dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND. PMID:27322568

  8. Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens shell by cocaine is attributable to a direct increase in phasic dopamine release events.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Brandon J; Cleaveland, Nathan A; Stuber, Garret D; Day, Jeremy J; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2008-08-27

    Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell is a fundamental aspect of the neural regulation of cocaine reward. Despite its importance, the nature of this effect is poorly understood. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to examine specific transmission processes underlying cocaine-evoked increases in dopamine transmission within the NAc core and shell. Initially, we examined altered terminal dopamine concentrations after global autoreceptor blockade. This was the first examination of autoreceptor regulation of naturally occurring phasic dopamine transmission and provided a novel characterization of specific components of dopamine neurotransmission. Comparison of increased dopamine signaling evoked by autoreceptor blockade and cocaine administration allowed robust resolution between increased frequency, concentration, and duration of phasic dopamine release events after cocaine delivery. Cocaine increased dopamine transmission by slowed uptake and increased concentration of dopamine released in the core and shell. However, an additional increase in the number phasic release events occurred only within the NAc shell, and this increase was eliminated by inactivation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This represents the first evidence that cocaine directly increases the frequency of dopamine release events and reveals that this is responsible for preferentially increased dopamine transmission within the NAc shell after cocaine administration. Additionally, cocaine administration resulted in a synergistic increase in dopamine concentration, and subregion differences were abolished when cocaine was administered in the absence of autoregulation. Together, these results demonstrate that cocaine administration results in a temporally and regionally specific increase in phasic dopamine release that is significantly regulated by dopamine autoreceptors. PMID:18753384

  9. Ethics of Preclinical Dopamine Transporter Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Thomas I

    2016-08-01

    While dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) imaging is sensitive and specific when performed in patients with signs or symptoms of parkinsonism, its predictive value is uncertain in healthy subjects, even with patients who have first-degree relatives affected by Parkinson disease. In deciding whether to honor a patient's request for a DAT-SPECT, neurologists must balance a patient's autonomy rights with beneficence and nonmaleficence and also consider the distributive justice implications of ordering the test. Generally speaking, the benefits of a DAT-SPECT will be too small to justify its use in an asymptomatic patient concerned about developing Parkinson disease. PMID:27495208

  10. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  11. RAPID DOPAMINE TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERS FOLLOWING MORPHINE AND OXYCODONE DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Omar S.; Lovic, Vedran; Singer, Bryan F.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    While most drugs of abuse increase dopamine neurotransmission, rapid neurochemical measurements show that different drugs evoke distinct dopamine release patterns within the nucleus accumbens. Rapid changes in dopamine concentration following psychostimulant administration have been well studied; however, such changes have never been examined following opioid delivery. Here, we provide novel measures of rapid dopamine release following intravenous infusion of two opioids, morphine and oxycodone, in drug naïve rats using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and rapid (1 min) microdialysis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition to measuring rapid dopamine transmission, microdialysis HPLC-MS measures changes in GABA, glutamate, monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and several other neurotransmitters. Although both opioids increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, their patterns of drug-evoked dopamine transmission differed dramatically. Oxycodone evoked a robust and stable increase in dopamine concentration and a robust increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic dopamine release events. Conversely, morphine evoked a brief (~ 1 min) increase in dopamine that was coincident with a surge in GABA concentration and then both transmitters returned to baseline levels. Thus, by providing rapid measures of neurotransmission, this study reveals previously unknown differences in opioid-induced neurotransmitter signaling. Investigating these differences may be essential for understanding how these two drugs of abuse could differentially usurp motivational circuitry and powerfully influence behavior. PMID:25208732

  12. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  13. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Katie A; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  14. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Katie A.; Platt, Nicola J.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  15. Ultrasmall dopamine-coated nanogolds: preparation, characteristics, and CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Wu, Youshen; Liu, JiaJun; Zhan, Yonghua; Wu, Daocheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water-dispersible ultrasmall nanogolds (WDU AuNPs) and their dopamine-coated nanogolds (WDU AuNPs@DPAs) were prepared by a reduction method with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and a stabilised agent of 2-mercaptosuccinic acid in aqueous solution. The effects of these nanoparticles on computed tomography (CT) imaging were evaluated. The size distributions and Zeta potential of the nanoparticles were measured with a Malvern size analyser, and nanoparticle morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. These characteristics were confirmed by Fourier transform spectroscopy and ultraviolet/visible spectra. It was found that WDU AuNPs@DPAs were 5.4 nm in size with clear core–shell structure. The 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that the WDU AuNPs and WDU AuNPs@DPAs were hypotoxic to different cells. The WDU AuNPs@DPAs showed a much longer circulation time and a larger CT attenuation coefficient than iohexol and could be excreted by the kidney and bladder. These nanoparticles showed considerable potential for future application in CT imaging. PMID:27366201

  16. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Stephanie C; Levitt, Erica S; Llamosas, Nerea; Neve, Kim A; Williams, John T

    2015-08-11

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. This augmentation was largely due to dopamine release from 5-HT terminals. Selective optogenetic stimulation of 5-HT terminals evoked dopamine release, producing D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs following treatment with L-DOPA. In the dorsal raphe, L-DOPA produced a long-lasting depression of the 5-HT1A-receptor-mediated IPSC in 5-HT neurons. When D2 receptors were expressed in the dorsal raphe, application of L-DOPA resulted in a D2-receptor-mediated IPSC. Thus, treatment with L-DOPA caused ectopic dopamine release from 5-HT terminals and a loss of 5-HT-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:26235617

  17. Kinetic diversity of dopamine transmission in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I Mitch; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Walters, Seth H; Varner, Erika L; Shu, Zhan; Bartlow, Kathleen M; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-05-01

    Dopamine (DA), a highly significant neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, operates on multiple time scales to affect a diverse array of physiological functions. The significance of DA in human health is heightened by its role in a variety of pathologies. Voltammetric measurements of electrically evoked DA release have brought to light the existence of a patchwork of DA kinetic domains in the dorsal striatum (DS) of the rat. Thus, it becomes necessary to consider how these domains might be related to specific aspects of DA's functions. Responses evoked in the fast and slow domains are distinct in both amplitude and temporal profile. Herein, we report that responses evoked in fast domains can be further classified into four distinct types, types 1-4. The DS, therefore, exhibits a total of at least five distinct evoked responses (four fast types and one slow type). All five response types conform to kinetic models based entirely on first-order rate expressions, which indicates that the heterogeneity among the response types arises from kinetic diversity within the DS terminal field. We report also that functionally distinct subregions of the DS express DA kinetic diversity in a selective manner. Thus, this study documents five response types, provides a thorough kinetic explanation for each of them, and confirms their differential association with functionally distinct subregions of this key DA terminal field. The dorsal striatum is composed of five significantly different dopamine domains (types 1-4 and slow, average ± SEM responses to medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation are shown in the figure). Responses from each of these five domains exhibit significantly different ascending and descending kinetic profiles and return to a long lasting elevated dopamine state, termed the dopamine hang-up. All features of these responses are modeled with high correlation using first-order modeling as well as our recently published restricted diffusion

  18. PPARγ Activation Attenuates Opioid Consumption and Modulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Melis, Miriam; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Kallupi, Marsida; Li, Hong Wu; Niswender, Kevin; Giordano, Antonio; Senzacqua, Martina; Somaini, Lorenzo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Gaitanaris, George; Demopulos, Gregory; Damadzic, Ruslan; Tapocik, Jenica; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    PPARγ is one of the three isoforms identified for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and is the receptor for the thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic medications including pioglitazone. PPARγ has been long studied for its role in adipogenesis and glucose metabolism, but the discovery of the localization in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons opens new vistas for a potential role in the regulation of reward processing and motivated behavior in drug addiction. Here, we demonstrate that activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. These effects are associated with a marked reduction of heroin-induced increase in phosphorylation of DARPP-32 protein in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and with a marked and selective reduction of acute heroin-induced elevation of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the NAc shell, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Through ex vivo electrophysiology in acute midbrain slices, we also show that stimulation of PPARγ attenuates opioid-induced excitation of VTA DA neurons via reduction of presynaptic GABA release from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). Consistent with this finding, site-specific microinjection of pioglitazone into the RMTg but not into the VTA reduced heroin taking. Our data illustrate that activation of PPARγ may represent a new pharmacotherapeutic option for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:25311134

  19. Enhanced serotonin and mesolimbic dopamine transmissions in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Aroni, Sonia; De Felice, Marta; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Melis, Miriam; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Romano, Rosaria; Palazzo, Enza; Guida, Francesca; Maione, Sabatino; Pistis, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In humans, affective consequences of neuropathic pain, ranging from depression to anxiety and anhedonia, severely impair quality of life and are a major disease burden, often requiring specific medications. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors have also been observed in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. Dysfunctions in central nervous system monoamine transmission have been hypothesized to underlie depressive and anxiety disorders in neuropathic pain. To assess whether these neurons display early changes in their activity that in the long-term might lead to chronicization, maladaptive plasticity and affective consequences, we carried out in vivo extracellular single unit recordings from serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and from dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Extracellular dopamine levels and the expression of dopamine D1, D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were measured in the nucleus accumbens. We report that, two weeks following peripheral nerve injury, discharge rate of serotonin DRN neurons and burst firing of VTA dopamine cells are enhanced, when compared with sham-operated animals. We also observed higher extracellular dopamine levels and reduced expression of D2, but not D1, receptors and TH in the nucleus accumbens. Our study confirms that peripheral neuropathy induces changes in the serotonin and dopamine systems that might be the early result of chronic maladaptation to persistent pain. The allostatic activation of these neural systems, which mirrors that already described as a consequence of stress, might lead to depression and anxiety previously observed in neuropathic animals but also an attempt to cope positively with the negative experience. PMID:26113399

  20. Modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by Dopamine: a focus on Parkinson, Huntington and Addiction diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gardoni, Fabrizio; Bellone, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a major role in motor and cognitive functions as well as in reward processing by regulating glutamatergic inputs. In particular in the striatum the release of DA rapidly influences synaptic transmission modulating both AMPA and NMDA receptors. Several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson, Huntington and addiction-related diseases, manifest a dysregulation of glutamate and DA signaling. Here, we will focus our attention on the mechanisms underlying the modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by DA in striatal circuits. PMID:25784855

  1. Enhanced GABA Transmission Drives Bradykinesia Following Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Julia C; Friend, Danielle M; Kaplan, Alanna R; Shin, Jung Hoon; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2016-05-18

    Bradykinesia is a prominent phenotype of Parkinson's disease, depression, and other neurological conditions. Disruption of dopamine (DA) transmission plays an important role, but progress in understanding the exact mechanisms driving slowness of movement has been impeded due to the heterogeneity of DA receptor distribution on multiple cell types within the striatum. Here we show that selective deletion of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) from indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) is sufficient to impair locomotor activity, phenocopying DA depletion models of Parkinson's disease, despite this mouse model having intact DA transmission. There was a robust enhancement of GABAergic transmission and a reduction of in vivo firing in striatal and pallidal neurons. Mimicking D2R signaling in iMSNs with Gi-DREADDs restored the level of tonic GABAergic transmission and rescued the motor deficit. These findings indicate that DA, through D2R activation in iMSNs, regulates motor output by constraining the strength of GABAergic transmission. PMID:27196975

  2. Imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by endogenous dopamine in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Verhoeff, N P; Varrone, A; Zoghbi, S S; Baldwin, R M; Jatlow, P A; Anderson, G M; Seibyl, J P; Innis, R B

    2000-01-10

    The effect of endogenous dopamine on in vivo measurement of dopamine D(2) receptors in extrastriatal regions (thalamus and temporal cortex) was evaluated with single photon emission computed tomography and the high affinity ligand [123I]epidepride by comparing the binding potential before and after acute dopamine depletion. Dopamine depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 5.5 g/70 kg body weight alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine given in 37 h. The alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine treatment increased the binding potential significantly in the temporal cortex (13+/-15%, P=0.036) but not in the thalamus (2+/-9%). The increase of the binding potential in the temporal cortex correlated strongly with the increase of dysphoric mood evaluated by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) (rho=0.88, P=0.004). These results imply that [123I]epidepride, coupled with acute dopamine depletion might provide estimates of synaptic dopamine concentration. PMID:10650158

  3. Hippocampal cannabinoid transmission modulates dopamine neuron activity: impact on rewarding memory formation and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Michael; Renard, Justine; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Disturbances in cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) signaling have been linked to emotional and cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, there is growing interest in characterizing the relationship between cannabinoid transmission, emotional processing, and dopamine (DA)-dependent behavioral deficits. The CB1R is highly expressed in the mammalian nervous system, particularly in the hippocampus. Activation of the ventral hippocampal subregion (vHipp) is known to increase both the activity of DAergic neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and DA levels in reward-related brain regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the possible functional relationship between hippocampal CB1R transmission and VTA DA neuronal activity is not currently understood. In this study, using in vivo neuronal recordings in rats, we demonstrate that activation of CB1R in the vHipp strongly increases VTA DA neuronal firing and bursting activity, while simultaneously decreasing the activity of VTA non-DA neurons. Furthermore, using a conditioned place preference procedure and a social interaction test, we report that intra-vHipp CB1R activation potentiates the reward salience of normally sub-threshold conditioning doses of opiates and induces deficits in natural sociability and social recognition behaviors. Finally, these behavioral effects were prevented by directly blocking NAc DAergic transmission. Collectively, these findings identify hippocampal CB1R transmission as a critical modulator of the mesolimbic DA pathway and in the processing of reward and social-related behavioral phenomena. PMID:25510937

  4. Muscarinic regulation of dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martín F.; Wess, Jürgen; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic transmission in the striatum functions as a key modulator of dopamine (DA) transmission and synaptic plasticity, both of which are required for reward and motor learning. Acetylcholine (ACh) can elicit striatal DA release through activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) on DA axonal projections. However, it remains controversial how muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) modulate striatal DA release, with studies reporting both potentiation and depression of striatal DA transmission by mAChR agonists. This study investigates the mAChR-mediated regulation of release from three types of midbrain neurons that project to striatum: DA, DA/glutamate, and glutamate neurons. We found that M5 mAChRs potentiate DA and glutamate release only from DA and DA/glutamate projections from the midbrain. We also show that M2/M4 mAChRs depress the nAChR-dependent mechanism of DA release in the striatum. These results suggest that M5 receptors on DA neuron terminals enhance DA release, whereas M2/M4 autoreceptors on cholinergic terminals inhibit ACh release and subsequent nAChR-dependent DA release. Our findings clarify the mechanisms of mAChR-dependent modulation of DA and glutamate transmission in the striatum. PMID:26080439

  5. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  6. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  7. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25894681

  8. Disruption of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission.

    PubMed

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-09-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal-PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal-PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  9. Disruption of hippocampal–prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal–PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal–PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  10. Iron Storage within Dopamine Neurovesicles Revealed by Chemical Nano-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Richard; Cloetens, Peter; Devès, Guillaume; Carmona, Asunción; Bohic, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of metal ions is suspected to play a critical role in neurodegeneration. However, the lack of analytical technique with sufficient spatial resolution prevents the investigation of metals distribution in neurons. An original experimental setup was developed to perform chemical element imaging with a 90 nm spatial resolution using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. This unique spatial resolution, combined to a high brightness, enables chemical element imaging in subcellular compartments. We investigated the distribution of iron in dopamine producing neurons because iron-dopamine compounds are suspected to be formed but have yet never been observed in cells. The study shows that iron accumulates into dopamine neurovesicles. In addition, the inhibition of dopamine synthesis results in a decreased vesicular storage of iron. These results indicate a new physiological role for dopamine in iron buffering within normal dopamine producing cells. This system could be at fault in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by an increased level of iron in the substancia nigra pars compacta and an impaired storage of dopamine due to the disruption of vesicular trafficking. The re-distribution of highly reactive dopamine-iron complexes outside neurovesicles would result in an enhanced death of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17895967

  11. Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

  12. Collaborative image transmission over wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Chang W.

    2004-01-01

    The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Thus, processing of image data collected in the sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, when a cluster of imaging sensors is activated to track certain moving target, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. With correlated image data, we need to intelligently reduce the redundancy among the neighboring sensors so as to minimize the energy for transmission, the primary source of sensor energy consumption. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image transmission scheme for wireless sensor networks. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap in order to exploiting the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. A transformation is generated according to the matching results. We encode the original image and the difference between the transformed image and reference image. Then, we transmit the coded bit stream together with the transformation parameters. This will significantly reduce the transmission energy comparing with transmitting two individual images independently. To exploiting the temporal correlation among images in the same sensor, we assume that the imaging sensors and the background scenes remain stationary over the data acquisition period. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A simple background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Whenever targets are detected, only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. At the monitoring center, the whole image can be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target image as well as its spatial location to further reduce energy consumption

  13. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm) with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM. PMID:26287196

  14. Directed evolution of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for noninvasive imaging of dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mikhail G; Westmeyer, Gil G; Romero, Philip A; Szablowski, Jerzy O; Küster, Benedict; Shah, Ameer; Otey, Christopher R; Langer, Robert; Arnold, Frances H; Jasanoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The development of molecular probes that allow in vivo imaging of neural signaling processes with high temporal and spatial resolution remains challenging. Here we applied directed evolution techniques to create magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine. The sensors were derived from the heme domain of the bacterial cytochrome P450-BM3 (BM3h). Ligand binding to a site near BM3h’s paramagnetic heme iron led to a drop in MRI signal enhancement and a shift in optical absorbance. Using an absorbance-based screen, we evolved the specificity of BM3h away from its natural ligand and toward dopamine, producing sensors with dissociation constants for dopamine of 3.3–8.9 μM. These molecules were used to image depolarization-triggered neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells and in the brains of live animals. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of molecular-level functional MRI using neural activity–dependent sensors, and our protein engineering approach can be generalized to create probes for other targets. PMID:20190737

  15. Habituation of the responsiveness of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine transmission to taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of novel, remarkable, and unpredictable tastes increases dopamine (DA) transmission in different DA terminal areas such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as estimated by in vivo microdialysis studies in rats. This effect undergoes adaptive regulation, as there is a decrease in DA responsiveness after a single pre-exposure to the same taste. This phenomenon termed habituation has been described as peculiar to NAc shell but not to NAc core and mPFC DA transmission. On this basis, it has been proposed that mPFC DA codes for generic motivational stimulus value and, together with the NAc core DA, is more consistent with a role in the expression of motivation. Conversely, NAc shell DA is specifically activated by unfamiliar or novel taste stimuli and rewards, and might serve to associate the sensory properties of the rewarding stimulus with its biological effect (Bassareo etal., 2002; Di Chiara etal., 2004). Notably, habituation of the DA response to intraoral sweet or bitter tastes is not associated with a reduction in hedonic or aversive taste reactions, thus indicating that habituation is unrelated to satiety-induced hedonic devaluation and that it is not influenced by DA alteration or depletion. This mini-review describes specific circumstances of disruption of the habituation of NAc shell DA responsiveness (De Luca etal., 2011; Bimpisidis etal., 2013). In particular, we observed an abolishment of NAc shell DA habituation to chocolate (sweet taste) by morphine sensitization and mPFC 6-hydroxy-dopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA) lesion. Moreover, morphine sensitization was associated with the appearance of the habituation in the mPFC, and with an increased and delayed response of NAc core DA to taste in naive rats, but not in pre-exposed animals. The results here described shed light on the mechanism of the habituation phenomenon of mesolimbic and mesocortical DA transmission, and its putative role as a

  16. Habituation of the responsiveness of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine transmission to taste stimuli

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of novel, remarkable, and unpredictable tastes increases dopamine (DA) transmission in different DA terminal areas such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as estimated by in vivo microdialysis studies in rats. This effect undergoes adaptive regulation, as there is a decrease in DA responsiveness after a single pre-exposure to the same taste. This phenomenon termed habituation has been described as peculiar to NAc shell but not to NAc core and mPFC DA transmission. On this basis, it has been proposed that mPFC DA codes for generic motivational stimulus value and, together with the NAc core DA, is more consistent with a role in the expression of motivation. Conversely, NAc shell DA is specifically activated by unfamiliar or novel taste stimuli and rewards, and might serve to associate the sensory properties of the rewarding stimulus with its biological effect (Bassareo etal., 2002; Di Chiara etal., 2004). Notably, habituation of the DA response to intraoral sweet or bitter tastes is not associated with a reduction in hedonic or aversive taste reactions, thus indicating that habituation is unrelated to satiety-induced hedonic devaluation and that it is not influenced by DA alteration or depletion. This mini-review describes specific circumstances of disruption of the habituation of NAc shell DA responsiveness (De Luca etal., 2011; Bimpisidis etal., 2013). In particular, we observed an abolishment of NAc shell DA habituation to chocolate (sweet taste) by morphine sensitization and mPFC 6-hydroxy-dopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA) lesion. Moreover, morphine sensitization was associated with the appearance of the habituation in the mPFC, and with an increased and delayed response of NAc core DA to taste in naive rats, but not in pre-exposed animals. The results here described shed light on the mechanism of the habituation phenomenon of mesolimbic and mesocortical DA transmission, and its putative role as a

  17. Presynaptic dopamine D2-like receptors inhibit excitatory transmission onto rat ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Eiko; Momiyama, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    The effects of dopamine (DA) on non-NMDA glutamatergic transmission onto dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were examined in rat midbrain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. EPSCs in dopaminergic neurones evoked by focal stimulation within the VTA were reversibly blocked by 5 μm CNQX in the presence of bicuculline (20 μm), strychnine (0.5 μm) and D-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5, 25 μm). Bath application of DA reduced the amplitude of EPSCs up to 65.1 ± 9.52% in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.3–1000 μm (IC50, 16.0 μm) without affecting the holding current at −60 mV measured using a Cs+-filled electrode. The effect of DA on evoked EPSCs was mimicked by the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole but not by the D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297, and was antagonized by the D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride (KB, 0.96 μm), but not by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (KB, 228.6 μm). Dopamine (30 μm) reduced the mean frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) without affecting their mean amplitude, and the DA-induced effect on the mEPSCs was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. These results suggest that afferent glutamatergic fibres which terminate on VTA dopaminergic neurones possess presynaptic D2-like receptors, activation of which inhibits glutamate release by reducing Ca2+ influx. PMID:10673553

  18. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  19. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, James

    2010-04-28

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  20. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Swanson, James [University of California, Irvine, California, United States

    2010-09-01

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  1. Correlation of striatal dopamine transporter imaging with post mortem substantia nigra cell counts.

