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Sample records for imaging dopamine transmission

  1. Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-07-01

    Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

  2. Prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission is decreased in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such working memory, attention, inhibitory control and risk/reward decisions--all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies in alcoholics that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, we hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in alcoholism. To test this hypothesis, we used amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in a group of 21 recently abstinent alcoholics and matched healthy controls. Methods [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BPND) was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg−1 of d-amphetamine. Results Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (Δ BPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in alcoholics compared to healthy controls. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in alcoholics included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Conclusions The results of this study for the first time unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism. PMID:24874293

  3. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  4. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling in the striatum as a potential modulator of dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine signaling, measured as a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding as well as blunted dopamine release in the striatum. These alterations in dopamine transmission have clinical relevance, and have been shown to correlate with cocaine-seeking behavior and response to treatment for cocaine dependence. However, the mechanisms contributing to the hypodopaminergic state in cocaine addiction remain unknown. Here we review the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies showing alterations in D2 receptor binding potential and dopamine transmission in cocaine abusers and their significance in cocaine-seeking behavior. Based on animal and human studies, we propose that the kappa receptor/dynorphin system, because of its impact on dopamine transmission and upregulation following cocaine exposure, could contribute to the hypodopaminergic state reported in cocaine addiction, and could thus be a relevant target for treatment development. PMID:23760592

  5. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  6. The role of D2-autoreceptors in regulating dopamine neuron activity and transmission.

    PubMed

    Ford, C P

    2014-12-12

    Dopamine D2-autoreceptors play a key role in regulating the activity of dopamine neurons and control the synthesis, release and uptake of dopamine. These Gi/o-coupled inhibitory receptors play a major part in shaping dopamine transmission. Found at both somatodendritic and axonal sites, autoreceptors regulate the firing patterns of dopamine neurons and control the timing and amount of dopamine released from their terminals in target regions. Alterations in the expression and activity of autoreceptors are thought to contribute to Parkinson's disease as well as schizophrenia, drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which emphasizes the importance of D2-autoreceptors in regulating the dopamine system. This review will summarize the cellular actions of dopamine autoreceptors and discuss recent advances that have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms by which D2-receptors control dopamine transmission. PMID:24463000

  7. Cortical Dopamine Transmission as Measured with the [11C]FLB 457 – Amphetamine PET Imaging Paradigm Is Not Influenced by COMT Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Tumuluru, Divya; May, Maureen A.; Chowdari, Kodavali V.; Himes, Michael L.; Fasenmyer, Kelli; Frankle, W. Gordon; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2016-01-01

    Basic investigations link a Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene to not only its enzymatic activity, but also to its dopaminergic tone in the prefrontal cortex. Previous PET studies have documented the relationship between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BP), and interpreted them in terms of dopaminergic tone. The use of baseline dopamine D1 and D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND) as a proxy for dopaminergic tone is problematic because they reflect both endogenous dopamine levels (a change in radiotracer's apparent affinity) and receptor density. In this analysis of 31 healthy controls genotyped for the Val158Met polymorphism (Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met), we used amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 as a direct measure of dopamine release. Our analysis failed to show a relationship between COMT genotype status and prefrontal cortical dopamine release. COMT genotype was also not predictive of baseline dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND. PMID:27322568

  8. Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens shell by cocaine is attributable to a direct increase in phasic dopamine release events.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Brandon J; Cleaveland, Nathan A; Stuber, Garret D; Day, Jeremy J; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2008-08-27

    Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell is a fundamental aspect of the neural regulation of cocaine reward. Despite its importance, the nature of this effect is poorly understood. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to examine specific transmission processes underlying cocaine-evoked increases in dopamine transmission within the NAc core and shell. Initially, we examined altered terminal dopamine concentrations after global autoreceptor blockade. This was the first examination of autoreceptor regulation of naturally occurring phasic dopamine transmission and provided a novel characterization of specific components of dopamine neurotransmission. Comparison of increased dopamine signaling evoked by autoreceptor blockade and cocaine administration allowed robust resolution between increased frequency, concentration, and duration of phasic dopamine release events after cocaine delivery. Cocaine increased dopamine transmission by slowed uptake and increased concentration of dopamine released in the core and shell. However, an additional increase in the number phasic release events occurred only within the NAc shell, and this increase was eliminated by inactivation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This represents the first evidence that cocaine directly increases the frequency of dopamine release events and reveals that this is responsible for preferentially increased dopamine transmission within the NAc shell after cocaine administration. Additionally, cocaine administration resulted in a synergistic increase in dopamine concentration, and subregion differences were abolished when cocaine was administered in the absence of autoregulation. Together, these results demonstrate that cocaine administration results in a temporally and regionally specific increase in phasic dopamine release that is significantly regulated by dopamine autoreceptors. PMID:18753384

  9. Ethics of Preclinical Dopamine Transporter Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Thomas I

    2016-08-01

    While dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) imaging is sensitive and specific when performed in patients with signs or symptoms of parkinsonism, its predictive value is uncertain in healthy subjects, even with patients who have first-degree relatives affected by Parkinson disease. In deciding whether to honor a patient's request for a DAT-SPECT, neurologists must balance a patient's autonomy rights with beneficence and nonmaleficence and also consider the distributive justice implications of ordering the test. Generally speaking, the benefits of a DAT-SPECT will be too small to justify its use in an asymptomatic patient concerned about developing Parkinson disease. PMID:27495208

  10. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  11. RAPID DOPAMINE TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERS FOLLOWING MORPHINE AND OXYCODONE DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Omar S.; Lovic, Vedran; Singer, Bryan F.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    While most drugs of abuse increase dopamine neurotransmission, rapid neurochemical measurements show that different drugs evoke distinct dopamine release patterns within the nucleus accumbens. Rapid changes in dopamine concentration following psychostimulant administration have been well studied; however, such changes have never been examined following opioid delivery. Here, we provide novel measures of rapid dopamine release following intravenous infusion of two opioids, morphine and oxycodone, in drug naïve rats using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and rapid (1 min) microdialysis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition to measuring rapid dopamine transmission, microdialysis HPLC-MS measures changes in GABA, glutamate, monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and several other neurotransmitters. Although both opioids increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, their patterns of drug-evoked dopamine transmission differed dramatically. Oxycodone evoked a robust and stable increase in dopamine concentration and a robust increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic dopamine release events. Conversely, morphine evoked a brief (~ 1 min) increase in dopamine that was coincident with a surge in GABA concentration and then both transmitters returned to baseline levels. Thus, by providing rapid measures of neurotransmission, this study reveals previously unknown differences in opioid-induced neurotransmitter signaling. Investigating these differences may be essential for understanding how these two drugs of abuse could differentially usurp motivational circuitry and powerfully influence behavior. PMID:25208732

  12. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  13. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Katie A; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  14. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Katie A.; Platt, Nicola J.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  15. Ultrasmall dopamine-coated nanogolds: preparation, characteristics, and CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Wu, Youshen; Liu, JiaJun; Zhan, Yonghua; Wu, Daocheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water-dispersible ultrasmall nanogolds (WDU AuNPs) and their dopamine-coated nanogolds (WDU AuNPs@DPAs) were prepared by a reduction method with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and a stabilised agent of 2-mercaptosuccinic acid in aqueous solution. The effects of these nanoparticles on computed tomography (CT) imaging were evaluated. The size distributions and Zeta potential of the nanoparticles were measured with a Malvern size analyser, and nanoparticle morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. These characteristics were confirmed by Fourier transform spectroscopy and ultraviolet/visible spectra. It was found that WDU AuNPs@DPAs were 5.4 nm in size with clear core–shell structure. The 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that the WDU AuNPs and WDU AuNPs@DPAs were hypotoxic to different cells. The WDU AuNPs@DPAs showed a much longer circulation time and a larger CT attenuation coefficient than iohexol and could be excreted by the kidney and bladder. These nanoparticles showed considerable potential for future application in CT imaging. PMID:27366201

  16. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Stephanie C; Levitt, Erica S; Llamosas, Nerea; Neve, Kim A; Williams, John T

    2015-08-11

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. This augmentation was largely due to dopamine release from 5-HT terminals. Selective optogenetic stimulation of 5-HT terminals evoked dopamine release, producing D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs following treatment with L-DOPA. In the dorsal raphe, L-DOPA produced a long-lasting depression of the 5-HT1A-receptor-mediated IPSC in 5-HT neurons. When D2 receptors were expressed in the dorsal raphe, application of L-DOPA resulted in a D2-receptor-mediated IPSC. Thus, treatment with L-DOPA caused ectopic dopamine release from 5-HT terminals and a loss of 5-HT-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:26235617

  17. Kinetic diversity of dopamine transmission in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I Mitch; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Walters, Seth H; Varner, Erika L; Shu, Zhan; Bartlow, Kathleen M; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-05-01

    Dopamine (DA), a highly significant neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, operates on multiple time scales to affect a diverse array of physiological functions. The significance of DA in human health is heightened by its role in a variety of pathologies. Voltammetric measurements of electrically evoked DA release have brought to light the existence of a patchwork of DA kinetic domains in the dorsal striatum (DS) of the rat. Thus, it becomes necessary to consider how these domains might be related to specific aspects of DA's functions. Responses evoked in the fast and slow domains are distinct in both amplitude and temporal profile. Herein, we report that responses evoked in fast domains can be further classified into four distinct types, types 1-4. The DS, therefore, exhibits a total of at least five distinct evoked responses (four fast types and one slow type). All five response types conform to kinetic models based entirely on first-order rate expressions, which indicates that the heterogeneity among the response types arises from kinetic diversity within the DS terminal field. We report also that functionally distinct subregions of the DS express DA kinetic diversity in a selective manner. Thus, this study documents five response types, provides a thorough kinetic explanation for each of them, and confirms their differential association with functionally distinct subregions of this key DA terminal field. The dorsal striatum is composed of five significantly different dopamine domains (types 1-4 and slow, average ± SEM responses to medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation are shown in the figure). Responses from each of these five domains exhibit significantly different ascending and descending kinetic profiles and return to a long lasting elevated dopamine state, termed the dopamine hang-up. All features of these responses are modeled with high correlation using first-order modeling as well as our recently published restricted diffusion

  18. PPARγ Activation Attenuates Opioid Consumption and Modulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Melis, Miriam; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Kallupi, Marsida; Li, Hong Wu; Niswender, Kevin; Giordano, Antonio; Senzacqua, Martina; Somaini, Lorenzo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Gaitanaris, George; Demopulos, Gregory; Damadzic, Ruslan; Tapocik, Jenica; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    PPARγ is one of the three isoforms identified for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and is the receptor for the thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic medications including pioglitazone. PPARγ has been long studied for its role in adipogenesis and glucose metabolism, but the discovery of the localization in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons opens new vistas for a potential role in the regulation of reward processing and motivated behavior in drug addiction. Here, we demonstrate that activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. These effects are associated with a marked reduction of heroin-induced increase in phosphorylation of DARPP-32 protein in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and with a marked and selective reduction of acute heroin-induced elevation of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the NAc shell, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Through ex vivo electrophysiology in acute midbrain slices, we also show that stimulation of PPARγ attenuates opioid-induced excitation of VTA DA neurons via reduction of presynaptic GABA release from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). Consistent with this finding, site-specific microinjection of pioglitazone into the RMTg but not into the VTA reduced heroin taking. Our data illustrate that activation of PPARγ may represent a new pharmacotherapeutic option for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:25311134

  19. Enhanced serotonin and mesolimbic dopamine transmissions in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Aroni, Sonia; De Felice, Marta; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Melis, Miriam; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Romano, Rosaria; Palazzo, Enza; Guida, Francesca; Maione, Sabatino; Pistis, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In humans, affective consequences of neuropathic pain, ranging from depression to anxiety and anhedonia, severely impair quality of life and are a major disease burden, often requiring specific medications. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors have also been observed in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. Dysfunctions in central nervous system monoamine transmission have been hypothesized to underlie depressive and anxiety disorders in neuropathic pain. To assess whether these neurons display early changes in their activity that in the long-term might lead to chronicization, maladaptive plasticity and affective consequences, we carried out in vivo extracellular single unit recordings from serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and from dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Extracellular dopamine levels and the expression of dopamine D1, D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were measured in the nucleus accumbens. We report that, two weeks following peripheral nerve injury, discharge rate of serotonin DRN neurons and burst firing of VTA dopamine cells are enhanced, when compared with sham-operated animals. We also observed higher extracellular dopamine levels and reduced expression of D2, but not D1, receptors and TH in the nucleus accumbens. Our study confirms that peripheral neuropathy induces changes in the serotonin and dopamine systems that might be the early result of chronic maladaptation to persistent pain. The allostatic activation of these neural systems, which mirrors that already described as a consequence of stress, might lead to depression and anxiety previously observed in neuropathic animals but also an attempt to cope positively with the negative experience. PMID:26113399

  20. Modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by Dopamine: a focus on Parkinson, Huntington and Addiction diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gardoni, Fabrizio; Bellone, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a major role in motor and cognitive functions as well as in reward processing by regulating glutamatergic inputs. In particular in the striatum the release of DA rapidly influences synaptic transmission modulating both AMPA and NMDA receptors. Several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson, Huntington and addiction-related diseases, manifest a dysregulation of glutamate and DA signaling. Here, we will focus our attention on the mechanisms underlying the modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by DA in striatal circuits. PMID:25784855

  1. Enhanced GABA Transmission Drives Bradykinesia Following Loss of Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Julia C; Friend, Danielle M; Kaplan, Alanna R; Shin, Jung Hoon; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2016-05-18

    Bradykinesia is a prominent phenotype of Parkinson's disease, depression, and other neurological conditions. Disruption of dopamine (DA) transmission plays an important role, but progress in understanding the exact mechanisms driving slowness of movement has been impeded due to the heterogeneity of DA receptor distribution on multiple cell types within the striatum. Here we show that selective deletion of DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) from indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) is sufficient to impair locomotor activity, phenocopying DA depletion models of Parkinson's disease, despite this mouse model having intact DA transmission. There was a robust enhancement of GABAergic transmission and a reduction of in vivo firing in striatal and pallidal neurons. Mimicking D2R signaling in iMSNs with Gi-DREADDs restored the level of tonic GABAergic transmission and rescued the motor deficit. These findings indicate that DA, through D2R activation in iMSNs, regulates motor output by constraining the strength of GABAergic transmission. PMID:27196975

  2. Imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by endogenous dopamine in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Verhoeff, N P; Varrone, A; Zoghbi, S S; Baldwin, R M; Jatlow, P A; Anderson, G M; Seibyl, J P; Innis, R B

    2000-01-10

    The effect of endogenous dopamine on in vivo measurement of dopamine D(2) receptors in extrastriatal regions (thalamus and temporal cortex) was evaluated with single photon emission computed tomography and the high affinity ligand [123I]epidepride by comparing the binding potential before and after acute dopamine depletion. Dopamine depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 5.5 g/70 kg body weight alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine given in 37 h. The alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine treatment increased the binding potential significantly in the temporal cortex (13+/-15%, P=0.036) but not in the thalamus (2+/-9%). The increase of the binding potential in the temporal cortex correlated strongly with the increase of dysphoric mood evaluated by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) (rho=0.88, P=0.004). These results imply that [123I]epidepride, coupled with acute dopamine depletion might provide estimates of synaptic dopamine concentration. PMID:10650158

  3. Hippocampal cannabinoid transmission modulates dopamine neuron activity: impact on rewarding memory formation and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Michael; Renard, Justine; Zunder, Jordan; Laviolette, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Disturbances in cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) signaling have been linked to emotional and cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, there is growing interest in characterizing the relationship between cannabinoid transmission, emotional processing, and dopamine (DA)-dependent behavioral deficits. The CB1R is highly expressed in the mammalian nervous system, particularly in the hippocampus. Activation of the ventral hippocampal subregion (vHipp) is known to increase both the activity of DAergic neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and DA levels in reward-related brain regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the possible functional relationship between hippocampal CB1R transmission and VTA DA neuronal activity is not currently understood. In this study, using in vivo neuronal recordings in rats, we demonstrate that activation of CB1R in the vHipp strongly increases VTA DA neuronal firing and bursting activity, while simultaneously decreasing the activity of VTA non-DA neurons. Furthermore, using a conditioned place preference procedure and a social interaction test, we report that intra-vHipp CB1R activation potentiates the reward salience of normally sub-threshold conditioning doses of opiates and induces deficits in natural sociability and social recognition behaviors. Finally, these behavioral effects were prevented by directly blocking NAc DAergic transmission. Collectively, these findings identify hippocampal CB1R transmission as a critical modulator of the mesolimbic DA pathway and in the processing of reward and social-related behavioral phenomena. PMID:25510937

  4. Muscarinic regulation of dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martín F.; Wess, Jürgen; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic transmission in the striatum functions as a key modulator of dopamine (DA) transmission and synaptic plasticity, both of which are required for reward and motor learning. Acetylcholine (ACh) can elicit striatal DA release through activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) on DA axonal projections. However, it remains controversial how muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) modulate striatal DA release, with studies reporting both potentiation and depression of striatal DA transmission by mAChR agonists. This study investigates the mAChR-mediated regulation of release from three types of midbrain neurons that project to striatum: DA, DA/glutamate, and glutamate neurons. We found that M5 mAChRs potentiate DA and glutamate release only from DA and DA/glutamate projections from the midbrain. We also show that M2/M4 mAChRs depress the nAChR-dependent mechanism of DA release in the striatum. These results suggest that M5 receptors on DA neuron terminals enhance DA release, whereas M2/M4 autoreceptors on cholinergic terminals inhibit ACh release and subsequent nAChR-dependent DA release. Our findings clarify the mechanisms of mAChR-dependent modulation of DA and glutamate transmission in the striatum. PMID:26080439

  5. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  6. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  7. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease. PMID:25894681

  8. Disruption of hippocampal–prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal–PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal–PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  9. Disruption of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission.

    PubMed

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-09-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal-PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal-PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26286993

  10. Iron Storage within Dopamine Neurovesicles Revealed by Chemical Nano-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Richard; Cloetens, Peter; Devès, Guillaume; Carmona, Asunción; Bohic, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of metal ions is suspected to play a critical role in neurodegeneration. However, the lack of analytical technique with sufficient spatial resolution prevents the investigation of metals distribution in neurons. An original experimental setup was developed to perform chemical element imaging with a 90 nm spatial resolution using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. This unique spatial resolution, combined to a high brightness, enables chemical element imaging in subcellular compartments. We investigated the distribution of iron in dopamine producing neurons because iron-dopamine compounds are suspected to be formed but have yet never been observed in cells. The study shows that iron accumulates into dopamine neurovesicles. In addition, the inhibition of dopamine synthesis results in a decreased vesicular storage of iron. These results indicate a new physiological role for dopamine in iron buffering within normal dopamine producing cells. This system could be at fault in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by an increased level of iron in the substancia nigra pars compacta and an impaired storage of dopamine due to the disruption of vesicular trafficking. The re-distribution of highly reactive dopamine-iron complexes outside neurovesicles would result in an enhanced death of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17895967

  11. Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

  12. Collaborative image transmission over wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Chang W.

    2004-01-01

    The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Thus, processing of image data collected in the sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, when a cluster of imaging sensors is activated to track certain moving target, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. With correlated image data, we need to intelligently reduce the redundancy among the neighboring sensors so as to minimize the energy for transmission, the primary source of sensor energy consumption. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image transmission scheme for wireless sensor networks. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap in order to exploiting the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. A transformation is generated according to the matching results. We encode the original image and the difference between the transformed image and reference image. Then, we transmit the coded bit stream together with the transformation parameters. This will significantly reduce the transmission energy comparing with transmitting two individual images independently. To exploiting the temporal correlation among images in the same sensor, we assume that the imaging sensors and the background scenes remain stationary over the data acquisition period. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A simple background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Whenever targets are detected, only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. At the monitoring center, the whole image can be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target image as well as its spatial location to further reduce energy consumption

  13. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm) with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM. PMID:26287196

  14. Directed evolution of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for noninvasive imaging of dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mikhail G; Westmeyer, Gil G; Romero, Philip A; Szablowski, Jerzy O; Küster, Benedict; Shah, Ameer; Otey, Christopher R; Langer, Robert; Arnold, Frances H; Jasanoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The development of molecular probes that allow in vivo imaging of neural signaling processes with high temporal and spatial resolution remains challenging. Here we applied directed evolution techniques to create magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine. The sensors were derived from the heme domain of the bacterial cytochrome P450-BM3 (BM3h). Ligand binding to a site near BM3h’s paramagnetic heme iron led to a drop in MRI signal enhancement and a shift in optical absorbance. Using an absorbance-based screen, we evolved the specificity of BM3h away from its natural ligand and toward dopamine, producing sensors with dissociation constants for dopamine of 3.3–8.9 μM. These molecules were used to image depolarization-triggered neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells and in the brains of live animals. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of molecular-level functional MRI using neural activity–dependent sensors, and our protein engineering approach can be generalized to create probes for other targets. PMID:20190737

  15. Habituation of the responsiveness of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine transmission to taste stimuli

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of novel, remarkable, and unpredictable tastes increases dopamine (DA) transmission in different DA terminal areas such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as estimated by in vivo microdialysis studies in rats. This effect undergoes adaptive regulation, as there is a decrease in DA responsiveness after a single pre-exposure to the same taste. This phenomenon termed habituation has been described as peculiar to NAc shell but not to NAc core and mPFC DA transmission. On this basis, it has been proposed that mPFC DA codes for generic motivational stimulus value and, together with the NAc core DA, is more consistent with a role in the expression of motivation. Conversely, NAc shell DA is specifically activated by unfamiliar or novel taste stimuli and rewards, and might serve to associate the sensory properties of the rewarding stimulus with its biological effect (Bassareo etal., 2002; Di Chiara etal., 2004). Notably, habituation of the DA response to intraoral sweet or bitter tastes is not associated with a reduction in hedonic or aversive taste reactions, thus indicating that habituation is unrelated to satiety-induced hedonic devaluation and that it is not influenced by DA alteration or depletion. This mini-review describes specific circumstances of disruption of the habituation of NAc shell DA responsiveness (De Luca etal., 2011; Bimpisidis etal., 2013). In particular, we observed an abolishment of NAc shell DA habituation to chocolate (sweet taste) by morphine sensitization and mPFC 6-hydroxy-dopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA) lesion. Moreover, morphine sensitization was associated with the appearance of the habituation in the mPFC, and with an increased and delayed response of NAc core DA to taste in naive rats, but not in pre-exposed animals. The results here described shed light on the mechanism of the habituation phenomenon of mesolimbic and mesocortical DA transmission, and its putative role as a

  16. Habituation of the responsiveness of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine transmission to taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of novel, remarkable, and unpredictable tastes increases dopamine (DA) transmission in different DA terminal areas such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as estimated by in vivo microdialysis studies in rats. This effect undergoes adaptive regulation, as there is a decrease in DA responsiveness after a single pre-exposure to the same taste. This phenomenon termed habituation has been described as peculiar to NAc shell but not to NAc core and mPFC DA transmission. On this basis, it has been proposed that mPFC DA codes for generic motivational stimulus value and, together with the NAc core DA, is more consistent with a role in the expression of motivation. Conversely, NAc shell DA is specifically activated by unfamiliar or novel taste stimuli and rewards, and might serve to associate the sensory properties of the rewarding stimulus with its biological effect (Bassareo etal., 2002; Di Chiara etal., 2004). Notably, habituation of the DA response to intraoral sweet or bitter tastes is not associated with a reduction in hedonic or aversive taste reactions, thus indicating that habituation is unrelated to satiety-induced hedonic devaluation and that it is not influenced by DA alteration or depletion. This mini-review describes specific circumstances of disruption of the habituation of NAc shell DA responsiveness (De Luca etal., 2011; Bimpisidis etal., 2013). In particular, we observed an abolishment of NAc shell DA habituation to chocolate (sweet taste) by morphine sensitization and mPFC 6-hydroxy-dopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA) lesion. Moreover, morphine sensitization was associated with the appearance of the habituation in the mPFC, and with an increased and delayed response of NAc core DA to taste in naive rats, but not in pre-exposed animals. The results here described shed light on the mechanism of the habituation phenomenon of mesolimbic and mesocortical DA transmission, and its putative role as a

  17. Presynaptic dopamine D2-like receptors inhibit excitatory transmission onto rat ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Eiko; Momiyama, Toshihiko

    2000-01-01

    The effects of dopamine (DA) on non-NMDA glutamatergic transmission onto dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were examined in rat midbrain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. EPSCs in dopaminergic neurones evoked by focal stimulation within the VTA were reversibly blocked by 5 μm CNQX in the presence of bicuculline (20 μm), strychnine (0.5 μm) and D-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5, 25 μm). Bath application of DA reduced the amplitude of EPSCs up to 65.1 ± 9.52% in a concentration-dependent manner between 0.3–1000 μm (IC50, 16.0 μm) without affecting the holding current at −60 mV measured using a Cs+-filled electrode. The effect of DA on evoked EPSCs was mimicked by the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole but not by the D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297, and was antagonized by the D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride (KB, 0.96 μm), but not by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (KB, 228.6 μm). Dopamine (30 μm) reduced the mean frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) without affecting their mean amplitude, and the DA-induced effect on the mEPSCs was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. These results suggest that afferent glutamatergic fibres which terminate on VTA dopaminergic neurones possess presynaptic D2-like receptors, activation of which inhibits glutamate release by reducing Ca2+ influx. PMID:10673553

  18. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  19. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Swanson, James [University of California, Irvine, California, United States

    2010-09-01

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  20. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, James

    2010-04-28

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  1. Acetaldehyde sequestering prevents ethanol-induced stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Mereu, Maddalena; Peana, Alessandra Tiziana; Lintas, Alessandra; Golosio, Angela; Diana, Marco