    PubMed

    Kraemmer, Julia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Perju-Dumbrava, Laura; Pirker, Susanne; Traub-Weidinger, Tatiana; Pirker, Walter

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is widely used for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Only limited data are available on the relationship between striatal dopamine transporter binding and dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). We analyzed postmortem SN cell counts in patients who had previously undergone dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pathological diagnoses included Parkinson's disease (n = 1), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 2), multiple system atrophy (n = 1), corticobasal degeneration (n = 2), atypical parkinsonism with multiple pathological conditions (n = 1), Alzheimer's disease (n = 1), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n = 1). [(12) (3) I]β-CIT SPECT had been performed in all subjects using a standardized protocol on the same triple-head gamma camera. The density of neuromelanin-containing and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons/mm(2) was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by morphometric methods. Mean disease duration at the time of dopamine transporter imaging was 2.3 years, and the mean interval from imaging to death was 29.3 months (range, 4-68 months). Visual analysis of dopamine transporter images showed reduced striatal uptake in all seven patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism, but not in Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. Averaged [(right+left)/2] striatal uptake was highly correlated with averaged SN cell counts (rs  = 0.98, P < 0.0005 for neuromelanin- and rs  = 0.96, P < 0.0005 for tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells). Similar strong correlations were found in separate analyses for the right and left sides. Striatal dopamine transporter binding highly correlated with postmortem SN cell counts, confirming the validity of dopamine transporter imaging as an excellent in vivo marker of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:25048738

  2. Acetaldehyde sequestering prevents ethanol-induced stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Mereu, Maddalena; Peana, Alessandra Tiziana; Lintas, Alessandra; Golosio, Angela; Diana, Marco

    2009-03-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) has been postulated to mediate some of the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH). In this study we sought to evaluate whether the stimulatory effects of EtOH on mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission are affected by the administration of ACD-sequestering agent D-penicillamine (Dp). To this end we studied the effect of EtOH and ACD in the rat mesoaccumbens pathway by in vivo microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAccs), and by single cell extracellular recordings from antidromically identified mesoaccumbens DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Both EtOH (1g/kg) and ACD (20mg/kg) administration increased DA levels in the NAccs and increased the activity of mesoaccumbens DA neurons. Pretreatment with Dp (50mg/kg i.p. 1h before drug challenge) prevented both EtOH- and ACD-induced stimulation of the DA mesolimbic system without affecting morphine stimulatory actions. These observations add further support to the notion that EtOH-derived ACD stimulates the mesolimbic DA system and is essential in EtOH-induced stimulation of the DA mesoaccumbens system. We conclude that modulation of ACD bioavailability may influence the addictive profile of EtOH by decreasing its psychotropic effects and possibly leading the way to new pharmacological treatments of alcoholism. PMID:19070441

  3. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated f

  4. The Timing of Dopamine- and Noradrenaline-Mediated Transmission Reflects Underlying Differences in the Extent of Spillover and Pooling

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic transmission typically occurs through the spillover activation of extrasynaptic receptors. This study examined the mechanisms underlying somatodendritic dopamine and noradrenaline transmission and found that the extent of spillover and pooling varied dramatically between these two transmitters. In the mouse ventral tegmental area, the time course of D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs (D2-IPSCs) was consistent between cells and was unaffected by altering stimulation intensity, probability of release, or the extent of diffusion. Blocking dopamine reuptake with cocaine extended the time course of D2-IPSCs and suggested that transporters strongly limited spillover. As a result, individual release sites contributed independently to the duration of D2-IPSCs. In contrast, increasing the release of noradrenaline in the rat locus ceruleus prolonged the duration of α2-receptor-mediated IPSCs even when reuptake was intact. Spillover and subsequent pooling of noradrenaline activated distal α2-receptors, which prolonged the duration of α2-IPSCs when multiple release sites were activated synchronously. By using the rapid application of agonists onto large macropatches, we determined the concentration profile of agonists underlying the two IPSCs. Incorporating the results into a model simulating extracellular diffusion predicted that the functional range of noradrenaline diffusion was nearly fivefold greater in the locus ceruleus than dopamine in the midbrain. This study demonstrates that catecholamine synapses differentially regulate the extent of spillover and pooling to control the timing of local inhibition and suggests diversity in the roles of uptake and diffusion in governing metabotropic transmission. PMID:24872568

  5. Epipolar Consistency in Transmission Imaging.

    PubMed

    Aichert, André; Berger, Martin; Wang, Jian; Maass, Nicole; Doerfler, Arnd; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas K

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the Epipolar Consistency Conditions (ECC) between two X-ray images from the Beer-Lambert law of X-ray attenuation and the Epipolar Geometry of two pinhole cameras, using Grangeat's theorem. We motivate the use of Oriented Projective Geometry to express redundant line integrals in projection images and define a consistency metric, which can be used, for instance, to estimate patient motion directly from a set of X-ray images. We describe in detail the mathematical tools to implement an algorithm to compute the Epipolar Consistency Metric and investigate its properties with detailed random studies on both artificial and real FD-CT data. A set of six reference projections of the CT scan of a fish were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of compensating for random disturbances of the ground truth projection matrix using an optimization of the consistency metric. In addition, we use three X-ray images of a pumpkin to prove applicability to real data. We conclude, that the metric might have potential in applications related to the estimation of projection geometry. By expression of redundancy between two arbitrary projection views, we in fact support any device or acquisition trajectory which uses a cone-beam geometry. We discuss certain geometric situations, where the ECC provide the ability to correct 3D motion, without the need for 3D reconstruction. PMID:25915956

  6. Image signal transmission with Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Hu, Yi; Song, Daohong; Lou, Cibo; Zhang, Xinzheng; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an approach for image signal transmission based on self-accelerating Airy beams. The spatial information is encoded in the Fourier space through a 4-f telescope system, which can circumvent obstacles to realize a self-bending signal transmission. Furthermore, the information can be retrieved from the Airy beams after propagation through a disordered scattering medium. Our experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. PMID:26625082

  7. Transmission imaging in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongajum, E. L.; Meng, Y.; Milkereit, B.

    2010-12-01

    Wave propagation in heterogeneous media is characterized by amplitude, traveltime, and spectral fluctuations that reflect the variations in elastic properties (e.g. Vp, Vs, density). Variations in physical rock properties exist at different scales and occasionally result in effective anisotropy in medium parameters. If the variations in rock properties can be characterized from existing information such as logs, then it becomes possible to incorporate this information in wave modeling algorithms to understand its impact on acquisition design, processing of seismic waves for velocity information, AVO analysis as well as reverse time migration (RTM) routines. This study evaluates some of these aspects by using transmitted (direct) waves. When the variations exist over large scale lengths, RTM can be successfully implemented on Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data in order to image the interface between two inhomogeneities as well as characterize the velocity distribution beyond the borehole location. However, when the existing geology causes anisotropy in the variability of the physical rock properties, the use of transmitted waves becomes strongly dependent on the acquisition geometry. In this circumstance, travel time fluctuations are influenced by the strength of the perturbations of the elastic parameters and the direction with the least variability (large scale lengths) in these parameters. This has according implications for seismic imaging in hardrock environment as well microseismic imaging applications.

  8. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for

  9. Diagnostic imaging of dopamine receptors in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W; Reijs, Ambroos E M; Feelders, Richard A; van Aken, Maarten O; Krenning, Eric P; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2007-04-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy of pituitary adenomas is feasible by single-photon emission computed tomography using (123)I-S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((123)I-IBZM) and (123)I-epidepride. (123)I-epidepride is generally superior to (123)I-IBZM for the visualization of D2 receptors on pituitary macroadenomas. However, (123)I-IBZM and (123)I-epidepride scintigraphy are generally not useful to predict the response to dopaminergic treatment in pituitary tumour patients. These techniques might allow discrimination of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas from other non-tumour pathologies in the sellar region. Dopamine D2 receptors on pituitary tumours can also be studied using positron emission tomography with (11)C-N-raclopride and (11)C-N-methylspiperone. PMID:17413189

  10. Dopamine-secreting giant adrenal ganglioneuroma: clinical and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, A V; Polat, A Kamali; Aslan, K; Atmaca, H; Karagoz, F

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a dopamine-secreting giant primary adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) in a 29-year-old male patient. Although the patient was clinically silent, the 24-hour urine levels of dopamine, normetanephrine, homovanillic acid and vanillyl mandelic acid were elevated. Abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large solid tumor with calcifications and a slightly lobular edge on the left adrenal gland. A tumor, 13 x 23 x 25 cm in size, was completely resected without morbidity. A 2-year follow-up with computed tomography showed that the postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. PMID:25073244

  11. Disruption of Akt signaling decreases dopamine sensitivity in modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Sha-Sha; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Akt is a serine/threonine kinase, which is dramatically reduced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with schizophrenia, and a deficiency in Akt1 results in PFC function abnormalities. Although the importance of Akt in dopamine (DA) transmission is well established, how impaired Akt signaling affects the DA modulation of synaptic transmission in the PFC has not been characterized. Here we show that Akt inhibitors significantly decreased receptor sensitivity to DA by shifting DA modulation of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in prefrontal cortical neurons. Akt inhibition caused a significant decrease in synaptic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels with high-dose DA exposure. In addition, Akt inhibition failed to affect DA modulation of IPSCs after blockade of β-arrestin 2. β-arrestin 2-mediated interaction of clathrin with D2R was enhanced by co-application of a Akt inhibitor and DA. Taken together, the reduced response in DA modulation of inhibitory transmission mainly involved β-arrestin 2-dependent D2R desensitization. PMID:27163190

  12. Imaging addiction: D2 receptors and dopamine signaling in the striatum as biomarkers for impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Dependence to drugs of abuse is closely associated with impulsivity, or the propensity to choose a lower, but immediate, reward over a delayed, but more valuable outcome. Here, we review clinical and preclinical studies showing that striatal dopamine signaling and D2 receptor levels – which have been shown to be decreased in addiction - directly impact impulsivity, which is itself predictive of drug self-administration. Based on these studies, we propose that the alterations in D2 receptor binding and dopamine release seen in imaging studies of addiction constitute neurobiological markers of impulsivity. Recent studies in animals also show that higher striatal dopamine signaling at the D2 receptor is associated with a greater willingness to expend effort to reach goals, and we propose that this same relationship applies to humans, particularly with respect to recovery from addiction. PMID:23851257

  13. Imaging the passionate stage of romantic love by dopamine dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kayo; Mizuno, Kei; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tajima, Kanako; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kyosuke; Zeki, Semir; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Using [11C]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, we undertook a positron emission tomography (PET) study to investigate the involvement of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system when subjects viewed the pictures of partners to whom they were romantically attached. Ten subjects viewed pictures of their romantic partners and, as a control, of friends of the same sex for whom they had neutral feelings during the PET study. We administered [11C]raclopride to subjects using a timing for injecting the antagonist which had been determined in previous studies to be optimal for detecting increases in the amount of dopamine released by stimulation. The results demonstrated statistically significant activation of the dopaminergic system in two regions, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and medial prefrontal cortex, the former of which has been strongly implicated in a variety of rewarding experiences, including that of beauty and love. A positive correlation was obtained in mOFC between excitement levels and dopaminergic activation only in the love but not in the control condition. PMID:25914637

  14. Imaging the passionate stage of romantic love by dopamine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kayo; Mizuno, Kei; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tajima, Kanako; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kyosuke; Zeki, Semir; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Using [(11)C]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, we undertook a positron emission tomography (PET) study to investigate the involvement of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system when subjects viewed the pictures of partners to whom they were romantically attached. Ten subjects viewed pictures of their romantic partners and, as a control, of friends of the same sex for whom they had neutral feelings during the PET study. We administered [(11)C]raclopride to subjects using a timing for injecting the antagonist which had been determined in previous studies to be optimal for detecting increases in the amount of dopamine released by stimulation. The results demonstrated statistically significant activation of the dopaminergic system in two regions, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and medial prefrontal cortex, the former of which has been strongly implicated in a variety of rewarding experiences, including that of beauty and love. A positive correlation was obtained in mOFC between excitement levels and dopaminergic activation only in the love but not in the control condition. PMID:25914637

  15. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. )

    1990-01-01

    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  16. The characterization of IBF as a new selective dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, M.P.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Yang, Y.; Murphy, R.A.; Alavi, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The in vivo and in vitro studies of a new iodinated benzamide analog, (125I)IBF,5-iodo-7-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)carboxamido-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran as a potential central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent were investigated. In vivo biodistribution of IBF in rat indicated that this agent concentrated in the striatum region and displayed a remarkably high target-to-nontarget ratio (striatum/cerebellum = 48 at 120 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies suggested that IBF binds selectively to D-2 dopamine receptors with high affinity and low nonspecific binding (Kd = 0.106 +/- 0.015 nM, Bmax = 448 +/- 18.2 fmole/mg protein). Ex vivo autoradiography results in rats further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in the basal ganglia region. The planar images of monkey brains (lateral view of the head) after i.v. injection of ({sup 123}I)IBF clearly demonstrated that D-2 dopamine receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, ({sup 123}I)IBF may be useful as a CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in humans.

  17. Image compression and transmission based on LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sujuan; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhijiang

    2004-11-01

    In this work an embedded system is designed which implements MPEG-2 LAN transmission of CVBS or S-video signal. The hardware consists of three parts. The first is digitization of analog inputs CVBS or S-video (Y/C) from TV or VTR sources. The second is MPEG-2 compression coding primarily performed by a MPEG-2 1chip audio/video encoder. Its output is MPEG-2 system PS/TS. The third part includes data stream packing, accessing LAN and system control based on an ARM microcontroller. It packs the encoded stream into Ethernet data frames and accesses LAN, and accepts Ethernet data packets bearing control information from the network and decodes corresponding commands to control digitization, coding, and other operations. In order to increase the network transmission rate to conform to the MEPG-2 data stream, an efficient TCP/IP network protocol stack is constructed directly from network hardware provided by the embedded system, instead of using an ordinary operating system for embedded systems. In the design of the network protocol stack to obtain a high LAN transmission rate on a low-end ARM, a special transmission channel is opened for the MPEG-2 stream. The designed system has been tested on an experimental LAN. The experiment shows a maximum LAN transmission rate up to 12.7 Mbps with good sound and image quality, and satisfactory system reliability.

  18. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz. PMID:26737929

  19. Implantable image sensor based on intra-brain image transmission.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We developed and fabricated a micro-imager based on wireless intra-brain communication using conductive property of living tissues. An pixel array, analog-to-digital converter and transmitter are integrated on a single chip. The dimensions of the chip are 1 mm × 1mm × 0.15 mm. We demonstrate wireless image transmission through phosphate buffer saline as a brain phantom. PMID:24110074

  20. Compressed image transmission based on fountain codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaji; Wu, Xinhong; Jiao, L. C.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over wireless channel. In the scheme, fountain codes are integrated into bit-plane coding for channel coding. Compared to traditional erasure codes for error correcting, such as Reed-Solomon codes, fountain codes are rateless and can generate sufficient symbols on the fly. Two schemes, the EEP (Equal Error Protection) scheme and the UEP (Unequal Error Protection) scheme are described in the paper. Furthermore, the UEP scheme performs better than the EEP scheme. The proposed scheme not only can adaptively adjust the length of fountain codes according to channel loss rate but also reconstruct image even on bad channel.

  1. Registration of dynamic dopamine D2 receptor images using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Acton, P D; Pilowsky, L S; Suckling, J; Brammer, M J; Ell, P J

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for registering a dynamic sequence of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) dopamine D2 receptor images, using principal component analysis (PCA). Conventional methods for registering images, such as count difference and correlation coefficient algorithms, fail to take into account the dynamic nature of the data, resulting in large systematic errors when registering time-varying images. However, by using principal component analysis to extract the temporal structure of the image sequence, misregistration can be quantified by examining the distribution of eigenvalues. The registration procedures were tested using a computer-generated dynamic phantom derived from a high-resolution magnetic resonance image of a realistic brain phantom. Each method was also applied to clinical SPET images of dopamine D2 receptors, using the ligands iodine-123 iodobenzamide and iodine-123 epidepride, to investigate the influence of misregistration on kinetic modelling parameters and the binding potential. The PCA technique gave highly significant (P<0.001) improvements in image registration, leading to alignment errors in x and y of about 25% of the alternative methods, with reductions in autocorrelations over time. It could also be applied to align image sequences which the other methods failed completely to register, particularly 123I-epidepride scans. The PCA method produced data of much greater quality for subsequent kinetic modelling, with an improvement of nearly 50% in the chi2 of the fit to the compartmental model, and provided superior quality registration of particularly difficult dynamic sequences. PMID:9371874

  2. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V; Malik, Shaihan J

    2016-09-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh-field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non-uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non-uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject-tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  3. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh‐field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal‐to‐noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh‐field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non‐uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non‐uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject‐tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  4. A Portable Image Workstation/Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, R. D.; Tom, V. T.; Walton, G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes a PC-based workstation for the acquisition, enhancement, transmission and reception of image and text data. The system was designed to provide both ease of use and reasonable performance using IBM PC technology with a 512 X 512 monochrome frame grabber board (PCVISION). The system allows the user to annotate an image with text legends and graphics. The system utilizes some unique methods for achieving eye pleasing two pixel graphics. An image may also be enhanced in two ways: globally with look up table alterations and locally with contrast and edge enhancing operations. Performance enhancement is achieved by implementing primarily integer operations, thereby elimating floating point operations, and radically increasing the apparent processor speed. We show that designing a system for ease of use may also significantly enhance its responsiveness and speed. For example, the edge enhancement technique only allows selection of low, medium, and high levels of enhancement, simplifying user choices and speeding up process operations. In addition, all look up table enhancements are precalculated and stored, allowing the user to alter the contrast with keystroke rapidity without being concerned about the applicability of the algorithm to a particular image.

  5. Imaging human intrasynaptic dopamine release by IV cocaine and amphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Hong, C.; Yokoi, F.

    1995-05-01

    Intrasynaptic dopamine (DA) release was measured with C-11 Raclopride (RAC) PET in 15 human subjects with two psychostimulant drugs, IV cocaine or IV amphetamine (AMPH). Eleven cocaine users received IV saline then cocaine with high specific activity (SA) tracer RAC by IV bolus. To determine the optimal timing of drug administration, subjects received 48mg cocaine at 0 min.(1 subject), 4 min.(3 subjects) or 10 min.(7 subjects) post injection (mpi). One received 32mg at 4 and 16mg at 10 mpi. In a separate paradigm, the effect of AMPH not only on the binding of Hi SA but also on the receptor density (B{sub max}) using Hi SA and low SA was examined. Four normals received 2 pairs of Hi SA and Low SA RAC PET scans, each pair separated by 1 week to estimate 2 B{sub max}`s, one affected by AMPH. Before the 2nd pair, 0.3mg/kg IV AMPH was given in the times corresponding to the AMPH times for the 1s B{sub max} measurement. All were scanned on a GE 4096WB+PET with 50 frames over 90 min with radial arterial plasma sampling and HPLC metabolite correction. Neuropsychological-endocrine testing was done concurrently. All subjects had a marked psychophysiological response for cocaine or AMPH (less with Low SA RAC). However, evidence of substantial DA release was not consistent with IV cocaine nor correlated with any timing of cocaine vs. RAC, except for an overall trend for RAC reduction with cocaine. The % change in k{sub 3}/k{sub 4} by graphical analysis ranged from +10 to -21%, with similar changes by other methods of quantification, such as k{sub 3}/k{sub 4} constrained to cerebellar K{sub 1}/k{sub 2}, and simple tissue ratios comparisons. IV AMPH showed DA release (19% {plus_minus} 2 (SEM) decrease) in all Hi SA RAC (k{sub 3}/k{sub 4}) by graphical analysis. The calculation of B{sub max} in putamen using Scatchard analysis (baseline B{sub max}29{plus_minus}2) showed 12 to 28% decreases following AMPH.

  6. Rhes regulates dopamine D2 receptor transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Pelosi, Barbara; Bonsi, Paola; Vitucci, Daniela; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Punzo, Daniela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Ponterio, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pisani, Antonio; Usiello, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes) is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of rodents. In the present study, we characterized the expression of Rhes mRNA across species, as well as its functional role in other striatal neuron subtypes. Double in situ hybridization analysis showed that Rhes transcript is selectively localized in striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), but not in GABAergic parvalbumin- or in neuropeptide Y-positive cell populations. Rhes is closely linked to dopamine-dependent signaling. Therefore, we recorded ChIs activity in basal condition and following dopamine receptor activation. Surprisingly, instead of an expected dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibition, we observed an aberrant excitatory response in ChIs from Rhes knockout mice. Conversely, the effect of D1R agonist on ChIs was less robust in Rhes mutants than in controls. Although Rhes deletion in mutants occurs throughout the striatum, we demonstrate that the D2R response is altered specifically in ChIs, since it was recorded in pharmacological isolation, and prevented either by intrapipette BAPTA or by GDP-β-S. Moreover, we show that blockade of Cav2.2 calcium channels prevented the abnormal D2R response. Finally, we found that the abnormal D2R activation in ChIs was rescued by selective PI3K inhibition thus suggesting that Rhes functionally modulates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in these neurons. Our findings reveal that, besides its expression in MSNs, Rhes is localized also in striatal ChIs and, most importantly, lack of this G-protein, significantly alters D2R modulation of striatal cholinergic excitability. PMID:25818655

  7. Serotonin2C receptors modulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently of dopamine release: behavioral, neurochemical and molecular studies with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Cathala, Adeline; Devroye, Céline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    In keeping with its ability to control the mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) pathway, the serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2C R) plays a key role in mediating the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. Studies assessing the influence of 5-HT2C R agonists on cocaine-induced responses have suggested that 5-HT2C Rs can modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity independently of accumbal DA release, thereby controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In the present study, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT2C R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced behavioral, neurochemical and molecular responses. The i.p. administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), had no effect on cocaine-induced DA outflow in the shell, and increased it in the core subregion of the NAc. Furthermore, Ro 60-0175 inhibited the late-onset locomotion induced by the subcutaneous administration of the DA-D2 R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg), as well as cocaine-induced increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NAc subregions. Finally, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine residues in the NAc core, this effect being reversed by the selective 5-HT2C R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that 5-HT2C Rs are capable of modulating mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level by specifically controlling DA signaling in the NAc core subregion. In keeping with the tight relationship between locomotor activity and NAc DA function, this interaction could participate in the inhibitory control of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:24661380

  8. Fluorine-18 Radiolabeled PET Tracers for Imaging Monoamine Transporters: Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the development of fluorine-18 radiolabeled PET tracers for imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET). All successful DAT PET tracers reported to date are members of the 3β-phenyl tropane class and are synthesized from cocaine. Currently available carbon-11 SERT PET tracers come from both the diphenylsulfide and 3β-phenyl nortropane class, but so far only the nortropanes have found success with fluorine-18 derivatives. NET imaging has so far employed carbon-11 and fluorine-18 derivatives of reboxetine but due to defluorination of the fluorine-18 derivatives further research is still necessary. PMID:20216936

  9. Relationships between locomotor activation and alterations in brain temperature during selective blockade and stimulation of dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, P L; Bae, D; Kiyatkin, E A

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the dopamine (DA) system plays an essential role in the organization and regulation of brain activational processes. Various environmental stimuli that induce locomotor activation also increase DA transmission, while DA antagonists decrease spontaneous locomotion. Our previous work supports close relationships between locomotor activation and brain and body temperature increases induced by salient environmental challenges or occurring during motivated behavior. While this correlation was also true for psychomotor stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA, more complex relationships or even inverted correlations were found for other drugs that are known to increase DA transmission (i.e. heroin and cocaine). In the present study we examined brain, muscle and skin temperatures together with conventional locomotion during selective interruption of DA transmission induced by a mixture of D1 and D2 antagonists (SCH-23390 and eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) and its selective activation by apomorphine (APO; 0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) in rats. While full DA receptor blockade decreased spontaneous locomotion, it significantly increased brain, muscle and skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic brain activation under conditions of vasodilatation (or weakening of normal vascular tone). In contrast, APO strongly decreased skin temperature but tended to decrease brain and muscle temperatures despite strong hyperlocomotion and stereotypy. The brain temperature response to APO was strongly dependent on basal brain temperature, with hypothermia at high basal temperatures and weak hyperthermia at low temperatures. While supporting the role of DA in locomotor activation, these data suggest more complex relationships between drug-induced alterations in DA transmission, behavioral activation and metabolic brain activation. PMID:17196751

  10. Changes in nucleus accumbens dopamine transmission associated with fixed- and variable-time schedule-induced feeding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Nicole R; Gratton, Alain

    2008-05-01

    We examined the changes in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine (DA) transmission associated with non-contingent meal presentations under conditions of high (fixed time-, FT-schedule) and low (variable time-, VT-schedule) predictability. Of interest were the changes in NAcc DA transmission associated with discrepancies between the time food is expected and when it is actually presented. We used in vivo voltammetry to monitor NAcc DA levels as rats received, on the first and second test days, 30-s meals of condensed milk on a VT-52 schedule (inter-meal intervals of 32, 35, 40, 45, 52, 64, and 95 s). On the third and subsequent days meals were presented first on a VT-52 s schedule and then on an FT-52 s schedule. On day 1, monotonic increases in NAcc DA signals were observed during both meal consumption and the intervals between VT meal presentations. By day 2, however, meal presentations on the VT schedule elicited biphasic DA signal fluctuations; DA signals increased prior to each meal presentation but then started to decline during the feeding bout that followed. Fixed-time meal presentations on day 3 disrupted this pattern, resulting in a concurrent escalation of DA signal fluctuations upon subsequent VT meal presentations. These findings provide further evidence that, in trained animals, NAcc DA transmission is activated by conditioned incentive cues rather than by primary rewards. They also suggest that the increases in NAcc DA transmission associated with reward expectancy are sensitive to temporal cues (e.g. interval timing) and to discrepancies between expected and actual outcomes. PMID:18513317

  11. ( sup 125 I)(+)FISCH: A new CNS D-1 dopamine receptor imaging ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, J.; Kung, M.P.; Chumpradit, S.; Pan, S.; Kung, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabeling and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of an iodinated benzazepine: ({sup 125}I)FISCH 7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(4{prime}-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine, as a potential imaging agent for CNS D-1 dopamine receptors in animals, were investigated. After an iv injection, this benzazepine derivative showed good brain uptake in rats. The striatum/cerebellum ratio was 2.50 at 60 min after the injection. The regional distribution in rat brain, as measured by ex vivo autoradiography, displayed highest uptake in the regions of the striatal complex and the substantia nigra, regions known to have a high concentration of D-1 dopamine receptors. Furthermore, this localized regional cerebral distribution was blocked by pretreatment with SCH-23390, a selective D-1 dopamine receptor antagonist. The in vitro binding affinity of this agent in rat striatum tissue preparation displayed a Kd of 1.43 {plus minus} 0.15 nM. Competition data (in vitro) showed the following rank order of potency: SCH-23390 > ({plus minus})IBZP >> apomorphine > WB 4101 > ketanserin {approximately} spiperone. The preliminary data suggest that this analog of SCH-23390 shows similar selectivity for the CNS D-1 receptor.