    2009-03-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD) has been postulated to mediate some of the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH). In this study we sought to evaluate whether the stimulatory effects of EtOH on mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission are affected by the administration of ACD-sequestering agent D-penicillamine (Dp). To this end we studied the effect of EtOH and ACD in the rat mesoaccumbens pathway by in vivo microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAccs), and by single cell extracellular recordings from antidromically identified mesoaccumbens DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Both EtOH (1g/kg) and ACD (20mg/kg) administration increased DA levels in the NAccs and increased the activity of mesoaccumbens DA neurons. Pretreatment with Dp (50mg/kg i.p. 1h before drug challenge) prevented both EtOH- and ACD-induced stimulation of the DA mesolimbic system without affecting morphine stimulatory actions. These observations add further support to the notion that EtOH-derived ACD stimulates the mesolimbic DA system and is essential in EtOH-induced stimulation of the DA mesoaccumbens system. We conclude that modulation of ACD bioavailability may influence the addictive profile of EtOH by decreasing its psychotropic effects and possibly leading the way to new pharmacological treatments of alcoholism. PMID:19070441

  2. Correlation of striatal dopamine transporter imaging with post mortem substantia nigra cell counts.

    PubMed

    Kraemmer, Julia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Perju-Dumbrava, Laura; Pirker, Susanne; Traub-Weidinger, Tatiana; Pirker, Walter

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is widely used for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Only limited data are available on the relationship between striatal dopamine transporter binding and dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN). We analyzed postmortem SN cell counts in patients who had previously undergone dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pathological diagnoses included Parkinson's disease (n = 1), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 2), multiple system atrophy (n = 1), corticobasal degeneration (n = 2), atypical parkinsonism with multiple pathological conditions (n = 1), Alzheimer's disease (n = 1), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n = 1). [(12) (3) I]β-CIT SPECT had been performed in all subjects using a standardized protocol on the same triple-head gamma camera. The density of neuromelanin-containing and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons/mm(2) was evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by morphometric methods. Mean disease duration at the time of dopamine transporter imaging was 2.3 years, and the mean interval from imaging to death was 29.3 months (range, 4-68 months). Visual analysis of dopamine transporter images showed reduced striatal uptake in all seven patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism, but not in Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. Averaged [(right+left)/2] striatal uptake was highly correlated with averaged SN cell counts (rs  = 0.98, P < 0.0005 for neuromelanin- and rs  = 0.96, P < 0.0005 for tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells). Similar strong correlations were found in separate analyses for the right and left sides. Striatal dopamine transporter binding highly correlated with postmortem SN cell counts, confirming the validity of dopamine transporter imaging as an excellent in vivo marker of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:25048738

  3. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated f

  4. The Timing of Dopamine- and Noradrenaline-Mediated Transmission Reflects Underlying Differences in the Extent of Spillover and Pooling

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic transmission typically occurs through the spillover activation of extrasynaptic receptors. This study examined the mechanisms underlying somatodendritic dopamine and noradrenaline transmission and found that the extent of spillover and pooling varied dramatically between these two transmitters. In the mouse ventral tegmental area, the time course of D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs (D2-IPSCs) was consistent between cells and was unaffected by altering stimulation intensity, probability of release, or the extent of diffusion. Blocking dopamine reuptake with cocaine extended the time course of D2-IPSCs and suggested that transporters strongly limited spillover. As a result, individual release sites contributed independently to the duration of D2-IPSCs. In contrast, increasing the release of noradrenaline in the rat locus ceruleus prolonged the duration of α2-receptor-mediated IPSCs even when reuptake was intact. Spillover and subsequent pooling of noradrenaline activated distal α2-receptors, which prolonged the duration of α2-IPSCs when multiple release sites were activated synchronously. By using the rapid application of agonists onto large macropatches, we determined the concentration profile of agonists underlying the two IPSCs. Incorporating the results into a model simulating extracellular diffusion predicted that the functional range of noradrenaline diffusion was nearly fivefold greater in the locus ceruleus than dopamine in the midbrain. This study demonstrates that catecholamine synapses differentially regulate the extent of spillover and pooling to control the timing of local inhibition and suggests diversity in the roles of uptake and diffusion in governing metabotropic transmission. PMID:24872568

  5. Epipolar Consistency in Transmission Imaging.

    PubMed

    Aichert, André; Berger, Martin; Wang, Jian; Maass, Nicole; Doerfler, Arnd; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas K

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the Epipolar Consistency Conditions (ECC) between two X-ray images from the Beer-Lambert law of X-ray attenuation and the Epipolar Geometry of two pinhole cameras, using Grangeat's theorem. We motivate the use of Oriented Projective Geometry to express redundant line integrals in projection images and define a consistency metric, which can be used, for instance, to estimate patient motion directly from a set of X-ray images. We describe in detail the mathematical tools to implement an algorithm to compute the Epipolar Consistency Metric and investigate its properties with detailed random studies on both artificial and real FD-CT data. A set of six reference projections of the CT scan of a fish were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of compensating for random disturbances of the ground truth projection matrix using an optimization of the consistency metric. In addition, we use three X-ray images of a pumpkin to prove applicability to real data. We conclude, that the metric might have potential in applications related to the estimation of projection geometry. By expression of redundancy between two arbitrary projection views, we in fact support any device or acquisition trajectory which uses a cone-beam geometry. We discuss certain geometric situations, where the ECC provide the ability to correct 3D motion, without the need for 3D reconstruction. PMID:25915956

  6. Image signal transmission with Airy beams.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Hu, Yi; Song, Daohong; Lou, Cibo; Zhang, Xinzheng; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an approach for image signal transmission based on self-accelerating Airy beams. The spatial information is encoded in the Fourier space through a 4-f telescope system, which can circumvent obstacles to realize a self-bending signal transmission. Furthermore, the information can be retrieved from the Airy beams after propagation through a disordered scattering medium. Our experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. PMID:26625082

  7. Transmission imaging in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongajum, E. L.; Meng, Y.; Milkereit, B.

    2010-12-01

    Wave propagation in heterogeneous media is characterized by amplitude, traveltime, and spectral fluctuations that reflect the variations in elastic properties (e.g. Vp, Vs, density). Variations in physical rock properties exist at different scales and occasionally result in effective anisotropy in medium parameters. If the variations in rock properties can be characterized from existing information such as logs, then it becomes possible to incorporate this information in wave modeling algorithms to understand its impact on acquisition design, processing of seismic waves for velocity information, AVO analysis as well as reverse time migration (RTM) routines. This study evaluates some of these aspects by using transmitted (direct) waves. When the variations exist over large scale lengths, RTM can be successfully implemented on Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data in order to image the interface between two inhomogeneities as well as characterize the velocity distribution beyond the borehole location. However, when the existing geology causes anisotropy in the variability of the physical rock properties, the use of transmitted waves becomes strongly dependent on the acquisition geometry. In this circumstance, travel time fluctuations are influenced by the strength of the perturbations of the elastic parameters and the direction with the least variability (large scale lengths) in these parameters. This has according implications for seismic imaging in hardrock environment as well microseismic imaging applications.

  8. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for

  9. Diagnostic imaging of dopamine receptors in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W; Reijs, Ambroos E M; Feelders, Richard A; van Aken, Maarten O; Krenning, Eric P; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2007-04-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy of pituitary adenomas is feasible by single-photon emission computed tomography using (123)I-S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((123)I-IBZM) and (123)I-epidepride. (123)I-epidepride is generally superior to (123)I-IBZM for the visualization of D2 receptors on pituitary macroadenomas. However, (123)I-IBZM and (123)I-epidepride scintigraphy are generally not useful to predict the response to dopaminergic treatment in pituitary tumour patients. These techniques might allow discrimination of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas from other non-tumour pathologies in the sellar region. Dopamine D2 receptors on pituitary tumours can also be studied using positron emission tomography with (11)C-N-raclopride and (11)C-N-methylspiperone. PMID:17413189

  10. Dopamine-secreting giant adrenal ganglioneuroma: clinical and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, A V; Polat, A Kamali; Aslan, K; Atmaca, H; Karagoz, F

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a dopamine-secreting giant primary adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) in a 29-year-old male patient. Although the patient was clinically silent, the 24-hour urine levels of dopamine, normetanephrine, homovanillic acid and vanillyl mandelic acid were elevated. Abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large solid tumor with calcifications and a slightly lobular edge on the left adrenal gland. A tumor, 13 x 23 x 25 cm in size, was completely resected without morbidity. A 2-year follow-up with computed tomography showed that the postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. PMID:25073244

  11. Disruption of Akt signaling decreases dopamine sensitivity in modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Sha-Sha; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Akt is a serine/threonine kinase, which is dramatically reduced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with schizophrenia, and a deficiency in Akt1 results in PFC function abnormalities. Although the importance of Akt in dopamine (DA) transmission is well established, how impaired Akt signaling affects the DA modulation of synaptic transmission in the PFC has not been characterized. Here we show that Akt inhibitors significantly decreased receptor sensitivity to DA by shifting DA modulation of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in prefrontal cortical neurons. Akt inhibition caused a significant decrease in synaptic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels with high-dose DA exposure. In addition, Akt inhibition failed to affect DA modulation of IPSCs after blockade of β-arrestin 2. β-arrestin 2-mediated interaction of clathrin with D2R was enhanced by co-application of a Akt inhibitor and DA. Taken together, the reduced response in DA modulation of inhibitory transmission mainly involved β-arrestin 2-dependent D2R desensitization. PMID:27163190

  12. Imaging addiction: D2 receptors and dopamine signaling in the striatum as biomarkers for impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Dependence to drugs of abuse is closely associated with impulsivity, or the propensity to choose a lower, but immediate, reward over a delayed, but more valuable outcome. Here, we review clinical and preclinical studies showing that striatal dopamine signaling and D2 receptor levels – which have been shown to be decreased in addiction - directly impact impulsivity, which is itself predictive of drug self-administration. Based on these studies, we propose that the alterations in D2 receptor binding and dopamine release seen in imaging studies of addiction constitute neurobiological markers of impulsivity. Recent studies in animals also show that higher striatal dopamine signaling at the D2 receptor is associated with a greater willingness to expend effort to reach goals, and we propose that this same relationship applies to humans, particularly with respect to recovery from addiction. PMID:23851257

  13. Imaging the passionate stage of romantic love by dopamine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kayo; Mizuno, Kei; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tajima, Kanako; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kyosuke; Zeki, Semir; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Using [(11)C]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, we undertook a positron emission tomography (PET) study to investigate the involvement of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system when subjects viewed the pictures of partners to whom they were romantically attached. Ten subjects viewed pictures of their romantic partners and, as a control, of friends of the same sex for whom they had neutral feelings during the PET study. We administered [(11)C]raclopride to subjects using a timing for injecting the antagonist which had been determined in previous studies to be optimal for detecting increases in the amount of dopamine released by stimulation. The results demonstrated statistically significant activation of the dopaminergic system in two regions, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and medial prefrontal cortex, the former of which has been strongly implicated in a variety of rewarding experiences, including that of beauty and love. A positive correlation was obtained in mOFC between excitement levels and dopaminergic activation only in the love but not in the control condition. PMID:25914637

  14. Imaging the passionate stage of romantic love by dopamine dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kayo; Mizuno, Kei; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Wada, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tajima, Kanako; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kyosuke; Zeki, Semir; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Using [11C]raclopride, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist, we undertook a positron emission tomography (PET) study to investigate the involvement of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system when subjects viewed the pictures of partners to whom they were romantically attached. Ten subjects viewed pictures of their romantic partners and, as a control, of friends of the same sex for whom they had neutral feelings during the PET study. We administered [11C]raclopride to subjects using a timing for injecting the antagonist which had been determined in previous studies to be optimal for detecting increases in the amount of dopamine released by stimulation. The results demonstrated statistically significant activation of the dopaminergic system in two regions, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and medial prefrontal cortex, the former of which has been strongly implicated in a variety of rewarding experiences, including that of beauty and love. A positive correlation was obtained in mOFC between excitement levels and dopaminergic activation only in the love but not in the control condition. PMID:25914637

  15. The characterization of IBF as a new selective dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, M.P.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Yang, Y.; Murphy, R.A.; Alavi, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The in vivo and in vitro studies of a new iodinated benzamide analog, (125I)IBF,5-iodo-7-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)carboxamido-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran as a potential central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent were investigated. In vivo biodistribution of IBF in rat indicated that this agent concentrated in the striatum region and displayed a remarkably high target-to-nontarget ratio (striatum/cerebellum = 48 at 120 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies suggested that IBF binds selectively to D-2 dopamine receptors with high affinity and low nonspecific binding (Kd = 0.106 +/- 0.015 nM, Bmax = 448 +/- 18.2 fmole/mg protein). Ex vivo autoradiography results in rats further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in the basal ganglia region. The planar images of monkey brains (lateral view of the head) after i.v. injection of ({sup 123}I)IBF clearly demonstrated that D-2 dopamine receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, ({sup 123}I)IBF may be useful as a CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in humans.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. )

    1990-01-01

    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  17. Image compression and transmission based on LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sujuan; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Zhijiang

    2004-11-01

    In this work an embedded system is designed which implements MPEG-2 LAN transmission of CVBS or S-video signal. The hardware consists of three parts. The first is digitization of analog inputs CVBS or S-video (Y/C) from TV or VTR sources. The second is MPEG-2 compression coding primarily performed by a MPEG-2 1chip audio/video encoder. Its output is MPEG-2 system PS/TS. The third part includes data stream packing, accessing LAN and system control based on an ARM microcontroller. It packs the encoded stream into Ethernet data frames and accesses LAN, and accepts Ethernet data packets bearing control information from the network and decodes corresponding commands to control digitization, coding, and other operations. In order to increase the network transmission rate to conform to the MEPG-2 data stream, an efficient TCP/IP network protocol stack is constructed directly from network hardware provided by the embedded system, instead of using an ordinary operating system for embedded systems. In the design of the network protocol stack to obtain a high LAN transmission rate on a low-end ARM, a special transmission channel is opened for the MPEG-2 stream. The designed system has been tested on an experimental LAN. The experiment shows a maximum LAN transmission rate up to 12.7 Mbps with good sound and image quality, and satisfactory system reliability.

  18. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz. PMID:26737929

  19. Implantable image sensor based on intra-brain image transmission.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We developed and fabricated a micro-imager based on wireless intra-brain communication using conductive property of living tissues. An pixel array, analog-to-digital converter and transmitter are integrated on a single chip. The dimensions of the chip are 1 mm × 1mm × 0.15 mm. We demonstrate wireless image transmission through phosphate buffer saline as a brain phantom. PMID:24110074

  20. Compressed image transmission based on fountain codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaji; Wu, Xinhong; Jiao, L. C.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over wireless channel. In the scheme, fountain codes are integrated into bit-plane coding for channel coding. Compared to traditional erasure codes for error correcting, such as Reed-Solomon codes, fountain codes are rateless and can generate sufficient symbols on the fly. Two schemes, the EEP (Equal Error Protection) scheme and the UEP (Unequal Error Protection) scheme are described in the paper. Furthermore, the UEP scheme performs better than the EEP scheme. The proposed scheme not only can adaptively adjust the length of fountain codes according to channel loss rate but also reconstruct image even on bad channel.

  1. Registration of dynamic dopamine D2 receptor images using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Acton, P D; Pilowsky, L S; Suckling, J; Brammer, M J; Ell, P J

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes a novel technique for registering a dynamic sequence of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) dopamine D2 receptor images, using principal component analysis (PCA). Conventional methods for registering images, such as count difference and correlation coefficient algorithms, fail to take into account the dynamic nature of the data, resulting in large systematic errors when registering time-varying images. However, by using principal component analysis to extract the temporal structure of the image sequence, misregistration can be quantified by examining the distribution of eigenvalues. The registration procedures were tested using a computer-generated dynamic phantom derived from a high-resolution magnetic resonance image of a realistic brain phantom. Each method was also applied to clinical SPET images of dopamine D2 receptors, using the ligands iodine-123 iodobenzamide and iodine-123 epidepride, to investigate the influence of misregistration on kinetic modelling parameters and the binding potential. The PCA technique gave highly significant (P<0.001) improvements in image registration, leading to alignment errors in x and y of about 25% of the alternative methods, with reductions in autocorrelations over time. It could also be applied to align image sequences which the other methods failed completely to register, particularly 123I-epidepride scans. The PCA method produced data of much greater quality for subsequent kinetic modelling, with an improvement of nearly 50% in the chi2 of the fit to the compartmental model, and provided superior quality registration of particularly difficult dynamic sequences. PMID:9371874

  2. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh‐field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal‐to‐noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh‐field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non‐uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non‐uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject‐tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  3. Parallel transmission for ultrahigh-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Padormo, Francesco; Beqiri, Arian; Hajnal, Joseph V; Malik, Shaihan J

    2016-09-01

    The development of MRI systems operating at or above 7 T has provided researchers with a new window into the human body, yielding improved imaging speed, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. In order to fully realise the potential of ultrahigh-field MRI, a range of technical hurdles must be overcome. The non-uniformity of the transmit field is one of such issues, as it leads to non-uniform images with spatially varying contrast. Parallel transmission (i.e. the use of multiple independent transmission channels) provides previously unavailable degrees of freedom that allow full spatial and temporal control of the radiofrequency (RF) fields. This review discusses the many ways in which these degrees of freedom can be used, ranging from making more uniform transmit fields to the design of subject-tailored RF pulses for both uniform excitation and spatial selection, and also the control of the specific absorption rate. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25989904

  4. A Portable Image Workstation/Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, R. D.; Tom, V. T.; Walton, G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes a PC-based workstation for the acquisition, enhancement, transmission and reception of image and text data. The system was designed to provide both ease of use and reasonable performance using IBM PC technology with a 512 X 512 monochrome frame grabber board (PCVISION). The system allows the user to annotate an image with text legends and graphics. The system utilizes some unique methods for achieving eye pleasing two pixel graphics. An image may also be enhanced in two ways: globally with look up table alterations and locally with contrast and edge enhancing operations. Performance enhancement is achieved by implementing primarily integer operations, thereby elimating floating point operations, and radically increasing the apparent processor speed. We show that designing a system for ease of use may also significantly enhance its responsiveness and speed. For example, the edge enhancement technique only allows selection of low, medium, and high levels of enhancement, simplifying user choices and speeding up process operations. In addition, all look up table enhancements are precalculated and stored, allowing the user to alter the contrast with keystroke rapidity without being concerned about the applicability of the algorithm to a particular image.

  5. Rhes regulates dopamine D2 receptor transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Pelosi, Barbara; Bonsi, Paola; Vitucci, Daniela; Nuzzo, Tommaso; Punzo, Daniela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Ponterio, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Pisani, Antonio; Usiello, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes) is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of rodents. In the present study, we characterized the expression of Rhes mRNA across species, as well as its functional role in other striatal neuron subtypes. Double in situ hybridization analysis showed that Rhes transcript is selectively localized in striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), but not in GABAergic parvalbumin- or in neuropeptide Y-positive cell populations. Rhes is closely linked to dopamine-dependent signaling. Therefore, we recorded ChIs activity in basal condition and following dopamine receptor activation. Surprisingly, instead of an expected dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibition, we observed an aberrant excitatory response in ChIs from Rhes knockout mice. Conversely, the effect of D1R agonist on ChIs was less robust in Rhes mutants than in controls. Although Rhes deletion in mutants occurs throughout the striatum, we demonstrate that the D2R response is altered specifically in ChIs, since it was recorded in pharmacological isolation, and prevented either by intrapipette BAPTA or by GDP-β-S. Moreover, we show that blockade of Cav2.2 calcium channels prevented the abnormal D2R response. Finally, we found that the abnormal D2R activation in ChIs was rescued by selective PI3K inhibition thus suggesting that Rhes functionally modulates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in these neurons. Our findings reveal that, besides its expression in MSNs, Rhes is localized also in striatal ChIs and, most importantly, lack of this G-protein, significantly alters D2R modulation of striatal cholinergic excitability. PMID:25818655

  6. Imaging human intrasynaptic dopamine release by IV cocaine and amphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Hong, C.; Yokoi, F.

    1995-05-01

    Intrasynaptic dopamine (DA) release was measured with C-11 Raclopride (RAC) PET in 15 human subjects with two psychostimulant drugs, IV cocaine or IV amphetamine (AMPH). Eleven cocaine users received IV saline then cocaine with high specific activity (SA) tracer RAC by IV bolus. To determine the optimal timing of drug administration, subjects received 48mg cocaine at 0 min.(1 subject), 4 min.(3 subjects) or 10 min.(7 subjects) post injection (mpi). One received 32mg at 4 and 16mg at 10 mpi. In a separate paradigm, the effect of AMPH not only on the binding of Hi SA but also on the receptor density (B{sub max}) using Hi SA and low SA was examined. Four normals received 2 pairs of Hi SA and Low SA RAC PET scans, each pair separated by 1 week to estimate 2 B{sub max}`s, one affected by AMPH. Before the 2nd pair, 0.3mg/kg IV AMPH was given in the times corresponding to the AMPH times for the 1s B{sub max} measurement. All were scanned on a GE 4096WB+PET with 50 frames over 90 min with radial arterial plasma sampling and HPLC metabolite correction. Neuropsychological-endocrine testing was done concurrently. All subjects had a marked psychophysiological response for cocaine or AMPH (less with Low SA RAC). However, evidence of substantial DA release was not consistent with IV cocaine nor correlated with any timing of cocaine vs. RAC, except for an overall trend for RAC reduction with cocaine. The % change in k{sub 3}/k{sub 4} by graphical analysis ranged from +10 to -21%, with similar changes by other methods of quantification, such as k{sub 3}/k{sub 4} constrained to cerebellar K{sub 1}/k{sub 2}, and simple tissue ratios comparisons. IV AMPH showed DA release (19% {plus_minus} 2 (SEM) decrease) in all Hi SA RAC (k{sub 3}/k{sub 4}) by graphical analysis. The calculation of B{sub max} in putamen using Scatchard analysis (baseline B{sub max}29{plus_minus}2) showed 12 to 28% decreases following AMPH.

  7. Serotonin2C receptors modulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently of dopamine release: behavioral, neurochemical and molecular studies with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Cathala, Adeline; Devroye, Céline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    In keeping with its ability to control the mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) pathway, the serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2C R) plays a key role in mediating the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. Studies assessing the influence of 5-HT2C R agonists on cocaine-induced responses have suggested that 5-HT2C Rs can modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity independently of accumbal DA release, thereby controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In the present study, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT2C R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced behavioral, neurochemical and molecular responses. The i.p. administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), had no effect on cocaine-induced DA outflow in the shell, and increased it in the core subregion of the NAc. Furthermore, Ro 60-0175 inhibited the late-onset locomotion induced by the subcutaneous administration of the DA-D2 R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg), as well as cocaine-induced increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NAc subregions. Finally, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine residues in the NAc core, this effect being reversed by the selective 5-HT2C R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that 5-HT2C Rs are capable of modulating mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level by specifically controlling DA signaling in the NAc core subregion. In keeping with the tight relationship between locomotor activity and NAc DA function, this interaction could participate in the inhibitory control of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:24661380

  8. Fluorine-18 Radiolabeled PET Tracers for Imaging Monoamine Transporters: Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the development of fluorine-18 radiolabeled PET tracers for imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET). All successful DAT PET tracers reported to date are members of the 3β-phenyl tropane class and are synthesized from cocaine. Currently available carbon-11 SERT PET tracers come from both the diphenylsulfide and 3β-phenyl nortropane class, but so far only the nortropanes have found success with fluorine-18 derivatives. NET imaging has so far employed carbon-11 and fluorine-18 derivatives of reboxetine but due to defluorination of the fluorine-18 derivatives further research is still necessary. PMID:20216936

  9. Relationships between locomotor activation and alterations in brain temperature during selective blockade and stimulation of dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, P L; Bae, D; Kiyatkin, E A

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that the dopamine (DA) system plays an essential role in the organization and regulation of brain activational processes. Various environmental stimuli that induce locomotor activation also increase DA transmission, while DA antagonists decrease spontaneous locomotion. Our previous work supports close relationships between locomotor activation and brain and body temperature increases induced by salient environmental challenges or occurring during motivated behavior. While this correlation was also true for psychomotor stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA, more complex relationships or even inverted correlations were found for other drugs that are known to increase DA transmission (i.e. heroin and cocaine). In the present study we examined brain, muscle and skin temperatures together with conventional locomotion during selective interruption of DA transmission induced by a mixture of D1 and D2 antagonists (SCH-23390 and eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) and its selective activation by apomorphine (APO; 0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) in rats. While full DA receptor blockade decreased spontaneous locomotion, it significantly increased brain, muscle and skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic brain activation under conditions of vasodilatation (or weakening of normal vascular tone). In contrast, APO strongly decreased skin temperature but tended to decrease brain and muscle temperatures despite strong hyperlocomotion and stereotypy. The brain temperature response to APO was strongly dependent on basal brain temperature, with hypothermia at high basal temperatures and weak hyperthermia at low temperatures. While supporting the role of DA in locomotor activation, these data suggest more complex relationships between drug-induced alterations in DA transmission, behavioral activation and metabolic brain activation. PMID:17196751

  10. Changes in nucleus accumbens dopamine transmission associated with fixed- and variable-time schedule-induced feeding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Nicole R; Gratton, Alain

    2008-05-01

    We examined the changes in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine (DA) transmission associated with non-contingent meal presentations under conditions of high (fixed time-, FT-schedule) and low (variable time-, VT-schedule) predictability. Of interest were the changes in NAcc DA transmission associated with discrepancies between the time food is expected and when it is actually presented. We used in vivo voltammetry to monitor NAcc DA levels as rats received, on the first and second test days, 30-s meals of condensed milk on a VT-52 schedule (inter-meal intervals of 32, 35, 40, 45, 52, 64, and 95 s). On the third and subsequent days meals were presented first on a VT-52 s schedule and then on an FT-52 s schedule. On day 1, monotonic increases in NAcc DA signals were observed during both meal consumption and the intervals between VT meal presentations. By day 2, however, meal presentations on the VT schedule elicited biphasic DA signal fluctuations; DA signals increased prior to each meal presentation but then started to decline during the feeding bout that followed. Fixed-time meal presentations on day 3 disrupted this pattern, resulting in a concurrent escalation of DA signal fluctuations upon subsequent VT meal presentations. These findings provide further evidence that, in trained animals, NAcc DA transmission is activated by conditioned incentive cues rather than by primary rewards. They also suggest that the increases in NAcc DA transmission associated with reward expectancy are sensitive to temporal cues (e.g. interval timing) and to discrepancies between expected and actual outcomes. PMID:18513317

  11. ( sup 125 I)(+)FISCH: A new CNS D-1 dopamine receptor imaging ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, J.; Kung, M.P.; Chumpradit, S.; Pan, S.; Kung, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabeling and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of an iodinated benzazepine: ({sup 125}I)FISCH 7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(4{prime}-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine, as a potential imaging agent for CNS D-1 dopamine receptors in animals, were investigated. After an iv injection, this benzazepine derivative showed good brain uptake in rats. The striatum/cerebellum ratio was 2.50 at 60 min after the injection. The regional distribution in rat brain, as measured by ex vivo autoradiography, displayed highest uptake in the regions of the striatal complex and the substantia nigra, regions known to have a high concentration of D-1 dopamine receptors. Furthermore, this localized regional cerebral distribution was blocked by pretreatment with SCH-23390, a selective D-1 dopamine receptor antagonist. The in vitro binding affinity of this agent in rat striatum tissue preparation displayed a Kd of 1.43 {plus minus} 0.15 nM. Competition data (in vitro) showed the following rank order of potency: SCH-23390 > ({plus minus})IBZP >> apomorphine > WB 4101 > ketanserin {approximately} spiperone. The preliminary data suggest that this analog of SCH-23390 shows similar selectivity for the CNS D-1 receptor.

  12. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging of electropolished and FIB manufactured TEM specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, W. Płociński, T.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.

    2015-06-15

    We present a study of the efficiency of the utility of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based transmission methods for characterizing grain structure in thinned bulk metals. Foils of type 316 stainless steel were prepared by two methods commonly used for transmission electron microscopy — double-jet electropolishing and focused ion beam milling. A customized holder allowed positioning of the foils in a configuration appropriate for both transmission electron forward scatter diffraction, and for transmission imaging by the use of a forescatter detector with two diodes. We found that both crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field transmitted images could be obtained for specimens prepared by either method. However, for both methods, preparation-induced artifacts may affect the quality or accuracy of transmission SEM data, especially those acquired by the use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Generally, the quality of orientation data was better for specimens prepared by electropolishing, due to the absence of ion-induced damage. - Highlights: • The transmission imaging and diffraction techniques are emerging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as promising new field of materials characterization. • The manuscript titled: “Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction and Transmission Electron Forescatter Imaging of Electropolished and FIB Manufactured TEM Specimens” documents how different specimen thinning procedures can effect efficiency of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging. • The abilities to make precision crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field images in transmission was studied on electropolished versus focus ion beam manufactured TEM specimens. • Depending on the need, electropolished and focused ion beam technique may produce suitable specimens for transmission imaging and diffraction in SEM.

  13. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. PMID:27179301

  14. Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Transmission Maintains Information Flow Through the Cortico-Striato-Entopeduncular Direct Pathway to Release Movements

    PubMed Central

    Chiken, Satomi; Sato, Asako; Ohta, Chikara; Kurokawa, Makoto; Arai, Satoshi; Maeshima, Jun; Sunayama-Morita, Tomoko; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Nambu, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    In the basal ganglia (BG), dopamine plays a pivotal role in motor control, and dopamine deficiency results in severe motor dysfunctions as seen in Parkinson's disease. According to the well-accepted model of the BG, dopamine activates striatal direct pathway neurons that directly project to the output nuclei of the BG through D1 receptors (D1Rs), whereas dopamine inhibits striatal indirect pathway neurons that project to the external pallidum (GPe) through D2 receptors. To clarify the exact role of dopaminergic transmission via D1Rs in vivo, we developed novel D1R knockdown mice in which D1Rs can be conditionally and reversibly regulated. Suppression of D1R expression by doxycycline treatment decreased spontaneous motor activity and impaired motor ability in the mice. Neuronal activity in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), one of the output nuclei of the rodent BG, was recorded in awake conditions to examine the mechanism of motor deficits. Cortically evoked inhibition in the EPN mediated by the cortico-striato-EPN direct pathway was mostly lost during suppression of D1R expression, whereas spontaneous firing rates and patterns remained unchanged. On the other hand, GPe activity changed little. These results suggest that D1R-mediated dopaminergic transmission maintains the information flow through the direct pathway to appropriately release motor actions. PMID:26443442

  15. Collaborative Image Coding and Transmission over Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-12-01

    The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Therefore, processing and coding of image data collected in a sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image coding and transmission scheme to minimize the energy for data transmission. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap to exploit the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A lightweight and efficient background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. The whole image can then be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target images as well as their spatial locations. Experimental results show that the energy for image transmission can indeed be greatly reduced with collaborative image coding and transmission.

  16. Regulation of the ERK pathway in the dentate gyrus by in vivo dopamine D1 receptor stimulation requires glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Acute systemic administration of the dopamine D1/D5 receptors (D1Rs) agonist, SKF81297, activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway selectively in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved in this regulation and investigated the molecular components that could promote ERK-dependent transcription and translation. SKF81297 induced phosphorylation of ERK and histone H3 required intact glutamatergic transmission. Blockade of glutamate release achieved by the mGluR2/3 agonist, LY354740 or the selective adenosine A1R agonist, CCPA as well as neurotoxic lesions of lateral entorhinal cortex reduced the ability of SKF81297 to induce ERK activation in the dentate gyrus. This activation required the combined stimulation of NR2B-containing NMDARs, mGluR1 and mGluR5. SKF81297 evoked phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) selectively at the Ser235/236 site while the Ser240/244 site remains unchanged. The SKF81297 induced increased phosphorylation of rpS6 was dependent on PKC and ERK/p90RSK activation. Surprisingly, administration of D1Rs agonist suppressed mTORC1/p70S6K pathway suggesting an mTOR-independent regulation of rpS6 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results show that intact glutamatergic transmission plays a major role in the regulation of ERK-dependent phosphorylation of histone H3 and rpS6 observed in the mouse dentate gyrus after systemic administration of SKF81297. PMID:22796106

  17. Metabolism of [123I]epidepride may affect brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Bergström, K A; Yu, M; Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Lehtonen, J; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    2000-02-01

    Iodine-123 labelled epidepride is a novel radiopharmaceutical for the study of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). A lipophilic labelled metabolite of [123I]epidepride which may enter the brain and hamper the quantitation of receptors has been observed in human plasma. In the present study, gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the plasma concentration of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and its correlation to SPET imaging of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. A linear regression fit showed a negative correlation between the amount of the lipophilic labelled metabolite and the striatum to cerebellum ratio (n=16, R=-0.58, P<0.02), suggesting that plasma metabolite analysis is essential when imaging dopamine D2 receptors with SPET using [123I]epidepride. PMID:10755727

  18. Nonhuman Primate Models of Addiction and PET Imaging: Dopamine System Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Porrino, Linda J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans. PMID:22020537

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel tropane derivatives as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhu, Lin; Lieberman, Brian P.; Zha, Zhihao; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of tropane derivatives containing a fluorinated tertiary amino or amide at the 2β position was synthesized, labeled with the positron-emitter fluorine-18 (T1/2 = 109.8 min), and tested as potential in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging agents. The corresponding chlorinated analogs were prepared and employed as precursors for radiolabeling leading to the fluorine-18-labeled derivatives via a one-step nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction. In vitro binding results showed that the 2β-amino compounds 6b, 6d and 7b displayed moderately high affinities to DAT (Ki < 10 nM). Biodistribution studies of [18F]6b and [18F]6d showed that the brain uptakes in rats were low. This is likely due to their low lipophilicities. Further structural modifications of these tropane derivatives will be needed to improve their in vivo properties as DAT imaging agents. PMID:22658558

  20. Synthesis and dopamine transporter imaging in rhesus monkeys with fluorine-18 labeled FECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Hoffman, J.M.; Eschima, D.

    1996-05-01

    Parkinson`s patients have been shown to suffer a 60-80% loss of dopamine transporters in the substantia nigra and striatum. Dopamine transporter ligands labeled with fluorine-18 (t {1/2}=110 min) are attractive probes for measuring the density of dopamine transporter sites n the striatum for the diagnosis and evaluation of Parkinson`s patients by PET. We have synthesized (Ki = 32 nM vs RTI-55), fluorine-18 labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane (FECT), with favorable kinetics as a potential dopamine transporter PET imaging agent. Treatment of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)nortropane (1) with 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane (2) in CH3CN at 80{degrees}C gave FECT (3). [F-18]FECT (3) was prepared by treating 1,2-ditosyloxyethane (4) with NCA K[F-18]/K222 (365 mCi) for 5 min in CH3CN at 85{degrees}C to give [F-18] 1-fluoro-2-tosyloxyethane (5) (175 mCi)in 59% E.O.B. yield. Coupling of [F-18] 5 with 1 in DMF at 135 {degrees}C for 45 min gave [F-18]FECT (41 mCi) in 25% yield E.O.B. following HPLC purification in a total synthesis time of 122 min. [F-18] 5 was >99% radiochemically pure with a specific activity of 5 Ci/{mu}mole. Following intravenous administration to a rhesus monkey [F-18]FECT (8.13 mCi) showed a peak uptake at 30 min in the striatum (S) followed by a slow clearance and a rapid washout from the cerebellum to afford a high S/C ratio = 11.0 at 125 min. Radio-HPLC analysis of the ether extracts form plasma samples for radioactive metabolites detected only the presence of [F-18]FECT. These results suggest that FECT is an Research supported by DOE.

  1. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent

  2. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakrison, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.

  4. Age-dependent actions of dopamine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kush; Cox, Charles L

    2013-03-01

    Numerous developmental changes in the nervous system occur during the first several weeks of the rodent lifespan. Therefore, many characteristics of neuronal function described at the cellular level from in vitro slice experiments conducted during this early time period may not generalize to adult ages. We investigated the effect of dopamine (DA) on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in prepubertal [postnatal age (P; days) 12-20], periadolescent (P30-48), and adult (P70-100) mice. The PFC is associated with higher-level cognitive functions, such as working memory, and is associated with initiation, planning, and execution of actions, as well as motivation and cognition. It is innervated by DA-releasing fibers that arise from the ventral tegmental area. In slices from prepubertal mice, DA produced a biphasic modulation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Activation of D2-like receptors leads to an early suppression of the evoked IPSC, which was followed by a longer-lasting facilitation of the IPSC mediated by D1-like DA receptors. In periadolescent mice, the D2 receptor-mediated early suppression was significantly smaller compared with the prepubertal animals and absent in adult animals. Furthermore, we found significant differences in the DA-mediated lasting enhancement of the inhibitory response among the developmental groups. Our findings suggest that behavioral paradigms that elicit dopaminergic release in the PFC differentially modulate inhibition of excitatory pyramidal neuron output in prepuberty compared with periadolescence and adulthood in the superficial layers (II/III) of the cortex. PMID:23221420

  5. Spinal Cord Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging in the Rat using 18F/11C-Fallypride

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Khararjian, Armen; Coleman, Robert A.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Spinal cord is known to be innervated with dopaminergic cells with catecholaminergic projections arising from the medulla and pons and dopaminergic transmission in the spinal cord is vital for sensory and motor function. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the imaging capability of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the rat spinal cord using PET ligands 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in all in vitro and in vivo studies. Spinal cord and brain sections were used for in vitro autoradiography and ex vivo autoradiography. For in vivo studies animals received a 18F-fallypride scan or a 11C-fallypride PET scan. The spinal cord and the brain were then harvested, flash-frozen and imaged ex vivo. For in vivo analysis Logan plots with cerebellum as a reference was used to evaluate binding potentials (BP). Tissue ratios were used for ex vivo analysis. Drug effects were evaluated using clozapine, haloperidol and dopamine were evaluated on spinal cord sections in vitro. Results In vitro studies showed 18F-fallypride binding to superficial dorsal horn (SDH), dorsal horn (DH), ventral horn (VH) and the pars centralis (PC). In the cervical section, the greatest amount of binding appeared to be in the SDH. Ex vivo studies showed approximately 6% of 18F-fallypride in SDH compared to that observed in the striatum. In vivo analysis of both 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride in the spinal cord were comparable to that in the extrastriatal regions. Haloperidol and clozapine displaced more than 75% of the 18F-fallypride in spinal cord sections. Conclusions Our studies showed 18F-fallypride and 11C-fallypride binding in the spinal cord in vitro and in vivo. The binding pattern correlates well with the known distribution of dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:25199843

  6. Persistent Drug-Induced Parkinsonism in Patients with Normal Dopamine Transporter Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging for the dopamine transporter (DAT) is used to distinguish drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) from subclinical Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although DIP patients who show a normal DAT image are expected to recover completely, some do not. We investigated whether these patients showed changes in striatal DAT activity using semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FP-CIT PET data. DIP patients with visually normal DAT images were selected from medical records. The subjects were classified as patients who recovered partially (PR) or completely within 12 months (CR). The 18F-FP-CIT uptake in each striatal subregion was compared between the CR and the PR groups. In total, 41 and 9 patients of the CR and PR groups were assessed, respectively. The two patient groups were comparable in terms of clinical characteristics including age, sex, and severity of parkinsonism. From semi-quantitative analysis of the PET image, the PR patients showed a relatively lower ligand uptake in the ventral striatum, the anterior putamen and the posterior putamen compared with the CR patients. This result suggests that persistent DIP in patients with visually normal DAT imaging may be associated with subtle decrement of DAT activity. PMID:27294367

  7. Imaging Performance of Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lenox, Mark W.; Wiskin, James; Lewis, Matthew A.; Darrouzet, Stephen; Borup, David; Hsieh, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QTUS) is a tomographic transmission ultrasound modality that is capable of generating 3D speed-of-sound maps of objects in the field of view. It performs this measurement by propagating a plane wave through the medium from a transmitter on one side of a water tank to a high resolution receiver on the opposite side. This information is then used via inverse scattering to compute a speed map. In addition, the presence of reflection transducers allows the creation of a high resolution, spatially compounded reflection map that is natively coregistered to the speed map. A prototype QTUS system was evaluated for measurement and geometric accuracy as well as for the ability to correctly determine speed of sound. PMID:26604918

  8. Attenuation mapping for monitoring thermal therapy using ultrasound transmission imaging.

    PubMed

    Parmar, N; Kolios, M C

    2004-01-01

    The use of an ultrasound (US) transmission imaging system to monitor attenuation changes during tissue heating was investigated. This work presents preliminary results of images obtained from an acoustic camera before, during and after heating tissue phantoms using a heated needle. Two types of tissue-mimicking phantoms were used, agar and polyacrylamide-based. Regions of interests were chosen in images obtained from the real-time imaging system, and the pixel intensity values before, during and after heating were compared. In both phantoms, a decrease in image intensities was observed during heating, indicating an increase in tissue attenuation. Additionally, an irreversible change in image intensity was observed in regions close to the heat source. The reversibility of the intensity change was shown to be a function of the distance from the heating needle to the selected region. Initial results indicate that US transmission imaging can be used to monitor thermal therapy. PMID:17271937

  9. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  10. Transmission and storage of medical images with patient information.

    PubMed

    Acharya U, Rajendra; Subbanna Bhat, P; Kumar, Sathish; Min, Lim Choo

    2003-07-01

    Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. The text data is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The graphical signals are interleaved with the image. Two types of error control-coding techniques are proposed to enhance reliability of transmission and storage of medical images interleaved with patient information. Transmission and storage scenarios are simulated with and without error control coding and a qualitative as well as quantitative interpretation of the reliability enhancement resulting from the use of various commonly used error control codes such as repetitive, and (7,4) Hamming code is provided. PMID:12791403

  11. Multiple system atrophy: natural history, MRI morphology, and dopamine receptor imaging with 123IBZM-SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, J B; Klockgether, T; Petersen, D; Jauch, M; Müller-Schauenburg, W; Spieker, S; Voigt, K; Dichgans, J

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable multiple system atrophy (MSA) were examined clinically by MRI and by 123I-iodobenzamide single photon emission computed tomography (IBZM-SPECT). The clinical records of another 16 patients were also analysed retrospectively. On the basis of their clinical presentation, patients were subdivided into those with prominent parkinsonism (MSA-P, n = 11) and those with prominent cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n = 21). Autonomic symptoms were present in all patients and preceded the onset of motor symptoms in 63% of patients. Calculated median lifetime and the median time to become wheelchair bound after onset of disease were significantly shorter for MSA-P than for MSA-C (lifetime: 4.0 v 9.1 years; wheelchair: 3.1 vs 5.0 years) suggesting a better prognosis for cerebellar patients. A significant loss of striatal dopamine receptors (below 2 SD threshold) was detected by IBZM-SPECT in 63% of the patients (56% below 2.5 SD threshold). There was no difference between patients with MSA-C and those with MSA-P in the proportion with significant receptor loss and the extent of dopamine receptor loss. Planimetric MRI evaluation showed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy in both groups. Atrophy was more pronounced in patients with MSA-C than in those with MSA-P. Pontocerebellar hyperintensities and putaminal hypointensities on T2 weighted MRI were found in both groups. Pontocerebellar signal abnormalities were more pronounced in MSA-C than in MSA-P, whereas the rating scores for area but not for intensity of putaminal abnormalities were higher in MSA-P. MRI and IBZM-SPECT provide in vivo evidence for combined basal ganglia and pontocerebellar involvement in almost all patients in this series. Images PMID:8089667

  12. Edge Detection and Shape Recognition in Neutron Transmission Images

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Eric D; McConchie, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements are a valuable tool for nondestructively imaging special nuclear materials. Analysis of these images, however, tends to require significant user interaction to determine the sizes, shapes, and likely compositions of measured objects. Computer vision (CV) techniques can be a useful approach to automatically extracting important information from either neutron transmission images or fission-site-mapping images. An automatable approach has been developed that processes an input image and, through recursive application of CV techniques, produces a set of basic shapes that define surfaces observed in the image. These shapes can then be compared to a library of known shape configurations to determine if the measured object matches its expected configuration, as could be done behind an information barrier for arms control treaty verification inspections.

  13. [Multiple transmission electron microscopic image stitching based on sift features].

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Lu, Yanmeng; Han, Shuaihu; Wu, Zhuobin; Chen, Jiajing; Liu, Zhexing; Cao, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We proposed a new stitching method based on sift features to obtain an enlarged view of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images with a high resolution. The sift features were extracted from the images, which were then combined with fitted polynomial correction field to correct the images, followed by image alignment based on the sift features. The image seams at the junction were finally removed by Poisson image editing to achieve seamless stitching, which was validated on 60 local glomerular TEM images with an image alignment error of 62.5 to 187.5 nm. Compared with 3 other stitching methods, the proposed method could effectively reduce image deformation and avoid artifacts to facilitate renal biopsy pathological diagnosis. PMID:26403733

  14. CW THz scanning transmission imaging for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Yao, Rui; Yin, Qiguo; Ding, Shenghui; Wang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    In the paper, the two-dimensional THz imaging methods are described. The SIFIR-50 FPL Far-Infrared Laser is used as the THz source. The output frequency is 2.5THz in the experiment, because the THz laser operates steadily at this frequency. The P4-42 detector works at room temperature and offers relatively high sensitivity. The software of THz imaging system is self-designed, and it plays a crucial role in this imaging system because it controls nearly all the operations of this system, including the two-dimensional scanning, image data collection, image data storage, image display and image processing. Utilizing this setup, THz transmission images of concealed objects are obtained. In the experiment, a bottle cap and a plastic board covered by reflective materials are chosen as the imaging objects; paper and Teflon are placed before the object to test the transmission imaging effect. The experimental results show that this imaging system can generate clear images.

  15. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. PMID:25239478

  16. Peer-to-peer transmission of remote sensing image data using image subset block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Hou, Zhitong; Du, Zhenhong; Liu, Renyi; Yan, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The unprecedented amount and multiple applications of remote sensing image data have created a strong need for efficient data transmission. Commonly used in the transmission of various types of data, peer-to-peer (P2P) opens up new possibilities for the transmission of remote sensing image data. A considerable amount of work has been done toward the transmission of remote sensing data by using map tiles for fast online browsing. However, issues concerning the transmission of original image data require more volume and flexibility, which is indispensable in the application of remote sensing images. According to the spatial and band characteristics of remote sensing images, an approach using image subset blocks (ISBs) is proposed for P2P transmission of remote sensing image data. The method improves efficiency in two ways: transmitting ISBs on demand to reduce unnecessary transmission and using a P2P method to break the bandwidth bottleneck of the central server. The results of the performance evaluation reveal that compared with the traditional transmission method that uses the central server, the proposed method considerably enhances the efficiency to approach the level of general P2P file transmission.

  17. Dosimetry of an iodine-123-labeled tropane to image dopamine transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Stubbs, J.B.; Kim, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (IPT) is an analog of cocaine that selectively binds the presynaptic dopamine transporter. The present study sought to measure the radiation dosimetry of IPT in seven healthy human volunteers. Dynamic renal scans were acquired immediately after the intravenous administration of 165 {+-} 16 MBq (4.45 {+-} 0.42 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]IPT. Between 7 and 12 sets of whole-body scans were acquired over the next 24 hr. The 24-hr renal excretion fractions were measured from conjugate emission scans of 7-11 discreet voided urine specimens. The fraction of the administered dose in 11 organs and each urine specimen was quantified from the attenuation-corrected geometric mean counts in opposing views. Subject-specific residence times were evaluated for each subject independently by fitting the time-activity curves to a multicompartmental model. The radiation doses were estimated with the MIRD technique from the residence times for each subject individually before any results were averaged. The findings showed that IPT was excreted rapidly by the renal system. There were no reservoirs of retained activity outside the basal ganglia, where SPECT images in these subjects showed that the mean ratio of caudate to calcarine cortex averaged 25:1 at 3 hr after injection (range 19.6-32 hr). The basal ganglia received a radiation dose of 0.028 mGy/MBq (0.10 rad/mCi). The dose-limiting organ in men was the stomach, which received an estimated 0.11 mGy/MBq (0.37 rad/mCi). In women, the critical organ was the urinary bladder at 0.14 mGy/MBq (0.51 rad/mCi). Relatively high-contrast images of the presynaptic dopamine transporters in the basal ganglia can be acquired with 185 MBq (5 mCi) of [{sup 123}I]IPT. The radiation exposure that results is significantly less than the maximum allowed by current safety guidelines for research volunteers. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A transmission disequilibrium test of the Ser9/Gly dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Pierandrea; Jain, Umesh; Kennedy, James L

    2002-03-10

    Convincing data support the hypothesis that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Various lines of evidence have shown that the dopamine system plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) represents a promising candidate to examine in ADHD. Animal studies have shown that DRD3 mRNA is highly expressed in the ventral striatum suggesting an involvement of this receptor in the control of motor behaviour. Manipulation of DRD3 in rodents has led to a mouse model with nonfunctional D3 receptors that displays hyperactive behaviour in various environmental conditions. Furthermore, administration of 7-OH-DPAT, a dopaminergic agonist that binds preferentially to D3 receptors exerts an inhibitory effect on locomotor activity while D3 antagonists induce hyperactivity. Among various polymorphisms described for DRD3, the BalI polymorphism is most interesting because it codes for an aminoacid substitution in the N-terminus of the receptor. The receptor products of the two alleles (Ser/Gly) exhibit differential affinity for dopamine. To determine if DRD3 Ser9/Gly is involved in the susceptibility to ADHD we genotyped 39 adults with ADHD and their respective parents (trios). Adult ADHD represents a promising phenotype for studying the genetic component of the disorder. In fact, a recent family study has shown that relatives of adult ADHD patients have a higher rate of ADHD compared to relatives of children with ADHD suggesting a stronger genetic component for the adult version. The results of genotyping in the 39 trios analyzed with the transmission disequilibrium test showed no excess of transmission for DRD3 MscI/BalI alleles (chi(2) = 0.360; df = 1; P = 0.54). This result, although from a relatively small sample, indicates that it is unlikely that DRD3 is playing a major role in the etiology of ADHD in our sample. PMID:11864723

  19. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  20. Real-Time Ellipsometry-Based Transmission Ultrasound Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Poco, J F; Ashby, A E

    2007-02-14

    Ultrasonic imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation and medical diagnosis. Reflection mode is exclusively used for medical imaging, and is most frequently used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) because of the relative speed of acquisition. Reflection mode imaging is qualitative, yielding little information about material properties, and usually only about material interfaces. Transmission imaging can be used in 3D reconstructions to yield quantitative information: sound speed and attenuation. Unfortunately, traditional scanning methods of acquiring transmission data are very slow, requiring on the order of 20 minutes per image. The sensing of acoustic pressure fields as optical images can significantly speed data acquisition. An entire 2D acoustic pressure field can be acquired in under a second. The speed of data acquisition for a 2D view makes it feasible to obtain multiple views of an object. With multiple views, 3D reconstruction becomes possible. A fast, compact (no big magnets or accelerators), inexpensive, 3D imaging technology that uses no ionizing radiation could be a boon to the NDE and medical communities. 2D transmission images could be examined in real time to give the ultrasonic equivalent of a fluoroscope, or accumulated in such a way as to acquire phase and amplitude data over multiple views for 3D reconstruction (for breast cancer imaging, for example). Composite panels produced for the aircraft and automobile industries could be inspected in near real time, and inspection of attenuating materials such as ceramics and high explosives would be possible. There are currently three optical-readout imaging transmission ultrasound technologies available. One is based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) [1,2], one on Fabry-Perot interferometry [3], and another on critical angle modulation [4]. Each of these techniques has its problems. The FTIR based system cannot currently be scaled to large aperture sizes, the Fabry

  1. Resolution and quantitative accuracy improvements in ultrasound transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevert, T. L.