  12. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging of electropolished and FIB manufactured TEM specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, W. Płociński, T.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.

    2015-06-15

    We present a study of the efficiency of the utility of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based transmission methods for characterizing grain structure in thinned bulk metals. Foils of type 316 stainless steel were prepared by two methods commonly used for transmission electron microscopy — double-jet electropolishing and focused ion beam milling. A customized holder allowed positioning of the foils in a configuration appropriate for both transmission electron forward scatter diffraction, and for transmission imaging by the use of a forescatter detector with two diodes. We found that both crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field transmitted images could be obtained for specimens prepared by either method. However, for both methods, preparation-induced artifacts may affect the quality or accuracy of transmission SEM data, especially those acquired by the use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Generally, the quality of orientation data was better for specimens prepared by electropolishing, due to the absence of ion-induced damage. - Highlights: • The transmission imaging and diffraction techniques are emerging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as promising new field of materials characterization. • The manuscript titled: “Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction and Transmission Electron Forescatter Imaging of Electropolished and FIB Manufactured TEM Specimens” documents how different specimen thinning procedures can effect efficiency of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging. • The abilities to make precision crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field images in transmission was studied on electropolished versus focus ion beam manufactured TEM specimens. • Depending on the need, electropolished and focused ion beam technique may produce suitable specimens for transmission imaging and diffraction in SEM.

  13. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. PMID:27179301

  14. Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Transmission Maintains Information Flow Through the Cortico-Striato-Entopeduncular Direct Pathway to Release Movements

    PubMed Central

    Chiken, Satomi; Sato, Asako; Ohta, Chikara; Kurokawa, Makoto; Arai, Satoshi; Maeshima, Jun; Sunayama-Morita, Tomoko; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Nambu, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    In the basal ganglia (BG), dopamine plays a pivotal role in motor control, and dopamine deficiency results in severe motor dysfunctions as seen in Parkinson's disease. According to the well-accepted model of the BG, dopamine activates striatal direct pathway neurons that directly project to the output nuclei of the BG through D1 receptors (D1Rs), whereas dopamine inhibits striatal indirect pathway neurons that project to the external pallidum (GPe) through D2 receptors. To clarify the exact role of dopaminergic transmission via D1Rs in vivo, we developed novel D1R knockdown mice in which D1Rs can be conditionally and reversibly regulated. Suppression of D1R expression by doxycycline treatment decreased spontaneous motor activity and impaired motor ability in the mice. Neuronal activity in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), one of the output nuclei of the rodent BG, was recorded in awake conditions to examine the mechanism of motor deficits. Cortically evoked inhibition in the EPN mediated by the cortico-striato-EPN direct pathway was mostly lost during suppression of D1R expression, whereas spontaneous firing rates and patterns remained unchanged. On the other hand, GPe activity changed little. These results suggest that D1R-mediated dopaminergic transmission maintains the information flow through the direct pathway to appropriately release motor actions. PMID:26443442

  15. Collaborative Image Coding and Transmission over Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-12-01

    The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Therefore, processing and coding of image data collected in a sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image coding and transmission scheme to minimize the energy for data transmission. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap to exploit the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A lightweight and efficient background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. The whole image can then be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target images as well as their spatial locations. Experimental results show that the energy for image transmission can indeed be greatly reduced with collaborative image coding and transmission.

  16. Regulation of the ERK pathway in the dentate gyrus by in vivo dopamine D1 receptor stimulation requires glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Acute systemic administration of the dopamine D1/D5 receptors (D1Rs) agonist, SKF81297, activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway selectively in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved in this regulation and investigated the molecular components that could promote ERK-dependent transcription and translation. SKF81297 induced phosphorylation of ERK and histone H3 required intact glutamatergic transmission. Blockade of glutamate release achieved by the mGluR2/3 agonist, LY354740 or the selective adenosine A1R agonist, CCPA as well as neurotoxic lesions of lateral entorhinal cortex reduced the ability of SKF81297 to induce ERK activation in the dentate gyrus. This activation required the combined stimulation of NR2B-containing NMDARs, mGluR1 and mGluR5. SKF81297 evoked phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) selectively at the Ser235/236 site while the Ser240/244 site remains unchanged. The SKF81297 induced increased phosphorylation of rpS6 was dependent on PKC and ERK/p90RSK activation. Surprisingly, administration of D1Rs agonist suppressed mTORC1/p70S6K pathway suggesting an mTOR-independent regulation of rpS6 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results show that intact glutamatergic transmission plays a major role in the regulation of ERK-dependent phosphorylation of histone H3 and rpS6 observed in the mouse dentate gyrus after systemic administration of SKF81297. PMID:22796106

  17. Metabolism of [123I]epidepride may affect brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Bergström, K A; Yu, M; Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Lehtonen, J; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    2000-02-01

    Iodine-123 labelled epidepride is a novel radiopharmaceutical for the study of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). A lipophilic labelled metabolite of [123I]epidepride which may enter the brain and hamper the quantitation of receptors has been observed in human plasma. In the present study, gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the plasma concentration of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and its correlation to SPET imaging of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. A linear regression fit showed a negative correlation between the amount of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and the striatum to cerebellum ratio (n=16, R=-0.58, P<0.02), suggesting that plasma metabolite analysis is essential when imaging dopamine D2 receptors with SPET using [123I]epidepride. PMID:10755727

  18. Nonhuman Primate Models of Addiction and PET Imaging: Dopamine System Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Porrino, Linda J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans. PMID:22020537

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel tropane derivatives as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhu, Lin; Lieberman, Brian P.; Zha, Zhihao; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of tropane derivatives containing a fluorinated tertiary amino or amide at the 2β position was synthesized, labeled with the positron-emitter fluorine-18 (T1/2 = 109.8 min), and tested as potential in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging agents. The corresponding chlorinated analogs were prepared and employed as precursors for radiolabeling leading to the fluorine-18-labeled derivatives via a one-step nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction. In vitro binding results showed that the 2β-amino compounds 6b, 6d and 7b displayed moderately high affinities to DAT (Ki < 10 nM). Biodistribution studies of [18F]6b and [18F]6d showed that the brain uptakes in rats were low. This is likely due to their low lipophilicities. Further structural modifications of these tropane derivatives will be needed to improve their in vivo properties as DAT imaging agents. PMID:22658558

  20. Synthesis and dopamine transporter imaging in rhesus monkeys with fluorine-18 labeled FECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Hoffman, J.M.; Eschima, D.

    1996-05-01

    Parkinson`s patients have been shown to suffer a 60-80% loss of dopamine transporters in the substantia nigra and striatum. Dopamine transporter ligands labeled with fluorine-18 (t {1/2}=110 min) are attractive probes for measuring the density of dopamine transporter sites n the striatum for the diagnosis and evaluation of Parkinson`s patients by PET. We have synthesized (Ki = 32 nM vs RTI-55), fluorine-18 labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane (FECT), with favorable kinetics as a potential dopamine transporter PET imaging agent. Treatment of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)nortropane (1) with 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane (2) in CH3CN at 80{degrees}C gave FECT (3). [F-18]FECT (3) was prepared by treating 1,2-ditosyloxyethane (4) with NCA K[F-18]/K222 (365 mCi) for 5 min in CH3CN at 85{degrees}C to give [F-18] 1-fluoro-2-tosyloxyethane (5) (175 mCi)in 59% E.O.B. yield. Coupling of [F-18] 5 with 1 in DMF at 135 {degrees}C for 45 min gave [F-18]FECT (41 mCi) in 25% yield E.O.B. following HPLC purification in a total synthesis time of 122 min. [F-18] 5 was >99% radiochemically pure with a specific activity of 5 Ci/{mu}mole. Following intravenous administration to a rhesus monkey [F-18]FECT (8.13 mCi) showed a peak uptake at 30 min in the striatum (S) followed by a slow clearance and a rapid washout from the cerebellum to afford a high S/C ratio = 11.0 at 125 min. Radio-HPLC analysis of the ether extracts form plasma samples for radioactive metabolites detected only the presence of [F-18]FECT. These results suggest that FECT is an Research supported by DOE.

  1. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent

  2. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakrison, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.

  4. Age-dependent actions of dopamine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kush; Cox, Charles L

    2013-03-01

    Numerous developmental changes in the nervous system occur during the first several weeks of the rodent lifespan. Therefore, many characteristics of neuronal function described at the cellular level from in vitro slice experiments conducted during this early time period may not generalize to adult ages. We investigated the effect of dopamine (DA) on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in prepubertal [postnatal age (P; days) 12-20], periadolescent (P30-48), and adult (P70-100) mice. The PFC is associated with higher-level cognitive functions, such as working memory, and is associated with initiation, planning, and execution of actions, as well as motivation and cognition. It is innervated by DA-releasing fibers that arise from the ventral tegmental area. In slices from prepubertal mice, DA produced a biphasic modulation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Activation of D2-like receptors leads to an early suppression of the evoked IPSC, which was followed by a longer-lasting facilitation of the IPSC mediated by D1-like DA receptors. In periadolescent mice, the D2 receptor-mediated early suppression was significantly smaller compared with the prepubertal animals and absent in adult animals. Furthermore, we found significant differences in the DA-mediated lasting enhancement of the inhibitory response among the developmental groups. Our findings suggest that behavioral paradigms that elicit dopaminergic release in the PFC differentially modulate inhibition of excitatory pyramidal neuron output in prepuberty compared with periadolescence and adulthood in the superficial layers (II/III) of the cortex. PMID:23221420

  5. Spinal Cord Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging in the Rat using 18F/11C-Fallypride

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Khararjian, Armen; Coleman, Robert A.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Spinal cord is known to be innervated with dopaminergic cells with catecholaminergic projections arising from the medulla and pons and dopaminergic transmission in the spinal cord is vital for sensory and motor function. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the imaging capability of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the rat spinal cord using PET ligands 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in all in vitro and in vivo studies. Spinal cord and brain sections were used for in vitro autoradiography and ex vivo autoradiography. For in vivo studies animals received a 18F-fallypride scan or a 11C-fallypride PET scan. The spinal cord and the brain were then harvested, flash-frozen and imaged ex vivo. For in vivo analysis Logan plots with cerebellum as a reference was used to evaluate binding potentials (BP). Tissue ratios were used for ex vivo analysis. Drug effects were evaluated using clozapine, haloperidol and dopamine were evaluated on spinal cord sections in vitro. Results In vitro studies showed 18F-fallypride binding to superficial dorsal horn (SDH), dorsal horn (DH), ventral horn (VH) and the pars centralis (PC). In the cervical section, the greatest amount of binding appeared to be in the SDH. Ex vivo studies showed approximately 6% of 18F-fallypride in SDH compared to that observed in the striatum. In vivo analysis of both 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride in the spinal cord were comparable to that in the extrastriatal regions. Haloperidol and clozapine displaced more than 75% of the 18F-fallypride in spinal cord sections. Conclusions Our studies showed 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride binding in the spinal cord in vitro and in vivo. The binding pattern correlates well with the known distribution of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:25199843

  6. Persistent Drug-Induced Parkinsonism in Patients with Normal Dopamine Transporter Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging for the dopamine transporter (DAT) is used to distinguish drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) from subclinical Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although DIP patients who show a normal DAT image are expected to recover completely, some do not. We investigated whether these patients showed changes in striatal DAT activity using semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FP-CIT PET data. DIP patients with visually normal DAT images were selected from medical records. The subjects were classified as patients who recovered partially (PR) or completely within 12 months (CR). The 18F-FP-CIT uptake in each striatal subregion was compared between the CR and the PR groups. In total, 41 and 9 patients of the CR and PR groups were assessed, respectively. The two patient groups were comparable in terms of clinical characteristics including age, sex, and severity of parkinsonism. From semi-quantitative analysis of the PET image, the PR patients showed a relatively lower ligand uptake in the ventral striatum, the anterior putamen and the posterior putamen compared with the CR patients. This result suggests that persistent DIP in patients with visually normal DAT imaging may be associated with subtle decrement of DAT activity. PMID:27294367

  7. Imaging Performance of Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lenox, Mark W.; Wiskin, James; Lewis, Matthew A.; Darrouzet, Stephen; Borup, David; Hsieh, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QTUS) is a tomographic transmission ultrasound modality that is capable of generating 3D speed-of-sound maps of objects in the field of view. It performs this measurement by propagating a plane wave through the medium from a transmitter on one side of a water tank to a high resolution receiver on the opposite side. This information is then used via inverse scattering to compute a speed map. In addition, the presence of reflection transducers allows the creation of a high resolution, spatially compounded reflection map that is natively coregistered to the speed map. A prototype QTUS system was evaluated for measurement and geometric accuracy as well as for the ability to correctly determine speed of sound. PMID:26604918

  8. Attenuation mapping for monitoring thermal therapy using ultrasound transmission imaging.

    PubMed

    Parmar, N; Kolios, M C

    2004-01-01

    The use of an ultrasound (US) transmission imaging system to monitor attenuation changes during tissue heating was investigated. This work presents preliminary results of images obtained from an acoustic camera before, during and after heating tissue phantoms using a heated needle. Two types of tissue-mimicking phantoms were used, agar and polyacrylamide-based. Regions of interests were chosen in images obtained from the real-time imaging system, and the pixel intensity values before, during and after heating were compared. In both phantoms, a decrease in image intensities was observed during heating, indicating an increase in tissue attenuation. Additionally, an irreversible change in image intensity was observed in regions close to the heat source. The reversibility of the intensity change was shown to be a function of the distance from the heating needle to the selected region. Initial results indicate that US transmission imaging can be used to monitor thermal therapy. PMID:17271937

  9. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  10. Multiple system atrophy: natural history, MRI morphology, and dopamine receptor imaging with 123IBZM-SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, J B; Klockgether, T; Petersen, D; Jauch, M; Müller-Schauenburg, W; Spieker, S; Voigt, K; Dichgans, J

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable multiple system atrophy (MSA) were examined clinically by MRI and by 123I-iodobenzamide single photon emission computed tomography (IBZM-SPECT). The clinical records of another 16 patients were also analysed retrospectively. On the basis of their clinical presentation, patients were subdivided into those with prominent parkinsonism (MSA-P, n = 11) and those with prominent cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n = 21). Autonomic symptoms were present in all patients and preceded the onset of motor symptoms in 63% of patients. Calculated median lifetime and the median time to become wheelchair bound after onset of disease were significantly shorter for MSA-P than for MSA-C (lifetime: 4.0 v 9.1 years; wheelchair: 3.1 vs 5.0 years) suggesting a better prognosis for cerebellar patients. A significant loss of striatal dopamine receptors (below 2 SD threshold) was detected by IBZM-SPECT in 63% of the patients (56% below 2.5 SD threshold). There was no difference between patients with MSA-C and those with MSA-P in the proportion with significant receptor loss and the extent of dopamine receptor loss. Planimetric MRI evaluation showed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy in both groups. Atrophy was more pronounced in patients with MSA-C than in those with MSA-P. Pontocerebellar hyperintensities and putaminal hypointensities on T2 weighted MRI were found in both groups. Pontocerebellar signal abnormalities were more pronounced in MSA-C than in MSA-P, whereas the rating scores for area but not for intensity of putaminal abnormalities were higher in MSA-P. MRI and IBZM-SPECT provide in vivo evidence for combined basal ganglia and pontocerebellar involvement in almost all patients in this series. Images PMID:8089667

  11. Transmission and storage of medical images with patient information.

    PubMed

    Acharya U, Rajendra; Subbanna Bhat, P; Kumar, Sathish; Min, Lim Choo

    2003-07-01

    Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. The text data is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The graphical signals are interleaved with the image. Two types of error control-coding techniques are proposed to enhance reliability of transmission and storage of medical images interleaved with patient information. Transmission and storage scenarios are simulated with and without error control coding and a qualitative as well as quantitative interpretation of the reliability enhancement resulting from the use of various commonly used error control codes such as repetitive, and (7,4) Hamming code is provided. PMID:12791403

  12. Edge Detection and Shape Recognition in Neutron Transmission Images

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Eric D; McConchie, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements are a valuable tool for nondestructively imaging special nuclear materials. Analysis of these images, however, tends to require significant user interaction to determine the sizes, shapes, and likely compositions of measured objects. Computer vision (CV) techniques can be a useful approach to automatically extracting important information from either neutron transmission images or fission-site-mapping images. An automatable approach has been developed that processes an input image and, through recursive application of CV techniques, produces a set of basic shapes that define surfaces observed in the image. These shapes can then be compared to a library of known shape configurations to determine if the measured object matches its expected configuration, as could be done behind an information barrier for arms control treaty verification inspections.

  13. [Multiple transmission electron microscopic image stitching based on sift features].

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Lu, Yanmeng; Han, Shuaihu; Wu, Zhuobin; Chen, Jiajing; Liu, Zhexing; Cao, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We proposed a new stitching method based on sift features to obtain an enlarged view of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images with a high resolution. The sift features were extracted from the images, which were then combined with fitted polynomial correction field to correct the images, followed by image alignment based on the sift features. The image seams at the junction were finally removed by Poisson image editing to achieve seamless stitching, which was validated on 60 local glomerular TEM images with an image alignment error of 62.5 to 187.5 nm. Compared with 3 other stitching methods, the proposed method could effectively reduce image deformation and avoid artifacts to facilitate renal biopsy pathological diagnosis. PMID:26403733

  14. CW THz scanning transmission imaging for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Yao, Rui; Yin, Qiguo; Ding, Shenghui; Wang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    In the paper, the two-dimensional THz imaging methods are described. The SIFIR-50 FPL Far-Infrared Laser is used as the THz source. The output frequency is 2.5THz in the experiment, because the THz laser operates steadily at this frequency. The P4-42 detector works at room temperature and offers relatively high sensitivity. The software of THz imaging system is self-designed, and it plays a crucial role in this imaging system because it controls nearly all the operations of this system, including the two-dimensional scanning, image data collection, image data storage, image display and image processing. Utilizing this setup, THz transmission images of concealed objects are obtained. In the experiment, a bottle cap and a plastic board covered by reflective materials are chosen as the imaging objects; paper and Teflon are placed before the object to test the transmission imaging effect. The experimental results show that this imaging system can generate clear images.

  15. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. PMID:25239478

  16. Peer-to-peer transmission of remote sensing image data using image subset block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Hou, Zhitong; Du, Zhenhong; Liu, Renyi; Yan, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The unprecedented amount and multiple applications of remote sensing image data have created a strong need for efficient data transmission. Commonly used in the transmission of various types of data, peer-to-peer (P2P) opens up new possibilities for the transmission of remote sensing image data. A considerable amount of work has been done toward the transmission of remote sensing data by using map tiles for fast online browsing. However, issues concerning the transmission of original image data require more volume and flexibility, which is indispensable in the application of remote sensing images. According to the spatial and band characteristics of remote sensing images, an approach using image subset blocks (ISBs) is proposed for P2P transmission of remote sensing image data. The method improves efficiency in two ways: transmitting ISBs on demand to reduce unnecessary transmission and using a P2P method to break the bandwidth bottleneck of the central server. The results of the performance evaluation reveal that compared with the traditional transmission method that uses the central server, the proposed method considerably enhances the efficiency to approach the level of general P2P file transmission.