    The type of ultrasound transmission imaging, referred to as ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT), reconstructs distributions of tissue speed of sound and sound attenuation properties from measurements of acoustic pulse time of flight (TCF) and energy received through tissue. Although clinical studies with experimental UCT scanners have demonstrated UCT is sensitive to certain tissue pathologies not easily detected with conventional ultrasound imaging, they have also shown UCT to suffer from artifacts due to physical differences between the acoustic beam and its ray model implicit in image reconstruction algorithms. Artifacts are expressed as large quantitative errors in attenuation images, and poor spatial resolution and size distortion (exaggerated size of high speed of sound regions) in speed of sound images. Methods are introduced and investigated which alleviate these problems in UCT imaging by providing improved measurements of pulse TCF and energy.

  2. 124I-Epidepride: A PET Radiotracer for Extended Imaging of Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh; Venugopal, Archana; Kant, Ritu; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18F-fallypride (half-life of 18F = 0.076days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75μCi/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 μM haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results 124I-Epidepride was synthesized with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (>95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hr in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting. PMID:24602412

  3. Characteristics of Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Image Enhancement in Prolactinomas Resistant to Dopamine Agonist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qinghua; Erickson, Bradley J.; Chang, Alice Y.; Erickson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) enhancement parameters could predict dopamine agonist (DA) resistance in prolactinomas. Methods We retrospectively identified patients with prolactinomas who were treated with DA and underwent dMRI from 2001 through 2012 at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota). Intensities of the adenoma and pituitary gland were measured by drawing regions of interest on the images. Enhancement ratio, enhancement peak, prepeak slope (PPS), and enhancement time were compared between DA-resistant and DA-responsive groups, between DA-treated and DA-naïve groups, and between the first and follow-up dMRIs. Results We identified 49 patients with prolactinomas, with 6 (12.2%) that showed DA resistance. Thirty-seven patients (75.5%) underwent dMRI while receiving treatment, 12 (25.5%) underwent dMRI before starting therapy, and 10 (20.4%) had follow-up dMRI after DA therapy. The PPS of the tumor was higher in the treatment-resistant group vs the responsive group (mean [SD], 4.42 [3.19] vs 2.65 [1.59]; P=.03), whereas no difference was noted in the pituitary gland (5.79 [2.21] vs 4.06 [2.48]; P=.11). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumor PPS was associated with DA resistance (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.07-3.27; P=.02). Conclusions dMRI with PPS analysis potentially can be used early in the treatment course to evaluate DA resistance in pituitary prolactinomas. PMID:25551412

  4. Modulation of dopamine transmission by 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors: a role in the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Weizmann, Yifat; Kinor, Noa; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Yadid, Gal

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are fundamental in hedonia and motivation. Therefore their regulation should be central in understanding depression treatment. This review highlights the dopaminergic activity in relation to depressive behavior and suggests two putative receptors as potential targets for research and development of future antidepressants. In this article we review data that describe the role of serotonin in regulating dopamine release, via 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors. This action of serotonin appears to be linked to depressive-like behavior and to onset of behavioral effects of antidepressants in an animal model of depression. We suggest that drugs or strategies that decrease 5HT2C and increase 5HT3 receptor-mediated dopamine release in the limbic areas of the brain may provide a fast onset of therapeutic effect. Clinical and basic research data supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16475958

  5. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  6. Electrochemical Imaging of Dopamine Release from Three-Dimensional-Cultured PC12 Cells Using Large-Scale Integration-Based Amperometric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroya; Ino, Kosuke; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanno, Yusuke; Inoue, Kumi Y; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Matsudaira, Masahki; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-06-16

    In the present study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to image dopamine release from three-dimensional (3D)-cultured PC12 cells (PC12 spheroids). The Bio-LSI device consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 μm for rapid electrochemical imaging of large areas. PC12 spheroids were stimulated with K(+) to release dopamine. Poststimulation dopamine release from the PC12 spheroids was electrochemically imaged using the Bio-LSI device. Bio-LSI clearly showed the effects of the dopaminergic drugs l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and reserpine on K(+)-stimulated dopamine release from PC12 spheroids. Our results demonstrate that dopamine release from PC12 spheroids can be monitored using the device, suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for use in evaluating 3D-cultured dopaminergic cells and the effects of dopaminergic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of dopamine release by PC12 spheroids using LSI-based amperometric sensors. PMID:25971414

  7. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-04-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques.

  8. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  9. Extreme stiffness hyperbolic elastic metamaterial for total transmission subwavelength imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Seung, Hong Min; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength imaging by metamaterials and extended work to pursue total transmission has been successfully demonstrated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves very recently. However, no elastic counterpart has been reported because earlier attempts suffer from considerable loss. Here, for the first time, we realize an elastic hyperbolic metamaterial lens and experimentally show total transmission subwavelength imaging with measured wave field inside the metamaterial lens. The main idea is to compensate for the decreased impedance in the perforated elastic metamaterial by utilizing extreme stiffness, which has not been independently actualized in a continuum elastic medium so far. The fabricated elastic lens is capable of directly transferring subwavelength information from the input to the output boundary. In the experiment, this intriguing phenomenon is confirmed by scanning the elastic structures inside the lens with laser scanning vibrometer. The proposed elastic metamaterial lens will bring forth significant guidelines for ultrasonic imaging techniques. PMID:27040762

  10. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results. PMID:26415470

  11. Transmission of digital images within the NTSC analog format

    DOEpatents

    Nickel, George H.

    2004-06-15

    HDTV and NTSC compatible image communication is done in a single NTSC channel bandwidth. Luminance and chrominance image data of a scene to be transmitted is obtained. The image data is quantized and digitally encoded to form digital image data in HDTV transmission format having low-resolution terms and high-resolution terms. The low-resolution digital image data terms are transformed to a voltage signal corresponding to NTSC color subcarrier modulation with retrace blanking and color bursts to form a NTSC video signal. The NTSC video signal and the high-resolution digital image data terms are then transmitted in a composite NTSC video transmission. In a NTSC receiver, the NTSC video signal is processed directly to display the scene. In a HDTV receiver, the NTSC video signal is processed to invert the color subcarrier modulation to recover the low-resolution terms, where the recovered low-resolution terms are combined with the high-resolution terms to reconstruct the scene in a high definition format.

  12. Microfiche Image Transmission System (MITS) demonstration field evaluation of microfacsimile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, D. L., Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The MITS Demonstration was conducted for a 6-month period between 14 December 1981 and 11 June 1982. During that period, more than 1000 microfiche containing about 22,000 personnel document images were electronically transmitted between NMPC and the Personnel Support Detachment, Anacostia. These fiche represented nearly 300 active Navy personnel records. The average turnaround time was 46 minutes between making a request and receiving a facsimile record. This time included retrieval of the master microfiche, duplication, scanning, data transmission, and facsimile recording. The average scanning/transmission time was 15 minutes per record slightly less than 8 seconds per document image. The facsimile documents were found to be useful to the recipients, but improvements in both the output quality and the system itself are necessary to ensure effective implementation of an operational configuration.

  13. Mapping the effects of three dopamine agonists with different dyskinetogenic potential and receptor selectivity using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Marina; Kalisch, Raffael; Czisch, Michael; Larramendy, Celia; Ricatti, Jimena; Taravini, Irene R E; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Murer, Mario Gustavo; Auer, Dorothee P; Gershanik, Oscar S

    2007-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease remain poorly understood. Similar to patients, rats with severe nigrostriatal degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine are more likely to show dyskinesia during chronic treatment with unselective dopamine receptor agonists than with D2 agonists, suggesting that D1 receptor stimulation alone or in conjunction with D2 receptor stimulation increases the chances of experiencing dyskinesia. As a first step towards disclosing drug-induced brain activation in dyskinesia, we examined the effects of dopamine agonists on behavior and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the striatum and motor cortex of rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions. Rats were rendered dyskinetic before pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging by means of a repeated treatment regime with dopamine agonists. The unselective agonist apomorphine and the selective D1/D5 agonist SKF-81297 induced strong forelimb dyskinesia (FD) and axial dystonia and increased BOLD signal in the denervated striatum. Besides, SKF-81297 produced a significant but smaller BOLD increase in the intact striatum and a symmetric bilateral increase in the motor cortex. The D2 family agonist quinpirole, which induced mild dyskinesia on chronic treatment, did not produce BOLD changes in the striatum or motor cortex. Further evidence to support an association between BOLD changes and dyskinesia comes from a direct correlation between scores of FD and magnitude of drug-induced BOLD increases in the denervated striatum and motor cortex. Our results suggest that striatal and cortical activation induced by stimulation of D1/D5 receptors has a primary role in the induction of peak dose dyskinesia in parkinsonism. PMID:17287822

  14. Evaluation of 5-[18F]fluoropropylepidepride as a potential PET radioligand for imaging dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Bingham, D R; Ansari, M S; Mason, N S; Holburn, G; Schmidt, D E; Votaw, D B; Manning, R G

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluated the utility of (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2,3 - dimethoxybenzamide ([18F]fluorpropylepidepride), [18F]5-FPrEpid, as a ligand for PET studies of cerebral dopamine D2 receptors. The in vitro affinity for the rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor, KD 138 pM, was determined by Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding to rat striatal homogenate. The apparent lipophilicity, log kw 1.6, was measured with reverse phase HPLC at pH 7.5. The receptor specificity was determined by competitive displacement of [18F]5-FPrEpid by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands. Only dopamine D2 ligands displaced [18F]5-FPrEpid with high affinity. Positron tomographic imaging studies in primates of [18F]5-FPrEpid demonstrated a stable striatal uptake of 0.02% injected dose/ml for up to 5 h after injection. The striatal: cerebellar ratio increased from 2 at 15 min, to 7 at 200 min, and to 10 at 300 min. Striatal uptake was displaceable by haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or raclopride (2.5 mg/kg) to cerebellar levels with a t1/2 of washout of 9 or 15 min. Striatal uptake was mildly susceptible to displacement by d-amphetamine (1-2 mg/kg) released endogenous dopamine; d-amphetamine administration produced a 10% h increase in the rate of striatal washout. Although uptake in the striatum is reversible, an equilibrium between receptor bound [18F]5-FPrEpid in striatum and [18F]5-FPrEpid in plasma is not reached within 5 h postinjection. PMID:8278895

  15. Performance analysis of an inexpensive Direct Imaging Transmission Ion Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Patrick; Pallone, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    A direct imaging transmission ion microscope (DITIM) is built from a modified webcam and a commercially available polonium-210 antistatic device mounted on an optics rail. The performance of the DITIM in radiographic mode is analyzed in terms of the line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) for an opaque edge. Limitations of, potential uses for, and suggested improvements to the DITIM are also discussed. Faculty sponsor

  16. Application of DSP in the image transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Feng; Wei, LinQi

    2006-05-01

    A scheme to realize static image and video code and decode based on TI DSP chip TMS320C6416 was proposed in this paper, and a reliable image transmission system was developed. According to the application demand, the software has six major modules: (1) initialization of DSP chip and other hardware; (2) video acquisition and input control program; (3) serial port communicating program; (4) RAM storage and communicating program that applies and releases the token-ring; (5) video reconstruct and output control; (6) the major parts of the software, encoding and decoding program, in which wavelet was applied first, then run length coding and Huffman coding were carried out, the image or video could had balance resolution and better visual effect by adaptive processing, in the decoding parts, the reverse operation were executed. After the system line up debugging was carried out, a satisfying result was reached: the comparatively high compression rate, preferable image quality and relatively real-time result.

  17. Shear wave transmissivity measurement by color Doppler shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuminaka, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography is a useful method for evaluating tissue stiffness. We have proposed a novel shear wave imaging method (color Doppler shear wave imaging: CD SWI), which utilizes a signal processing unit in ultrasound color flow imaging in order to detect the shear wave wavefront in real time. Shear wave velocity is adopted to characterize tissue stiffness; however, it is difficult to measure tissue stiffness with high spatial resolution because of the artifact produced by shear wave diffraction. Spatial average processing in the image reconstruction method also degrades the spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement method for the shear wave transmissivity of a tissue boundary. Shear wave wavefront maps are acquired by changing the displacement amplitude of the shear wave and the transmissivity of the shear wave, which gives the difference in shear wave velocity between two mediums separated by the boundary, is measured from the ratio of two threshold voltages required to form the shear wave wavefronts in the two mediums. From this method, a high-resolution shear wave amplitude imaging method that reconstructs a tissue boundary is proposed.

  18. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  19. Simulation of transmission electron microscope images of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Rullgård, H; Ofverstedt, L-G; Masich, S; Daneholt, B; Oktem, O

    2011-09-01

    We present a new approach to simulate electron cryo-microscope images of biological specimens. The framework for simulation consists of two parts; the first is a phantom generator that generates a model of a specimen suitable for simulation, the second is a transmission electron microscope simulator. The phantom generator calculates the scattering potential of an atomic structure in aqueous buffer and allows the user to define the distribution of molecules in the simulated image. The simulator includes a well defined electron-specimen interaction model based on the scalar Schrödinger equation, the contrast transfer function for optics, and a noise model that includes shot noise as well as detector noise including detector blurring. To enable optimal performance, the simulation framework also includes a calibration protocol for setting simulation parameters. To test the accuracy of the new framework for simulation, we compare simulated images to experimental images recorded of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) in vitreous ice. The simulated and experimental images show good agreement with respect to contrast variations depending on dose and defocus. Furthermore, random fluctuations present in experimental and simulated images exhibit similar statistical properties. The simulator has been designed to provide a platform for development of new instrumentation and image processing procedures in single particle electron microscopy, two-dimensional crystallography and electron tomography with well documented protocols and an open source code into which new improvements and extensions are easily incorporated. PMID:21631500

  20. Nanocrystal size distribution analysis from transmission electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Martijn; van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Xie, Ling; Jarolimek, Karol; Santbergen, Rudi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Leifer, Klaus; Zeman, Miro

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect.We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06292f

  1. Design of a fiber optic image transmission link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Justin D.

    1991-12-01

    An original design is presented for a fiber optic based digital image transmission link operating at a serial bit rate of 250 Mbits/Second. The link is designed as an integral part of an airborne infrared imaging system with particular emphasis on avoiding problems associated with aircraft electromagnetic interference (EMI). Unique features include simplicity (single PC board transmitter and receiver), low power, low cost (under $3,000), and use of the latest off-the-shelf components (including the Gazelle GA9011/GA9012 HOT ROD chip set). Theoretical modeling is used to predict a bit error rate of better than 10 to the minus 15th power, while actual measurements include transmission of over 10 to 13th power bits without any errors (measured bit error rate of at least 10 to the minus 13th power). Test results also show that the link is capable of transmitting 640 x 480 pixel (12 bits per pixel) images with no significant image degradation.

  2. In vitro binding properties and autoradiographic imaging of 3-iodobenzamide ((/sup 125/I)-IBZM): a potential imaging ligand for D-2 dopamine receptors in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruecke, T.; Tsai, Y.F.; McLellan, C.; Singhanyom, W.; Kung, H.F.; Cohen, R.M.; Chiueh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the (/sup 125/I) labeled benzamide, (S(-)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-benzamide, IBZM) were determined in bovine and mouse caudate membrane homogenates and by autoradiography of mouse brain slices. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM binding is saturable and reversible with B/sub max/ of 373 +/- 51 fmol/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 3.1 +/- 0.62 nM and 0.56 nM as calculated by association and dissociation time constants. In competition experiments, K/sub i/ values for the D-2 antagonists YM-09151-2 and spiperone are 4 orders of magnitude lower than the K/sub i/ value for the D-1 antagonist SCH-23390 and S(-)-IBZM is ten-fold more potent than R(+)-IBZM. (/sup 125/I)-IBZM has a low affinity for serotonin S-2 and for alpha receptors. Therefore, it is a highly selective ligand for dopamine D-2 receptors. Autoradiographic images of brain sections incubated with (/sup 125/I)-IBZM show the dopamine D-2 receptors of the striatum, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle with a high ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. Thus, S(-)-IBZM, when labeled with (/sup 125/I), may be useful for in vivo imaging of dopamine D-2 receptors by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  3. The influence of different cellular environments on PET radioligand binding: An application to D2/3-dopamine receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quelch, Darren R.; Withey, Sarah L.; Nutt, David J.; Tyacke, Robin J.; Parker, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Various D2/3 receptor PET radioligands are sensitive to endogenous dopamine release in vivo. The Occupancy Model is generally used to interpret changes in binding observed in in vivo competition binding studies; an Internalisation Hypothesis may also contribute to these changes in signal. Extension of in vivo competition imaging to other receptor systems has been relatively unsuccessful. A greater understanding of the cellular processes underlying signal changes following endogenous neurotransmitter release may help translate this imaging paradigm to other receptor systems. To investigate the Internalisation Hypothesis we assessed the effects of different cellular environments, representative of those experienced by a receptor following agonist-induced internalisation, on the binding of three D2/3 PET ligands with previously reported sensitivities to endogenous dopamine in vivo, namely [3H]spiperone, [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO. Furthermore, we determined the contribution of each cellular compartment to total striatal binding for these D2/3 ligands. These studies suggest that sensitivity to endogenous dopamine release in vivo is related to a decrease in affinity in the endosomal environment compared with those found at the cell surface. In agreement with these findings we also demonstrate that ∼25% of total striatal binding for [3H]spiperone originates from sub-cellular, microsomal receptors, whereas for [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO, this fraction is lower, representing ∼14% and 17%, respectively. This pharmacological approach is fully translatable to other receptor systems. Assessment of affinity shifts in different cellular compartments may play a crucial role for understanding if a radioligand is sensitive to endogenous release in vivo, for not just the D2/3, but other receptor systems. PMID:24910074

  4. Carbon nanodots prepared for dopamine and Al(3+) sensing, cellular imaging and logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fanyong; Kong, Depeng; Luo, Yunmei; Ye, Qianghua; Wang, Yinyin; Chen, Li

    2016-11-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) were synthesized through a facile, economic and green one-step hydrothermal process. The CNDs exhibit various merits including excellent solubility, superior photostability and low toxicity. Besides, the CNDs can be used as an effective fluorescent probe for dopamine and Al(3+). What's more, this CNDs based fluorescent probe was favorably applied to the analyses of dopamine in biological fluids and Al(3+) in food samples. This CDs based sensing platform shows its potential applications in the field of biology and food analysis with extraordinary advantages such as fast and simple as well as environmental-friendly. Inspired by these results, the prepared CNDs can be utilized as logic gates at the molecular level. PMID:27524074

  5. Region-of-interest-based progressive transmission of gray-scale images across the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Boris; Lemahieu, Ignace L.; Philips, Wilfried R.; Denecker, Koen N.; De Neve, Peter; Van Assche, Steven

    1998-12-01

    On the Internet, transmission time of large images is still an important issue. In order to reduce transmission time this paper introduces an efficient method to send 8-bit greyscale images across the Internet. The method allows progressive transmission up to lossless reconstruction. It also allows the user to select a region of interest. This method is particularly useful when image quality and transmission speed are two desired properties. The method uses TCP-IP as a transport protocol.

  6. Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances. PMID:23508852

  7. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  8. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors during chronic cocaine self-administration in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nader, Michael A; Morgan, Drake; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Calhoun, Tonya L; Buchheimer, Nancy; Ehrenkaufer, Richard; Mach, Robert H

    2006-08-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is associated with high susceptibility to cocaine abuse. Positron emission tomography was used in 12 rhesus macaques to determine if dopamine D2 receptor availability was associated with the rate of cocaine reinforcement, and to study changes in brain dopaminergic function during maintenance of and abstinence from cocaine. Baseline D2 receptor availability was negatively correlated with rates of cocaine self-administration. D2 receptor availability decreased by 15-20% within 1 week of initiating self-administration and remained reduced by approximately 20% during 1 year of exposure. Long-term reductions in D2 receptor availability were observed, with decreases persisting for up to 1 year of abstinence in some monkeys. These data provide evidence for a predisposition to self-administer cocaine based on D2 receptor availability, and demonstrate that the brain dopamine system responds rapidly following cocaine exposure. Individual differences in the rate of recovery of D2 receptor function during abstinence were noted. PMID:16829955

  9. Imaging magnetic structures with a transmission X-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Eimüller, T.; Schütz, G.; Guttmann, P.; Schmahl, G.; Bayreuther, G.

    2000-05-01

    The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD), i.e., the dependence of the absorption of circularly polarized X-rays on the magnetization of the absorber exhibits at L-edges of transition metals values up to 25%. This can serve as a huge magnetic contrast mechanism in combination with a transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) to image magnetic domains providing a lateral resolution down to about 30 nm. The inherent element-specificity, the possibility to record images in varying external fields within a complete hysteresis loop, the relation of the contrast to local magnetic spin and orbital moments, etc. demonstrate the unique applicability to study the magnetic domain structure in current technical relevant systems like magneto-optics for high density storage media, multilayers for GMR applications or nanostructures for MRAM technology.

  10. Imaging of magnetic domains by transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Eimüller, T.; Schütz, G.; Guttmann, P.; Schmahl, G.; Pruegl, K.; Bayreuther, G.

    1998-03-01

    The combination of the high-resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) based on the zone plate technique with the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) providing a huge magnetic contrast is a new technique to image magnetic domain structures. It is inherently element specific and contains information on the local spin and orbital moments of the absorbing species that can be obtained by applying magneto-optical sum rules. A lateral spatial resolution depending on the quality of the zone plates down to 30 nm can be achieved. We report on first results at the Fe 0022-3727/31/6/012/img9 edges of Fe both in amorphous and in multilayered Gd-Fe systems. With a TXM set-up at BESSY I adapted to record magnetic images in varying magnetic fields the evolution of magnetic domains within a complete hysteresis loop and magnetic aftereffects have been studied.

  11. Bidirectional synchronization and hierarchical error correction for robust image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, HongZhi; Chen, Chang W.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel joint source and channel image coding scheme for noisy channel transmission. The proposed scheme consists of two innovative components: (1) Intelligent bi-directional synchronization, and (2) Layered bit-plane error protection. The bi-directional synchronization is able to recover the coding synchronization when any single or even when two consecutive synchronization codes are corrupted by the channel noise. With synchronized partition, unequal error protection for each bit-plane can be designed to suit for a wide range of channel environments. The hierarchical error protection strategy is based on the analysis of bit-plane error sensitivity, aiming at achieving an optimal joint source and channel coding when the compressed image data are transmitted over noisy channels. Experimental results over extensive channel simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms the approach proposed by Sherwood and Zeger who have reported the best numerical results in the literature.

  12. Simulation of Medical Imaging Systems: Emission and Transmission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert L.

    Simulation is an important tool in medical imaging research. In patient scans the true underlying anatomy and physiology is unknown. We have no way of knowing in a given scan how various factors are confounding the data: statistical noise; biological variability; patient motion; scattered radiation, dead time, and other data contaminants. Simulation allows us to isolate a single factor of interest, for instance when researchers perform multiple simulations of the same imaging situation to determine the effect of statistical noise or biological variability. Simulations are also increasingly used as a design optimization tool for tomographic scanners. This article gives an overview of the mechanics of emission and transmission tomography simulation, reviews some of the publicly available simulation tools, and discusses trade-offs between the accuracy and efficiency of simulations.

  13. Delay-encoded transmission and image reconstruction method in synthetic transmit aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Kolios, Michael C; Xu, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging systems usually have a lower SNR compared with conventional Bmode ultrasound systems because only one or a small number of elements are selected for each transmission in STA. Here we propose delay-encoded synthetic transmit aperture (DE-STA) imaging to encode all the transmission elements to increase the SNR of the pre-beamformed RF signals. The encoding scheme is similar to the Hadamard encoding. However, in each transmission of DE-STA imaging, selected transmitting elements are delayed by a half period of the ultrasound wave relative to the rest transmitting elements, rather than using a pulse inversion as in the Hadamard encoding sequence. After all the transmission events, a decoding process in the temporal frequency domain is applied to the acquired RF signals to recover the equivalent traditional STA signals with a better SNR. The proposed protocol is tested with simulated data (using Field II) and experimental data acquired with a commercial linear array imaging system (Ultrasonix RP). The results from both the simulations and the experiments demonstrate increased SNR of pre-beamformed RF signals and improved image quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio compared with traditional STA. The lateral resolution (as assessed by a wire target) of DESTA imaging is improved by 28% and the PSNR of the wire is increased by 7 dB, respectively, compared with traditional STA imaging. The proposed image reconstruction framework can also be extended to other transmission protocols. PMID:26470037

  14. Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background. PMID:23957273

  15. Interactive transmission of spectrally wavelet-transformed hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteagudo-Pereira, José Lino; Bartrina-Rapesta, Joan; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan; Zabala, Alaitz; Pons, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    The size of images used in remote sensing scenarios has constantly increased in the last years. Remote sensing images are not only stored, but also processed and transmitted, raising the need for more resources and bandwidth. On another side, hyperspectral remote sensing images have a large number of components with a significant inter-component redundancy, which is usually taken into account by many image coding systems to improve the coding performance. The main approaches used to decorrelate the spectral dimension are the Karhunen Loeve-Transform and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). This paper is focused on DWT decorrelators because they have a lower computational complexity, and because they provide interesting features such as component and resolution scalability and progressive transmission. Influence of the spectral transform is investigated, considering the DWT kernel applied and the number of decomposition levels. In addition, a JPIP compliant application, CADI, is introduced. It may be useful to test new protocols, techniques, or coding systems, without requiring significant changes on the application. CADI can be run in most computer platforms and devices thanks to the use of JAVA and the configuration of a light-version, suitable for devices with constrained resources.