  17. Dosimetry of an iodine-123-labeled tropane to image dopamine transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Stubbs, J.B.; Kim, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (IPT) is an analog of cocaine that selectively binds the presynaptic dopamine transporter. The present study sought to measure the radiation dosimetry of IPT in seven healthy human volunteers. Dynamic renal scans were acquired immediately after the intravenous administration of 165 {+-} 16 MBq (4.45 {+-} 0.42 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]IPT. Between 7 and 12 sets of whole-body scans were acquired over the next 24 hr. The 24-hr renal excretion fractions were measured from conjugate emission scans of 7-11 discreet voided urine specimens. The fraction of the administered dose in 11 organs and each urine specimen was quantified from the attenuation-corrected geometric mean counts in opposing views. Subject-specific residence times were evaluated for each subject independently by fitting the time-activity curves to a multicompartmental model. The radiation doses were estimated with the MIRD technique from the residence times for each subject individually before any results were averaged. The findings showed that IPT was excreted rapidly by the renal system. There were no reservoirs of retained activity outside the basal ganglia, where SPECT images in these subjects showed that the mean ratio of caudate to calcarine cortex averaged 25:1 at 3 hr after injection (range 19.6-32 hr). The basal ganglia received a radiation dose of 0.028 mGy/MBq (0.10 rad/mCi). The dose-limiting organ in men was the stomach, which received an estimated 0.11 mGy/MBq (0.37 rad/mCi). In women, the critical organ was the urinary bladder at 0.14 mGy/MBq (0.51 rad/mCi). Relatively high-contrast images of the presynaptic dopamine transporters in the basal ganglia can be acquired with 185 MBq (5 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]IPT. The radiation exposure that results is significantly less than the maximum allowed by current safety guidelines for research volunteers. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A transmission disequilibrium test of the Ser9/Gly dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Pierandrea; Jain, Umesh; Kennedy, James L

    2002-03-10

    Convincing data support the hypothesis that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Various lines of evidence have shown that the dopamine system plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) represents a promising candidate to examine in ADHD. Animal studies have shown that DRD3 mRNA is highly expressed in the ventral striatum suggesting an involvement of this receptor in the control of motor behaviour. Manipulation of DRD3 in rodents has led to a mouse model with nonfunctional D3 receptors that displays hyperactive behaviour in various environmental conditions. Furthermore, administration of 7-OH-DPAT, a dopaminergic agonist that binds preferentially to D3 receptors exerts an inhibitory effect on locomotor activity while D3 antagonists induce hyperactivity. Among various polymorphisms described for DRD3, the BalI polymorphism is most interesting because it codes for an aminoacid substitution in the N-terminus of the receptor. The receptor products of the two alleles (Ser/Gly) exhibit differential affinity for dopamine. To determine if DRD3 Ser9/Gly is involved in the susceptibility to ADHD we genotyped 39 adults with ADHD and their respective parents (trios). Adult ADHD represents a promising phenotype for studying the genetic component of the disorder. In fact, a recent family study has shown that relatives of adult ADHD patients have a higher rate of ADHD compared to relatives of children with ADHD suggesting a stronger genetic component for the adult version. The results of genotyping in the 39 trios analyzed with the transmission disequilibrium test showed no excess of transmission for DRD3 MscI/BalI alleles (chi(2) = 0.360; df = 1; P = 0.54). This result, although from a relatively small sample, indicates that it is unlikely that DRD3 is playing a major role in the etiology of ADHD in our sample. PMID:11864723

  19. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  20. Real-Time Ellipsometry-Based Transmission Ultrasound Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Poco, J F; Ashby, A E

    2007-02-14

    Ultrasonic imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation and medical diagnosis. Reflection mode is exclusively used for medical imaging, and is most frequently used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) because of the relative speed of acquisition. Reflection mode imaging is qualitative, yielding little information about material properties, and usually only about material interfaces. Transmission imaging can be used in 3D reconstructions to yield quantitative information: sound speed and attenuation. Unfortunately, traditional scanning methods of acquiring transmission data are very slow, requiring on the order of 20 minutes per image. The sensing of acoustic pressure fields as optical images can significantly speed data acquisition. An entire 2D acoustic pressure field can be acquired in under a second. The speed of data acquisition for a 2D view makes it feasible to obtain multiple views of an object. With multiple views, 3D reconstruction becomes possible. A fast, compact (no big magnets or accelerators), inexpensive, 3D imaging technology that uses no ionizing radiation could be a boon to the NDE and medical communities. 2D transmission images could be examined in real time to give the ultrasonic equivalent of a fluoroscope, or accumulated in such a way as to acquire phase and amplitude data over multiple views for 3D reconstruction (for breast cancer imaging, for example). Composite panels produced for the aircraft and automobile industries could be inspected in near real time, and inspection of attenuating materials such as ceramics and high explosives would be possible. There are currently three optical-readout imaging transmission ultrasound technologies available. One is based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) [1,2], one on Fabry-Perot interferometry [3], and another on critical angle modulation [4]. Each of these techniques has its problems. The FTIR based system cannot currently be scaled to large aperture sizes, the Fabry

  1. 124I-Epidepride: A PET Radiotracer for Extended Imaging of Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh; Venugopal, Archana; Kant, Ritu; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18F-fallypride (half-life of 18F = 0.076days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75μCi/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 μM haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results 124I-Epidepride was synthesized with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (>95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hr in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting. PMID:24602412

  2. Characteristics of Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Image Enhancement in Prolactinomas Resistant to Dopamine Agonist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qinghua; Erickson, Bradley J.; Chang, Alice Y.; Erickson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) enhancement parameters could predict dopamine agonist (DA) resistance in prolactinomas. Methods We retrospectively identified patients with prolactinomas who were treated with DA and underwent dMRI from 2001 through 2012 at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota). Intensities of the adenoma and pituitary gland were measured by drawing regions of interest on the images. Enhancement ratio, enhancement peak, prepeak slope (PPS), and enhancement time were compared between DA-resistant and DA-responsive groups, between DA-treated and DA-naïve groups, and between the first and follow-up dMRIs. Results We identified 49 patients with prolactinomas, with 6 (12.2%) that showed DA resistance. Thirty-seven patients (75.5%) underwent dMRI while receiving treatment, 12 (25.5%) underwent dMRI before starting therapy, and 10 (20.4%) had follow-up dMRI after DA therapy. The PPS of the tumor was higher in the treatment-resistant group vs the responsive group (mean [SD], 4.42 [3.19] vs 2.65 [1.59]; P=.03), whereas no difference was noted in the pituitary gland (5.79 [2.21] vs 4.06 [2.48]; P=.11). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumor PPS was associated with DA resistance (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.07-3.27; P=.02). Conclusions dMRI with PPS analysis potentially can be used early in the treatment course to evaluate DA resistance in pituitary prolactinomas. PMID:25551412

  3. Resolution and quantitative accuracy improvements in ultrasound transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevert, T. L.

    The type of ultrasound transmission imaging, referred to as ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT), reconstructs distributions of tissue speed of sound and sound attenuation properties from measurements of acoustic pulse time of flight (TCF) and energy received through tissue. Although clinical studies with experimental UCT scanners have demonstrated UCT is sensitive to certain tissue pathologies not easily detected with conventional ultrasound imaging, they have also shown UCT to suffer from artifacts due to physical differences between the acoustic beam and its ray model implicit in image reconstruction algorithms. Artifacts are expressed as large quantitative errors in attenuation images, and poor spatial resolution and size distortion (exaggerated size of high speed of sound regions) in speed of sound images. Methods are introduced and investigated which alleviate these problems in UCT imaging by providing improved measurements of pulse TCF and energy.

  4. Modulation of dopamine transmission by 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors: a role in the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Weizmann, Yifat; Kinor, Noa; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Yadid, Gal

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are fundamental in hedonia and motivation. Therefore their regulation should be central in understanding depression treatment. This review highlights the dopaminergic activity in relation to depressive behavior and suggests two putative receptors as potential targets for research and development of future antidepressants. In this article we review data that describe the role of serotonin in regulating dopamine release, via 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors. This action of serotonin appears to be linked to depressive-like behavior and to onset of behavioral effects of antidepressants in an animal model of depression. We suggest that drugs or strategies that decrease 5HT2C and increase 5HT3 receptor-mediated dopamine release in the limbic areas of the brain may provide a fast onset of therapeutic effect. Clinical and basic research data supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16475958

  5. Electrochemical Imaging of Dopamine Release from Three-Dimensional-Cultured PC12 Cells Using Large-Scale Integration-Based Amperometric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroya; Ino, Kosuke; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanno, Yusuke; Inoue, Kumi Y; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Matsudaira, Masahki; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-06-16

    In the present study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to image dopamine release from three-dimensional (3D)-cultured PC12 cells (PC12 spheroids). The Bio-LSI device consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 μm for rapid electrochemical imaging of large areas. PC12 spheroids were stimulated with K(+) to release dopamine. Poststimulation dopamine release from the PC12 spheroids was electrochemically imaged using the Bio-LSI device. Bio-LSI clearly showed the effects of the dopaminergic drugs l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and reserpine on K(+)-stimulated dopamine release from PC12 spheroids. Our results demonstrate that dopamine release from PC12 spheroids can be monitored using the device, suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for use in evaluating 3D-cultured dopaminergic cells and the effects of dopaminergic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of dopamine release by PC12 spheroids using LSI-based amperometric sensors. PMID:25971414

  6. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  7. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  8. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-04-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques.

  9. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  10. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results. PMID:26415470

  11. Transmission of digital images within the NTSC analog format

    DOEpatents

    Nickel, George H.

    2004-06-15

    HDTV and NTSC compatible image communication is done in a single NTSC channel bandwidth. Luminance and chrominance image data of a scene to be transmitted is obtained. The image data is quantized and digitally encoded to form digital image data in HDTV transmission format having low-resolution terms and high-resolution terms. The low-resolution digital image data terms are transformed to a voltage signal corresponding to NTSC color subcarrier modulation with retrace blanking and color bursts to form a NTSC video signal. The NTSC video signal and the high-resolution digital image data terms are then transmitted in a composite NTSC video transmission. In a NTSC receiver, the NTSC video signal is processed directly to display the scene. In a HDTV receiver, the NTSC video signal is processed to invert the color subcarrier modulation to recover the low-resolution terms, where the recovered low-resolution terms are combined with the high-resolution terms to reconstruct the scene in a high definition format.

  12. Evaluation of 5-[18F]fluoropropylepidepride as a potential PET radioligand for imaging dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Bingham, D R; Ansari, M S; Mason, N S; Holburn, G; Schmidt, D E; Votaw, D B; Manning, R G

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluated the utility of (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2,3 - dimethoxybenzamide ([18F]fluorpropylepidepride), [18F]5-FPrEpid, as a ligand for PET studies of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors. The in vitro affinity for the rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor, KD 138 pM, was determined by Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding to rat striatal homogenate. The apparent lipophilicity, log kw 1.6, was measured with reverse phase HPLC at pH 7.5. The receptor specificity was determined by competitive displacement of [18F]5-FPrEpid by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands. Only dopamine D2 ligands displaced [18F]5-FPrEpid with high affinity. Positron tomographic imaging studies in primates of [18F]5-FPrEpid demonstrated a stable striatal uptake of 0.02% injected dose/ml for up to 5 h after injection. The striatal: cerebellar ratio increased from 2 at 15 min, to 7 at 200 min, and to 10 at 300 min. Striatal uptake was displaceable by haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or raclopride (2.5 mg/kg) to cerebellar levels with a t1/2 of washout of 9 or 15 min. Striatal uptake was mildly susceptible to displacement by d-amphetamine (1-2 mg/kg) released endogenous dopamine; d-amphetamine administration produced a 10% h increase in the rate of striatal washout. Although uptake in the striatum is reversible, an equilibrium between receptor bound [18F]5-FPrEpid in striatum and [18F]5-FPrEpid in plasma is not reached within 5 h postinjection. PMID:8278895

  13. Mapping the effects of three dopamine agonists with different dyskinetogenic potential and receptor selectivity using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Marina; Kalisch, Raffael; Czisch, Michael; Larramendy, Celia; Ricatti, Jimena; Taravini, Irene R E; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Murer, Mario Gustavo; Auer, Dorothee P; Gershanik, Oscar S

    2007-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease remain poorly understood. Similar to patients, rats with severe nigrostriatal degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine are more likely to show dyskinesia during chronic treatment with unselective dopamine receptor agonists than with D2 agonists, suggesting that D1 receptor stimulation alone or in conjunction with D2 receptor stimulation increases the chances of experiencing dyskinesia. As a first step towards disclosing drug-induced brain activation in dyskinesia, we examined the effects of dopamine agonists on behavior and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the striatum and motor cortex of rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions. Rats were rendered dyskinetic before pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging by means of a repeated treatment regime with dopamine agonists. The unselective agonist apomorphine and the selective D1/D5 agonist SKF-81297 induced strong forelimb dyskinesia (FD) and axial dystonia and increased BOLD signal in the denervated striatum. Besides, SKF-81297 produced a significant but smaller BOLD increase in the intact striatum and a symmetric bilateral increase in the motor cortex. The D2 family agonist quinpirole, which induced mild dyskinesia on chronic treatment, did not produce BOLD changes in the striatum or motor cortex. Further evidence to support an association between BOLD changes and dyskinesia comes from a direct correlation between scores of FD and magnitude of drug-induced BOLD increases in the denervated striatum and motor cortex. Our results suggest that striatal and cortical activation induced by stimulation of D1/D5 receptors has a primary role in the induction of peak dose dyskinesia in parkinsonism. PMID:17287822

  14. Microfiche Image Transmission System (MITS) demonstration field evaluation of microfacsimile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, D. L., Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The MITS Demonstration was conducted for a 6-month period between 14 December 1981 and 11 June 1982. During that period, more than 1000 microfiche containing about 22,000 personnel document images were electronically transmitted between NMPC and the Personnel Support Detachment, Anacostia. These fiche represented nearly 300 active Navy personnel records. The average turnaround time was 46 minutes between making a request and receiving a facsimile record. This time included retrieval of the master microfiche, duplication, scanning, data transmission, and facsimile recording. The average scanning/transmission time was 15 minutes per record slightly less than 8 seconds per document image. The facsimile documents were found to be useful to the recipients, but improvements in both the output quality and the system itself are necessary to ensure effective implementation of an operational configuration.

  15. Performance analysis of an inexpensive Direct Imaging Transmission Ion Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Patrick; Pallone, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    A direct imaging transmission ion microscope (DITIM) is built from a modified webcam and a commercially available polonium-210 antistatic device mounted on an optics rail. The performance of the DITIM in radiographic mode is analyzed in terms of the line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) for an opaque edge. Limitations of, potential uses for, and suggested improvements to the DITIM are also discussed. Faculty sponsor

  16. Application of DSP in the image transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Feng; Wei, LinQi

    2006-05-01

    A scheme to realize static image and video code and decode based on TI DSP chip TMS320C6416 was proposed in this paper, and a reliable image transmission system was developed. According to the application demand, the software has six major modules: (1) initialization of DSP chip and other hardware; (2) video acquisition and input control program; (3) serial port communicating program; (4) RAM storage and communicating program that applies and releases the token-ring; (5) video reconstruct and output control; (6) the major parts of the software, encoding and decoding program, in which wavelet was applied first, then run length coding and Huffman coding were carried out, the image or video could had balance resolution and better visual effect by adaptive processing, in the decoding parts, the reverse operation were executed. After the system line up debugging was carried out, a satisfying result was reached: the comparatively high compression rate, preferable image quality and relatively real-time result.

  17. Shear wave transmissivity measurement by color Doppler shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuminaka, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography is a useful method for evaluating tissue stiffness. We have proposed a novel shear wave imaging method (color Doppler shear wave imaging: CD SWI), which utilizes a signal processing unit in ultrasound color flow imaging in order to detect the shear wave wavefront in real time. Shear wave velocity is adopted to characterize tissue stiffness; however, it is difficult to measure tissue stiffness with high spatial resolution because of the artifact produced by shear wave diffraction. Spatial average processing in the image reconstruction method also degrades the spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement method for the shear wave transmissivity of a tissue boundary. Shear wave wavefront maps are acquired by changing the displacement amplitude of the shear wave and the transmissivity of the shear wave, which gives the difference in shear wave velocity between two mediums separated by the boundary, is measured from the ratio of two threshold voltages required to form the shear wave wavefronts in the two mediums. From this method, a high-resolution shear wave amplitude imaging method that reconstructs a tissue boundary is proposed.

  18. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  19. Simulation of transmission electron microscope images of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Rullgård, H; Ofverstedt, L-G; Masich, S; Daneholt, B; Oktem, O

    2011-09-01

    We present a new approach to simulate electron cryo-microscope images of biological specimens. The framework for simulation consists of two parts; the first is a phantom generator that generates a model of a specimen suitable for simulation, the second is a transmission electron microscope simulator. The phantom generator calculates the scattering potential of an atomic structure in aqueous buffer and allows the user to define the distribution of molecules in the simulated image. The simulator includes a well defined electron-specimen interaction model based on the scalar Schrödinger equation, the contrast transfer function for optics, and a noise model that includes shot noise as well as detector noise including detector blurring. To enable optimal performance, the simulation framework also includes a calibration protocol for setting simulation parameters. To test the accuracy of the new framework for simulation, we compare simulated images to experimental images recorded of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) in vitreous ice. The simulated and experimental images show good agreement with respect to contrast variations depending on dose and defocus. Furthermore, random fluctuations present in experimental and simulated images exhibit similar statistical properties. The simulator has been designed to provide a platform for development of new instrumentation and image processing procedures in single particle electron microscopy, two-dimensional crystallography and electron tomography with well documented protocols and an open source code into which new improvements and extensions are easily incorporated. PMID:21631500

  20. Design of a fiber optic image transmission link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Justin D.

    1991-12-01

    An original design is presented for a fiber optic based digital image transmission link operating at a serial bit rate of 250 Mbits/Second. The link is designed as an integral part of an airborne infrared imaging system with particular emphasis on avoiding problems associated with aircraft electromagnetic interference (EMI). Unique features include simplicity (single PC board transmitter and receiver), low power, low cost (under $3,000), and use of the latest off-the-shelf components (including the Gazelle GA9011/GA9012 HOT ROD chip set). Theoretical modeling is used to predict a bit error rate of better than 10 to the minus 15th power, while actual measurements include transmission of over 10 to 13th power bits without any errors (measured bit error rate of at least 10 to the minus 13th power). Test results also show that the link is capable of transmitting 640 x 480 pixel (12 bits per pixel) images with no significant image degradation.

  1. Nanocrystal size distribution analysis from transmission electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Martijn; van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Xie, Ling; Jarolimek, Karol; Santbergen, Rudi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Leifer, Klaus; Zeman, Miro

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect.We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06292f

  2. In vitro binding properties and autoradiographic imaging of 3-iodobenzamide ((/sup 125/I)-IBZM): a potential imaging ligand for D-2 dopamine receptors in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruecke, T.; Tsai, Y.F.; McLellan, C.; Singhanyom, W.; Kung, H.F.; Cohen, R.M.; Chiueh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the (/sup 125/I) labeled benzamide, (S(-)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-benzamide, IBZM) were determined in bovine and mouse caudate membrane homogenates and by autoradiography of mouse brain slices. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM binding is saturable and reversible with B/sub max/ of 373 +/- 51 fmol/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 3.1 +/- 0.62 nM and 0.56 nM as calculated by association and dissociation time constants. In competition experiments, K/sub i/ values for the D-2 antagonists YM-09151-2 and spiperone are 4 orders of magnitude lower than the K/sub i/ value for the D-1 antagonist SCH-23390 and S(-)-IBZM is ten-fold more potent than R(+)-IBZM. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM has a low affinity for serotonin S-2 and for alpha receptors. Therefore, it is a highly selective ligand for dopamine D-2 receptors. Autoradiographic images of brain sections incubated with (/sup 125/I)-IBZM show the dopamine D-2 receptors of the striatum, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle with a high ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. Thus, S(-)-IBZM, when labeled with (/sup 125/I), may be useful for in vivo imaging of dopamine D-2 receptors by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  3. The influence of different cellular environments on PET radioligand binding: An application to D2/3-dopamine receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quelch, Darren R.; Withey, Sarah L.; Nutt, David J.; Tyacke, Robin J.; Parker, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Various D2/3 receptor PET radioligands are sensitive to endogenous dopamine release in vivo. The Occupancy Model is generally used to interpret changes in binding observed in in vivo competition binding studies; an Internalisation Hypothesis may also contribute to these changes in signal. Extension of in vivo competition imaging to other receptor systems has been relatively unsuccessful. A greater understanding of the cellular processes underlying signal changes following endogenous neurotransmitter release may help translate this imaging paradigm to other receptor systems. To investigate the Internalisation Hypothesis we assessed the effects of different cellular environments, representative of those experienced by a receptor following agonist-induced internalisation, on the binding of three D2/3 PET ligands with previously reported sensitivities to endogenous dopamine in vivo, namely [3H]spiperone, [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO. Furthermore, we determined the contribution of each cellular compartment to total striatal binding for these D2/3 ligands. These studies suggest that sensitivity to endogenous dopamine release in vivo is related to a decrease in affinity in the endosomal environment compared with those found at the cell surface. In agreement with these findings we also demonstrate that ∼25% of total striatal binding for [3H]spiperone originates from sub-cellular, microsomal receptors, whereas for [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO, this fraction is lower, representing ∼14% and 17%, respectively. This pharmacological approach is fully translatable to other receptor systems. Assessment of affinity shifts in different cellular compartments may play a crucial role for understanding if a radioligand is sensitive to endogenous release in vivo, for not just the D2/3, but other receptor systems. PMID:24910074

  4. Carbon nanodots prepared for dopamine and Al(3+) sensing, cellular imaging and logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fanyong; Kong, Depeng; Luo, Yunmei; Ye, Qianghua; Wang, Yinyin; Chen, Li

    2016-11-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) were synthesized through a facile, economic and green one-step hydrothermal process. The CNDs exhibit various merits including excellent solubility, superior photostability and low toxicity. Besides, the CNDs can be used as an effective fluorescent probe for dopamine and Al(3+). What's more, this CNDs based fluorescent probe was favorably applied to the analyses of dopamine in biological fluids and Al(3+) in food samples. This CDs based sensing platform shows its potential applications in the field of biology and food analysis with extraordinary advantages such as fast and simple as well as environmental-friendly. Inspired by these results, the prepared CNDs can be utilized as logic gates at the molecular level. PMID:27524074

  5. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  6. Region-of-interest-based progressive transmission of gray-scale images across the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Boris; Lemahieu, Ignace L.; Philips, Wilfried R.; Denecker, Koen N.; De Neve, Peter; Van Assche, Steven

    1998-12-01

    On the Internet, transmission time of large images is still an important issue. In order to reduce transmission time this paper introduces an efficient method to send 8-bit greyscale images across the Internet. The method allows progressive transmission up to lossless reconstruction. It also allows the user to select a region of interest. This method is particularly useful when image quality and transmission speed are two desired properties. The method uses TCP-IP as a transport protocol.

  7. Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances. PMID:23508852

  8. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors during chronic cocaine self-administration in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nader, Michael A; Morgan, Drake; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Calhoun, Tonya L; Buchheimer, Nancy; Ehrenkaufer, Richard; Mach, Robert H

    2006-08-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is associated with high susceptibility to cocaine abuse. Positron emission tomography was used in 12 rhesus macaques to determine if dopamine D2 receptor availability was associated with the rate of cocaine reinforcement, and to study changes in brain dopaminergic function during maintenance of and abstinence from cocaine. Baseline D2 receptor availability was negatively correlated with rates of cocaine self-administration. D2 receptor availability decreased by 15-20% within 1 week of initiating self-administration and remained reduced by approximately 20% during 1 year of exposure. Long-term reductions in D2 receptor availability were observed, with decreases persisting for up to 1 year of abstinence in some monkeys. These data provide evidence for a predisposition to self-administer cocaine based on D2 receptor availability, and demonstrate that the brain dopamine system responds rapidly following cocaine exposure. Individual differences in the rate of recovery of D2 receptor function during abstinence were noted. PMID:16829955

  9. Simulation of Medical Imaging Systems: Emission and Transmission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert L.

    Simulation is an important tool in medical imaging research. In patient scans the true underlying anatomy and physiology is unknown. We have no way of knowing in a given scan how various factors are confounding the data: statistical noise; biological variability; patient motion; scattered radiation, dead time, and other data contaminants. Simulation allows us to isolate a single factor of interest, for instance when researchers perform multiple simulations of the same imaging situation to determine the effect of statistical noise or biological variability. Simulations are also increasingly used as a design optimization tool for tomographic scanners. This article gives an overview of the mechanics of emission and transmission tomography simulation, reviews some of the publicly available simulation tools, and discusses trade-offs between the accuracy and efficiency of simulations.

  10. Imaging magnetic structures with a transmission X-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Eimüller, T.; Schütz, G.; Guttmann, P.; Schmahl, G.; Bayreuther, G.

    2000-05-01

    The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD), i.e., the dependence of the absorption of circularly polarized X-rays on the magnetization of the absorber exhibits at L-edges of transition metals values up to 25%. This can serve as a huge magnetic contrast mechanism in combination with a transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) to image magnetic domains providing a lateral resolution down to about 30 nm. The inherent element-specificity, the possibility to record images in varying external fields within a complete hysteresis loop, the relation of the contrast to local magnetic spin and orbital moments, etc. demonstrate the unique applicability to study the magnetic domain structure in current technical relevant systems like magneto-optics for high density storage media, multilayers for GMR applications or nanostructures for MRAM technology.

  11. Imaging of magnetic domains by transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Eimüller, T.; Schütz, G.; Guttmann, P.; Schmahl, G.; Pruegl, K.; Bayreuther, G.

    1998-03-01

    The combination of the high-resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) based on the zone plate technique with the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) providing a huge magnetic contrast is a new technique to image magnetic domain structures. It is inherently element specific and contains information on the local spin and orbital moments of the absorbing species that can be obtained by applying magneto-optical sum rules. A lateral spatial resolution depending on the quality of the zone plates down to 30 nm can be achieved. We report on first results at the Fe 0022-3727/31/6/012/img9 edges of Fe both in amorphous and in multilayered Gd-Fe systems. With a TXM set-up at BESSY I adapted to record magnetic images in varying magnetic fields the evolution of magnetic domains within a complete hysteresis loop and magnetic aftereffects have been studied.

  12. Bidirectional synchronization and hierarchical error correction for robust image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, HongZhi; Chen, Chang W.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel joint source and channel image coding scheme for noisy channel transmission. The proposed scheme consists of two innovative components: (1) Intelligent bi-directional synchronization, and (2) Layered bit-plane error protection. The bi-directional synchronization is able to recover the coding synchronization when any single or even when two consecutive synchronization codes are corrupted by the channel noise. With synchronized partition, unequal error protection for each bit-plane can be designed to suit for a wide range of channel environments. The hierarchical error protection strategy is based on the analysis of bit-plane error sensitivity, aiming at achieving an optimal joint source and channel coding when the compressed image data are transmitted over noisy channels. Experimental results over extensive channel simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the approach proposed by Sherwood and Zeger who have reported the best numerical results in the literature.

  13. Delay-encoded transmission and image reconstruction method in synthetic transmit aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Kolios, Michael C; Xu, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging systems usually have a lower SNR compared with conventional Bmode ultrasound systems because only one or a small number of elements are selected for each transmission in STA. Here we propose delay-encoded synthetic transmit aperture (DE-STA) imaging to encode all the transmission elements to increase the SNR of the pre-beamformed RF signals. The encoding scheme is similar to the Hadamard encoding. However, in each transmission of DE-STA imaging, selected transmitting elements are delayed by a half period of the ultrasound wave relative to the rest transmitting elements, rather than using a pulse inversion as in the Hadamard encoding sequence. After all the transmission events, a decoding process in the temporal frequency domain is applied to the acquired RF signals to recover the equivalent traditional STA signals with a better SNR. The proposed protocol is tested with simulated data (using Field II) and experimental data acquired with a commercial linear array imaging system (Ultrasonix RP). The results from both the simulations and the experiments demonstrate increased SNR of pre-beamformed RF signals and improved image quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio compared with traditional STA. The lateral resolution (as assessed by a wire target) of DESTA imaging is improved by 28% and the PSNR of the wire is increased by 7 dB, respectively, compared with traditional STA imaging. The proposed image reconstruction framework can also be extended to other transmission protocols. PMID:26470037

  14. Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background. PMID:23957273

  15. Interactive transmission of spectrally wavelet-transformed hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteagudo-Pereira, José Lino; Bartrina-Rapesta, Joan; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan; Zabala, Alaitz; Pons, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    The size of images used in remote sensing scenarios has constantly increased in the last years. Remote sensing images are not only stored, but also processed and transmitted, raising the need for more resources and bandwidth. On another side, hyperspectral remote sensing images have a large number of components with a significant inter-component redundancy, which is usually taken into account by many image coding systems to improve the coding performance. The main approaches used to decorrelate the spectral dimension are the Karhunen Loeve-Transform and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). This paper is focused on DWT decorrelators because they have a lower computational complexity, and because they provide interesting features such as component and resolution scalability and progressive transmission. Influence of the spectral transform is investigated, considering the DWT kernel applied and the number of decomposition levels. In addition, a JPIP compliant application, CADI, is introduced. It may be useful to test new protocols, techniques, or coding systems, without requiring significant changes on the application. CADI can be run in most computer platforms and devices thanks to the use of JAVA and the configuration of a light-version, suitable for devices with constrained resources.

  16. Image transmission in tactical radio frequency shared network propagation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kent H.; Wagner, Kerry A.; O'Hanian, Scott

    1997-06-01

    The need to transmit images across tactical radio frequency (rf) links has been identified in army digitization applications. For example, military doctrine requires that tactical functions like identification of battlefield entities as potential targets and battle damage assessment be performed by the soldier. Currently, a key input to these processes is imagery. Therefore, the quality and timeliness of the image directly impact tactical performance. The military is investigating the employment of remote sensors and advanced communications systems to meet this requirement as part of its digitization effort. Army communications systems exist that partially meet this requirement. However, many existing solutions employ these legacy systems in the context of a point-to-point communications architecture. Solutions to the problem of transmitting images across a rf network have not been fully explored. The term network implies that the rf transmission media is common to and shared by multiple subscribers. It is a suite of capabilities that collectively manage media access and information transfer for its subscribers thus providing substantial improvements in effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness. This paper discusses the challenges of transmitting images using one army legacy communications system in a tactical rf network, presents a conceptual framework for attacking the problem, and discusses one solution.

  17. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method’s performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm‑1 was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  18. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Spencer L; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method's performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm(-1) was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  19. Wireless intra-brain communication for image transmission through mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate wireless image data transmission through a mouse brain. The transmission characteristics of mouse brain is measured. By inserting electrodes into the brain, the transmission efficiency is drastically increased. An AM signal modulated with the image data from an implantable image sensor was launched into the brain and the received signal was demodulated. The data was successfully transmitted through the brain and the image was reproduced. PMID:22254951

  20. The role of dopamine D1 receptor transmission in effort-related choice behavior: Effects of D1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Santerre, Jessica L; Nunes, Eric J; Kozak, Rouba; Podurgiel, Samantha J; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-08-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, is a critical component of the brain circuitry involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although much is known about the characteristics of DA D2 receptor antagonism on effort-related choice behavior, less is known about the effects of D1 antagonism, and agonist/antagonist interactions. The highly selective D1 antagonist ecopipam was studied for its effects on effort-related choice behavior using the concurrent fixed ratio (FR) 5/chow feeding choice and T-maze barrier choice procedures. In rats tested on the FR5/chow feeding choice task, ecopipam shifted choice behavior, decreasing lever pressing for preferred high carbohydrate pellets but increasing consumption of lab chow. Also, ecopipam decreased selection of the high effort option (i.e., climbing the barrier to obtain a larger reward) in rats tested on the T-maze task, but did not disrupt arm preference or discrimination when no barrier was present. The D1 agonists SKF38393, SKF81297 and A77636 were assessed for their ability to reverse the effects of ecopipam, and in each case the D1 agonist significantly attenuated the effects of ecopipam, typically with an inverted-u shaped dose/response curve. SKF81297 also was able to reverse the effects of the catecholamine depleting agent tetrabenazine on T-maze performance. In summary, the present results implicate DA D1 receptors in the regulation of behavioral activation and effort-related functions, and demonstrate the utility of using tests of effort-related choice behavior for assessing the effects of D1 agonists. PMID:26022661

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of (/sup 123/I)IBZM: a potential CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Pan, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.; Kasliwal, R.; Reilley, J.; Alavi, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro binding characteristics of a CNS dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent, (S)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)) methyl-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((/sup 125/I)IBZM), was carried out in rats. Also brain images, as well as organ biodistribution were determined in a monkey following the administration of /sup 123/I-labeled compound. The S-(-)-I(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding in rat striatum (Kd = 0.426 +/- 0.082 nM, Bmax = 480 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein). Competition of various ligands for the IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than S(-)IBZM much greater than R(+)IBZM greater than or equal to S(-)BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol, norepinephrine, serotonin. In vivo planar images of a monkey injected with (/sup 123/I)IBZM demonstrated a high concentration in basal ganglia of brain. The ratios of activity in the basal ganglia to cerebellum and the cortex to cerebellum in monkey brain were 4.93 and 1.44, respectively, at 120 min postinjection. These preliminary results indicate that (/sup 123/I)IBZM is a potentially promising imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  2. Deficits in striatal dopamine D(2) receptors and energy metabolism detected by in vivo microPET imaging in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Araujo, D M; Cherry, S R; Tatsukawa, K J; Toyokuni, T; Kornblum, H I

    2000-12-01

    Functional imaging by repeated noninvasive scans of specific (18)F tracer distribution using a high-resolution small-animal PET scanner, the microPET, assessed the time course of alterations in energy utilization and dopamine receptors in rats with unilateral striatal quinolinic acid lesions. Energy utilization ipsilateral to the lesion, determined using scans of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose uptake, was compromised severely 1 week after intrastriatal excitotoxin injections. When the same rats were imaged 5 and 7 weeks postlesion, decrements in energy metabolism were even more prominent. In contrast, lesion-induced effects on dopamine D(2) receptor binding were more progressive, with an initial upregulation of [3-(2'-(18)F]fluoroethyl)spiperone binding apparent 1 week postlesion followed by a decline 5 and 7 weeks thereafter. Additional experiments revealed that marked upregulation of dopamine D(2) receptors consequent to quinolinic acid injections could be detected as early as 3 days after the initial insult. Postmortem markers of striatal GABAergic neurons were assessed in the same rats 7 weeks after the lesion: expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and dopamine D(1) receptor mRNA, as well as [(3)H]SCH-23,390 and [(3)H]spiperone binding to dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors, respectively, detected prominent decrements consequent to the lesion. In contrast, by 7 weeks postlesion [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to dopamine transport sites within the striatum appeared to be enhanced proximal to the quinolinic acid injection sites. The results demonstrate that functional imaging using the microPET is a useful technique to explore not only the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in response to excitotoxic insults, but also to examine more closely the intricacies of neurotransmitter activity in a small animal model of HD. PMID:11085894

  3. Laser Beam Delivery and Image Transmission Through Multimode Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Anpei

    This dissertation is dedicated to two important branches of optical fiber applications in biomedical engineering: laser beam delivery and image transmission. The optical phase of a light wave is distorted when it propagates through a multimode fiber. To compensate the distortion, a new hologram-generated phase conjugation theoretical model and experimental method has been developed. In the process, a self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror is introduced for recording the hologram. The coherence conditions are carefully matched so that only the desired optical signal is recorded. As a result, a high fidelity phase conjugation wave is produced. The resolution is 4.4 mum, which corresponds the diffraction-limited value of the system. Multimode optical fibers are widely used to deliver laser beams for medical diagnoses and treatments. However the spatial quality of the output beam is very poor. By use of holographic phase precompensation we present a new method to deliver high-quality laser beams. As a result, a highly collimated output beam with only 1.9 mrad divergence, which is 250 times smaller than the usual divergence, is obtained. The brightness is greatly increased. Other desired waves such as spherical wave or Gaussian beams can also be obtained. Another method, which is based on the formation at the remote end of a holographic filter, is also presented. The final output beams are nearly diffraction -limited. The hologram-generated phase conjugation is applied to image transmission through single multimode fibers. By use of Fourier transform theory and the formalism established in this study, the system resolution and the space bandwidth product are analyzed. The resolution of a multimode fiber can be 50 times higher than that of an imaging bundle if their diameters are the same. In the experiments a resolution chart was tested. The experimental results are quite consistent with the theory. A 3-D biological sample--a tooth--was also tested. The limitations of the

  4. [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO PET imaging of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Guttman, Mark; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao; Strafella, Antonio; Zack, Martin; Adams, John R; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Wilson, Alan A; Boileau, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Dopamine agonist medications with high affinity for the D3 dopamine receptor are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease, and have been associated with pathological behaviors categorized under the umbrella of impulse control disorders (ICD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICD in Parkinson's patients are associated with greater D3 dopamine receptor availability. We used positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand imaging with the D3 dopamine receptor preferring agonist [¹¹C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) in Parkinson's patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 21) ICD, and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 18). Contrary to hypotheses, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in D3 -rich brain areas was not elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD compared with those without; instead, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in ventral striatum was 20% lower (P = 0.011), correlating with two measures of ICD severity (r = -0.8 and -0.9), which may reflect higher dopamine tone in ventral striatum. In dorsal striatum, where [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding is associated with D2 receptor levels, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding was elevated across patients compared with controls. We conclude that although D3 dopamine receptors have been linked to the occurrence of ICD in Parkinson's patients. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that D3 receptor levels are elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD. We also did not find ICD-related abnormalities in D2 receptor levels. Our findings argue against the possibility that differences in D2/3 receptor levels can account for the development of ICD in PD; however, we cannot rule out that differences in dopamine levels (particularly in ventral striatum) may be involved. PMID:25641350

  5. In vivo and in vitro characterization of R(+)-FIDA2, a novel dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Vessotskie, J.; Kung, M.P.; Ramaniello, G.

    1994-05-01

    FIDA2, (R)-(+)-2,3-dimethoxy-5-iodo-N-[1-(4`-fluorobenzyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]benzamide, is a new dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent that can be labeled with either I-123 or F-18 for SPECT or PET imaging. In vitro binding studies of I-125 FIDA2 using dopamine D2 or D3 receptors expressed in Sf9 cells showed Kd values of 0.04 and 0.05 nM, respectively. In rat striatal homogenates, which contain a high density of dopamine D2 receptors, the ligand displayed a Kd of 0.04-0.06 nM. A series of in vivo SPECT images (transaxial sections, 2 mm) showed the radioactivity was localized in the area of the basal ganglia and reached peak concentrations in 11.2 {plus_minus} 5.9 min. The activity cleared at a rate of 33.5 {plus_minus} 9.4 %/hr. The target to nontarget ratios (basal ganglia to cerebellum) at time of peak, 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr p.i., were 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.4 (n=21), 3.5 {plus_minus} 1.0 (n=20), 6.3 {plus_minus} 2.9 (n=9, and 8.14 {plus_minus} 4.7 (n=9), respectively. At 90 min an injection of haloperidol or raclopride, dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists, displaced target activity but an injection of SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, had little effect on activity in the basal ganglia. In addition, an injection of R-(+)-7-OH-PIPAT, a new ligand that is selective for the dopamine D3 receptor and the high affinity state of the dopamine D2 receptor, showed partial displacement ({approximately}15%) of I-123 FIDA2 binding in the basal ganglia. These studies indicate that FIDA2 may be a useful ligand for in vivo imaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptors.

  6. Multiple wavelet-tree-based image coding and robust transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present techniques based on multiple wavelet-tree coding for robust image transmission. The algorithm of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is a state-of-the-art technique for image compression. This variable length coding (VLC) technique, however, is extremely sensitive to channel errors. To improve the error resilience capability and in the meantime to keep the high source coding efficiency through VLC, we propose to encode each wavelet tree or a group of wavelet trees using SPIHT algorithm independently. Instead of encoding the entire image as one bitstream, multiple bitstreams are generated. Therefore, error propagation is limited within individual bitstream. Two methods based on subsampling and human visual sensitivity are proposed to group the wavelet trees. The multiple bitstreams are further protected by the rate compatible puncture convolutional (RCPC) codes. Unequal error protection are provided for both different bitstreams and different bit segments inside each bitstream. We also investigate the improvement of error resilience through error resilient entropy coding (EREC) and wavelet tree coding when channels are slightly corruptive. A simple post-processing technique is also proposed to alleviate the effect of residual errors. We demonstrate through simulations that systems with these techniques can achieve much better performance than systems transmitting a single bitstream in noisy environments.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, D.E.; Gelernter, J.; Leckman, J.F.; Pauls, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic multiple tics. We used the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) method to test for linkage disequilibrium between a specific allele (the seven-repeat allele (DRD4*7R) of the exon 3 VNTR polymorphic site) at the D4 dopamine receptor locus (DRD4) and expression of chronic multiple tics and TS. This particular allele had been shown in functional studies to have different binding properties compared with the other common alleles in this DRD4 polymorphic system. We studied 64 family trios (consisting of an affected person and two parents, at least one heterozygous for DRD4*7R), including 12 nuclear family trios and 52 trios from four large TS kindreds. The DRD4*7R allele was transmitted significantly more frequently than expected ({chi}{sup 2}{sub TDT} ranging from 8.47 [P < .004] to 10.80 [P = .001], depending on breadth of disease definition and inclusion or exclusion of inferred genotypes). Confirmation of this finding will depend on either replication in other samples or the identification of a transmitted functional mutation within this sample. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of novel N-fluoropyridyl derivatives of tropane as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingying; Zhu, Lin; Plössl, Karl; Lieberman, Brian P.; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel N-fluoropyridyl-containing tropane derivatives were synthesized and their binding affinities for the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) were determined via competitive radioligand binding assays. Among these derivatives, compound 6d showed the highest binding affinity to DAT (Ki = 4.1 nM), and selectivity for DAT over SERT (5 fold) and NET (16 fold). Compound 6d was radiolabeled with Fluorine-18 in two steps. Regional brain distribution and ex vivo autoradiography studies of [18F]6d demonstrated that the ligand was selectively localized in the striatum region, where DAT binding sites are highly expressed. [18F]6d may be useful as a potential radioligand for imaging DATs with PET. PMID:21458259

  9. Baseband signal transmission experiment for intra-brain communication with implantable image sensor.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate image signal transmission for wireless intra-brain communication. As a preliminary experiment, transmission characteristics of the brain phantom were measured. The baseband output signal from an implantable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is transmitted through the phantom. The image was successfully reproduced from the received signal. PMID:23367299

  10. Scanning image detection (SID) system for conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) images.

    PubMed

    Tanji, T; Tomita, M; Kobayashi, H

    1990-08-01

    A new image detection system has been developed to display transmission electron microscope (TEM) images on a CRT without a video camera system. Deflection coils placed in both the upper space of an objective lens and in the lower space of the first intermediate lens scan a small electron probe simultaneously. The electrical signal acquired through an improved scintillator and a photomultiplier is synchronized with the scanning signal and displayed in a similar fashion to a conventional scanning TEM (STEM) instrument. A preliminary system using a 100 kV conventional TEM (CTEM) equipped with a hairpin-type electron gun, produced an image with a spatial resolution of 1 nm. PMID:2391565

  11. Chemical Imaging of Heterogeneous Muscle Foods Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging in Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Wold, Jens Petter; Kermit, Martin; Segtnan, Vegard Herman

    2016-06-01

    Foods and biomaterials are, in general, heterogeneous and it is often a challenge to obtain spectral data which are representative for the chemical composition and distribution. This paper presents a setup for near-infrared (NIR) transmission imaging where the samples are completely trans-illuminated, probing the entire sample. The system measures falling samples at high speed and consists of an NIR imaging scanner covering the spectral range 760-1040 nm and a powerful line light source. The investigated samples were rather big: whole pork bellies of thickness up to 5 cm, salmon fillets with skin, and 3 cm thick model samples of ground pork meat. Partial least square regression models for fat were developed for ground pork and salmon fillet with high correlations (R = 0.98 and R = 0.95, respectively). The regression models were applied at pixel level in the hyperspectral transmission images and resulted in images of fat distribution where also deeply embedded fat clearly contributed to the result. The results suggest that it is possible to use transmission imaging for rapid, nondestructive, and representative sampling of very heterogeneous foods. The proposed system is suitable for industrial use. PMID:27257302

  12. Analysis of virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Loris; Paci, Michelangelo; Caetano Dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Brahnam, Sheryl; Hyttinen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an ensemble of texture descriptors for analyzing virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images. Specifically, we present several novel multi-quinary (MQ) codings of local binary pattern (LBP) variants: the MQ version of the dense LBP, the MQ version of the rotation invariant co-occurrence among adjacent LBPs, and the MQ version of the LBP histogram Fourier. To reduce computation time as well as to improve performance, a feature selection approach is utilized to select the thresholds used in the MQ approaches. In addition, we propose new variants of descriptors where two histograms, instead of the standard one histogram, are produced for each descriptor. The two histograms (one for edge pixels and the other for non-edge pixels) are calculated for training two different SVMs, whose results are then combined by sum rule. We show that a bag of features approach works well with this problem. Our experiments, using a publicly available dataset of 1500 images with 15 classes and same protocol as in previous works, demonstrate the superiority of our new proposed ensemble of texture descriptors. The MATLAB code of our approach is available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357. PMID:25488214

  13. It’s MORe exciting than mu: crosstalk between mu opioid receptors and glutamatergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Connery, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids selective for the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor (MOR) produce potent analgesia and euphoria. Heroin, a synthetic opioid, is considered one of the most addictive substances, and the recent exponential rise in opioid addiction and overdose deaths has made treatment development a national public health priority. Existing medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone), when combined with psychosocial therapies, have proven efficacy in reducing aspects of opioid addiction. Unfortunately, these medications have critical limitations including those associated with opioid agonist therapies (e.g., sustained physiological dependence and opioid withdrawal leading to high relapse rates upon discontinuation), non-adherence to daily dosing, and non-renewal of monthly injection with extended-release naltrexone. Furthermore, current medications fail to ameliorate key aspects of addiction such as powerful conditioned associations that trigger relapse (e.g., cues, stress, the drug itself). Thus, there is a need for developing novel treatments that target neural processes corrupted with chronic opioid use. This requires a basic understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying effects of opioids on synaptic transmission and plasticity within reward-related neural circuits. The focus of this review is to discuss how crosstalk between MOR-associated G protein signaling and glutamatergic neurotransmission leads to immediate and long-term effects on emotional states (e.g., euphoria, depression) and motivated behavior (e.g., drug-seeking, relapse). Our goal is to integrate findings on how opioids modulate synaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic transmission via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area with the clinical (neurobehavioral) progression of opioid dependence, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that can be addressed in future studies

  14. Remote sensing image progressive transmission based on socket with retry broken downloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haicheng; Meng, Yu; Liu, Wanjun; Shan, Xiaochen; Yu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    In order to meet the different needs for different users to the quality of remote sensing images in heterogeneous network environments, an online remote sensing image progressive transmission model is constructed in which remote sensing image compression and decompression are synchronized with transmission. At the same time, a pipeline-based multi-threaded acceleration method has been proposed through solving the asynchronous problem between compression decompression and transmission to improve the efficiency of remote sensing progressive transmission. At last, an idea of retry broken downloads transmission interruption has been implemented to improve end-user interactive experience. Experimental results show that the whole processing speed has been improved nearly twice without reducing image transmission quality by using the proposed progressive transmission and real-time compression model.

  15. Compound image compression for real-time computer screen image transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony; Hao, Pengwei

    2005-08-01

    We present a compound image compression algorithm for real-time applications of computer screen image transmission. It is called shape primitive extraction and coding (SPEC). Real-time image transmission requires that the compression algorithm should not only achieve high compression ratio, but also have low complexity and provide excellent visual quality. SPEC first segments a compound image into text/graphics pixels and pictorial pixels, and then compresses the text/graphics pixels with a new lossless coding algorithm and the pictorial pixels with the standard lossy JPEG, respectively. The segmentation first classifies image blocks into picture and text/graphics blocks by thresholding the number of colors of each block, then extracts shape primitives of text/graphics from picture blocks. Dynamic color palette that tracks recent text/graphics colors is used to separate small shape primitives of text/graphics from pictorial pixels. Shape primitives are also extracted from text/graphics blocks. All shape primitives from both block types are losslessly compressed by using a combined shape-based and palette-based coding algorithm. Then, the losslessly coded bitstream is fed into a LZW coder. Experimental results show that the SPEC has very low complexity and provides visually lossless quality while keeping competitive compression ratios. PMID:16121449

  16. Pharmacological treatment with L-DOPA may reduce striatal dopamine transporter binding in in vivo imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, S; Antke, C; Hautzel, H; Mueller, H-W

    2016-01-01

    Numerous neurologic and psychiatric conditions are treated with pharmacological compounds, which lead to an increase of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels. One example is the DA precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is converted to DA in the presynaptic terminal. If the increase of DA concentrations in the synaptic cleft leads to competition with exogenous radioligands for presynaptic binding sites, this may have implications for DA transporter (DAT) imaging studies in patients under DAergic medication. This paper gives an overview on those findings, which, so far, have been obtained on DAT binding in human Parkinson's disease after treatment with L-DOPA. Findings, moreover, are related to results obtained on rats, mice or non-human primates. Results indicate that DAT imaging may be reduced in the striata of healthy animals, in the unlesioned striata of animal models of unilateral Parkinson's disease and in less severly impaired striata of Parkinsonian patients, if animal or human subjects are under acute or subchronic treatment with L-DOPA. If also striatal DAT binding is susceptible to alterations of synaptic DA levels, this may allow to quantify DA reuptake in analogy to DA release by assessing the competition between endogenous DA and the administered exogenous DAT radioligand. PMID:26642370

  17. Brominated and radioiodinated derivatives of methylphenidate (MP): Potential imaging agents for the dopamine (DA) transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    MP (Ritalin) is a psychomotor stimulant used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The therapeutic properties of MP are thought to be mediated by its binding to a site on the DA transporter, resulting in inhibition of DA reuptake and enhanced levels of synaptic dopamine. MP also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) in vitro. MP has two chiral centers, but its pharmacological activity is believed due solely to the d-threo isomer. We have found that d,l-threo-C-11 MP has favorable properties for PET studies, and therefore examined the effects of incorporating halogen atoms into the phenyl ring of MP, with a view to preparing C-11 and I-123 MP analogs as potential PET/SPECT tracers. We synthesized the 2-, 3- and 4-bromo MP analogs from the corresponding bromophenylacetonitriles by modification of the original synthesis of MP. In in vitro binding assays all three d,l-threo bromo compounds had higher affinities than MP for DA transporter sites labeled with tritiated WIN 35,428 (3->4-, 2->MP). They also showed high activity with NE reuptake sites labeled with tritiated nisoxetine. They were active in vivo as demonstrated by inhibition of heart uptake of tritiated NE in the mouse, and elevation of striatal extracellular DA (microdialysis) and stimulation of locomotor activity in the rat.