  16. Image transmission in tactical radio frequency shared network propagation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kent H.; Wagner, Kerry A.; O'Hanian, Scott

    1997-06-01

    The need to transmit images across tactical radio frequency (rf) links has been identified in army digitization applications. For example, military doctrine requires that tactical functions like identification of battlefield entities as potential targets and battle damage assessment be performed by the soldier. Currently, a key input to these processes is imagery. Therefore, the quality and timeliness of the image directly impact tactical performance. The military is investigating the employment of remote sensors and advanced communications systems to meet this requirement as part of its digitization effort. Army communications systems exist that partially meet this requirement. However, many existing solutions employ these legacy systems in the context of a point-to-point communications architecture. Solutions to the problem of transmitting images across a rf network have not been fully explored. The term network implies that the rf transmission media is common to and shared by multiple subscribers. It is a suite of capabilities that collectively manage media access and information transfer for its subscribers thus providing substantial improvements in effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness. This paper discusses the challenges of transmitting images using one army legacy communications system in a tactical rf network, presents a conceptual framework for attacking the problem, and discusses one solution.

  17. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method’s performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm‑1 was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  18. Transmission imaging for integrated PET-MR systems.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Spencer L; Fuin, Niccolò; Levine, Michael A; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation correction for PET-MR systems continues to be a challenging problem, particularly for body regions outside the head. The simultaneous acquisition of transmission scan based μ-maps and MR images on integrated PET-MR systems may significantly increase the performance of and offer validation for new MR-based μ-map algorithms. For the Biograph mMR (Siemens Healthcare), however, use of conventional transmission schemes is not practical as the patient table and relatively small diameter scanner bore significantly restrict radioactive source motion and limit source placement. We propose a method for emission-free coincidence transmission imaging on the Biograph mMR. The intended application is not for routine subject imaging, but rather to improve and validate MR-based μ-map algorithms; particularly for patient implant and scanner hardware attenuation correction. In this study we optimized source geometry and assessed the method's performance with Monte Carlo simulations and phantom scans. We utilized a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm, which directly generates μ-map estimates from multiple bed positions, combined with a robust scatter correction method. For simulations with a pelvis phantom a single torus produced peak noise equivalent count rates (34.8 kcps) dramatically larger than a full axial length ring (11.32 kcps) and conventional rotating source configurations. Bias in reconstructed μ-maps for head and pelvis simulations was  ⩽4% for soft tissue and  ⩽11% for bone ROIs. An implementation of the single torus source was filled with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and the proposed method quantified for several test cases alone or in comparison with CT-derived μ-maps. A volume average of 0.095 cm(-1) was recorded for an experimental uniform cylinder phantom scan, while a bias of  <2% was measured for the cortical bone equivalent insert of the multi-compartment phantom. Single torus μ-maps of a hip implant phantom showed significantly

  19. Wireless intra-brain communication for image transmission through mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate wireless image data transmission through a mouse brain. The transmission characteristics of mouse brain is measured. By inserting electrodes into the brain, the transmission efficiency is drastically increased. An AM signal modulated with the image data from an implantable image sensor was launched into the brain and the received signal was demodulated. The data was successfully transmitted through the brain and the image was reproduced. PMID:22254951

  20. The role of dopamine D1 receptor transmission in effort-related choice behavior: Effects of D1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Santerre, Jessica L; Nunes, Eric J; Kozak, Rouba; Podurgiel, Samantha J; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-08-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, is a critical component of the brain circuitry involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although much is known about the characteristics of DA D2 receptor antagonism on effort-related choice behavior, less is known about the effects of D1 antagonism, and agonist/antagonist interactions. The highly selective D1 antagonist ecopipam was studied for its effects on effort-related choice behavior using the concurrent fixed ratio (FR) 5/chow feeding choice and T-maze barrier choice procedures. In rats tested on the FR5/chow feeding choice task, ecopipam shifted choice behavior, decreasing lever pressing for preferred high carbohydrate pellets but increasing consumption of lab chow. Also, ecopipam decreased selection of the high effort option (i.e., climbing the barrier to obtain a larger reward) in rats tested on the T-maze task, but did not disrupt arm preference or discrimination when no barrier was present. The D1 agonists SKF38393, SKF81297 and A77636 were assessed for their ability to reverse the effects of ecopipam, and in each case the D1 agonist significantly attenuated the effects of ecopipam, typically with an inverted-u shaped dose/response curve. SKF81297 also was able to reverse the effects of the catecholamine depleting agent tetrabenazine on T-maze performance. In summary, the present results implicate DA D1 receptors in the regulation of behavioral activation and effort-related functions, and demonstrate the utility of using tests of effort-related choice behavior for assessing the effects of D1 agonists. PMID:26022661

  1. Laser Beam Delivery and Image Transmission Through Multimode Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Anpei

    This dissertation is dedicated to two important branches of optical fiber applications in biomedical engineering: laser beam delivery and image transmission. The optical phase of a light wave is distorted when it propagates through a multimode fiber. To compensate the distortion, a new hologram-generated phase conjugation theoretical model and experimental method has been developed. In the process, a self-pumped phase-conjugating mirror is introduced for recording the hologram. The coherence conditions are carefully matched so that only the desired optical signal is recorded. As a result, a high fidelity phase conjugation wave is produced. The resolution is 4.4 mum, which corresponds the diffraction-limited value of the system. Multimode optical fibers are widely used to deliver laser beams for medical diagnoses and treatments. However the spatial quality of the output beam is very poor. By use of holographic phase precompensation we present a new method to deliver high-quality laser beams. As a result, a highly collimated output beam with only 1.9 mrad divergence, which is 250 times smaller than the usual divergence, is obtained. The brightness is greatly increased. Other desired waves such as spherical wave or Gaussian beams can also be obtained. Another method, which is based on the formation at the remote end of a holographic filter, is also presented. The final output beams are nearly diffraction -limited. The hologram-generated phase conjugation is applied to image transmission through single multimode fibers. By use of Fourier transform theory and the formalism established in this study, the system resolution and the space bandwidth product are analyzed. The resolution of a multimode fiber can be 50 times higher than that of an imaging bundle if their diameters are the same. In the experiments a resolution chart was tested. The experimental results are quite consistent with the theory. A 3-D biological sample--a tooth--was also tested. The limitations of the

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of (/sup 123/I)IBZM: a potential CNS D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Pan, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.; Kasliwal, R.; Reilley, J.; Alavi, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro binding characteristics of a CNS dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agent, (S)-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)) methyl-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ((/sup 125/I)IBZM), was carried out in rats. Also brain images, as well as organ biodistribution were determined in a monkey following the administration of /sup 123/I-labeled compound. The S-(-)-I(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding in rat striatum (Kd = 0.426 +/- 0.082 nM, Bmax = 480 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein). Competition of various ligands for the IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than S(-)IBZM much greater than R(+)IBZM greater than or equal to S(-)BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol, norepinephrine, serotonin. In vivo planar images of a monkey injected with (/sup 123/I)IBZM demonstrated a high concentration in basal ganglia of brain. The ratios of activity in the basal ganglia to cerebellum and the cortex to cerebellum in monkey brain were 4.93 and 1.44, respectively, at 120 min postinjection. These preliminary results indicate that (/sup 123/I)IBZM is a potentially promising imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  3. Deficits in striatal dopamine D(2) receptors and energy metabolism detected by in vivo microPET imaging in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Araujo, D M; Cherry, S R; Tatsukawa, K J; Toyokuni, T; Kornblum, H I

    2000-12-01

    Functional imaging by repeated noninvasive scans of specific (18)F tracer distribution using a high-resolution small-animal PET scanner, the microPET, assessed the time course of alterations in energy utilization and dopamine receptors in rats with unilateral striatal quinolinic acid lesions. Energy utilization ipsilateral to the lesion, determined using scans of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose uptake, was compromised severely 1 week after intrastriatal excitotoxin injections. When the same rats were imaged 5 and 7 weeks postlesion, decrements in energy metabolism were even more prominent. In contrast, lesion-induced effects on dopamine D(2) receptor binding were more progressive, with an initial upregulation of [3-(2'-(18)F]fluoroethyl)spiperone binding apparent 1 week postlesion followed by a decline 5 and 7 weeks thereafter. Additional experiments revealed that marked upregulation of dopamine D(2) receptors consequent to quinolinic acid injections could be detected as early as 3 days after the initial insult. Postmortem markers of striatal GABAergic neurons were assessed in the same rats 7 weeks after the lesion: expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and dopamine D(1) receptor mRNA, as well as [(3)H]SCH-23,390 and [(3)H]spiperone binding to dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors, respectively, detected prominent decrements consequent to the lesion. In contrast, by 7 weeks postlesion [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to dopamine transport sites within the striatum appeared to be enhanced proximal to the quinolinic acid injection sites. The results demonstrate that functional imaging using the microPET is a useful technique to explore not only the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in response to excitotoxic insults, but also to examine more closely the intricacies of neurotransmitter activity in a small animal model of HD. PMID:11085894

  4. [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO PET imaging of dopamine D(2/3) receptors in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Guttman, Mark; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao; Strafella, Antonio; Zack, Martin; Adams, John R; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Wilson, Alan A; Boileau, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Dopamine agonist medications with high affinity for the D3 dopamine receptor are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease, and have been associated with pathological behaviors categorized under the umbrella of impulse control disorders (ICD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICD in Parkinson's patients are associated with greater D3 dopamine receptor availability. We used positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand imaging with the D3 dopamine receptor preferring agonist [¹¹C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO) in Parkinson's patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 21) ICD, and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 18). Contrary to hypotheses, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in D3 -rich brain areas was not elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD compared with those without; instead, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding in ventral striatum was 20% lower (P = 0.011), correlating with two measures of ICD severity (r = -0.8 and -0.9), which may reflect higher dopamine tone in ventral striatum. In dorsal striatum, where [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding is associated with D2 receptor levels, [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO binding was elevated across patients compared with controls. We conclude that although D3 dopamine receptors have been linked to the occurrence of ICD in Parkinson's patients. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that D3 receptor levels are elevated in Parkinson's patients with ICD. We also did not find ICD-related abnormalities in D2 receptor levels. Our findings argue against the possibility that differences in D2/3 receptor levels can account for the development of ICD in PD; however, we cannot rule out that differences in dopamine levels (particularly in ventral striatum) may be involved. PMID:25641350

  5. In vivo and in vitro characterization of R(+)-FIDA2, a novel dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Vessotskie, J.; Kung, M.P.; Ramaniello, G.

    1994-05-01

    FIDA2, (R)-(+)-2,3-dimethoxy-5-iodo-N-[1-(4`-fluorobenzyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]benzamide, is a new dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging agent that can be labeled with either I-123 or F-18 for SPECT or PET imaging. In vitro binding studies of I-125 FIDA2 using dopamine D2 or D3 receptors expressed in Sf9 cells showed Kd values of 0.04 and 0.05 nM, respectively. In rat striatal homogenates, which contain a high density of dopamine D2 receptors, the ligand displayed a Kd of 0.04-0.06 nM. A series of in vivo SPECT images (transaxial sections, 2 mm) showed the radioactivity was localized in the area of the basal ganglia and reached peak concentrations in 11.2 {plus_minus} 5.9 min. The activity cleared at a rate of 33.5 {plus_minus} 9.4 %/hr. The target to nontarget ratios (basal ganglia to cerebellum) at time of peak, 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr p.i., were 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.4 (n=21), 3.5 {plus_minus} 1.0 (n=20), 6.3 {plus_minus} 2.9 (n=9, and 8.14 {plus_minus} 4.7 (n=9), respectively. At 90 min an injection of haloperidol or raclopride, dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists, displaced target activity but an injection of SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, had little effect on activity in the basal ganglia. In addition, an injection of R-(+)-7-OH-PIPAT, a new ligand that is selective for the dopamine D3 receptor and the high affinity state of the dopamine D2 receptor, showed partial displacement ({approximately}15%) of I-123 FIDA2 binding in the basal ganglia. These studies indicate that FIDA2 may be a useful ligand for in vivo imaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptors.

  6. Multiple wavelet-tree-based image coding and robust transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present techniques based on multiple wavelet-tree coding for robust image transmission. The algorithm of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is a state-of-the-art technique for image compression. This variable length coding (VLC) technique, however, is extremely sensitive to channel errors. To improve the error resilience capability and in the meantime to keep the high source coding efficiency through VLC, we propose to encode each wavelet tree or a group of wavelet trees using SPIHT algorithm independently. Instead of encoding the entire image as one bitstream, multiple bitstreams are generated. Therefore, error propagation is limited within individual bitstream. Two methods based on subsampling and human visual sensitivity are proposed to group the wavelet trees. The multiple bitstreams are further protected by the rate compatible puncture convolutional (RCPC) codes. Unequal error protection are provided for both different bitstreams and different bit segments inside each bitstream. We also investigate the improvement of error resilience through error resilient entropy coding (EREC) and wavelet tree coding when channels are slightly corruptive. A simple post-processing technique is also proposed to alleviate the effect of residual errors. We demonstrate through simulations that systems with these techniques can achieve much better performance than systems transmitting a single bitstream in noisy environments.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, D.E.; Gelernter, J.; Leckman, J.F.; Pauls, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic multiple tics. We used the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) method to test for linkage disequilibrium between a specific allele (the seven-repeat allele (DRD4*7R) of the exon 3 VNTR polymorphic site) at the D4 dopamine receptor locus (DRD4) and expression of chronic multiple tics and TS. This particular allele had been shown in functional studies to have different binding properties compared with the other common alleles in this DRD4 polymorphic system. We studied 64 family trios (consisting of an affected person and two parents, at least one heterozygous for DRD4*7R), including 12 nuclear family trios and 52 trios from four large TS kindreds. The DRD4*7R allele was transmitted significantly more frequently than expected ({chi}{sup 2}{sub TDT} ranging from 8.47 [P < .004] to 10.80 [P = .001], depending on breadth of disease definition and inclusion or exclusion of inferred genotypes). Confirmation of this finding will depend on either replication in other samples or the identification of a transmitted functional mutation within this sample. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of novel N-fluoropyridyl derivatives of tropane as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingying; Zhu, Lin; Plössl, Karl; Lieberman, Brian P.; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel N-fluoropyridyl-containing tropane derivatives were synthesized and their binding affinities for the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) were determined via competitive radioligand binding assays. Among these derivatives, compound 6d showed the highest binding affinity to DAT (Ki = 4.1 nM), and selectivity for DAT over SERT (5 fold) and NET (16 fold). Compound 6d was radiolabeled with Fluorine-18 in two steps. Regional brain distribution and ex vivo autoradiography studies of [18F]6d demonstrated that the ligand was selectively localized in the striatum region, where DAT binding sites are highly expressed. [18F]6d may be useful as a potential radioligand for imaging DATs with PET. PMID:21458259

  9. Baseband signal transmission experiment for intra-brain communication with implantable image sensor.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Shogo; Matsuda, Takashi; Davis, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Li, Keren; Kobayashi, Takuma; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate image signal transmission for wireless intra-brain communication. As a preliminary experiment, transmission characteristics of the brain phantom were measured. The baseband output signal from an implantable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is transmitted through the phantom. The image was successfully reproduced from the received signal. PMID:23367299

  10. Scanning image detection (SID) system for conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) images.

    PubMed

    Tanji, T; Tomita, M; Kobayashi, H

    1990-08-01

    A new image detection system has been developed to display transmission electron microscope (TEM) images on a CRT without a video camera system. Deflection coils placed in both the upper space of an objective lens and in the lower space of the first intermediate lens scan a small electron probe simultaneously. The electrical signal acquired through an improved scintillator and a photomultiplier is synchronized with the scanning signal and displayed in a similar fashion to a conventional scanning TEM (STEM) instrument. A preliminary system using a 100 kV conventional TEM (CTEM) equipped with a hairpin-type electron gun, produced an image with a spatial resolution of 1 nm. PMID:2391565

  11. Chemical Imaging of Heterogeneous Muscle Foods Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging in Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Wold, Jens Petter; Kermit, Martin; Segtnan, Vegard Herman

    2016-06-01

    Foods and biomaterials are, in general, heterogeneous and it is often a challenge to obtain spectral data which are representative for the chemical composition and distribution. This paper presents a setup for near-infrared (NIR) transmission imaging where the samples are completely trans-illuminated, probing the entire sample. The system measures falling samples at high speed and consists of an NIR imaging scanner covering the spectral range 760-1040 nm and a powerful line light source. The investigated samples were rather big: whole pork bellies of thickness up to 5 cm, salmon fillets with skin, and 3 cm thick model samples of ground pork meat. Partial least square regression models for fat were developed for ground pork and salmon fillet with high correlations (R = 0.98 and R = 0.95, respectively). The regression models were applied at pixel level in the hyperspectral transmission images and resulted in images of fat distribution where also deeply embedded fat clearly contributed to the result. The results suggest that it is possible to use transmission imaging for rapid, nondestructive, and representative sampling of very heterogeneous foods. The proposed system is suitable for industrial use. PMID:27257302

  12. Analysis of virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Loris; Paci, Michelangelo; Caetano Dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Brahnam, Sheryl; Hyttinen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an ensemble of texture descriptors for analyzing virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images. Specifically, we present several novel multi-quinary (MQ) codings of local binary pattern (LBP) variants: the MQ version of the dense LBP, the MQ version of the rotation invariant co-occurrence among adjacent LBPs, and the MQ version of the LBP histogram Fourier. To reduce computation time as well as to improve performance, a feature selection approach is utilized to select the thresholds used in the MQ approaches. In addition, we propose new variants of descriptors where two histograms, instead of the standard one histogram, are produced for each descriptor. The two histograms (one for edge pixels and the other for non-edge pixels) are calculated for training two different SVMs, whose results are then combined by sum rule. We show that a bag of features approach works well with this problem. Our experiments, using a publicly available dataset of 1500 images with 15 classes and same protocol as in previous works, demonstrate the superiority of our new proposed ensemble of texture descriptors. The MATLAB code of our approach is available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357. PMID:25488214

  13. It’s MORe exciting than mu: crosstalk between mu opioid receptors and glutamatergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Connery, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids selective for the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor (MOR) produce potent analgesia and euphoria. Heroin, a synthetic opioid, is considered one of the most addictive substances, and the recent exponential rise in opioid addiction and overdose deaths has made treatment development a national public health priority. Existing medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone), when combined with psychosocial therapies, have proven efficacy in reducing aspects of opioid addiction. Unfortunately, these medications have critical limitations including those associated with opioid agonist therapies (e.g., sustained physiological dependence and opioid withdrawal leading to high relapse rates upon discontinuation), non-adherence to daily dosing, and non-renewal of monthly injection with extended-release naltrexone. Furthermore, current medications fail to ameliorate key aspects of addiction such as powerful conditioned associations that trigger relapse (e.g., cues, stress, the drug itself). Thus, there is a need for developing novel treatments that target neural processes corrupted with chronic opioid use. This requires a basic understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying effects of opioids on synaptic transmission and plasticity within reward-related neural circuits. The focus of this review is to discuss how crosstalk between MOR-associated G protein signaling and glutamatergic neurotransmission leads to immediate and long-term effects on emotional states (e.g., euphoria, depression) and motivated behavior (e.g., drug-seeking, relapse). Our goal is to integrate findings on how opioids modulate synaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic transmission via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area with the clinical (neurobehavioral) progression of opioid dependence, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that can be addressed in future studies

  14. Remote sensing image progressive transmission based on socket with retry broken downloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haicheng; Meng, Yu; Liu, Wanjun; Shan, Xiaochen; Yu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    In order to meet the different needs for different users to the quality of remote sensing images in heterogeneous network environments, an online remote sensing image progressive transmission model is constructed in which remote sensing image compression and decompression are synchronized with transmission. At the same time, a pipeline-based multi-threaded acceleration method has been proposed through solving the asynchronous problem between compression decompression and transmission to improve the efficiency of remote sensing progressive transmission. At last, an idea of retry broken downloads transmission interruption has been implemented to improve end-user interactive experience. Experimental results show that the whole processing speed has been improved nearly twice without reducing image transmission quality by using the proposed progressive transmission and real-time compression model.

  15. Compound image compression for real-time computer screen image transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony; Hao, Pengwei

    2005-08-01

    We present a compound image compression algorithm for real-time applications of computer screen image transmission. It is called shape primitive extraction and coding (SPEC). Real-time image transmission requires that the compression algorithm should not only achieve high compression ratio, but also have low complexity and provide excellent visual quality. SPEC first segments a compound image into text/graphics pixels and pictorial pixels, and then compresses the text/graphics pixels with a new lossless coding algorithm and the pictorial pixels with the standard lossy JPEG, respectively. The segmentation first classifies image blocks into picture and text/graphics blocks by thresholding the number of colors of each block, then extracts shape primitives of text/graphics from picture blocks. Dynamic color palette that tracks recent text/graphics colors is used to separate small shape primitives of text/graphics from pictorial pixels. Shape primitives are also extracted from text/graphics blocks. All shape primitives from both block types are losslessly compressed by using a combined shape-based and palette-based coding algorithm. Then, the losslessly coded bitstream is fed into a LZW coder. Experimental results show that the SPEC has very low complexity and provides visually lossless quality while keeping competitive compression ratios. PMID:16121449

  16. Pharmacological treatment with L-DOPA may reduce striatal dopamine transporter binding in in vivo imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, S; Antke, C; Hautzel, H; Mueller, H-W

    2016-01-01

    Numerous neurologic and psychiatric conditions are treated with pharmacological compounds, which lead to an increase of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels. One example is the DA precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is converted to DA in the presynaptic terminal. If the increase of DA concentrations in the synaptic cleft leads to competition with exogenous radioligands for presynaptic binding sites, this may have implications for DA transporter (DAT) imaging studies in patients under DAergic medication. This paper gives an overview on those findings, which, so far, have been obtained on DAT binding in human Parkinson's disease after treatment with L-DOPA. Findings, moreover, are related to results obtained on rats, mice or non-human primates. Results indicate that DAT imaging may be reduced in the striata of healthy animals, in the unlesioned striata of animal models of unilateral Parkinson's disease and in less severly impaired striata of Parkinsonian patients, if animal or human subjects are under acute or subchronic treatment with L-DOPA. If also striatal DAT binding is susceptible to alterations of synaptic DA levels, this may allow to quantify DA reuptake in analogy to DA release by assessing the competition between endogenous DA and the administered exogenous DAT radioligand. PMID:26642370

  17. Brominated and radioiodinated derivatives of methylphenidate (MP): Potential imaging agents for the dopamine (DA) transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    MP (Ritalin) is a psychomotor stimulant used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The therapeutic properties of MP are thought to be mediated by its binding to a site on the DA transporter, resulting in inhibition of DA reuptake and enhanced levels of synaptic dopamine. MP also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) in vitro. MP has two chiral centers, but its pharmacological activity is believed due solely to the d-threo isomer. We have found that d,l-threo-C-11 MP has favorable properties for PET studies, and therefore examined the effects of incorporating halogen atoms into the phenyl ring of MP, with a view to preparing C-11 and I-123 MP analogs as potential PET/SPECT tracers. We synthesized the 2-, 3- and 4-bromo MP analogs from the corresponding bromophenylacetonitriles by modification of the original synthesis of MP. In in vitro binding assays all three d,l-threo bromo compounds had higher affinities than MP for DA transporter sites labeled with tritiated WIN 35,428 (3->4-, 2->MP). They also showed high activity with NE reuptake sites labeled with tritiated nisoxetine. They were active in vivo as demonstrated by inhibition of heart uptake of tritiated NE in the mouse, and elevation of striatal extracellular DA (microdialysis) and stimulation of locomotor activity in the rat.