  18. In Vivo Imaging of Cerebral Dopamine D3 Receptors in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Erritzoe, David; Tziortzi, Andri; Bargiela, David; Colasanti, Alessandro; Searle, Graham E; Gunn, Roger N; Beaver, John D; Waldman, Adam; Nutt, David J; Bani, Massimo; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lingford-Hughes, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies support the role of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in alcohol reinforcement or liking. Sustained voluntary alcohol drinking in rats has been associated with an upregulation of striatal DRD3 gene expression and selective blockade of DRD3 reduces ethanol preference, consumption, and cue-induced reinstatement. In vivo measurement of DRD3 in the living human brain has not been possible until recently owing to a lack of suitable tools. In this study, DRD3 status was assessed for the first time in human alcohol addiction. Brain DRD3 availability was compared between 16 male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 13 healthy non-dependent age-matched males using the DRD3-preferring agonist positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]PHNO with and without blockade with a selective DRD3 antagonist (GSK598809 60 mg p.o.). In striatal regions of interest, where the [11C]PHNO PET signal represents primarily DRD2 binding, no differences were seen in [11C]PHNO binding between the groups at baseline. However, baseline [11C]PHNO binding was higher in alcohol-dependent patients in hypothalamus (VT: 16.5±4 vs 13.7±2.9, p=0.040), a region in which the [11C]PHNO signal almost entirely reflects DRD3 availability. The reductions in regional receptor binding (VT) following a single oral dose of GSK598809 (60 mg) were consistent with those observed in previous studies across all regions. There were no differences in regional changes in VT following DRD3 blockade between the two groups, indicating that the regional fractions of DRD3 are similar in the two groups, and the increased [11C]PHNO binding in the hypothalamus in alcohol-dependent patients is explained by elevated DRD3 in this group. Although we found no difference between alcohol-dependent patients and controls in striatal DRD3 levels, increased DRD3 binding in the hypothalamus of alcohol-dependent patients was observed. This may be relevant to the development of future therapeutic strategies to

  19. Parallel Information Processing (Image Transmission Via Fiber Bundle and Multimode Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nicholai

    2003-01-01

    Growing demand for visual, user-friendly representation of information inspires search for the new methods of image transmission. Currently used in-series (sequential) methods of information processing are inherently slow and are designed mainly for transmission of one or two dimensional arrays of data. Conventional transmission of data by fibers requires many fibers with array of laser diodes and photodetectors. In practice, fiber bundles are also used for transmission of images. Image is formed on the fiber-optic bundle entrance surface and each fiber transmits the incident image to the exit surface. Since the fibers do not preserve phase, only 2D intensity distribution can be transmitted in this way. Each single mode fiber transmit only one pixel of an image. Multimode fibers may be also used, so that each mode represent different pixel element. Direct transmission of image through multimode fiber is hindered by the mode scrambling and phase randomization. To overcome these obstacles wavelength and time-division multiplexing have been used, with each pixel transmitted on a separate wavelength or time interval. Phase-conjugate techniques also was tested in, but only in the unpractical scheme when reconstructed image return back to the fiber input end. Another method of three-dimensional imaging over single mode fibers was demonstrated in, using laser light of reduced spatial coherence. Coherence encoding, needed for a transmission of images by this methods, was realized with grating interferometer or with the help of an acousto-optic deflector. We suggest simple practical holographic method of image transmission over single multimode fiber or over fiber bundle with coherent light using filtering by holographic optical elements. Originally this method was successfully tested for the single multimode fiber. In this research we have modified holographic method for transmission of laser illuminated images over commercially available fiber bundle (fiber endoscope, or

  20. Transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter(II): on a study of transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter safe to medical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Muto, Kenji; Tian, Lan; Sato, Koki

    2007-09-01

    An infrared transmitting technique for 3D holographic images is studied. It seems to be very effective as a transmitting technique for 3D holographic images in the places where electric wave is prohibited to be used for transmission. In this paper, we first explain our infrared transmitting system for holograms and a display system for the presentation of holographic 3D images reconstructed from the received signal. Next, we make a report on the results obtained by infrared transmission of CGH and a comparison of the real and the reconstructed 3D images in our system. As this result, it is found that reconstructed holographic 3D images do not suffer a large deterioration in the quality and highly contrasted ones can be presented.

  1. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  2. Wireless image transmission using turbo codes and optimal unequal error protection.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2005-11-01

    A novel image transmission scheme is proposed for the communication of set partitioning in hierarchical trees image streams over wireless channels. The proposed scheme employs turbo codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with burst errors. An algorithm for the optimal unequal error protection of the compressed bitstream is also proposed and applied in conjunction with an inherently more efficient technique for product code decoding. The resulting scheme is tested for the transmission of images over wireless channels. Experimental evaluation clearly demonstrates the superiority of the proposed transmission system in comparison to well-known robust coding schemes. PMID:16279187

  3. [Assessment of Inspection Technology of Dopamine Transporter Imaging with ¹²³I-Ioflupane].

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichi; Kimura, Satoshi; Okuyama, Yumiko; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masaru; Iseki, Eizo

    2015-08-01

    Imaging start time of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is recommended between 3 hours and 6 hours after injection of ¹²³I-ioflupane in Ioflupane clinical practice guidelines. But image includes the effect of physiological actions of the human body and the attenuation at 13.27 hours physical half-life of ¹²³I. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the image by the elapsed time of imaging start time. Optimal cut-off frequency of Butterworth filter were examined phantom by normalized mean square error. Count was reduced by 23.1% in 5 hours, but cut-off frequency of Butterworth filter was 0.11 cycle/pixel in 0-5 hours from phantom data. Ten subjects (age 55-85 years) were injected with ¹²³I-ioflupane of 110-199 MBq into the vein only once. And we examined the specific binding ratio (SBR) in inspection of injection after 5. 5 hours and 3 hours. Decrease of counts value increased the coefficient of variance (CV) between 3 hours and 5.5 hours after injection, but the improvement of statistical noise by pre-processing filter reduced the CV. No significant difference in the result of SBR was found between 3 hours and 5. 5 hours after injection. Our results suggest that imaging start time of SPECT scan is recommended between 3 hours and 5.5 hours after injection of ¹²³I-ioflupane. PMID:26289979

  4. Statistical image reconstruction methods for simultaneous emission/transmission PET scans

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Fessler, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Transmission scans are necessary for estimating the attenuation correction factors (ACFs) to yield quantitatively accurate PET emission images. To reduce the total scan time, post-injection transmission scans have been proposed in which one can simultaneously acquire emission and transmission data using rod sources and sinogram windowing. However, since the post-injection transmission scans are corrupted by emission coincidences, accurate correction for attenuation becomes more challenging. Conventional methods (emission subtraction) for ACF computation from post-injection scans are suboptimal and require relatively long scan times. We introduce statistical methods based on penalized-likelihood objectives to compute ACFs and then use them to reconstruct lower noise PET emission images from simultaneous transmission/emission scans. Simulations show the efficacy of the proposed methods. These methods improve image quality and SNR of the estimates as compared to conventional methods.

  5. Transmission line galloping image monitoring system based on digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai Peng; Ma, Zhan Feng

    2011-06-01

    An embedded image monitoring system based on TMS320DM642 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is proposed for the transmission line monitoring. The system can detect galloping, ice or snow covering, and other abnormal status of the transmission line in a real time mode. The image detection algorithms are compared using the controlled experiment under the complex weather environment, thereby, a set of image processing algorithms is proposed for transmission lines image monitoring. The DSP/BOIS multi-threaded programming techniques are used to realize the algorithm in the DSPs' embedded software. A wireless communication based on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module is designed to transmit the detection results and the changed information of the image to the monitoring center, so that the operators can get the real time status of the transmission line. The application of the system will play an important role in the condition-based maintenance of power transmission lines and improve the reliability of power delivery system. Transmission line; Status monitoring; Complex weather factor; Image filtering and sharpening; Image segment; Morphological filtering; Wireless communication; Digital signal processor; Multi-threaded programming.

  6. Progressive transmission of secured images with authentication using decompositions into monovariate functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leni, Pierre-Emmanuel; Fougerolle, Yohan D.; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    We propose a progressive transmission approach of an image authenticated using an overlapping subimage that can be removed to restore the original image. Our approach is different from most visible watermarking approaches that allow one to later remove the watermark, because the mark is not directly introduced in the two-dimensional image space. Instead, it is rather applied to an equivalent monovariate representation of the image. Precisely, the approach is based on our progressive transmission approach that relies on a modified Kolmogorov spline network, and therefore inherits its advantages: resilience to packet losses during transmission and support of heterogeneous display environments. The marked image can be accessed at any intermediate resolution, and a key is needed to remove the mark to fully recover the original image without loss. Moreover, the key can be different for every resolution, and the images can be globally restored in case of packet losses during the transmission. Our contributions lie in the proposition of decomposing a mark (an overlapping image) and an image into monovariate functions following the Kolmogorov superposition theorem; and in the combination of these monovariate functions to provide a removable visible "watermarking" of images with the ability to restore the original image using a key.

  7. Magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ indocyanine green nanobead with magnetic field-targeting enhanced MR imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Da; Liao, Naishun; Wu, Lingjie; Huang, Aimin; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided tumor photothermal ablation ability have been extensively applied in biomedical research as one of the most exciting and challenging strategies for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of these nanomaterials still suffer from low accumulation in tumor tissues and insufficient photothermal ablation of tumors so far. Here, we report a novel approach to overcome these limitations using a core-shell magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ICG nanobead compositing of magnetite nanocluster core with coating of poly(dopamine), then further conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and adsorbing indocyanine green (ICG) on the surface. The adsorbed ICG in the nanobead displays a higher photostability and photothermal conversion ability than free ICG, as well as additional photothermal effect rather than magnetite nanocluster and poly(dopamine), which endow the nanobead with enhanced photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under near-infrared (NIR) laser irritation. Furthermore, it is proved that these nanobeads have excellent biocompatibility, T2-weighted MR imaging and magnetic field targeting ability. By applying an external magnetic field (MF) focused on the targeted tumor, a magnetic targeting mediated enhanced accumulation is observed at tumor site as proved by a darker T2-weighted MR image. Utilizing the magnetic targeting strategy, enhanced photothermal tumor ablation was achieved under laser irradiation in vivo, which is reflected by the degree of tumor tissue damage and tumor growth delay. Therefore, this nanobead integrates the abilities of magnetic field-targeting, MR imaging and photothermal cancer therapy, and might be a promising theranostic platform for tumor treatment. PMID:26896652

  8. Experiment of polarization transmission characteristics and polarization imaging in simulation smoke/fog environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin; Zhan, Juntong; Zhang, Su; Zhao, Changxia; Peng, Jie; Lei, Yi; Fu, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    In light transmission processing, light is effected by the fog/haze/smoke/dust environment usually. Thus reduce the capability of traditional photo-electric instrument in detection, transmission, imaging, because of the attenuation, scattering, absorbing of the atmosphere. Polarization transmission characteristics exist the potential possibility in observing object through fog and smoke, increasing observation distance, improve the environment adaptability of the photo-electric instrument. The influence of polarization transmission characteristics are analyzed by environment testing experiment in this paper, including light intensity, degree of polarization, angle of polarization etc. We research smoke and fog environment simulation technology, builds the process-controlled and parameter-measured indoor equipment to simulate smoke/fog environment. The experiments of the polarization characteristic are tested in two kinds of transmission mediums separately, which are water fog and oil smoke. The attenuation ratio is measured in different kinds of smoke concentrations. Polarization imaging experiment are tested separately in different kinds of illuminance lights, which are daylight lamp, LED lights and projector lights. The images are captured by imaging CCD with linearly polarized filters on degree 0, 60, 120. The polarization images on three directions are processed by image infuse algorithm. The experiment results are provided as the theory foundation and data reference in field of polarization transmission.

  9. Secure method for sectional image archiving and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, H. K.; Lou, Shyhliang A.

    2000-05-01

    Purpose: Data security becomes an important issue in telemedicine when medical information is transmitted over wide area network. Generally, security is characterized in terms of privacy, authenticity and integrity of digital data. We present a method here which can meet the requirements of privacy, authenticity, and integrity for archiving and transmitting of sectional image such as CT, MR. Methods: The method is described as follows: firstly, image segmentation was done and some patient information was read from image DICOM header. Second, a digital signature for the segmented image was produced using the image sender's private key. Afterwards, the digital signature and patient information were concatenated and embedded into the background area of the image. Finally, the whole image was encrypted to form a digital envelope using the receiver's public key. Results: (1) The image can only be decrypted and read by authorized user who own the private key of the receiving site. (2) The authenticity and integrity can be tested by signature verification. Conclusions: The preliminary results demonstrate that the method we presented here is an effective method for secure archiving and transmitting for sectional medical images.

  10. Ultrasound phase contrast thermal imaging with reflex transmission imaging methods in tissue phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Farny, Caleb H.; Clement, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal imaging measurements using ultrasound phase contrast have been performed in tissue phantoms heated with a focused ultrasound source. Back projection and reflex transmission imaging principles were employed to detect sound speed-induced changes in the phase caused by an increase in the temperature. The temperature was determined from an empirical relationship for the temperature dependence on sound speed. The phase contrast was determined from changes in the sound field measured with a hydrophone scan conducted before and during applied heating. The lengthy scanning routine used to mimic a large two-dimensional array required a steady-state temperature distribution within the phantom. The temperature distribution in the phantom was validated with magnetic resonance (MR) thermal imaging measurements. The peak temperature was found to agree within 1°C with MR and good agreement was found between the temperature profiles. The spatial resolution was 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm, comparing favorably with the 0.625 × 0.625 × 1.5 mm MR spatial resolution. PMID:19683380

  11. Coding and transmission of subband coded images on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Su, Xiao

    2001-09-01

    Subband-coded images can be transmitted in the Internet using either the TCP or the UDP protocol. Delivery by TCP gives superior decoding quality but with very long delays when the network is unreliable, whereas delivery by UDP has negligible delays but with degraded quality when packets are lost. Although images are delivered currently over the Internet by TCP, we study in this paper the use of UDP to deliver multi-description reconstruction-based subband-coded images. First, in order to facilitate recovery from UDP packet losses, we propose a joint sender-receiver approach for designing optimized reconstruction-based subband transform (ORB-ST) in multi-description coding (MDC). Second, we carefully evaluate the delay-quality trade-offs between the TCP delivery of SDC images and the UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images. Experimental results show that our proposed ORB-ST performs well in real Internet tests, and UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images provide a range of attractive alternatives to TCP delivery.

  12. Striatal and extrastriatal imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the living human brain with [123I]epidepride single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Bergström, K A; Räsänen, P; Vanninen, E; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    1997-05-01

    The iodine-123 labelled ligand benzamide epidepride was evaluated as a probe for in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the human brain. Four healthy males were imaged with a high-resolution single-photon emission tomography scanner. Striatal radioactivity peaked at 3 h after injection. The specific binding in the striatum was 0.91+/-0.03 at 3 h and this ratio steadily increased with time. Extrastriatal radioactivity was highest in the thalamus, in the midbrain and in the temporal cortex, and peaked at 45-60 min after injection of tracer. A smaller amount of radioactivity was found in the parietal, frontal and occipital cortices. Two radioactive metabolites were observed, of which one was more lipophilic than the parent compound. The radiation burden to the patient was 0.035 mSv/MBq (effective dose equivalent). The preliminary results showed that [123I]epidepride can be used for imaging striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the living human brain. PMID:9142727

  13. Imaging Nanobubbles in Water with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward R.; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Singer, Scott B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, Brian Christopher

    2011-05-01

    We present a technique based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that is capable of probing nanobubble dynamics with nanometer spatial resolution. A vacuum-tight vessel holds a sub-micrometer layer of water between two electron-transparent dielectric membranes. Electrical current pulses passing through a platinum wire on one of the membranes inject sufficient heat locally to initiate single bubble formation. In the absence of power input, all bubbles are observed to be unstable against collapse, but the STEM beam alone can cause a shrinking bubble to grow.

  14. Transmission mode time-reversal super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Sean K; Devaney, Anthony J

    2003-05-01

    The theory of time-reversal super-resolution imaging of point targets embedded in a reciprocal background medium [A. J. Devaney, "Super-resolution imaging using time-reversal and MUSIC," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published)] is generalized to the case where the transmitter and receiver sensor arrays need not be coincident and for cases where the background medium can be nonreciprocal. The new theory developed herein is based on the singular value decomposition of the generalized multistatic data matrix of the sensor system rather than the standard eigenvector/eigenvalue decomposition of the time-reversal matrix as was employed in the above-mentioned work and other treatments of time-reversal imaging [Prada, Thomas, and Fink, "The iterative time reversal process: Analysis of the convergence," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 62 (1995); Prada et al., "Decomposition of the time reversal operator: Detection and selective focusing on two scatterers," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2067 (1996)]. A generalized multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is derived that allows super-resolution imaging of both well-resolved and non-well-resolved point targets from arbitrary sensor array geometries. MUSIC exploits the orthogonal nature of the scatterer and noise subspaces defined by the singular vectors of the multistatic data matrix to form scatterer images. The time-reversal/MUSIC algorithm is tested and validated in two computer simulations of offset vertical seismic profiling where the sensor sources are aligned along the earth's surface and the receiver array is aligned along a subsurface borehole. All results demonstrate the high contrast, high resolution imaging capabilities of this new algorithm combination when compared with "classical" backpropagation or field focusing. Above and beyond the application of seismo-acoustic imaging, the time-reversal super-resolution theory has applications in ocean acoustics for target location, and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of

  15. Defects of a-Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Detected by Transmission Photothermal Radiometric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Laijun; Gao, Chunming; Zhao, Binxing; Sun, Qiming; Liu, Lixian; Huan, Huiting

    2015-06-01

    The photothermal radiometry (PTR) technique is an effective non-destructive testing technique for detecting defects in materials. In this paper, a piece of commercial amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film solar cells with some artificial mechanical defects has been investigated by the transmission PTR imaging system. Firstly, a simplified analytical expression of a normalized transmission PTR signal was employed to characterize defects. Secondly, the corresponding experimental system has been set-up for obtaining several thermal images of the sample. Thirdly, different kinds of defects have been analyzed and identified by the thermal images. The results show that not only the artificial mechanical defects on the sample can be detected, but also some defects occurring in the manufacturing process can be detected by the transmission PTR imaging system.

  16. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  17. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  18. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  19. Progressive transmission of pseudo-color images. Appendix 1: Item 4. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadenfeldt, Andrew C.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission of digital images can require considerable channel bandwidth. The cost of obtaining such a channel can be prohibitive, or the channel might simply not be available. In this case, progressive transmission (PT) can be useful. PT presents the user with a coarse initial image approximation, and then proceeds to refine it. In this way, the user tends to receive information about the content of the image sooner than if a sequential transmission method is used. PT finds application in image data base browsing, teleconferencing, medical and other applications. A PT scheme is developed for use with a particular type of image data, the pseudo-color or color mapped image. Such images consist of a table of colors called a colormap, plus a 2-D array of index values which indicate which colormap entry is to be used to display a given pixel. This type of image presents some unique problems for a PT coder, and techniques for overcoming these problems are developed. A computer simulation of the color mapped PT scheme is developed to evaluate its performance. Results of simulation using several test images are presented.

  20. Multi-line transmission in medical imaging using the second-harmonic signal.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Fabrice; Dénarié, Bastien; Austeng, Andreas; Torp, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of three-dimensional imaging in the field of medical ultrasound imaging has greatly increased the number of transmissions needed to insonify a whole volume. With a large number of transmissions comes a low image frame rate. When using classical transmission techniques, as in two-dimensional imaging, the frame rate becomes unacceptably low, prompting the use of alternative transmission patterns that require less time. One alternative is to use a multi-line transmission (MLT) technique which consists of transmitting several pulses simultaneously in different directions. Perturbations appear when acquiring and beamforming the signal in the direction of one pulse because of the pulses sent in other directions. The edge waves from the pulses transmitted in a different direction add to the signal transmitted in the direction of interest, resulting in artifacts in the final image. Taking advantage of the nonlinear propagation of sound in tissue, the second-harmonic signal can be used with the MLT technique. The image obtained using the second-harmonic signal, compared with an image obtained using the fundamental signal, should have reduced artifacts coming from other pulses transmitted simultaneously. Simulations, backed up by experiments imaging a wire target and an in vivo left ventricle, confirm that the hypothesis is valid. In the studied case, the perturbations appear as an increase in the signal level around the main echo of a point scatterer. When using the fundamental signal, the measured amplitude level of the perturbations was approximately -40 dB compared with the maximum signal amplitude (-27 dB in vivo), whereas it was around -60 dB (-45 dB in vivo) for the second-harmonic signal. The MLT technique encounters limitations in the very near field where the pulses overlap and the perturbation level also increases for images with strong speckle and low contrast. PMID:24297034

  1. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  2. High-performance sub-terahertz transmission imaging system for food inspection

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Gyeongsik; Park, Kisang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Nari; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Unlike X-ray systems, a terahertz imaging system can distinguish low-density materials in a food matrix. For applying this technique to food inspection, imaging resolution and acquisition speed ought to be simultaneously enhanced. Therefore, we have developed the first continuous-wave sub-terahertz transmission imaging system with a polygonal mirror. Using an f-theta lens and a polygonal mirror, beam scanning is performed over a range of 150 mm. For obtaining transmission images, the line-beam is incorporated with sample translation. The imaging system demonstrates that a pattern with 2.83 mm line-width at 210 GHz can be identified with a scanning speed of 80 mm/s. PMID:26137392

  3. Influence of aero-optical transmission on infrared imaging optical system in the supersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Meng, Weihua; Li, Yun; Dai, Xiaobing; Zuo, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aero-optical transmission effect is becoming a crucial issue in the supersonic flight. In our study, the joint influences of the non-uniform aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated optical window on imaging quality of an airborne infrared optical system are investigated in depth. Both the laminar and turbulent viscous models are used in the simulation of aerodynamic flow because of their distinct influences on aero-optical transmission. On the basis of the computed density field, the ray tracing method is applied to calculate the point spread functions of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated window. The imaging quality is evaluated by using the point spread functions and modulation transfer functions. Experimental results show that the optical transmission through the aerodynamically heated window has a much severer influence on the imaging quality than that through the aerodynamic flow field.

  4. Transmissive spatial light modulators with high figure-of-merit liquid crystals for foveated imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriman, Jamie; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson; Wick, David; Bagwell, Brett; Martinez, Ty; Payne, Don; Serati, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Unique liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are being developed for foveated imaging systems that provide wide field-of-view (FOV) coverage (+/-60° in azimuth and elevation) without requiring gimbals or other mechanical scanners. Recently, a transmissive-SLM- based system operating in the visible (532 nm) has been demonstrated. The LC SLM development is addressing implementation issues through the development of high figure-of-merit (FoM) LC materials and transmissive high-resolution SLMs. Transmissive SLM operation allows the foveated imaging configuration to be very compact using a very simple lens system. The reduction in the size, weight and cost of the imaging optics and in data acquisition/processing hardware makes the foveated approach attractive for small platforms such as unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) or missile seekers.