  18. In Vivo Imaging of Cerebral Dopamine D3 Receptors in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Erritzoe, David; Tziortzi, Andri; Bargiela, David; Colasanti, Alessandro; Searle, Graham E; Gunn, Roger N; Beaver, John D; Waldman, Adam; Nutt, David J; Bani, Massimo; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lingford-Hughes, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies support the role of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in alcohol reinforcement or liking. Sustained voluntary alcohol drinking in rats has been associated with an upregulation of striatal DRD3 gene expression and selective blockade of DRD3 reduces ethanol preference, consumption, and cue-induced reinstatement. In vivo measurement of DRD3 in the living human brain has not been possible until recently owing to a lack of suitable tools. In this study, DRD3 status was assessed for the first time in human alcohol addiction. Brain DRD3 availability was compared between 16 male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 13 healthy non-dependent age-matched males using the DRD3-preferring agonist positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]PHNO with and without blockade with a selective DRD3 antagonist (GSK598809 60 mg p.o.). In striatal regions of interest, where the [11C]PHNO PET signal represents primarily DRD2 binding, no differences were seen in [11C]PHNO binding between the groups at baseline. However, baseline [11C]PHNO binding was higher in alcohol-dependent patients in hypothalamus (VT: 16.5±4 vs 13.7±2.9, p=0.040), a region in which the [11C]PHNO signal almost entirely reflects DRD3 availability. The reductions in regional receptor binding (VT) following a single oral dose of GSK598809 (60 mg) were consistent with those observed in previous studies across all regions. There were no differences in regional changes in VT following DRD3 blockade between the two groups, indicating that the regional fractions of DRD3 are similar in the two groups, and the increased [11C]PHNO binding in the hypothalamus in alcohol-dependent patients is explained by elevated DRD3 in this group. Although we found no difference between alcohol-dependent patients and controls in striatal DRD3 levels, increased DRD3 binding in the hypothalamus of alcohol-dependent patients was observed. This may be relevant to the development of future therapeutic strategies to

  19. Parallel Information Processing (Image Transmission Via Fiber Bundle and Multimode Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nicholai

    2003-01-01

    Growing demand for visual, user-friendly representation of information inspires search for the new methods of image transmission. Currently used in-series (sequential) methods of information processing are inherently slow and are designed mainly for transmission of one or two dimensional arrays of data. Conventional transmission of data by fibers requires many fibers with array of laser diodes and photodetectors. In practice, fiber bundles are also used for transmission of images. Image is formed on the fiber-optic bundle entrance surface and each fiber transmits the incident image to the exit surface. Since the fibers do not preserve phase, only 2D intensity distribution can be transmitted in this way. Each single mode fiber transmit only one pixel of an image. Multimode fibers may be also used, so that each mode represent different pixel element. Direct transmission of image through multimode fiber is hindered by the mode scrambling and phase randomization. To overcome these obstacles wavelength and time-division multiplexing have been used, with each pixel transmitted on a separate wavelength or time interval. Phase-conjugate techniques also was tested in, but only in the unpractical scheme when reconstructed image return back to the fiber input end. Another method of three-dimensional imaging over single mode fibers was demonstrated in, using laser light of reduced spatial coherence. Coherence encoding, needed for a transmission of images by this methods, was realized with grating interferometer or with the help of an acousto-optic deflector. We suggest simple practical holographic method of image transmission over single multimode fiber or over fiber bundle with coherent light using filtering by holographic optical elements. Originally this method was successfully tested for the single multimode fiber. In this research we have modified holographic method for transmission of laser illuminated images over commercially available fiber bundle (fiber endoscope, or

  20. Transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter(II): on a study of transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter safe to medical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Muto, Kenji; Tian, Lan; Sato, Koki

    2007-09-01

    An infrared transmitting technique for 3D holographic images is studied. It seems to be very effective as a transmitting technique for 3D holographic images in the places where electric wave is prohibited to be used for transmission. In this paper, we first explain our infrared transmitting system for holograms and a display system for the presentation of holographic 3D images reconstructed from the received signal. Next, we make a report on the results obtained by infrared transmission of CGH and a comparison of the real and the reconstructed 3D images in our system. As this result, it is found that reconstructed holographic 3D images do not suffer a large deterioration in the quality and highly contrasted ones can be presented.

  1. Wireless image transmission using turbo codes and optimal unequal error protection.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2005-11-01

    A novel image transmission scheme is proposed for the communication of set partitioning in hierarchical trees image streams over wireless channels. The proposed scheme employs turbo codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with burst errors. An algorithm for the optimal unequal error protection of the compressed bitstream is also proposed and applied in conjunction with an inherently more efficient technique for product code decoding. The resulting scheme is tested for the transmission of images over wireless channels. Experimental evaluation clearly demonstrates the superiority of the proposed transmission system in comparison to well-known robust coding schemes. PMID:16279187

  2. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  3. [Assessment of Inspection Technology of Dopamine Transporter Imaging with ¹²³I-Ioflupane].

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichi; Kimura, Satoshi; Okuyama, Yumiko; Nagasawa, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masaru; Iseki, Eizo

    2015-08-01

    Imaging start time of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is recommended between 3 hours and 6 hours after injection of ¹²³I-ioflupane in Ioflupane clinical practice guidelines. But image includes the effect of physiological actions of the human body and the attenuation at 13.27 hours physical half-life of ¹²³I. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the image by the elapsed time of imaging start time. Optimal cut-off frequency of Butterworth filter were examined phantom by normalized mean square error. Count was reduced by 23.1% in 5 hours, but cut-off frequency of Butterworth filter was 0.11 cycle/pixel in 0-5 hours from phantom data. Ten subjects (age 55-85 years) were injected with ¹²³I-ioflupane of 110-199 MBq into the vein only once. And we examined the specific binding ratio (SBR) in inspection of injection after 5. 5 hours and 3 hours. Decrease of counts value increased the coefficient of variance (CV) between 3 hours and 5.5 hours after injection, but the improvement of statistical noise by pre-processing filter reduced the CV. No significant difference in the result of SBR was found between 3 hours and 5. 5 hours after injection. Our results suggest that imaging start time of SPECT scan is recommended between 3 hours and 5.5 hours after injection of ¹²³I-ioflupane. PMID:26289979

  4. Statistical image reconstruction methods for simultaneous emission/transmission PET scans

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Fessler, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Transmission scans are necessary for estimating the attenuation correction factors (ACFs) to yield quantitatively accurate PET emission images. To reduce the total scan time, post-injection transmission scans have been proposed in which one can simultaneously acquire emission and transmission data using rod sources and sinogram windowing. However, since the post-injection transmission scans are corrupted by emission coincidences, accurate correction for attenuation becomes more challenging. Conventional methods (emission subtraction) for ACF computation from post-injection scans are suboptimal and require relatively long scan times. We introduce statistical methods based on penalized-likelihood objectives to compute ACFs and then use them to reconstruct lower noise PET emission images from simultaneous transmission/emission scans. Simulations show the efficacy of the proposed methods. These methods improve image quality and SNR of the estimates as compared to conventional methods.

  5. Transmission line galloping image monitoring system based on digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai Peng; Ma, Zhan Feng

    2011-06-01

    An embedded image monitoring system based on TMS320DM642 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is proposed for the transmission line monitoring. The system can detect galloping, ice or snow covering, and other abnormal status of the transmission line in a real time mode. The image detection algorithms are compared using the controlled experiment under the complex weather environment, thereby, a set of image processing algorithms is proposed for transmission lines image monitoring. The DSP/BOIS multi-threaded programming techniques are used to realize the algorithm in the DSPs' embedded software. A wireless communication based on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module is designed to transmit the detection results and the changed information of the image to the monitoring center, so that the operators can get the real time status of the transmission line. The application of the system will play an important role in the condition-based maintenance of power transmission lines and improve the reliability of power delivery system. Transmission line; Status monitoring; Complex weather factor; Image filtering and sharpening; Image segment; Morphological filtering; Wireless communication; Digital signal processor; Multi-threaded programming.

  6. Progressive transmission of secured images with authentication using decompositions into monovariate functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leni, Pierre-Emmanuel; Fougerolle, Yohan D.; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    We propose a progressive transmission approach of an image authenticated using an overlapping subimage that can be removed to restore the original image. Our approach is different from most visible watermarking approaches that allow one to later remove the watermark, because the mark is not directly introduced in the two-dimensional image space. Instead, it is rather applied to an equivalent monovariate representation of the image. Precisely, the approach is based on our progressive transmission approach that relies on a modified Kolmogorov spline network, and therefore inherits its advantages: resilience to packet losses during transmission and support of heterogeneous display environments. The marked image can be accessed at any intermediate resolution, and a key is needed to remove the mark to fully recover the original image without loss. Moreover, the key can be different for every resolution, and the images can be globally restored in case of packet losses during the transmission. Our contributions lie in the proposition of decomposing a mark (an overlapping image) and an image into monovariate functions following the Kolmogorov superposition theorem; and in the combination of these monovariate functions to provide a removable visible "watermarking" of images with the ability to restore the original image using a key.

  7. Magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ indocyanine green nanobead with magnetic field-targeting enhanced MR imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Da; Liao, Naishun; Wu, Lingjie; Huang, Aimin; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided tumor photothermal ablation ability have been extensively applied in biomedical research as one of the most exciting and challenging strategies for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of these nanomaterials still suffer from low accumulation in tumor tissues and insufficient photothermal ablation of tumors so far. Here, we report a novel approach to overcome these limitations using a core-shell magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ICG nanobead compositing of magnetite nanocluster core with coating of poly(dopamine), then further conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and adsorbing indocyanine green (ICG) on the surface. The adsorbed ICG in the nanobead displays a higher photostability and photothermal conversion ability than free ICG, as well as additional photothermal effect rather than magnetite nanocluster and poly(dopamine), which endow the nanobead with enhanced photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under near-infrared (NIR) laser irritation. Furthermore, it is proved that these nanobeads have excellent biocompatibility, T2-weighted MR imaging and magnetic field targeting ability. By applying an external magnetic field (MF) focused on the targeted tumor, a magnetic targeting mediated enhanced accumulation is observed at tumor site as proved by a darker T2-weighted MR image. Utilizing the magnetic targeting strategy, enhanced photothermal tumor ablation was achieved under laser irradiation in vivo, which is reflected by the degree of tumor tissue damage and tumor growth delay. Therefore, this nanobead integrates the abilities of magnetic field-targeting, MR imaging and photothermal cancer therapy, and might be a promising theranostic platform for tumor treatment. PMID:26896652

  8. Experiment of polarization transmission characteristics and polarization imaging in simulation smoke/fog environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin; Zhan, Juntong; Zhang, Su; Zhao, Changxia; Peng, Jie; Lei, Yi; Fu, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    In light transmission processing, light is effected by the fog/haze/smoke/dust environment usually. Thus reduce the capability of traditional photo-electric instrument in detection, transmission, imaging, because of the attenuation, scattering, absorbing of the atmosphere. Polarization transmission characteristics exist the potential possibility in observing object through fog and smoke, increasing observation distance, improve the environment adaptability of the photo-electric instrument. The influence of polarization transmission characteristics are analyzed by environment testing experiment in this paper, including light intensity, degree of polarization, angle of polarization etc. We research smoke and fog environment simulation technology, builds the process-controlled and parameter-measured indoor equipment to simulate smoke/fog environment. The experiments of the polarization characteristic are tested in two kinds of transmission mediums separately, which are water fog and oil smoke. The attenuation ratio is measured in different kinds of smoke concentrations. Polarization imaging experiment are tested separately in different kinds of illuminance lights, which are daylight lamp, LED lights and projector lights. The images are captured by imaging CCD with linearly polarized filters on degree 0, 60, 120. The polarization images on three directions are processed by image infuse algorithm. The experiment results are provided as the theory foundation and data reference in field of polarization transmission.

  9. Secure method for sectional image archiving and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, H. K.; Lou, Shyhliang A.

    2000-05-01

    Purpose: Data security becomes an important issue in telemedicine when medical information is transmitted over wide area network. Generally, security is characterized in terms of privacy, authenticity and integrity of digital data. We present a method here which can meet the requirements of privacy, authenticity, and integrity for archiving and transmitting of sectional image such as CT, MR. Methods: The method is described as follows: firstly, image segmentation was done and some patient information was read from image DICOM header. Second, a digital signature for the segmented image was produced using the image sender's private key. Afterwards, the digital signature and patient information were concatenated and embedded into the background area of the image. Finally, the whole image was encrypted to form a digital envelope using the receiver's public key. Results: (1) The image can only be decrypted and read by authorized user who own the private key of the receiving site. (2) The authenticity and integrity can be tested by signature verification. Conclusions: The preliminary results demonstrate that the method we presented here is an effective method for secure archiving and transmitting for sectional medical images.

  10. Ultrasound phase contrast thermal imaging with reflex transmission imaging methods in tissue phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Farny, Caleb H.; Clement, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal imaging measurements using ultrasound phase contrast have been performed in tissue phantoms heated with a focused ultrasound source. Back projection and reflex transmission imaging principles were employed to detect sound speed-induced changes in the phase caused by an increase in the temperature. The temperature was determined from an empirical relationship for the temperature dependence on sound speed. The phase contrast was determined from changes in the sound field measured with a hydrophone scan conducted before and during applied heating. The lengthy scanning routine used to mimic a large two-dimensional array required a steady-state temperature distribution within the phantom. The temperature distribution in the phantom was validated with magnetic resonance (MR) thermal imaging measurements. The peak temperature was found to agree within 1°C with MR and good agreement was found between the temperature profiles. The spatial resolution was 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm, comparing favorably with the 0.625 × 0.625 × 1.5 mm MR spatial resolution. PMID:19683380

  11. Coding and transmission of subband coded images on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Su, Xiao

    2001-09-01

    Subband-coded images can be transmitted in the Internet using either the TCP or the UDP protocol. Delivery by TCP gives superior decoding quality but with very long delays when the network is unreliable, whereas delivery by UDP has negligible delays but with degraded quality when packets are lost. Although images are delivered currently over the Internet by TCP, we study in this paper the use of UDP to deliver multi-description reconstruction-based subband-coded images. First, in order to facilitate recovery from UDP packet losses, we propose a joint sender-receiver approach for designing optimized reconstruction-based subband transform (ORB-ST) in multi-description coding (MDC). Second, we carefully evaluate the delay-quality trade-offs between the TCP delivery of SDC images and the UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images. Experimental results show that our proposed ORB-ST performs well in real Internet tests, and UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images provide a range of attractive alternatives to TCP delivery.

  12. Striatal and extrastriatal imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the living human brain with [123I]epidepride single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Akerman, K K; Hiltunen, J; Bergström, K A; Räsänen, P; Vanninen, E; Halldin, C; Tiihonen, J

    1997-05-01

    The iodine-123 labelled ligand benzamide epidepride was evaluated as a probe for in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the human brain. Four healthy males were imaged with a high-resolution single-photon emission tomography scanner. Striatal radioactivity peaked at 3 h after injection. The specific binding in the striatum was 0.91+/-0.03 at 3 h and this ratio steadily increased with time. Extrastriatal radioactivity was highest in the thalamus, in the midbrain and in the temporal cortex, and peaked at 45-60 min after injection of tracer. A smaller amount of radioactivity was found in the parietal, frontal and occipital cortices. Two radioactive metabolites were observed, of which one was more lipophilic than the parent compound. The radiation burden to the patient was 0.035 mSv/MBq (effective dose equivalent). The preliminary results showed that [123I]epidepride can be used for imaging striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor sites in the living human brain. PMID:9142727

  13. Imaging Nanobubbles in Water with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward R.; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Singer, Scott B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, Brian Christopher

    2011-05-01

    We present a technique based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that is capable of probing nanobubble dynamics with nanometer spatial resolution. A vacuum-tight vessel holds a sub-micrometer layer of water between two electron-transparent dielectric membranes. Electrical current pulses passing through a platinum wire on one of the membranes inject sufficient heat locally to initiate single bubble formation. In the absence of power input, all bubbles are observed to be unstable against collapse, but the STEM beam alone can cause a shrinking bubble to grow.

  14. Transmission mode time-reversal super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Sean K; Devaney, Anthony J

    2003-05-01

    The theory of time-reversal super-resolution imaging of point targets embedded in a reciprocal background medium [A. J. Devaney, "Super-resolution imaging using time-reversal and MUSIC," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published)] is generalized to the case where the transmitter and receiver sensor arrays need not be coincident and for cases where the background medium can be nonreciprocal. The new theory developed herein is based on the singular value decomposition of the generalized multistatic data matrix of the sensor system rather than the standard eigenvector/eigenvalue decomposition of the time-reversal matrix as was employed in the above-mentioned work and other treatments of time-reversal imaging [Prada, Thomas, and Fink, "The iterative time reversal process: Analysis of the convergence," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 62 (1995); Prada et al., "Decomposition of the time reversal operator: Detection and selective focusing on two scatterers," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2067 (1996)]. A generalized multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is derived that allows super-resolution imaging of both well-resolved and non-well-resolved point targets from arbitrary sensor array geometries. MUSIC exploits the orthogonal nature of the scatterer and noise subspaces defined by the singular vectors of the multistatic data matrix to form scatterer images. The time-reversal/MUSIC algorithm is tested and validated in two computer simulations of offset vertical seismic profiling where the sensor sources are aligned along the earth's surface and the receiver array is aligned along a subsurface borehole. All results demonstrate the high contrast, high resolution imaging capabilities of this new algorithm combination when compared with "classical" backpropagation or field focusing. Above and beyond the application of seismo-acoustic imaging, the time-reversal super-resolution theory has applications in ocean acoustics for target location, and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of

  15. Defects of a-Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Detected by Transmission Photothermal Radiometric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Laijun; Gao, Chunming; Zhao, Binxing; Sun, Qiming; Liu, Lixian; Huan, Huiting

    2015-06-01

    The photothermal radiometry (PTR) technique is an effective non-destructive testing technique for detecting defects in materials. In this paper, a piece of commercial amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film solar cells with some artificial mechanical defects has been investigated by the transmission PTR imaging system. Firstly, a simplified analytical expression of a normalized transmission PTR signal was employed to characterize defects. Secondly, the corresponding experimental system has been set-up for obtaining several thermal images of the sample. Thirdly, different kinds of defects have been analyzed and identified by the thermal images. The results show that not only the artificial mechanical defects on the sample can be detected, but also some defects occurring in the manufacturing process can be detected by the transmission PTR imaging system.

  16. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  17. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  18. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  19. Progressive transmission of pseudo-color images. Appendix 1: Item 4. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadenfeldt, Andrew C.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission of digital images can require considerable channel bandwidth. The cost of obtaining such a channel can be prohibitive, or the channel might simply not be available. In this case, progressive transmission (PT) can be useful. PT presents the user with a coarse initial image approximation, and then proceeds to refine it. In this way, the user tends to receive information about the content of the image sooner than if a sequential transmission method is used. PT finds application in image data base browsing, teleconferencing, medical and other applications. A PT scheme is developed for use with a particular type of image data, the pseudo-color or color mapped image. Such images consist of a table of colors called a colormap, plus a 2-D array of index values which indicate which colormap entry is to be used to display a given pixel. This type of image presents some unique problems for a PT coder, and techniques for overcoming these problems are developed. A computer simulation of the color mapped PT scheme is developed to evaluate its performance. Results of simulation using several test images are presented.

  20. Multi-line transmission in medical imaging using the second-harmonic signal.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Fabrice; Dénarié, Bastien; Austeng, Andreas; Torp, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of three-dimensional imaging in the field of medical ultrasound imaging has greatly increased the number of transmissions needed to insonify a whole volume. With a large number of transmissions comes a low image frame rate. When using classical transmission techniques, as in two-dimensional imaging, the frame rate becomes unacceptably low, prompting the use of alternative transmission patterns that require less time. One alternative is to use a multi-line transmission (MLT) technique which consists of transmitting several pulses simultaneously in different directions. Perturbations appear when acquiring and beamforming the signal in the direction of one pulse because of the pulses sent in other directions. The edge waves from the pulses transmitted in a different direction add to the signal transmitted in the direction of interest, resulting in artifacts in the final image. Taking advantage of the nonlinear propagation of sound in tissue, the second-harmonic signal can be used with the MLT technique. The image obtained using the second-harmonic signal, compared with an image obtained using the fundamental signal, should have reduced artifacts coming from other pulses transmitted simultaneously. Simulations, backed up by experiments imaging a wire target and an in vivo left ventricle, confirm that the hypothesis is valid. In the studied case, the perturbations appear as an increase in the signal level around the main echo of a point scatterer. When using the fundamental signal, the measured amplitude level of the perturbations was approximately -40 dB compared with the maximum signal amplitude (-27 dB in vivo), whereas it was around -60 dB (-45 dB in vivo) for the second-harmonic signal. The MLT technique encounters limitations in the very near field where the pulses overlap and the perturbation level also increases for images with strong speckle and low contrast. PMID:24297034

  1. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  2. High-performance sub-terahertz transmission imaging system for food inspection

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Gyeongsik; Park, Kisang; Chun, Hyang Sook; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Nari; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Unlike X-ray systems, a terahertz imaging system can distinguish low-density materials in a food matrix. For applying this technique to food inspection, imaging resolution and acquisition speed ought to be simultaneously enhanced. Therefore, we have developed the first continuous-wave sub-terahertz transmission imaging system with a polygonal mirror. Using an f-theta lens and a polygonal mirror, beam scanning is performed over a range of 150 mm. For obtaining transmission images, the line-beam is incorporated with sample translation. The imaging system demonstrates that a pattern with 2.83 mm line-width at 210 GHz can be identified with a scanning speed of 80 mm/s. PMID:26137392

  3. Influence of aero-optical transmission on infrared imaging optical system in the supersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Meng, Weihua; Li, Yun; Dai, Xiaobing; Zuo, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aero-optical transmission effect is becoming a crucial issue in the supersonic flight. In our study, the joint influences of the non-uniform aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated optical window on imaging quality of an airborne infrared optical system are investigated in depth. Both the laminar and turbulent viscous models are used in the simulation of aerodynamic flow because of their distinct influences on aero-optical transmission. On the basis of the computed density field, the ray tracing method is applied to calculate the point spread functions of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamically heated window. The imaging quality is evaluated by using the point spread functions and modulation transfer functions. Experimental results show that the optical transmission through the aerodynamically heated window has a much severer influence on the imaging quality than that through the aerodynamic flow field.

  4. Transmissive spatial light modulators with high figure-of-merit liquid crystals for foveated imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriman, Jamie; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson; Wick, David; Bagwell, Brett; Martinez, Ty; Payne, Don; Serati, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Unique liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are being developed for foveated imaging systems that provide wide field-of-view (FOV) coverage (+/-60° in azimuth and elevation) without requiring gimbals or other mechanical scanners. Recently, a transmissive-SLM- based system operating in the visible (532 nm) has been demonstrated. The LC SLM development is addressing implementation issues through the development of high figure-of-merit (FoM) LC materials and transmissive high-resolution SLMs. Transmissive SLM operation allows the foveated imaging configuration to be very compact using a very simple lens system. The reduction in the size, weight and cost of the imaging optics and in data acquisition/processing hardware makes the foveated approach attractive for small platforms such as unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) or missile seekers.

  5. Transmission (forward) mode, transcranial, noninvasive optoacoustic measurements for brain monitoring, imaging, and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, C. Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2016-03-01

    We proposed to use transmission (forward) mode for cerebral, noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic monitoring, imaging, and sensing in humans. In the transmission mode, the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from opposite hemispheres, while in the reflection (backward) mode the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from the same hemisphere. Recently, we developed new, transmission-mode optoacoustic probes for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for neonatal patients. The transmission mode probes have two major parts: a fiber-optic delivery system and an acoustic transducer (sensor). To obtain optoacoustic signals in the transmission mode, in this study we placed the sensor on the forehead, while light was delivered to the opposite side of the head. Using a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPObased optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range (680-950 nm) and a novel, compact, fiber-coupled, multi-wavelength, pulsed laser diode-based system, we recorded optoacoustic signals generated in the posterior part of the head of adults with TBI and neonates. The optoacoustic signals had two distinct peaks: the first peak from the intracranial space and the second peak from the scalp. The first peak generated by cerebral blood was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation. Moreover, the transmission mode measurements provided detection of intracranial hematomas in the TBI patients. The obtained results suggest that the transmission mode can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  6. Conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging beyond the diffraction and information limits.

    PubMed

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-29

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope. PMID:25215995

  7. Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu

    2007-06-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.

  8. Scattering imaging method in transmission x-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Gao, Kun; Ge, Xin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Zhao; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-06-15

    We present a x-ray microscopy technique based on structured illumination in a microscope that characterizes the size of the subresolution-limit features. The technique is effective for characterizing fine structures substantially beyond the Rayleigh resolution of the microscope. We carried out optical experiments to demonstrate the basic principle of this new technique. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions. This technique should find a wide range of important imaging applications with a feature size down to nanometer scale, such as oil and gas reservoir rocks, advanced composites, and functional nanodevices and materials. PMID:23938979

  9. MPEG-4 interactive image transmission on mobile thin clients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joveski, B.; Mitrea, M.; Pr"teux, F.

    2010-05-01

    The main issue in this paper is to deploy a compressing algorithm for heterogeneous content (text, graphics, image and video) with low-complex decoding. Such an algorithm will be involved in the remote display core problem for mobile thin clients: it allows the graphical content, computed on a remote server, to be displayer on the user's thin terminal, even when the network constraints (bandwidth, errors) are very strict. The paper is structured into three parts. First, a client-server architecture is presented. On the server side, the graphical content is parsed, converted and binary encoded into the MPEG 4 (BiFS, LASeR) format. This content is further streamed to the terminal, where it is played into a simple MPEG player. Secondly, this architecture is considered as a test bed for MPEG 4 performance assessment for various types of content (image, graphics, text). The quantitative results were focussed on bandwidth requirements and quality of experience. Finally, the conclusions are structured as a reference benchmarking of the MPEG (BiFS, LASeR) and outside (VNC) mobile remote display potential solutions.

  10. Diffraction and Transmission Synchrotron Imaging at the German Light Source ANKA--Potential Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, Alexander; Weitkamp, Timm; Helfen, Lukas; Simon, Rolf; Luebbert, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2009-03-10

    Diffraction and transmission synchrotron imaging methods have proven to be highly suitable for investigations in materials research and non-destructive evaluation. The high flux and spatial coherence of X-rays from modern synchrotron light sources allows one to work using high resolution and different contrast modalities. This article gives a short overview of different transmission and diffraction imaging methods with high potential for industrial applications, now available for commercial access via the German light source ANKA (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and its new department ANKA Commercial Service (ANKA COS, http://www.anka-cos.de)

  11. High speed COMS image acquisition and transmission system based on USB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yundong; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2008-10-01

    A high speed CMOS image acquisition and transmission system, which is composed of CMOS image sensor IBIS5-A-1300, USB 2.0 interface chip EZ-USB FX2 and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), is designed and developed. The design of IBIS5-A-1300 driving timing, USB interface chip timing, firmware and application program are introduced. Experiments show that the system possesses the advantage of high resolution and high frame rate, supports single frame acquisition and video preview and fits the criterion of USB2.0 and the demand of real-time data transmission.