  5. Transmission (forward) mode, transcranial, noninvasive optoacoustic measurements for brain monitoring, imaging, and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, C. Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2016-03-01

    We proposed to use transmission (forward) mode for cerebral, noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic monitoring, imaging, and sensing in humans. In the transmission mode, the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from opposite hemispheres, while in the reflection (backward) mode the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from the same hemisphere. Recently, we developed new, transmission-mode optoacoustic probes for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for neonatal patients. The transmission mode probes have two major parts: a fiber-optic delivery system and an acoustic transducer (sensor). To obtain optoacoustic signals in the transmission mode, in this study we placed the sensor on the forehead, while light was delivered to the opposite side of the head. Using a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPObased optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range (680-950 nm) and a novel, compact, fiber-coupled, multi-wavelength, pulsed laser diode-based system, we recorded optoacoustic signals generated in the posterior part of the head of adults with TBI and neonates. The optoacoustic signals had two distinct peaks: the first peak from the intracranial space and the second peak from the scalp. The first peak generated by cerebral blood was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation. Moreover, the transmission mode measurements provided detection of intracranial hematomas in the TBI patients. The obtained results suggest that the transmission mode can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  6. Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu

    2007-06-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.

  7. Conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging beyond the diffraction and information limits.

    PubMed

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-29

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope. PMID:25215995

  8. Scattering imaging method in transmission x-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Gao, Kun; Ge, Xin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Zhao; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-06-15

    We present a x-ray microscopy technique based on structured illumination in a microscope that characterizes the size of the subresolution-limit features. The technique is effective for characterizing fine structures substantially beyond the Rayleigh resolution of the microscope. We carried out optical experiments to demonstrate the basic principle of this new technique. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions. This technique should find a wide range of important imaging applications with a feature size down to nanometer scale, such as oil and gas reservoir rocks, advanced composites, and functional nanodevices and materials. PMID:23938979

  9. MPEG-4 interactive image transmission on mobile thin clients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joveski, B.; Mitrea, M.; Pr"teux, F.

    2010-05-01

    The main issue in this paper is to deploy a compressing algorithm for heterogeneous content (text, graphics, image and video) with low-complex decoding. Such an algorithm will be involved in the remote display core problem for mobile thin clients: it allows the graphical content, computed on a remote server, to be displayer on the user's thin terminal, even when the network constraints (bandwidth, errors) are very strict. The paper is structured into three parts. First, a client-server architecture is presented. On the server side, the graphical content is parsed, converted and binary encoded into the MPEG 4 (BiFS, LASeR) format. This content is further streamed to the terminal, where it is played into a simple MPEG player. Secondly, this architecture is considered as a test bed for MPEG 4 performance assessment for various types of content (image, graphics, text). The quantitative results were focussed on bandwidth requirements and quality of experience. Finally, the conclusions are structured as a reference benchmarking of the MPEG (BiFS, LASeR) and outside (VNC) mobile remote display potential solutions.

  10. Unit Title: Imaging the Insertion of Superecliptic pHluorin Labeled Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kathryn M.; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of mechanisms governing receptor insertion to the plasma membrane (PM) requires an experimental approach with excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a strategy that enables dynamic visualization of insertion events for dopamine D2 receptors into the PM. This approach includes tagging a pH-sensitive GFP, superecliptic pHluorin, to the extracellular domain of the receptor. By imaging pHluorin-tagged receptors under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we were able to directly visualize individual receptor insertion events into the PM in cultured neurons. This novel imaging approach can be applied to both secreted proteins and many membrane proteins with an extracellular domain labeled with superecliptic pHluorin, and will ultimately allow for detailed dissections of the key mechanisms governing secretion of soluble proteins or the insertion of different membrane proteins to the PM. PMID:25559003

  11. Diffraction and Transmission Synchrotron Imaging at the German Light Source ANKA--Potential Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Alexander; Weitkamp, Timm; Helfen, Lukas; Simon, Rolf; Luebbert, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2009-03-10

    Diffraction and transmission synchrotron imaging methods have proven to be highly suitable for investigations in materials research and non-destructive evaluation. The high flux and spatial coherence of X-rays from modern synchrotron light sources allows one to work using high resolution and different contrast modalities. This article gives a short overview of different transmission and diffraction imaging methods with high potential for industrial applications, now available for commercial access via the German light source ANKA (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and its new department ANKA Commercial Service (ANKA COS, http://www.anka-cos.de)

  12. Product code optimization for determinate state LDPC decoding in robust image transmission.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2006-08-01

    We propose a novel scheme for error-resilient image transmission. The proposed scheme employs a product coder consisting of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with bit errors. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is based on the exploitation of determinate symbols in Tanner graph decoding of LDPC codes and a novel product code optimization technique based on error estimation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the proposed system in comparison to recent state-of-the-art techniques for image transmission. PMID:16900669

  13. Layered unequal loss protection for image transmission over packet loss channels with delay constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    In the case of high bit rate image transmission or having lots of packets, the FEC (forward error correction) encoding and decoding processes in the ULP (unequal loss protection) based schemes should be applied to individual packet groups instead of all the packets in order to avoid long processing delay. In this paper, we propose a layered ULP (L-ULP) scheme for fast and efficient FEC allocations among different packet groups and also within each packet group. The numerical results show that the proposed L-ULP scheme is quite promising for fast image transmission over packet loss networks.

  14. High speed COMS image acquisition and transmission system based on USB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yundong; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2008-10-01

    A high speed CMOS image acquisition and transmission system, which is composed of CMOS image sensor IBIS5-A-1300, USB 2.0 interface chip EZ-USB FX2 and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), is designed and developed. The design of IBIS5-A-1300 driving timing, USB interface chip timing, firmware and application program are introduced. Experiments show that the system possesses the advantage of high resolution and high frame rate, supports single frame acquisition and video preview and fits the criterion of USB2.0 and the demand of real-time data transmission.

  15. JPEG image transmission over mobile network with an efficient channel coding and interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bendary, Mohsen A. M. Mohamed; Abou El-Azm, Atef E.; El-Fishawy, Nawal A.; Al-Hosarey, Farid Shawki M.; Eltokhy, Mostafa A. R.; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.; Kazemian, H. B.

    2012-11-01

    This article studies improving of coloured JPEG image transmission over mobile wireless personal area network through the Bluetooth networks. This article uses many types of enhanced data rate and asynchronous connectionless packets. It presents a proposed chaotic interleaving technique for improving a transmission of coloured images over burst error environment through merging it with error control scheme. The computational complexity of the used different error control schemes is considered. A comparison study between different scenarios of the image transmission is held in to choose an effective technique. The simulation experiments are carried over the correlated fading channel using the widely accepted Jakes' model. Our experiments reveal that the proposed chaotic interleaving technique enhances quality of the received coloured image. Our simulation results show that the convolutional codes with longer constraint length are effective if its complexity is ignored. It reveals also that the standard error control scheme of old Bluetooth versions is ineffective in the case of coloured image transmission over mobile Bluetooth network. Finally, the proposed scenarios of the standard error control scheme with the chaotic interleaver perform better than the convolutional codes with reducing the complexity.

  16. Laser Doppler holographic microscopy in transmission: application to fish embryo imaging.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Nicolas; Alexandre, Daniel; Gross, Michel

    2014-04-21

    We have extended Laser Doppler holographic microscopy to transmission geometry. The technique is validated with living fish embryos imaged by a modified upright bio-microcope. By varying the frequency of the holographic reference beam, and the combination of frames used to calculate the hologram, multimodal imaging has been performed. Doppler images of the blood vessels for different Doppler shifts, images where the flow direction is coded in RGB colors or movies showing blood cells individual motion have been obtained as well. The ability to select the Fourier space zone that is used to calculate the signal, makes the method quantitative. PMID:24787825

  17. Robust atomic resolution imaging of light elements using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, S. D.; Shibata, N.; Sawada, H.; Okunishi, E.; Kondo, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2009-11-09

    We show that an annular detector placed within the bright field cone in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of light elements in crystals. In contrast to common high angle annular dark field imaging, both light and heavy atom columns are visible simultaneously. In contrast to common bright field imaging, the images are directly and robustly interpretable over a large range of thicknesses. We demonstrate this through systematic simulations and present a simple physical model to obtain some insight into the scattering dynamics.

  18. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  19. The discovery of epidepride and its analogs as high-affinity radioligands for imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in human brain.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    [(123)I]Epidepride, [(18)F]fallypride, and [(76)Br]isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and their corresponding [(11)C]labeled derivatives belong to a class of high-affinity radioligands for SPECT or PET imaging of dopamine D(2) receptors in the human brain. In contrast to previously used imaging agents, these ligands are capable of identifying extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors. The design of these substituted benzamides derive its origin from the atypical antipsychotic agent, remoxipride. Starting in the late 1970's, halogenated analogs of (S)-sulpiride were evaluated in binding assays and behavioral studies, leading to the discovery of remoxipride. Remoxipride was 10 times weaker than sulpiride in vitro but 50 times more potent in vivo. Search for a putative active metabolite of remoxipride led to the discovery of raclopride and eticlopride, the former becoming a useful radioligand as tritium or carbon-11 labeled form for receptor binding and PET studies, respectively. In the US, the mono-iodine analog of raclopride, [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), was found to have moderate putamen-to-cerebellum ratio in rat and human brain. Continued search for metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of its 3,6-dihydroxy derivative, NCQ-344, with an extremely potent in vivo activity in the rat. SAR studies of the metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of the 3-methoxy isomer, isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and its corresponding 6-hydroxy analog, FLB-463, both having affinities for the dopamine D(2) receptor in the 20-30 pM range. Later, the 5-[(123)I]iodo analog of FLB-463, [(123)I]ioxipride ([(123)I]NCQ-298), became a potential SPECT imaging agent. In the mean time, the deshydroxy analog of IBZM, [(125)I]iodopride, showed binding potential in the rat similar to [(125)I]IBZM. Epidepride was designed by combining the structure of isoremoxipride with that of iodopride. In 1988, epidepride was independently prepared and radiolabeled in three separate laboratories in Stockholm

  20. Picometre-precision analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy images of platinum nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Berkels, Benjamin; Dahmen, W; Binev, P; Sanchez, S I; Bradley, S A; Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela; Voyles, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring picometre-scale shifts in the positions of individual atoms in materials provides new insight into the structure of surfaces, defects and interfaces that influence a broad variety of materials' behaviour. Here we demonstrate sub-picometre precision measurements of atom positions in aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images based on the non-rigid registration and averaging of an image series. Non-rigid registration achieves five to seven times better precision than previous methods. Non-rigidly registered images of a silica-supported platinum nanocatalyst show pm-scale contraction of atoms at a (111)/(111) corner towards the particle centre and expansion of a flat (111) facet. Sub-picometre precision and standardless atom counting with <1 atom uncertainty in the same scanning transmission electron microscopy image provide new insight into the three-dimensional atomic structure of catalyst nanoparticle surfaces, which contain the active sites controlling catalytic reactions. PMID:24916914

  1. Picometre-precision analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy images of platinum nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Berkels, Benjamin; Dahmen, W.; Binev, P.; Sanchez, S. I.; Bradley, S. A.; Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela; Voyles, Paul M.

    2014-06-01

    Measuring picometre-scale shifts in the positions of individual atoms in materials provides new insight into the structure of surfaces, defects and interfaces that influence a broad variety of materials’ behaviour. Here we demonstrate sub-picometre precision measurements of atom positions in aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images based on the non-rigid registration and averaging of an image series. Non-rigid registration achieves five to seven times better precision than previous methods. Non-rigidly registered images of a silica-supported platinum nanocatalyst show pm-scale contraction of atoms at a ()/() corner towards the particle centre and expansion of a flat () facet. Sub-picometre precision and standardless atom counting with <1 atom uncertainty in the same scanning transmission electron microscopy image provide new insight into the three-dimensional atomic structure of catalyst nanoparticle surfaces, which contain the active sites controlling catalytic reactions.

  2. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  3. [Comparative study of transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology for potato damage detection].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Sen-Miao; Tao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Jin-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The randomly placed damage parts of potato will affect the detection accuracy, this paper used transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology to acquire potato images of three directions(the damage part facing to the camera, back to the camera, side to the camera), and then processed the comparative study for damage detection. Independent component (IC) analysis was used to analyze the transmission and reflection hyperspectral images and to extract the features, the resulting char acteristics were used for the secondary IC analysis of the reflected images and the variable selection of the transmittance and re flectance spectroscopy. Finally, the potato injury qualitative recognition model was established based on the reflection images, the reflectance spectral and the transmittance spectral; Further optimization was done for high recognition accuracy of model, and secondary variable selection was carried out for the transmission spectrum by the Sub-window Permutation Analysis(SPA) and the optimal model for damage identification of potato randomly placed was established. The results of experiments show that the accuracy of the identification model based on the reflection image and the reflection spectrum is low, wherein the potato bruise based on the reflection images falls into the lowest recognition accuracy of 43. 10% when it is side to the camera; The accuracy of the model for identification based on the transmittance spectroscopy information is the highest, the recognition accuracy with the damage part facing and back to the camera is 100%t, and 99. 53% when it is side to the camera. The accuracy of the optimal model for identification based on the 3 kinds of transmittance spectroscopy information of randomly placed potato is 97. 39%. Then the application of transmission hyperspectral imaging technology could detect potato injury in any orientation, and the research can provide technical support for the online detection of potato quality. PMID

  4. Effects of some antioxidative aporphine derivatives on striatal dopaminergic transmission and on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion in B6CBA mice.

    PubMed

    Loghin, Felicia; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Asencio, Marcelo; Comoy, Etienne; Speisky, Hernan; Cassels, Bruce K; Protais, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    (S)-(+)-boldine, an aporphine alkaloid displaying antioxidative and dopaminergic properties, and six of its derivatives (glaucine, 3-bromoboldine, 3-iodoboldine, 8-aminoboldine, 8-nitrosoboldine and 2,9-O,O'-dipivaloylboldine) were tested for these properties in comparison with their parent compound. All the tested compounds displayed in vitro antioxidative properties equal to or slightly weaker than those of boldine, and equal to or stronger than (+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8,-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, used as a reference compound. All the aporphine compounds tested displaced [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride from their specific binding sites in rat striatum. When tested on dopamine (DA) metabolism in the striatum of B6CBA mice, all the compounds, except 8-aminoboldine, increased striatal levels of DOPAC and HVA, and the HVA/DA ratio, indicating that they cross the blood-brain barrier and that they seem to act as dopamine antagonists in vivo. B6CBA mice were sensitive to the neurotoxic action of MPTP on dopaminergic neurons as indicated by the strongly decreased striatal levels of DA, DOPAC and HVA following administration of MPTP (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Among these aporphine derivatives, only 3-bromoboldine was able to reduce the MPTP-induced decrease of striatal levels of DA and DOPAC, whereas (R)-apomorphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, i.p.), used as reference compounds, were very active. These data suggest that potent in vitro antioxidative properties and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier are not sufficient criteria to predict the inhibition of neuronal degeneration induced by MPTP. PMID:12594006

  5. Description of a prototype emission-transmission computed tomography imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, T. F.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Liew, S. C.; Brown, J. K.; Blankespoor, S. C.; Reilly, S. M.; Gingold, E. L.; Cann, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a prototype imaging system that can perform simultaneous x-ray transmission CT and SPECT phantom studies. This system employs a 23-element high-purity-germanium detector array. The detector array is coupled to a collimator with septa angled toward the focal spot of an x-ray tube. During image acquisition, the x-ray fan beam and the detector array move synchronously along an arc pivoted at the x-ray source. Multiple projections are obtained by rotating the object, which is mounted at the center of rotation of the system. The detector array and electronics can count up to 10(6) cps/element with sufficient energy-resolution to discriminate between x-rays at 100-120 kVp and gamma rays from 99mTc. We have used this device to acquire x-ray CT and SPECT images of a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. The emission and transmission images may be superimposed in order to localize the emission image on the transmission map.

  6. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  7. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  8. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano imaging of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Joy C; Meirer, Florian; Liu, Yijin; Mester, Zoltan; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-07-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from the imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue, and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40-nm resolution. PMID:20734414

  9. Dual transmission grating based imaging radiometer for tokamak edge and divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Deepak; Clayton, Daniel J.; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael

    2012-10-15

    The designs of single transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) imaging spectrometers can be adapted to build an imaging radiometer for simultaneous measurement of both spectral ranges. This paper describes the design of such an imaging radiometer with dual transmission gratings. The radiometer will have an XUV coverage of 20-200 A with a {approx}10 A resolution and a VUV coverage of 200-2000 A with a {approx}50 A resolution. The radiometer is designed to have a spatial view of 16 Degree-Sign , with a 0.33 Degree-Sign resolution and a time resolution of {approx}10 ms. The applications for such a radiometer include spatially resolved impurity monitoring and electron temperature measurements in the tokamak edge and the divertor. As a proof of principle, the single grating instruments were used to diagnose a low temperature reflex discharge and the relevant data is also included in this paper.

  10. Application of USB2.0 in infrared sequence image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Minge; Zhao, Yan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents a practical system based on DSP and USB2.0 to realize the transmission of digital infrared sequence images. The hardware design of system is analyzed in detail, in which USB interface controller is described, moreover the development of DSP software and the application program on host PC is also introduced. The system interfaces PC with EZ-USB chip CY7C68001. It is based on bulk transmission with one frame image as a unit, and the chip is configured in Slave FIFO, asynchronous read/write operating mode. Experimental results show that the developed system can work properly and achieves the data transfer speed of 50 Mbps, thus it can meet the requirement for real time transfer of infrared sequence image sized 256×256×8 bits per frame at 100 frames per second.

  11. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano-imaging of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    ANDREWS, JOY C; MEIRER, FLORIAN; LIU, YIJIN; MESTER, ZOLTAN; PIANETTA, PIERO

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40 nm resolution. PMID:20734414

  12. An adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design. PMID:19190770

  13. An Adaptive Source-Channel Coding with Feedback for Progressive Transmission of Medical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design. PMID:19190770

  14. Wavelet-based vector quantization for high-fidelity compression and fast transmission of medical images.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Yang, S; Kustov, V

    1998-11-01

    Compression of medical images has always been viewed with skepticism, since the loss of information involved is thought to affect diagnostic information. However, recent research indicates that some wavelet-based compression techniques may not effectively reduce the image quality, even when subjected to compression ratios up to 30:1. The performance of a recently designed wavelet-based adaptive vector quantization is compared with a well-known wavelet-based scalar quantization technique to demonstrate the superiority of the former technique at compression ratios higher than 30:1. The use of higher compression with high fidelity of the reconstructed images allows fast transmission of images over the Internet for prompt inspection by radiologists at remote locations in an emergency situation, while higher quality images follow in a progressive manner if desired. Such fast and progressive transmission can also be used for downloading large data sets such as the Visible Human at a quality desired by the users for research or education. This new adaptive vector quantization uses a neural networks-based clustering technique for efficient quantization of the wavelet-decomposed subimages, yielding minimal distortion in the reconstructed images undergoing high compression. Results of compression up to 100:1 are shown for 24-bit color and 8-bit monochrome medical images. PMID:9848058

  15. A Comparison of Image Quality Evaluation Techniques for Transmission X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgert, Peter J; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Beamline 6-2c at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is capable of Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) at 30 nm resolution. Raw images from the microscope must undergo extensive image processing before publication. Since typical data sets normally contain thousands of images, it is necessary to automate the image processing workflow as much as possible, particularly for the aligning and averaging of similar images. Currently we align images using the 'phase correlation' algorithm, which calculates the relative offset of two images by multiplying them in the frequency domain. For images containing high frequency noise, this algorithm will align noise with noise, resulting in a blurry average. To remedy this we multiply the images by a Gaussian function in the frequency domain, so that the algorithm ignores the high frequency noise while properly aligning the features of interest (FOI). The shape of the Gaussian is manually tuned by the user until the resulting average image is sharpest. To automatically optimize this process, it is necessary for the computer to evaluate the quality of the average image by quantifying its sharpness. In our research we explored two image sharpness metrics, the variance method and the frequency threshold method. The variance method uses the variance of the image as an indicator of sharpness while the frequency threshold method sums up the power in a specific frequency band. These metrics were tested on a variety of test images, containing both real and artificial noise. To apply these sharpness metrics, we designed and built a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) called 'Blur Master.' We found that it is possible for blurry images to have a large variance if they contain high amounts of noise. On the other hand, we found the frequency method to be quite reliable, although it is necessary to manually choose suitable limits for the frequency band. Further research must be performed to design an algorithm which

  16. Beyond conventional migration: non-linear elastic subsalt imaging with transmissions and two-sided illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravasi, Matteo; Vasconcelos, Ivan; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Source-receiver interferometric imaging can be used to synthesize a subsurface acoustic or elastic image, consisting of a zero-time, zero-offset response (or Green's function) between a colocated pseudo-source and pseudo-receiver placed at each point in the subsurface image. However, if the imaging process does not properly account for multiple reflections, and enclosing boundaries of sources and receivers are not available, the image shows artefacts, poorly illuminated areas and distorted image amplitudes. Here we demonstrate with numerical examples that two-sided non-linear imaging provides the best elastic pure-mode (PP and SS) and converted-mode (PS) images, having higher resolution and more uniform illumination than those obtained from both one-sided linear imaging and from other intermediate steps of imaging (e.g. non-linear one-sided, linear two-sided). We also propose practical approaches to construct the additional fields required by two-sided non-linear imaging without the need for a detailed velocity model and receivers (and/or sources) in the subsurface. Moreover, when conversions are used for imaging, `true-amplitude' images (here true-amplitude means properly retrieving amplitudes that represent the zero-time, zero-offset elastic response) should theoretically vanish because neither P-to-S or S-to-P conversions arise at zero-time and zero-offset. Applying a correction procedure that accounts for the polarity reversal in PS (or SP) single-shot images helps with their structural interpretation but results in an unphysical estimate of the subsurface response and uninterpretable amplitudes. This suggests that there are advantages in exploiting pure-mode SS reflections/transmissions, in addition to converted waves only, because they require no polarity correction and the resulting image contains meaningful amplitudes that are proportional to the local shear-wave properties of the medium.

  17. Secured and progressive transmission of compressed images on the Internet: application to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Marie; Parrein, Benoît; Déforges, Olivier; Normand, Nicolas; Guédon, Jean-Pierre; Ronsin, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Within the framework of telemedicine, the amount of images leads first to use efficient lossless compression methods for the aim of storing information. Furthermore, multiresolution scheme including Region of Interest (ROI) processing is an important feature for a remote access to medical images. What is more, the securization of sensitive data (e.g. metadata from DICOM images) constitutes one more expected functionality: indeed the lost of IP packets could have tragic effects on a given diagnosis. For this purpose, we present in this paper an original scalable image compression technique (LAR method) used in association with a channel coding method based on the Mojette Transform, so that a hierarchical priority encoding system is elaborated. This system provides a solution for secured transmission of medical images through low-bandwidth networks such as the Internet.

  18. Secured and progressive transmission of compressed images on the Internet: application to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Marie; Parrein, Benoit; Deforges, Olivier; Normand, Nicolas; Guedon, Jean-Pierre; Ronsin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of telemedicine, the amount of images leads first to use efficient lossless compression methods for the aim of storing information. Furthermore, multiresolution scheme including Region of Interest (ROI) processing is an important feature for a remote access to medical images. What is more, the securization of sensitive data (e.g. metadata from DICOM images) constitutes one more expected functionality: indeed the lost of IP packets could have tragic effects on a given diagnosis. For this purpose, we present in this paper an original scalable image compression technique (LAR method) used in association with a channel coding method based on the Mojette Transform, so that a hierarchical priority encoding system is elaborated. This system provides a solution for secured transmission of medical images through low-bandwidth networks such as the Internet.