  12. Product code optimization for determinate state LDPC decoding in robust image transmission.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2006-08-01

    We propose a novel scheme for error-resilient image transmission. The proposed scheme employs a product coder consisting of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with bit errors. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is based on the exploitation of determinate symbols in Tanner graph decoding of LDPC codes and a novel product code optimization technique based on error estimation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the proposed system in comparison to recent state-of-the-art techniques for image transmission. PMID:16900669

  13. Layered unequal loss protection for image transmission over packet loss channels with delay constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-10-01

    In the case of high bit rate image transmission or having lots of packets, the FEC (forward error correction) encoding and decoding processes in the ULP (unequal loss protection) based schemes should be applied to individual packet groups instead of all the packets in order to avoid long processing delay. In this paper, we propose a layered ULP (L-ULP) scheme for fast and efficient FEC allocations among different packet groups and also within each packet group. The numerical results show that the proposed L-ULP scheme is quite promising for fast image transmission over packet loss networks.

  14. Unit Title: Imaging the Insertion of Superecliptic pHluorin Labeled Dopamine D2 Receptor Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kathryn M.; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of mechanisms governing receptor insertion to the plasma membrane (PM) requires an experimental approach with excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a strategy that enables dynamic visualization of insertion events for dopamine D2 receptors into the PM. This approach includes tagging a pH-sensitive GFP, superecliptic pHluorin, to the extracellular domain of the receptor. By imaging pHluorin-tagged receptors under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we were able to directly visualize individual receptor insertion events into the PM in cultured neurons. This novel imaging approach can be applied to both secreted proteins and many membrane proteins with an extracellular domain labeled with superecliptic pHluorin, and will ultimately allow for detailed dissections of the key mechanisms governing secretion of soluble proteins or the insertion of different membrane proteins to the PM. PMID:25559003

  15. JPEG image transmission over mobile network with an efficient channel coding and interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bendary, Mohsen A. M. Mohamed; Abou El-Azm, Atef E.; El-Fishawy, Nawal A.; Al-Hosarey, Farid Shawki M.; Eltokhy, Mostafa A. R.; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.; Kazemian, H. B.

    2012-11-01

    This article studies improving of coloured JPEG image transmission over mobile wireless personal area network through the Bluetooth networks. This article uses many types of enhanced data rate and asynchronous connectionless packets. It presents a proposed chaotic interleaving technique for improving a transmission of coloured images over burst error environment through merging it with error control scheme. The computational complexity of the used different error control schemes is considered. A comparison study between different scenarios of the image transmission is held in to choose an effective technique. The simulation experiments are carried over the correlated fading channel using the widely accepted Jakes' model. Our experiments reveal that the proposed chaotic interleaving technique enhances quality of the received coloured image. Our simulation results show that the convolutional codes with longer constraint length are effective if its complexity is ignored. It reveals also that the standard error control scheme of old Bluetooth versions is ineffective in the case of coloured image transmission over mobile Bluetooth network. Finally, the proposed scenarios of the standard error control scheme with the chaotic interleaver perform better than the convolutional codes with reducing the complexity.

  16. Robust atomic resolution imaging of light elements using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, S. D.; Shibata, N.; Sawada, H.; Okunishi, E.; Kondo, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2009-11-09

    We show that an annular detector placed within the bright field cone in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of light elements in crystals. In contrast to common high angle annular dark field imaging, both light and heavy atom columns are visible simultaneously. In contrast to common bright field imaging, the images are directly and robustly interpretable over a large range of thicknesses. We demonstrate this through systematic simulations and present a simple physical model to obtain some insight into the scattering dynamics.

  17. Laser Doppler holographic microscopy in transmission: application to fish embryo imaging.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Nicolas; Alexandre, Daniel; Gross, Michel

    2014-04-21

    We have extended Laser Doppler holographic microscopy to transmission geometry. The technique is validated with living fish embryos imaged by a modified upright bio-microcope. By varying the frequency of the holographic reference beam, and the combination of frames used to calculate the hologram, multimodal imaging has been performed. Doppler images of the blood vessels for different Doppler shifts, images where the flow direction is coded in RGB colors or movies showing blood cells individual motion have been obtained as well. The ability to select the Fourier space zone that is used to calculate the signal, makes the method quantitative. PMID:24787825

  18. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  19. The discovery of epidepride and its analogs as high-affinity radioligands for imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in human brain.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    [(123)I]Epidepride, [(18)F]fallypride, and [(76)Br]isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and their corresponding [(11)C]labeled derivatives belong to a class of high-affinity radioligands for SPECT or PET imaging of dopamine D(2) receptors in the human brain. In contrast to previously used imaging agents, these ligands are capable of identifying extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors. The design of these substituted benzamides derive its origin from the atypical antipsychotic agent, remoxipride. Starting in the late 1970's, halogenated analogs of (S)-sulpiride were evaluated in binding assays and behavioral studies, leading to the discovery of remoxipride. Remoxipride was 10 times weaker than sulpiride in vitro but 50 times more potent in vivo. Search for a putative active metabolite of remoxipride led to the discovery of raclopride and eticlopride, the former becoming a useful radioligand as tritium or carbon-11 labeled form for receptor binding and PET studies, respectively. In the US, the mono-iodine analog of raclopride, [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), was found to have moderate putamen-to-cerebellum ratio in rat and human brain. Continued search for metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of its 3,6-dihydroxy derivative, NCQ-344, with an extremely potent in vivo activity in the rat. SAR studies of the metabolites of remoxipride led to the discovery of the 3-methoxy isomer, isoremoxipride (FLB-457) and its corresponding 6-hydroxy analog, FLB-463, both having affinities for the dopamine D(2) receptor in the 20-30 pM range. Later, the 5-[(123)I]iodo analog of FLB-463, [(123)I]ioxipride ([(123)I]NCQ-298), became a potential SPECT imaging agent. In the mean time, the deshydroxy analog of IBZM, [(125)I]iodopride, showed binding potential in the rat similar to [(125)I]IBZM. Epidepride was designed by combining the structure of isoremoxipride with that of iodopride. In 1988, epidepride was independently prepared and radiolabeled in three separate laboratories in Stockholm

  20. Picometre-precision analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy images of platinum nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Berkels, Benjamin; Dahmen, W; Binev, P; Sanchez, S I; Bradley, S A; Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela; Voyles, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring picometre-scale shifts in the positions of individual atoms in materials provides new insight into the structure of surfaces, defects and interfaces that influence a broad variety of materials' behaviour. Here we demonstrate sub-picometre precision measurements of atom positions in aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images based on the non-rigid registration and averaging of an image series. Non-rigid registration achieves five to seven times better precision than previous methods. Non-rigidly registered images of a silica-supported platinum nanocatalyst show pm-scale contraction of atoms at a (111)/(111) corner towards the particle centre and expansion of a flat (111) facet. Sub-picometre precision and standardless atom counting with <1 atom uncertainty in the same scanning transmission electron microscopy image provide new insight into the three-dimensional atomic structure of catalyst nanoparticle surfaces, which contain the active sites controlling catalytic reactions. PMID:24916914

  1. Picometre-precision analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopy images of platinum nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Berkels, Benjamin; Dahmen, W.; Binev, P.; Sanchez, S. I.; Bradley, S. A.; Li, Ao; Szlufarska, Izabela; Voyles, Paul M.

    2014-06-01

    Measuring picometre-scale shifts in the positions of individual atoms in materials provides new insight into the structure of surfaces, defects and interfaces that influence a broad variety of materials’ behaviour. Here we demonstrate sub-picometre precision measurements of atom positions in aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images based on the non-rigid registration and averaging of an image series. Non-rigid registration achieves five to seven times better precision than previous methods. Non-rigidly registered images of a silica-supported platinum nanocatalyst show pm-scale contraction of atoms at a ()/() corner towards the particle centre and expansion of a flat () facet. Sub-picometre precision and standardless atom counting with <1 atom uncertainty in the same scanning transmission electron microscopy image provide new insight into the three-dimensional atomic structure of catalyst nanoparticle surfaces, which contain the active sites controlling catalytic reactions.

  2. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  3. [Comparative study of transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology for potato damage detection].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Sen-Miao; Tao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Jin-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The randomly placed damage parts of potato will affect the detection accuracy, this paper used transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology to acquire potato images of three directions(the damage part facing to the camera, back to the camera, side to the camera), and then processed the comparative study for damage detection. Independent component (IC) analysis was used to analyze the transmission and reflection hyperspectral images and to extract the features, the resulting char acteristics were used for the secondary IC analysis of the reflected images and the variable selection of the transmittance and re flectance spectroscopy. Finally, the potato injury qualitative recognition model was established based on the reflection images, the reflectance spectral and the transmittance spectral; Further optimization was done for high recognition accuracy of model, and secondary variable selection was carried out for the transmission spectrum by the Sub-window Permutation Analysis(SPA) and the optimal model for damage identification of potato randomly placed was established. The results of experiments show that the accuracy of the identification model based on the reflection image and the reflection spectrum is low, wherein the potato bruise based on the reflection images falls into the lowest recognition accuracy of 43. 10% when it is side to the camera; The accuracy of the model for identification based on the transmittance spectroscopy information is the highest, the recognition accuracy with the damage part facing and back to the camera is 100%t, and 99. 53% when it is side to the camera. The accuracy of the optimal model for identification based on the 3 kinds of transmittance spectroscopy information of randomly placed potato is 97. 39%. Then the application of transmission hyperspectral imaging technology could detect potato injury in any orientation, and the research can provide technical support for the online detection of potato quality. PMID

  4. Effects of some antioxidative aporphine derivatives on striatal dopaminergic transmission and on MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion in B6CBA mice.

    PubMed

    Loghin, Felicia; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Asencio, Marcelo; Comoy, Etienne; Speisky, Hernan; Cassels, Bruce K; Protais, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    (S)-(+)-boldine, an aporphine alkaloid displaying antioxidative and dopaminergic properties, and six of its derivatives (glaucine, 3-bromoboldine, 3-iodoboldine, 8-aminoboldine, 8-nitrosoboldine and 2,9-O,O'-dipivaloylboldine) were tested for these properties in comparison with their parent compound. All the tested compounds displayed in vitro antioxidative properties equal to or slightly weaker than those of boldine, and equal to or stronger than (+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8,-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, used as a reference compound. All the aporphine compounds tested displaced [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride from their specific binding sites in rat striatum. When tested on dopamine (DA) metabolism in the striatum of B6CBA mice, all the compounds, except 8-aminoboldine, increased striatal levels of DOPAC and HVA, and the HVA/DA ratio, indicating that they cross the blood-brain barrier and that they seem to act as dopamine antagonists in vivo. B6CBA mice were sensitive to the neurotoxic action of MPTP on dopaminergic neurons as indicated by the strongly decreased striatal levels of DA, DOPAC and HVA following administration of MPTP (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Among these aporphine derivatives, only 3-bromoboldine was able to reduce the MPTP-induced decrease of striatal levels of DA and DOPAC, whereas (R)-apomorphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, i.p.), used as reference compounds, were very active. These data suggest that potent in vitro antioxidative properties and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier are not sufficient criteria to predict the inhibition of neuronal degeneration induced by MPTP. PMID:12594006

  5. Description of a prototype emission-transmission computed tomography imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, T. F.; Hasegawa, B. H.; Liew, S. C.; Brown, J. K.; Blankespoor, S. C.; Reilly, S. M.; Gingold, E. L.; Cann, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a prototype imaging system that can perform simultaneous x-ray transmission CT and SPECT phantom studies. This system employs a 23-element high-purity-germanium detector array. The detector array is coupled to a collimator with septa angled toward the focal spot of an x-ray tube. During image acquisition, the x-ray fan beam and the detector array move synchronously along an arc pivoted at the x-ray source. Multiple projections are obtained by rotating the object, which is mounted at the center of rotation of the system. The detector array and electronics can count up to 10(6) cps/element with sufficient energy-resolution to discriminate between x-rays at 100-120 kVp and gamma rays from 99mTc. We have used this device to acquire x-ray CT and SPECT images of a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. The emission and transmission images may be superimposed in order to localize the emission image on the transmission map.

  6. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  7. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  8. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano imaging of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Joy C; Meirer, Florian; Liu, Yijin; Mester, Zoltan; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-07-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from the imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue, and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40-nm resolution. PMID:20734414

  9. Application of USB2.0 in infrared sequence image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Minge; Zhao, Yan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents a practical system based on DSP and USB2.0 to realize the transmission of digital infrared sequence images. The hardware design of system is analyzed in detail, in which USB interface controller is described, moreover the development of DSP software and the application program on host PC is also introduced. The system interfaces PC with EZ-USB chip CY7C68001. It is based on bulk transmission with one frame image as a unit, and the chip is configured in Slave FIFO, asynchronous read/write operating mode. Experimental results show that the developed system can work properly and achieves the data transfer speed of 50 Mbps, thus it can meet the requirement for real time transfer of infrared sequence image sized 256×256×8 bits per frame at 100 frames per second.

  10. Dual transmission grating based imaging radiometer for tokamak edge and divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Deepak; Clayton, Daniel J.; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael

    2012-10-15

    The designs of single transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) imaging spectrometers can be adapted to build an imaging radiometer for simultaneous measurement of both spectral ranges. This paper describes the design of such an imaging radiometer with dual transmission gratings. The radiometer will have an XUV coverage of 20-200 A with a {approx}10 A resolution and a VUV coverage of 200-2000 A with a {approx}50 A resolution. The radiometer is designed to have a spatial view of 16 Degree-Sign , with a 0.33 Degree-Sign resolution and a time resolution of {approx}10 ms. The applications for such a radiometer include spatially resolved impurity monitoring and electron temperature measurements in the tokamak edge and the divertor. As a proof of principle, the single grating instruments were used to diagnose a low temperature reflex discharge and the relevant data is also included in this paper.

  11. Transmission X-ray microscopy for full-field nano-imaging of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    ANDREWS, JOY C; MEIRER, FLORIAN; LIU, YIJIN; MESTER, ZOLTAN; PIANETTA, PIERO

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of cellular structure and extended tissue in biological materials requires nanometer resolution and good sample penetration, which can be provided by current full-field transmission X-ray microscopic techniques in the soft and hard X-ray regions. The various capabilities of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) include 3D tomography, Zernike phase contrast, quantification of absorption, and chemical identification via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. These techniques are discussed and compared in light of results from imaging of biological materials including microorganisms, bone and mineralized tissue and plants, with a focus on hard X-ray TXM at ≤ 40 nm resolution. PMID:20734414

  12. An Adaptive Source-Channel Coding with Feedback for Progressive Transmission of Medical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design. PMID:19190770

  13. An adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design. PMID:19190770

  14. Wavelet-based vector quantization for high-fidelity compression and fast transmission of medical images.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Yang, S; Kustov, V

    1998-11-01

    Compression of medical images has always been viewed with skepticism, since the loss of information involved is thought to affect diagnostic information. However, recent research indicates that some wavelet-based compression techniques may not effectively reduce the image quality, even when subjected to compression ratios up to 30:1. The performance of a recently designed wavelet-based adaptive vector quantization is compared with a well-known wavelet-based scalar quantization technique to demonstrate the superiority of the former technique at compression ratios higher than 30:1. The use of higher compression with high fidelity of the reconstructed images allows fast transmission of images over the Internet for prompt inspection by radiologists at remote locations in an emergency situation, while higher quality images follow in a progressive manner if desired. Such fast and progressive transmission can also be used for downloading large data sets such as the Visible Human at a quality desired by the users for research or education. This new adaptive vector quantization uses a neural networks-based clustering technique for efficient quantization of the wavelet-decomposed subimages, yielding minimal distortion in the reconstructed images undergoing high compression. Results of compression up to 100:1 are shown for 24-bit color and 8-bit monochrome medical images. PMID:9848058

  15. A Comparison of Image Quality Evaluation Techniques for Transmission X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgert, Peter J; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Beamline 6-2c at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is capable of Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) at 30 nm resolution. Raw images from the microscope must undergo extensive image processing before publication. Since typical data sets normally contain thousands of images, it is necessary to automate the image processing workflow as much as possible, particularly for the aligning and averaging of similar images. Currently we align images using the 'phase correlation' algorithm, which calculates the relative offset of two images by multiplying them in the frequency domain. For images containing high frequency noise, this algorithm will align noise with noise, resulting in a blurry average. To remedy this we multiply the images by a Gaussian function in the frequency domain, so that the algorithm ignores the high frequency noise while properly aligning the features of interest (FOI). The shape of the Gaussian is manually tuned by the user until the resulting average image is sharpest. To automatically optimize this process, it is necessary for the computer to evaluate the quality of the average image by quantifying its sharpness. In our research we explored two image sharpness metrics, the variance method and the frequency threshold method. The variance method uses the variance of the image as an indicator of sharpness while the frequency threshold method sums up the power in a specific frequency band. These metrics were tested on a variety of test images, containing both real and artificial noise. To apply these sharpness metrics, we designed and built a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) called 'Blur Master.' We found that it is possible for blurry images to have a large variance if they contain high amounts of noise. On the other hand, we found the frequency method to be quite reliable, although it is necessary to manually choose suitable limits for the frequency band. Further research must be performed to design an algorithm which

  16. Beyond conventional migration: non-linear elastic subsalt imaging with transmissions and two-sided illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravasi, Matteo; Vasconcelos, Ivan; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Source-receiver interferometric imaging can be used to synthesize a subsurface acoustic or elastic image, consisting of a zero-time, zero-offset response (or Green's function) between a colocated pseudo-source and pseudo-receiver placed at each point in the subsurface image. However, if the imaging process does not properly account for multiple reflections, and enclosing boundaries of sources and receivers are not available, the image shows artefacts, poorly illuminated areas and distorted image amplitudes. Here we demonstrate with numerical examples that two-sided non-linear imaging provides the best elastic pure-mode (PP and SS) and converted-mode (PS) images, having higher resolution and more uniform illumination than those obtained from both one-sided linear imaging and from other intermediate steps of imaging (e.g. non-linear one-sided, linear two-sided). We also propose practical approaches to construct the additional fields required by two-sided non-linear imaging without the need for a detailed velocity model and receivers (and/or sources) in the subsurface. Moreover, when conversions are used for imaging, `true-amplitude' images (here true-amplitude means properly retrieving amplitudes that represent the zero-time, zero-offset elastic response) should theoretically vanish because neither P-to-S or S-to-P conversions arise at zero-time and zero-offset. Applying a correction procedure that accounts for the polarity reversal in PS (or SP) single-shot images helps with their structural interpretation but results in an unphysical estimate of the subsurface response and uninterpretable amplitudes. This suggests that there are advantages in exploiting pure-mode SS reflections/transmissions, in addition to converted waves only, because they require no polarity correction and the resulting image contains meaningful amplitudes that are proportional to the local shear-wave properties of the medium.

  17. Secured and progressive transmission of compressed images on the Internet: application to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Marie; Parrein, Benoît; Déforges, Olivier; Normand, Nicolas; Guédon, Jean-Pierre; Ronsin, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Within the framework of telemedicine, the amount of images leads first to use efficient lossless compression methods for the aim of storing information. Furthermore, multiresolution scheme including Region of Interest (ROI) processing is an important feature for a remote access to medical images. What is more, the securization of sensitive data (e.g. metadata from DICOM images) constitutes one more expected functionality: indeed the lost of IP packets could have tragic effects on a given diagnosis. For this purpose, we present in this paper an original scalable image compression technique (LAR method) used in association with a channel coding method based on the Mojette Transform, so that a hierarchical priority encoding system is elaborated. This system provides a solution for secured transmission of medical images through low-bandwidth networks such as the Internet.

  18. Secured and progressive transmission of compressed images on the Internet: application to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Marie; Parrein, Benoit; Deforges, Olivier; Normand, Nicolas; Guedon, Jean-Pierre; Ronsin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of telemedicine, the amount of images leads first to use efficient lossless compression methods for the aim of storing information. Furthermore, multiresolution scheme including Region of Interest (ROI) processing is an important feature for a remote access to medical images. What is more, the securization of sensitive data (e.g. metadata from DICOM images) constitutes one more expected functionality: indeed the lost of IP packets could have tragic effects on a given diagnosis. For this purpose, we present in this paper an original scalable image compression technique (LAR method) used in association with a channel coding method based on the Mojette Transform, so that a hierarchical priority encoding system is elaborated. This system provides a solution for secured transmission of medical images through low-bandwidth networks such as the Internet.

  19. 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy: Single-particle imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ortalan, Volkan; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-07-20

    We report the development of 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM). The method was demonstrated in the imaging of silver nanowires and gold nanoparticles. For the wire, the mechanical motion and shape morphological dynamics were imaged, and from the images we obtained the resonance frequency and the dephasing time of the motion. Moreover, we demonstrate here the simultaneous acquisition of dark-field images and electron energy loss spectra from a single gold nanoparticle, which is not possible with conventional methods. The local probing capabilities of ST-UEM open new avenues for probing dynamic processes, from single isolated to embedded nanostructures, without being affected by the heterogeneous processes of ensemble-averaged dynamics. Such methodology promises to have wide-ranging applications in materials science and in single-particle biological imaging. PMID:21615171

  20. Infrared image superframing technique based on high-speed digital transmission circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wenqing; Yao, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Liu, Chuanming

    2013-09-01

    With the sustaining development of application requirements in infrared technology, modern infrared imaging system demands high frame rates, wide dynamic range, high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Because it is impossible to integrate hundreds of pF capacitor in the limited area of detector pixel, the integration time of infrared staring imaging system will be restricted. Therefore, the underutilization of detector performance is unavoidable. Specially, long wave infrared detector must accommodate stronger infrared signal, and the integration capacitor is more easily saturated. For the sake of resolving the restriction of integration capacitor, an infrared image superframing technique based on high-speed digital transmission circuit is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, the mass raw data high-speed transmission from detector to imaging circuit is also capable via the proposed technique. With the usage of the technique, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of infrared imaging system will be improved, and the dynamic range of infrared imaging system will be also extended. The theory analysis and results of simulation demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  1. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  2. Contrasting effects of increased and decreased dopamine transmission on latent inhibition in ovariectomized rats and their modulation by 17beta-estradiol: an animal model of menopausal psychosis?

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2010-06-01

    Women with schizophrenia have later onset and better response to antipsychotic drugs (APDs) than men during reproductive years, but the menopausal period is associated with increased symptom severity and reduced treatment response. Estrogen replacement therapy has been suggested as beneficial but clinical data are inconsistent. Latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to ignore irrelevant stimuli, is a measure of selective attention that is disrupted in acute schizophrenia patients and in rats and humans treated with the psychosis-inducing drug amphetamine and can be reversed by typical and atypical APDs. Here we used amphetamine (1 mg/kg)-induced disrupted LI in ovariectomized rats to model low levels of estrogen along with hyperfunction of the dopaminergic system that may be occurring in menopausal psychosis, and tested the efficacy of APDs and estrogen in reversing disrupted LI. 17beta-Estradiol (50, 150 microg/kg), clozapine (atypical APD; 5, 10 mg/kg), and haloperidol (typical APD; 0.1, 0.3 mg/kg) effectively reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in sham rats, but were much less effective in ovariectomized rats; 17beta-estradiol and clozapine were effective only at high doses (150 microg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), whereas haloperidol failed at both doses. Haloperidol and clozapine regained efficacy if coadministered with 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg, an ineffective dose). Reduced sensitivity to dopamine (DA) blockade coupled with spared/potentiated sensitivity to DA stimulation after ovariectomy may provide a novel model recapitulating the combination of increased vulnerability to psychosis with reduced response to APD treatment in female patients during menopause. In addition, our data show that 17beta-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity. PMID:20237462

  3. N-11C-Methyl-Dopamine PET Imaging of Sympathetic Nerve Injury in a Swine Model of Acute Myocardial Ischemia: A Comparison with 13N-Ammonia PET

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weina; Wang, Xiangcheng; He, Yulin; Nie, Yongzhen; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Using a swine model of acute myocardial ischemia, we sought to validate N-11C-methyl-dopamine (11C-MDA) as an agent capable of imaging cardiac sympathetic nerve injury. Methods. Acute myocardial ischemia was surgically generated in Chinese minipigs. ECG and serum enzyme levels were used to detect the presence of myocardial ischemia. Paired 11C-MDA PET and 13N-ammonia PET scans were performed at baseline, 1 day, and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery to relate cardiac sympathetic nerve injury to blood perfusion. Results. Seven survived the surgical procedure. The ECG-ST segment was depressed, and levels of the serum enzymes increased. Cardiac uptake of tracer was quantified as the defect volume. Both before and immediately after surgery, the images obtained with 11C-MDA and 13N-ammonia were similar. At 1 to 6 months after surgery, however, 11C-MDA postsurgical left ventricular myocardial defect volume was significantly greater compared to 13N-ammonia. Conclusions. In the Chinese minipig model of acute myocardial ischemia, the extent of the myocardial defect as visualized by 11C-MDA is much greater than would be suggested by blood perfusion images, and the recovery from myocardial sympathetic nerve injury is much slower than the restoration of blood perfusion. 11C-MDA PET may provide additional biological information during recovery from ischemic heart disease. PMID:27034950

  4. Packet based serial link realized in FPGA dedicated for high resolution infrared image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    In article the external digital interface specially designed for thermographic camera built in Military University of Technology is described. The aim of article is to illustrate challenges encountered during design process of thermal vision camera especially related to infrared data processing and transmission. Article explains main requirements for interface to transfer Infra-Red or Video digital data and describes the solution which we elaborated based on Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) physical layer and signaling scheme. Elaborated link for image transmission is built using FPGA integrated circuit with built-in high speed serial transceivers achieving up to 2500Gbps throughput. Image transmission is realized using proprietary packet protocol. Transmission protocol engine was described in VHDL language and tested in FPGA hardware. The link is able to transmit 1280x1024@60Hz 24bit video data using one signal pair. Link was tested to transmit thermal-vision camera picture to remote monitor. Construction of dedicated video link allows to reduce power consumption compared to solutions with ASIC based encoders and decoders realizing video links like DVI or packed based Display Port, with simultaneous reduction of wires needed to establish link to one pair. Article describes functions of modules integrated in FPGA design realizing several functions like: synchronization to video source, video stream packeting, interfacing transceiver module and dynamic clock generation for video standard conversion.