  19. 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy: Single-particle imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ortalan, Volkan; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-07-20

    We report the development of 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM). The method was demonstrated in the imaging of silver nanowires and gold nanoparticles. For the wire, the mechanical motion and shape morphological dynamics were imaged, and from the images we obtained the resonance frequency and the dephasing time of the motion. Moreover, we demonstrate here the simultaneous acquisition of dark-field images and electron energy loss spectra from a single gold nanoparticle, which is not possible with conventional methods. The local probing capabilities of ST-UEM open new avenues for probing dynamic processes, from single isolated to embedded nanostructures, without being affected by the heterogeneous processes of ensemble-averaged dynamics. Such methodology promises to have wide-ranging applications in materials science and in single-particle biological imaging. PMID:21615171

  20. Infrared image superframing technique based on high-speed digital transmission circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wenqing; Yao, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Liu, Chuanming

    2013-09-01

    With the sustaining development of application requirements in infrared technology, modern infrared imaging system demands high frame rates, wide dynamic range, high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Because it is impossible to integrate hundreds of pF capacitor in the limited area of detector pixel, the integration time of infrared staring imaging system will be restricted. Therefore, the underutilization of detector performance is unavoidable. Specially, long wave infrared detector must accommodate stronger infrared signal, and the integration capacitor is more easily saturated. For the sake of resolving the restriction of integration capacitor, an infrared image superframing technique based on high-speed digital transmission circuit is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, the mass raw data high-speed transmission from detector to imaging circuit is also capable via the proposed technique. With the usage of the technique, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of infrared imaging system will be improved, and the dynamic range of infrared imaging system will be also extended. The theory analysis and results of simulation demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  1. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  2. N-11C-Methyl-Dopamine PET Imaging of Sympathetic Nerve Injury in a Swine Model of Acute Myocardial Ischemia: A Comparison with 13N-Ammonia PET

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weina; Wang, Xiangcheng; He, Yulin; Nie, Yongzhen; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Using a swine model of acute myocardial ischemia, we sought to validate N-11C-methyl-dopamine (11C-MDA) as an agent capable of imaging cardiac sympathetic nerve injury. Methods. Acute myocardial ischemia was surgically generated in Chinese minipigs. ECG and serum enzyme levels were used to detect the presence of myocardial ischemia. Paired 11C-MDA PET and 13N-ammonia PET scans were performed at baseline, 1 day, and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery to relate cardiac sympathetic nerve injury to blood perfusion. Results. Seven survived the surgical procedure. The ECG-ST segment was depressed, and levels of the serum enzymes increased. Cardiac uptake of tracer was quantified as the defect volume. Both before and immediately after surgery, the images obtained with 11C-MDA and 13N-ammonia were similar. At 1 to 6 months after surgery, however, 11C-MDA postsurgical left ventricular myocardial defect volume was significantly greater compared to 13N-ammonia. Conclusions. In the Chinese minipig model of acute myocardial ischemia, the extent of the myocardial defect as visualized by 11C-MDA is much greater than would be suggested by blood perfusion images, and the recovery from myocardial sympathetic nerve injury is much slower than the restoration of blood perfusion. 11C-MDA PET may provide additional biological information during recovery from ischemic heart disease. PMID:27034950

  3. Contrasting effects of increased and decreased dopamine transmission on latent inhibition in ovariectomized rats and their modulation by 17beta-estradiol: an animal model of menopausal psychosis?

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2010-06-01

    Women with schizophrenia have later onset and better response to antipsychotic drugs (APDs) than men during reproductive years, but the menopausal period is associated with increased symptom severity and reduced treatment response. Estrogen replacement therapy has been suggested as beneficial but clinical data are inconsistent. Latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to ignore irrelevant stimuli, is a measure of selective attention that is disrupted in acute schizophrenia patients and in rats and humans treated with the psychosis-inducing drug amphetamine and can be reversed by typical and atypical APDs. Here we used amphetamine (1 mg/kg)-induced disrupted LI in ovariectomized rats to model low levels of estrogen along with hyperfunction of the dopaminergic system that may be occurring in menopausal psychosis, and tested the efficacy of APDs and estrogen in reversing disrupted LI. 17beta-Estradiol (50, 150 microg/kg), clozapine (atypical APD; 5, 10 mg/kg), and haloperidol (typical APD; 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg) effectively reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in sham rats, but were much less effective in ovariectomized rats; 17beta-estradiol and clozapine were effective only at high doses (150 microg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), whereas haloperidol failed at both doses. Haloperidol and clozapine regained efficacy if coadministered with 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg, an ineffective dose). Reduced sensitivity to dopamine (DA) blockade coupled with spared/potentiated sensitivity to DA stimulation after ovariectomy may provide a novel model recapitulating the combination of increased vulnerability to psychosis with reduced response to APD treatment in female patients during menopause. In addition, our data show that 17beta-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity. PMID:20237462

  4. Packet based serial link realized in FPGA dedicated for high resolution infrared image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    In article the external digital interface specially designed for thermographic camera built in Military University of Technology is described. The aim of article is to illustrate challenges encountered during design process of thermal vision camera especially related to infrared data processing and transmission. Article explains main requirements for interface to transfer Infra-Red or Video digital data and describes the solution which we elaborated based on Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) physical layer and signaling scheme. Elaborated link for image transmission is built using FPGA integrated circuit with built-in high speed serial transceivers achieving up to 2500Gbps throughput. Image transmission is realized using proprietary packet protocol. Transmission protocol engine was described in VHDL language and tested in FPGA hardware. The link is able to transmit 1280x1024@60Hz 24bit video data using one signal pair. Link was tested to transmit thermal-vision camera picture to remote monitor. Construction of dedicated video link allows to reduce power consumption compared to solutions with ASIC based encoders and decoders realizing video links like DVI or packed based Display Port, with simultaneous reduction of wires needed to establish link to one pair. Article describes functions of modules integrated in FPGA design realizing several functions like: synchronization to video source, video stream packeting, interfacing transceiver module and dynamic clock generation for video standard conversion.

  5. Bandwidth compression of the digitized HDTV images for transmission via satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asmari, A. Kh.; Kwatra, S. C.

    1992-03-01

    This paper investigates a subband coding scheme to reduce the transmission bandwidth of the digitized HDTV images. The HDTV signals are decomposed into seven bands. Each band is then independently encoded. The based band is DPCM encoded and the high bands are encoded by using nonuniform Laplacian quantizers with a dead zone. By selecting the dead zone on the basis of energy in the high bands an acceptable image quality is achieved at an average of 45 Mbits/sec (Mbps) rate. This rate is comparable to some very hardware intensive schemes of transform compression or vector quantization proposed in the literature. The subband coding scheme used in this study is considered to be of medium complexity. The 45 Mbps rate is suitable for transmission of HDTV signals via satellites.

  6. Joint source/channel coding for image transmission with JPEG2000 over memoryless channels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W

    2005-08-01

    The high compression efficiency and various features provided by JPEG2000 make it attractive for image transmission purposes. A novel joint source/channel coding scheme tailored for JPEG2000 is proposed in this paper to minimize the end-to-end image distortion within a given total transmission rate through memoryless channels. It provides unequal error protection by combining the forward error correction capability from channel codes and the error detection/localization functionality from JPEG2000 in an effective way. The proposed scheme generates quality scalable and error-resilient codestreams. It gives competitive performance with other existing schemes for JPEG2000 in the matched channel condition case and provides more graceful quality degradation for mismatched cases. Furthermore, both fixed-length source packets and fixed-length channel packets can be efficiently formed with the same algorithm. PMID:16121451

  7. Spectral imaging of single molecules by transmission grating-based epi-fluorescencs microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Rui; Zhang, YeWang; Dong, Xiuling; Gai, Hongwei; Yeung, Edward S.

    2008-06-16

    A spectral imaging method of single protein molecules labeled with a single fluorophore is presented. The method is based on a transmission grating and a routine fluorescence microscope. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and antiBSA molecules labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 594, respectively, are used as the model proteins. The fluorescence of single molecules is dispersed into zeroth-order spectrum and first-order spectrum by the transmission grating. Results show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of single molecule converted from the first-order spectral imaging is in good agreement with the bulk fluorescence spectrum. The spectral resolution of 2.4 nm/pixel is obtained, which is sufficient for identifying the molecular species in a multicomponent system.

  8. Nanoscale 3D cellular imaging by axial scanning transmission electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Azari, Afrouz A.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Guofeng; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Leapman, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional structural information about supramolecular assemblies and organelles in a cellular context but image degradation, caused by scattering of transmitted electrons, limits applicability in specimens thicker than 300 nm. We show that scanning transmission electron tomography of 1000 nm thick samples using axial detection provides resolution comparable to conventional electron tomography. The method is demonstrated by reconstructing a human erythrocyte infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:19718033

  9. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.; Hull, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e., soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  10. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.

    2002-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e. soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  11. Extraordinary transmission-based super-resolved axial imaging using subwavelength metallic nanoaperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonju; Oh, Youngjin; Choi, Jong-ryul; Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun

    2015-03-01

    A super-resolved axial imaging technique was investigated based on extraordinary transmission (EOT) of light using metallic gradient nanoaperture arrays. Light through subwavelength nanoapertures at thick metal film can be transmitted and amplified by several orders of magnitude due to plasmonic coupling. Here, the feasibility of EOT-based axial imaging with super resolution is explored. Since light penetration of EOT is much deeper than that of evanescent waves, the axial range to obtain the distance information of fluorescence signals can be extended by EOT. The axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage cells was measured with sub-diffraction-limited resolution after reconstruction using differential fluorescence excitation on gradient aperture arrays.

  12. Efficient elastic imaging of single atoms on ultrathin supports in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Muller, David A

    2012-12-01

    Mono-atomic-layer membranes such as graphene offer new opportunities for imaging and detecting individual light atoms in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). For such applications where multiple scattering and diffraction effects are weak, we evaluate the detection efficiency and interpretability of single atom images for the most common detector geometries using quantitative quantum mechanical simulations. For well-resolved and atomically-thin specimens, the low angle annular dark field (LAADF) detector can provide a significant increase in signal-to-noise over other common detector geometries including annular bright field and incoherent bright field. This dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Simulations of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) imaged under ideal conditions indicate the minimal dose requirements for elastic imaging by STEM or conventional TEM still exceed previously reported dose limits. PMID:22727335

  13. Bright-field imaging of compound semiconductors using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Toshihiro; Lu, Jing; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the observation of six different zincblende compound semiconductors in [110] projection using large-collection-angle bright-field (LABF) imaging with an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Phase contrast is completely suppressed when the collection semi-angle is set equal to the convergence semi-angle and there are no reversals in image contrast with changes in defocus or thickness. The optimum focus for imaging closely separated pairs of atomic columns (‘dumbbells’) is unique and easily recognized, and the positions of atomic columns occupied by heavier atoms always have darker intensity than those occupied by lighter atoms. Thus, the crystal polarity of compound semiconductors can be determined unambiguously. Moreover, it is concluded that the LABF imaging mode will be highly beneficial for studying other more complicated heterostructures at the atomic scale.

  14. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  15. Intriguing transmission electron microscopy images observed for perpendicularly oriented cylindrical microdomains of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnogi, Hiroshi; Isshiki, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Sono; Sakurai, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Intriguing images of dislocation structures were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique for hexagonally packed cylindrical microdomains in a block copolymer (polystyrene-block-polyethylenebutylene-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer) film. The polystyrene (PS) cylinders were embedded in the polyethylenebutylene (PEB) matrix and oriented perpendicular to the surface of the thin section for the TEM observations. In order to understand such strange dislocation structures, we applied an image processing technique using two-dimensional Fourier transform (FT) and inverse Fourier transform (IFT) methods. It was found that these intriguing images were not ascribed to real dislocation structures but were fake ones due to the moiré effect caused by the overlapping of hexagons with a slightly mismatched orientation. Furthermore, grain boundaries in the ultrathin section can be identified by image processing using FT and IFT methods.Intriguing images of dislocation structures were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique for hexagonally packed cylindrical microdomains in a block copolymer (polystyrene-block-polyethylenebutylene-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer) film. The polystyrene (PS) cylinders were embedded in the polyethylenebutylene (PEB) matrix and oriented perpendicular to the surface of the thin section for the TEM observations. In order to understand such strange dislocation structures, we applied an image processing technique using two-dimensional Fourier transform (FT) and inverse Fourier transform (IFT) methods. It was found that these intriguing images were not ascribed to real dislocation structures but were fake ones due to the moiré effect caused by the overlapping of hexagons with a slightly mismatched orientation. Furthermore, grain boundaries in the ultrathin section can be identified by image processing using FT and IFT methods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c

  16. Secure transmission of images based on chaotic systems and cipher block chaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Mahdieh Karimi; Behnam, Hamid; Karimi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing penetration of communication networks, digital and Internet technologies in our everyday lives has the transmission of text data, as well as multimedia data such as images and videos, possible. Digital images have a vast usage in a number of applications, including medicine and providing security authentication, for example. This applicability becomes evident when images, such as walking or people's facial features, are utilized in their identification. Considering the required security level and the properties of images, different algorithms may be used. After key generation using logistic chaos signals, a scrambling function is utilized for image agitation in both horizontal and vertical axes, and then a block-chaining mode of operation may be applied to encrypt the resultant image. The results demonstrate that using the proposed method drastically degrades the correlation between the image components and also the entropy is increased to an acceptable level. Therefore, the image will become greatly resistant to differential attacks. However, the increasing scrambling rounds and the decreasing number of bits of the blocks result in increasing the entropy and decreasing the correlation.

  17. Dopamine receptor regulating factor, DRRF: a zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C K; D'Souza, U M; Eisch, A J; Yajima, S; Lammers, C H; Yang, Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y M; Nestler, E J; Mouradian, M M

    2001-06-19

    Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from these sequences. Consequently, DRRF can modulate the activity of these dopamine receptor promoters. Highest DRRF mRNA levels are found in brain with a specific regional distribution including olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Many of these brain regions also express abundant levels of various dopamine receptors. In vivo, DRRF itself can be regulated by manipulations of dopaminergic transmission. Mice treated with drugs that increase extracellular striatal dopamine levels (cocaine), block dopamine receptors (haloperidol), or destroy dopamine terminals (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) show significant alterations in DRRF mRNA. The latter observations provide a basis for dopamine receptor regulation after these manipulations. We conclude that DRRF is important for modulating dopaminergic transmission in the brain. PMID:11390978

  18. A modified simplified reference tissue model for the quantification of dopamine D2/3 receptors with [18F]fallypride images.

    PubMed

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Dumas, Noé; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ginovart, Nathalie; Millet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Defluorination of [18F]fallypride and accumulation of 18F in skull and glands leads to the contamination of brain structures with spillover activity due to partial volume effects, leading to considerable errors in binding potential estimations. Here we propose a modification of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) to take into account the contribution of skull activity to the radioactivity kinetic pattern in cerebellum and target regions. It consists of the introduction of an additional parameter for each volume of interest (sT) and one for the cerebellum (sR), corresponding to the fraction of skull activity contaminating these structures. Using five rat positron emission tomography experiments, we applied the modified SRTM (SRTMc), which resulted in excellent fits. As a relative means of comparison of results, we applied factor analysis (FA) to decompose dynamic data into images corresponding to brain and skull activity. With the skull factor images, we estimated the "true" sT and sR values, ultimately permitting us to fix the sR value. Parameters obtained with the SRTMc were closely correlated with values obtained from FA-corrected data. In conclusion, we propose an efficient method for reliable quantification of dopamine D2/3 receptors with single-injection [18F]fallypride scans that is potentially applicable to human studies where 18F skull accumulation compromises binding parameter estimation. PMID:25248453

  19. SPECT imaging of dopamine receptors with [123I]epidepride: characterization of uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, J; Brücke, T; Angelberger, P; Asenbaum, S; Podreka, I

    1995-01-01

    [123I]Epidepride is a new ligand for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) that specifically labels D2-like dopamine receptors with very high affinity. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [123I]epidepride in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 3 patients with choreatic movement disorders. In healthy subjects striatal activity peaked at 2.5 hours after injection of the tracer and decreased slowly thereafter. There were no significant differences between left and right brain hemispheres. Activity above background was also measurable in areas corresponding to the thalamus, temporal cortex and frontal cortex. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was about 14 after 2.5 hours and this ratio steadily increased with time. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was clearly reduced in all 3 patients with choreatic movement disorders (from about 14 in control subjects after 2.5 hours to about 7 in choreatic patients). [123I]Epidepride may be a useful SPECT ligand for studying D2 receptors in the living human brain because of its high target to background ratio, its high affinity and the possibility to investigate extrastriatal D2 receptors. PMID:8695060

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Selected Fluorine-18 Labeled Radioligands for PET Imaging of the Dopamine D3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Natascha; Maschauer, Simone; Kuwert, Torsten; Hocke, Carsten; Prante, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral dopamine D3 receptors seem to play a key role in the control of drug-seeking behavior. The imaging of their regional density with positron emission tomography (PET) could thus help in the exploration of the molecular basis of drug addiction. A fluorine-18 labeled D3 subtype selective radioligand would be beneficial for this purpose; however, as yet, there is no such tracer available. The three candidates [(18)F]1, [(18)F]2a and [(18)F]2b were chosen for in vitro and in vivo characterization as radioligands suitable for selective PET imaging of the D3 receptor. Their evaluation included the analysis of radiometabolites and the assessment of non-specific binding by in vitro rat brain autoradiography. While [(18)F]1 and [(18)F]2a revealed high non-specific uptake in in vitro rat brain autoradiography, the D3 receptor density was successfully determined on rat brain sections (n = 4) with the candidate [(18)F]2b offering a Bmax of 20.38 ± 2.67 pmol/g for the islands of Calleja, 19.54 ± 1.85 pmol/g for the nucleus accumbens and 16.58 ± 1.63 pmol/g for the caudate putamen. In PET imaging studies, the carboxamide 1 revealed low signal/background ratios in the rat brain and relatively low uptake in the pituitary gland, while the azocarboxamides [(18)F]2a and [(18)F]2b showed binding that was blockable by the D3 receptor ligand BP897 in the ventricular system and the pituitary gland in PET imaging studies in living rats. PMID:27589704

  1. High spatial resolution fast-neutron imaging detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Katz, D.; Sayag, E.; Shmueli, I.; Cohen, Y.; Tal, A.; Vagish, Z.; Bromberger, B.; Dangendorf, V.; Mugai, D.; Tittelmeier, K.; Weierganz, M.

    2009-05-01

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1-10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  2. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. PMID:27155359

  3. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  4. Electrical resistivity imaging in transmission between surface and underground tunnel for fault characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Boyle, A.; Grychtol, B.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.; Adler, A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrical resistivity images supply information on sub-surface structures and are classically performed to characterize faults geometry. Here we use the presence of a tunnel intersecting a regional fault to inject electrical currents between surface and the tunnel to improve the image resolution at depth. We apply an original methodology for defining the inversion parametrization based on pilot points to better deal with the heterogeneous sounding of the medium. An increased region of high spatial resolution is shown by analysis of point spread functions as well as inversion of synthetics. Such evaluations highlight the advantages of using transmission measurements by transferring a few electrodes from the main profile to increase the sounding depth. Based on the resulting image we propose a revised structure for the medium surrounding the Cernon fault supported by geological observations and muon flux measurements.

  5. 3D elemental sensitive imaging using transmission X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Wang, Junyue; Requena, Guillermo; Williams, Phillip; Nelson, Johanna; Mehta, Apurva; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

    2012-09-01

    Determination of the heterogeneous distribution of metals in alloy/battery/catalyst and biological materials is critical to fully characterize and/or evaluate the functionality of the materials. Using synchrotron-based transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM), it is now feasible to perform nanoscale-resolution imaging over a wide X-ray energy range covering the absorption edges of many elements; combining elemental sensitive imaging with determination of sample morphology. We present an efficient and reliable methodology to perform 3D elemental sensitive imaging with excellent sample penetration (tens of microns) using hard X-ray TXM. A sample of an Al-Si piston alloy is used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. PMID:22349401

  6. MULTISLICE SIMULATION OF TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF HELIUM BUBBLES IN IRON

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Bo; Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, George R.; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2011-04-17

    The objective of this task is to establish the size correlation between transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaged helium (He) bubbles and the actual bubbles in an iron (Fe) matrix. SUMMARY The results of this simulation study show that the size of TEM imaged He bubbles, represented by the inner diameter of the first dark Fresnel ring under defocused condition (Din), deviated from the actual bubble size (Do). Din was found to be larger than Do when imaged with a highly incoherent electron beam, but smaller than Do if the beam is coherent. The deviation of Din from Do increases with increasing defocus. On the other hand, the electron beam accelerating voltage, bubble size, bubble position, and TEM sample thickness do not significantly affect the value of D0/Do. This study also suggests that He bubbles can be differentiated from argon (Ar) bubbles by differences in Fresnel contrast.

  7. Radiolabeled2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane (FIPIT): Synthesis, characterization and primate imaging of a radioligand for mapping dopamine transporter sites by both PET and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Shi, B.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligands containing both iodine and fluorine are versatile probes for in vivo mapping of dopamine transporter sites in the striatum by PET and SPECT when labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123, respectively. Dual labeled biochemical probes are attractive agents since only one set of toxicity and pharmacokinetic analysis may be required for ligand validation for both imaging modalities. Recently, we reported that replacement of the methyl ester of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane with a 2{prime}(R,S)-[F-18]fluoroisopropyl ester affords a highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligand, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(R,S)- fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (FIPCT). FIPCT showed high uptake and retention in the striatum (S) resulting in good S/cerebellum = 3.5 at 125 min post injection in a rhesus monkey. These findings prompted us to synthesize and evaluate the 4-iodo analog, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}-(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (1) with 1-fluoropropan-2-ol (2) and POC13. These results suggest that [F-18]S-FIPIT is an excellent candidate for mapping of dopamine transporter sites.

  8. Laboratory experiment of a high-contrast imaging coronagraph with new step-transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi

    2009-08-01

    We present the latest results of our laboratory experiment of the coronagraph with step-transmission filters. The primary goal of this work is to test the stability of the coronagraph and identify the main factors that limit its performance. At present, a series of step-transmission filters has been designed. These filters were manufactured with Cr film on a glass substrate with a high surface quality. During the process of the experiment of each filter, we have identified several contrast limiting factors, which includes the non-symmetry of the coating film, transmission error, scattered light and the optical aberration caused by the thickness difference of coating film. To eliminate these factors, we developed a procedure for the correct test of the coronagraph and finally it delivered a contrast in the order of 10-6~10-7 at an angular distance of 4λD, which is well consistent with theoretical design. As a follow-up effort, a deformable mirror has been manufactured to correct the wave-front error of the optical system, which should deliver better performance with an extra contrast improvement in the order of 10-2~10-3. It is shown that the step-transmission filter based coronagraph is promising for the high-contrast imaging of earth-like planets.

  9. Transmission in near-infrared optical windows for deep brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lingyan; Sordillo, Laura A; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Alfano, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) radiation has been employed using one- and two-photon excitation of fluorescence imaging at wavelengths 650-950 nm (optical window I) for deep brain imaging; however, longer wavelengths in NIR have been overlooked due to a lack of suitable NIR-low band gap semiconductor imaging detectors and/or femtosecond laser sources. This research introduces three new optical windows in NIR and demonstrates their potential for deep brain tissue imaging. The transmittances are measured in rat brain tissue in the second (II, 1,100-1,350 nm), third (III, 1,600-1,870 nm), and fourth (IV, centered at 2,200 nm) NIR optical tissue windows. The relationship between transmission and tissue thickness is measured and compared with the theory. Due to a reduction in scattering and minimal absorption, window III is shown to be the best for deep brain imaging, and windows II and IV show similar but better potential for deep imaging than window I. PMID:26556561

  10. Development of Parallel Image Detection System Using Annular Pupils for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Matsutani, Takaomi; Taya, Masaki; Ikuta, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeo; Kimura, Yoshihide; Takai, Yoshizo; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio

    2010-10-13

    A parallel image detection system using an annular pupil for electron optics were developed to realize an increase in the depth of focus, aberration-free imaging and separation of amplitude and phase images under scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Apertures for annular pupils able to suppress high-energy electron scattering were developed using a focused ion beam (FIB) technique. The annular apertures were designed with outer diameter of oe 40 {mu}m and inner diameter of oe32 {mu}m. A taper angle varying from 20 deg. to 1 deg. was applied to the slits of the annular apertures to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. Each azimuth angle image on scintillator was detected by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube assembly through 40 optical fibers bundled in a ring shape. To focus the image appearing on the scintillator on optical fibers, an optical lens relay system attached with CCD camera was developed. The system enables the taking of 40 images simultaneously from different scattered directions.