  5. Spectral imaging of single molecules by transmission grating-based epi-fluorescencs microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Rui; Zhang, YeWang; Dong, Xiuling; Gai, Hongwei; Yeung, Edward S.

    2008-06-16

    A spectral imaging method of single protein molecules labeled with a single fluorophore is presented. The method is based on a transmission grating and a routine fluorescence microscope. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and antiBSA molecules labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 594, respectively, are used as the model proteins. The fluorescence of single molecules is dispersed into zeroth-order spectrum and first-order spectrum by the transmission grating. Results show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of single molecule converted from the first-order spectral imaging is in good agreement with the bulk fluorescence spectrum. The spectral resolution of 2.4 nm/pixel is obtained, which is sufficient for identifying the molecular species in a multicomponent system.

  6. Bandwidth compression of the digitized HDTV images for transmission via satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asmari, A. Kh.; Kwatra, S. C.

    1992-03-01

    This paper investigates a subband coding scheme to reduce the transmission bandwidth of the digitized HDTV images. The HDTV signals are decomposed into seven bands. Each band is then independently encoded. The based band is DPCM encoded and the high bands are encoded by using nonuniform Laplacian quantizers with a dead zone. By selecting the dead zone on the basis of energy in the high bands an acceptable image quality is achieved at an average of 45 Mbits/sec (Mbps) rate. This rate is comparable to some very hardware intensive schemes of transform compression or vector quantization proposed in the literature. The subband coding scheme used in this study is considered to be of medium complexity. The 45 Mbps rate is suitable for transmission of HDTV signals via satellites.

  7. Joint source/channel coding for image transmission with JPEG2000 over memoryless channels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W

    2005-08-01

    The high compression efficiency and various features provided by JPEG2000 make it attractive for image transmission purposes. A novel joint source/channel coding scheme tailored for JPEG2000 is proposed in this paper to minimize the end-to-end image distortion within a given total transmission rate through memoryless channels. It provides unequal error protection by combining the forward error correction capability from channel codes and the error detection/localization functionality from JPEG2000 in an effective way. The proposed scheme generates quality scalable and error-resilient codestreams. It gives competitive performance with other existing schemes for JPEG2000 in the matched channel condition case and provides more graceful quality degradation for mismatched cases. Furthermore, both fixed-length source packets and fixed-length channel packets can be efficiently formed with the same algorithm. PMID:16121451

  8. Nanoscale 3D cellular imaging by axial scanning transmission electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Azari, Afrouz A.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Guofeng; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Leapman, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional structural information about supramolecular assemblies and organelles in a cellular context but image degradation, caused by scattering of transmitted electrons, limits applicability in specimens thicker than 300 nm. We show that scanning transmission electron tomography of 1000 nm thick samples using axial detection provides resolution comparable to conventional electron tomography. The method is demonstrated by reconstructing a human erythrocyte infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:19718033

  9. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.; Hull, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e., soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  10. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.

    2002-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e. soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  11. Extraordinary transmission-based super-resolved axial imaging using subwavelength metallic nanoaperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonju; Oh, Youngjin; Choi, Jong-ryul; Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun

    2015-03-01

    A super-resolved axial imaging technique was investigated based on extraordinary transmission (EOT) of light using metallic gradient nanoaperture arrays. Light through subwavelength nanoapertures at thick metal film can be transmitted and amplified by several orders of magnitude due to plasmonic coupling. Here, the feasibility of EOT-based axial imaging with super resolution is explored. Since light penetration of EOT is much deeper than that of evanescent waves, the axial range to obtain the distance information of fluorescence signals can be extended by EOT. The axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage cells was measured with sub-diffraction-limited resolution after reconstruction using differential fluorescence excitation on gradient aperture arrays.

  12. Bright-field imaging of compound semiconductors using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Toshihiro; Lu, Jing; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the observation of six different zincblende compound semiconductors in [110] projection using large-collection-angle bright-field (LABF) imaging with an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Phase contrast is completely suppressed when the collection semi-angle is set equal to the convergence semi-angle and there are no reversals in image contrast with changes in defocus or thickness. The optimum focus for imaging closely separated pairs of atomic columns (‘dumbbells’) is unique and easily recognized, and the positions of atomic columns occupied by heavier atoms always have darker intensity than those occupied by lighter atoms. Thus, the crystal polarity of compound semiconductors can be determined unambiguously. Moreover, it is concluded that the LABF imaging mode will be highly beneficial for studying other more complicated heterostructures at the atomic scale.

  13. Efficient elastic imaging of single atoms on ultrathin supports in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Muller, David A

    2012-12-01

    Mono-atomic-layer membranes such as graphene offer new opportunities for imaging and detecting individual light atoms in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). For such applications where multiple scattering and diffraction effects are weak, we evaluate the detection efficiency and interpretability of single atom images for the most common detector geometries using quantitative quantum mechanical simulations. For well-resolved and atomically-thin specimens, the low angle annular dark field (LAADF) detector can provide a significant increase in signal-to-noise over other common detector geometries including annular bright field and incoherent bright field. This dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Simulations of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) imaged under ideal conditions indicate the minimal dose requirements for elastic imaging by STEM or conventional TEM still exceed previously reported dose limits. PMID:22727335

  14. Method and apparatus for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy using microstrip transmission line coils

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2006-04-04

    Apparatus and method for MRI imaging using a coil constructed of microstrip transmission line (MTL coil) are disclosed. In one method, a target is positioned to be imaged within the field of a main magnetic field of a magnet resonance imaging (MRI) system, a MTL coil is positioned proximate the target, and a MRI image is obtained using the main magnet and the MTL coil. In another embodiment, the MRI coil is used for spectroscopy. MRI imaging and spectroscopy coils are formed using microstrip transmission line. These MTL coils have the advantageous property of good performance while occupying a relatively small space, thus allowing MTL coils to be used inside restricted areas more easily than some other prior art coils. In addition, the MTL coils are relatively simple to construct of inexpensive components and thus relatively inexpensive compared to other designs. Further, the MTL coils of the present invention can be readily formed in a wide variety of coil configurations, and used in a wide variety of ways. Further, while the MTL coils of the present invention work well at high field strengths and frequencies, they also work at low frequencies and in low field strengths as well.

  15. Intriguing transmission electron microscopy images observed for perpendicularly oriented cylindrical microdomains of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnogi, Hiroshi; Isshiki, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Sono; Sakurai, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Intriguing images of dislocation structures were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique for hexagonally packed cylindrical microdomains in a block copolymer (polystyrene-block-polyethylenebutylene-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer) film. The polystyrene (PS) cylinders were embedded in the polyethylenebutylene (PEB) matrix and oriented perpendicular to the surface of the thin section for the TEM observations. In order to understand such strange dislocation structures, we applied an image processing technique using two-dimensional Fourier transform (FT) and inverse Fourier transform (IFT) methods. It was found that these intriguing images were not ascribed to real dislocation structures but were fake ones due to the moiré effect caused by the overlapping of hexagons with a slightly mismatched orientation. Furthermore, grain boundaries in the ultrathin section can be identified by image processing using FT and IFT methods.Intriguing images of dislocation structures were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique for hexagonally packed cylindrical microdomains in a block copolymer (polystyrene-block-polyethylenebutylene-block-polystyrene triblock copolymer) film. The polystyrene (PS) cylinders were embedded in the polyethylenebutylene (PEB) matrix and oriented perpendicular to the surface of the thin section for the TEM observations. In order to understand such strange dislocation structures, we applied an image processing technique using two-dimensional Fourier transform (FT) and inverse Fourier transform (IFT) methods. It was found that these intriguing images were not ascribed to real dislocation structures but were fake ones due to the moiré effect caused by the overlapping of hexagons with a slightly mismatched orientation. Furthermore, grain boundaries in the ultrathin section can be identified by image processing using FT and IFT methods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c

  16. Secure transmission of images based on chaotic systems and cipher block chaining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Mahdieh Karimi; Behnam, Hamid; Karimi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing penetration of communication networks, digital and Internet technologies in our everyday lives has the transmission of text data, as well as multimedia data such as images and videos, possible. Digital images have a vast usage in a number of applications, including medicine and providing security authentication, for example. This applicability becomes evident when images, such as walking or people's facial features, are utilized in their identification. Considering the required security level and the properties of images, different algorithms may be used. After key generation using logistic chaos signals, a scrambling function is utilized for image agitation in both horizontal and vertical axes, and then a block-chaining mode of operation may be applied to encrypt the resultant image. The results demonstrate that using the proposed method drastically degrades the correlation between the image components and also the entropy is increased to an acceptable level. Therefore, the image will become greatly resistant to differential attacks. However, the increasing scrambling rounds and the decreasing number of bits of the blocks result in increasing the entropy and decreasing the correlation.

  17. Dopamine receptor regulating factor, DRRF: a zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C K; D'Souza, U M; Eisch, A J; Yajima, S; Lammers, C H; Yang, Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y M; Nestler, E J; Mouradian, M M

    2001-06-19

    Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from these sequences. Consequently, DRRF can modulate the activity of these dopamine receptor promoters. Highest DRRF mRNA levels are found in brain with a specific regional distribution including olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Many of these brain regions also express abundant levels of various dopamine receptors. In vivo, DRRF itself can be regulated by manipulations of dopaminergic transmission. Mice treated with drugs that increase extracellular striatal dopamine levels (cocaine), block dopamine receptors (haloperidol), or destroy dopamine terminals (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) show significant alterations in DRRF mRNA. The latter observations provide a basis for dopamine receptor regulation after these manipulations. We conclude that DRRF is important for modulating dopaminergic transmission in the brain. PMID:11390978

  18. A modified simplified reference tissue model for the quantification of dopamine D2/3 receptors with [18F]fallypride images.

    PubMed

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Dumas, Noé; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ginovart, Nathalie; Millet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Defluorination of [18F]fallypride and accumulation of 18F in skull and glands leads to the contamination of brain structures with spillover activity due to partial volume effects, leading to considerable errors in binding potential estimations. Here we propose a modification of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) to take into account the contribution of skull activity to the radioactivity kinetic pattern in cerebellum and target regions. It consists of the introduction of an additional parameter for each volume of interest (sT) and one for the cerebellum (sR), corresponding to the fraction of skull activity contaminating these structures. Using five rat positron emission tomography experiments, we applied the modified SRTM (SRTMc), which resulted in excellent fits. As a relative means of comparison of results, we applied factor analysis (FA) to decompose dynamic data into images corresponding to brain and skull activity. With the skull factor images, we estimated the "true" sT and sR values, ultimately permitting us to fix the sR value. Parameters obtained with the SRTMc were closely correlated with values obtained from FA-corrected data. In conclusion, we propose an efficient method for reliable quantification of dopamine D2/3 receptors with single-injection [18F]fallypride scans that is potentially applicable to human studies where 18F skull accumulation compromises binding parameter estimation. PMID:25248453

  19. SPECT imaging of dopamine receptors with [123I]epidepride: characterization of uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, J; Brücke, T; Angelberger, P; Asenbaum, S; Podreka, I

    1995-01-01

    [123I]Epidepride is a new ligand for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) that specifically labels D2-like dopamine receptors with very high affinity. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [123I]epidepride in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 3 patients with choreatic movement disorders. In healthy subjects striatal activity peaked at 2.5 hours after injection of the tracer and decreased slowly thereafter. There were no significant differences between left and right brain hemispheres. Activity above background was also measurable in areas corresponding to the thalamus, temporal cortex and frontal cortex. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was about 14 after 2.5 hours and this ratio steadily increased with time. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was clearly reduced in all 3 patients with choreatic movement disorders (from about 14 in control subjects after 2.5 hours to about 7 in choreatic patients). [123I]Epidepride may be a useful SPECT ligand for studying D2 receptors in the living human brain because of its high target to background ratio, its high affinity and the possibility to investigate extrastriatal D2 receptors. PMID:8695060

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Selected Fluorine-18 Labeled Radioligands for PET Imaging of the Dopamine D3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Natascha; Maschauer, Simone; Kuwert, Torsten; Hocke, Carsten; Prante, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral dopamine D3 receptors seem to play a key role in the control of drug-seeking behavior. The imaging of their regional density with positron emission tomography (PET) could thus help in the exploration of the molecular basis of drug addiction. A fluorine-18 labeled D3 subtype selective radioligand would be beneficial for this purpose; however, as yet, there is no such tracer available. The three candidates [(18)F]1, [(18)F]2a and [(18)F]2b were chosen for in vitro and in vivo characterization as radioligands suitable for selective PET imaging of the D3 receptor. Their evaluation included the analysis of radiometabolites and the assessment of non-specific binding by in vitro rat brain autoradiography. While [(18)F]1 and [(18)F]2a revealed high non-specific uptake in in vitro rat brain autoradiography, the D3 receptor density was successfully determined on rat brain sections (n = 4) with the candidate [(18)F]2b offering a Bmax of 20.38 ± 2.67 pmol/g for the islands of Calleja, 19.54 ± 1.85 pmol/g for the nucleus accumbens and 16.58 ± 1.63 pmol/g for the caudate putamen. In PET imaging studies, the carboxamide 1 revealed low signal/background ratios in the rat brain and relatively low uptake in the pituitary gland, while the azocarboxamides [(18)F]2a and [(18)F]2b showed binding that was blockable by the D3 receptor ligand BP897 in the ventricular system and the pituitary gland in PET imaging studies in living rats. PMID:27589704

  1. Electrical resistivity imaging in transmission between surface and underground tunnel for fault characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Boyle, A.; Grychtol, B.; Cabrera, J.; Marteau, J.; Adler, A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrical resistivity images supply information on sub-surface structures and are classically performed to characterize faults geometry. Here we use the presence of a tunnel intersecting a regional fault to inject electrical currents between surface and the tunnel to improve the image resolution at depth. We apply an original methodology for defining the inversion parametrization based on pilot points to better deal with the heterogeneous sounding of the medium. An increased region of high spatial resolution is shown by analysis of point spread functions as well as inversion of synthetics. Such evaluations highlight the advantages of using transmission measurements by transferring a few electrodes from the main profile to increase the sounding depth. Based on the resulting image we propose a revised structure for the medium surrounding the Cernon fault supported by geological observations and muon flux measurements.

  2. 3D elemental sensitive imaging using transmission X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Wang, Junyue; Requena, Guillermo; Williams, Phillip; Nelson, Johanna; Mehta, Apurva; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

    2012-09-01

    Determination of the heterogeneous distribution of metals in alloy/battery/catalyst and biological materials is critical to fully characterize and/or evaluate the functionality of the materials. Using synchrotron-based transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM), it is now feasible to perform nanoscale-resolution imaging over a wide X-ray energy range covering the absorption edges of many elements; combining elemental sensitive imaging with determination of sample morphology. We present an efficient and reliable methodology to perform 3D elemental sensitive imaging with excellent sample penetration (tens of microns) using hard X-ray TXM. A sample of an Al-Si piston alloy is used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. PMID:22349401

  3. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. PMID:27155359

  4. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  5. MULTISLICE SIMULATION OF TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF HELIUM BUBBLES IN IRON

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Bo; Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, George R.; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2011-04-17

    The objective of this task is to establish the size correlation between transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaged helium (He) bubbles and the actual bubbles in an iron (Fe) matrix. SUMMARY The results of this simulation study show that the size of TEM imaged He bubbles, represented by the inner diameter of the first dark Fresnel ring under defocused condition (Din), deviated from the actual bubble size (Do). Din was found to be larger than Do when imaged with a highly incoherent electron beam, but smaller than Do if the beam is coherent. The deviation of Din from Do increases with increasing defocus. On the other hand, the electron beam accelerating voltage, bubble size, bubble position, and TEM sample thickness do not significantly affect the value of D0/Do. This study also suggests that He bubbles can be differentiated from argon (Ar) bubbles by differences in Fresnel contrast.

  6. High spatial resolution fast-neutron imaging detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Katz, D.; Sayag, E.; Shmueli, I.; Cohen, Y.; Tal, A.; Vagish, Z.; Bromberger, B.; Dangendorf, V.; Mugai, D.; Tittelmeier, K.; Weierganz, M.

    2009-05-01

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1-10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  7. Laboratory experiment of a high-contrast imaging coronagraph with new step-transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi

    2009-08-01

    We present the latest results of our laboratory experiment of the coronagraph with step-transmission filters. The primary goal of this work is to test the stability of the coronagraph and identify the main factors that limit its performance. At present, a series of step-transmission filters has been designed. These filters were manufactured with Cr film on a glass substrate with a high surface quality. During the process of the experiment of each filter, we have identified several contrast limiting factors, which includes the non-symmetry of the coating film, transmission error, scattered light and the optical aberration caused by the thickness difference of coating film. To eliminate these factors, we developed a procedure for the correct test of the coronagraph and finally it delivered a contrast in the order of 10-6~10-7 at an angular distance of 4λD, which is well consistent with theoretical design. As a follow-up effort, a deformable mirror has been manufactured to correct the wave-front error of the optical system, which should deliver better performance with an extra contrast improvement in the order of 10-2~10-3. It is shown that the step-transmission filter based coronagraph is promising for the high-contrast imaging of earth-like planets.

  8. Radiolabeled2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane (FIPIT): Synthesis, characterization and primate imaging of a radioligand for mapping dopamine transporter sites by both PET and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Shi, B.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligands containing both iodine and fluorine are versatile probes for in vivo mapping of dopamine transporter sites in the striatum by PET and SPECT when labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123, respectively. Dual labeled biochemical probes are attractive agents since only one set of toxicity and pharmacokinetic analysis may be required for ligand validation for both imaging modalities. Recently, we reported that replacement of the methyl ester of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane with a 2{prime}(R,S)-[F-18]fluoroisopropyl ester affords a highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligand, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(R,S)- fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (FIPCT). FIPCT showed high uptake and retention in the striatum (S) resulting in good S/cerebellum = 3.5 at 125 min post injection in a rhesus monkey. These findings prompted us to synthesize and evaluate the 4-iodo analog, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}-(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (1) with 1-fluoropropan-2-ol (2) and POC13. These results suggest that [F-18]S-FIPIT is an excellent candidate for mapping of dopamine transporter sites.

  9. Transmission in near-infrared optical windows for deep brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lingyan; Sordillo, Laura A; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Alfano, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) radiation has been employed using one- and two-photon excitation of fluorescence imaging at wavelengths 650-950 nm (optical window I) for deep brain imaging; however, longer wavelengths in NIR have been overlooked due to a lack of suitable NIR-low band gap semiconductor imaging detectors and/or femtosecond laser sources. This research introduces three new optical windows in NIR and demonstrates their potential for deep brain tissue imaging. The transmittances are measured in rat brain tissue in the second (II, 1,100-1,350 nm), third (III, 1,600-1,870 nm), and fourth (IV, centered at 2,200 nm) NIR optical tissue windows. The relationship between transmission and tissue thickness is measured and compared with the theory. Due to a reduction in scattering and minimal absorption, window III is shown to be the best for deep brain imaging, and windows II and IV show similar but better potential for deep imaging than window I. PMID:26556561

  10. Development of Parallel Image Detection System Using Annular Pupils for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Matsutani, Takaomi; Taya, Masaki; Ikuta, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeo; Kimura, Yoshihide; Takai, Yoshizo; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio

    2010-10-13

    A parallel image detection system using an annular pupil for electron optics were developed to realize an increase in the depth of focus, aberration-free imaging and separation of amplitude and phase images under scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Apertures for annular pupils able to suppress high-energy electron scattering were developed using a focused ion beam (FIB) technique. The annular apertures were designed with outer diameter of oe 40 {mu}m and inner diameter of oe32 {mu}m. A taper angle varying from 20 deg. to 1 deg. was applied to the slits of the annular apertures to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. Each azimuth angle image on scintillator was detected by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube assembly through 40 optical fibers bundled in a ring shape. To focus the image appearing on the scintillator on optical fibers, an optical lens relay system attached with CCD camera was developed. The system enables the taking of 40 images simultaneously from different scattered directions.

  11. Reconstruction of finer voxel grid transmission images in Tomographic Gamma Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Zheng; Feng, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is a technique used to assay the nuclide distribution and radioactivity in nuclear waste drums. Limited to few transmission measurements, the drum is divided into large voxels and thus leads to the inhomogeneity of the voxels and negatively affects the results. A new algorithm is presented to reconstruct finer voxel grid transmission images with the same number of measurements. The small voxel size decreases the effect of the inhomogeneity and makes the result more accurate. The algorithm employs total variation minimization and precisely describes the attenuation process. The influences of the different scan modes are discussed with Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of our method.

  12. PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter availability during acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Gage, H Donald; Nader, Susan H; Reboussin, Beth A; Bounds, Michael; Nader, Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine use alters availability of brain dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and transporters (DAT). The present study examined the effects of low doses of cocaine on this neuroadaptation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), D2R and DAT availability in the caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (AMY) were assessed before and after monkeys acquired cocaine self-administration. Twelve rhesus monkeys were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.03 mg/kg per injection) under conditions that resulted in low drug intakes. PET scans using radiotracers targeting D2R ([F]fluoroclebopride, FCP) or DAT ([F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane, FCT) were performed when monkeys were cocaine naive and after 9 weeks of self-administration. Before self-administration, D2R availability was significantly higher only in left vs. right Cd, whereas DAT availability was higher in left vs. right Cd, Pt, and ACC. Nonetheless, after cocaine exposure, left-right differences in D2R were apparent in 3 of 4 regions, but only in the ACC for DAT availability. Self-administration of this dose of cocaine did not significantly affect DAT availability in any region and only decreased D2R availability in the ACC. These results demonstrate lateralization of D2R and DAT availability in brain areas that mediate cocaine self-administration, even under conditions in which cocaine does not affect overall receptor availability. PMID:21768930

  13. Few-layer graphene as a support film for transmission electron microscopy imaging of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McBride, James R; Lupini, Andrew R; Schreuder, Michael A; Smith, Nathanael J; Pennycook, Stephen J; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2009-12-01

    One consistent limitation for high-resolution imaging of small nanoparticles is the high background signal from the amorphous carbon support film. With interest growing for smaller and smaller nanostructures, state of the art electron microscopes are becoming necessary for rudimentary tasks, such as nanoparticle sizing. As a monolayer of carbon, free-standing graphene represents the ultimate support film for nanoparticle imaging. In this work, conventional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to assess the benefits and feasibility of few-layer graphene support films. Suspensions of few-layer graphene to produce the support films were prepared by simple sonication of exfoliated graphite. The greatest benefit was observed for conventional HRTEM, where lattice resolved imaging of sub 2 nm CdSe nanocrystals was achieved. The few-layer graphene films were also used as a support film for C(s)-corrected STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy of CuInSe(2) nanocrystals. PMID:20356171

  14. Geometric matrix research for nuclear waste drum tomographic gamma scanning transmission image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    A geometric matrix model of nuclear waste drums is proposed for transmission image reconstruction from tomographic gamma scans (TGS). The model assumes that rays are conical, with intensity uniformly distributed within the cone. The attenuation coefficients are centered on the voxel (cube) of the geometric center. The proposed model is verified using the EM algorithm and compared to previously reported models. The calculated results show that the model can obtain good reconstruction results even when the sample models are highly heterogeneous. Supported by NSFC (41374130), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41025015) National Science Foundation (41274109, 41104118)

  15. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.

  16. Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Akatay, M. Cem; Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov; Baumann, Philipp; Stach, Eric A. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

  17. Secondary electron imaging of monolayer materials inside a transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cretu, Ovidiu Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazutomo

    2015-08-10

    A scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a backscattered and secondary electron detector is shown capable to image graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Secondary electron contrasts of the two lightest monolayer materials are clearly distinguished from the vacuum level. A signal difference between these two materials is attributed to electronic structure differences, which will influence the escape probabilities of the secondary electrons. Our results show that the secondary electron signal can be used to distinguish between the electronic structures of materials with atomic layer sensitivity, enhancing its applicability as a complementary signal in the analytical microscope.

  18. High-speed image transmission via the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzill, Todd M.; Huang, H. K.; Thoma, George R.; Long, L. Rodney; Gill, Michael J.

    1996-05-01

    We are developing a wide area test bed network using the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) from NASA for high speed medical image transmission. The two test sites are the University of California, San Francisco, and the National Library of Medicine. The first phase of the test bed runs over a T1 link (1.544 Mbits/sec) using a Very Small Aperture Terminal. The second phase involves the High Data Rate Terminal via an ATM OC 3C (155 Mbits/sec) connection. This paper describes the experimental set up and some preliminary results from phase 1.

  19. Reliable and robust transmission and storage techniques for medical images with patient information.

    PubMed

    Nergui, Myagmarbayar; Acharya, U Sripati; Acharya U, Rajendra; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-12-01

    There is an increased emphasis on the use of digital techniques in all aspects of human life today. Broadcast radio and television, cellular phone services, consumer and entertainment electronics etc are increasingly using digital signal processing techniques to improve the quality of service. Transmission and storage of documentation and images pertaining to patient records cannot remain an exception to this global trend. Hence, patient records (text and image information) are increasingly stored and processed in digital form. Currently, text and image information, which constitute two separate pieces of data are handled as different files. Thus, there is a possibility of the text and message information, pertaining to different patients, being interchanged and thus mishandled. This can be avoided by merging text and image information in such a manner that the two can be separated without perceptible damage to information contained in either file. Digital watermarking techniques can be used to interleave patient information with medical images. In this work, we have employed digital watermarking along with strong cryptographic protocols and powerful error correcting codes. This reduces the probability of sensitive patient information falling into the wrong hands and ensures information integrity when it is conveyed over noisy channels. PMID:20703594

  20. Automated Detection of Synapses in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Kreshuk, Anna; Koethe, Ullrich; Pax, Elizabeth; Bock, Davi D.; Hamprecht, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for fully automated detection of chemical synapses in serial electron microscopy images with highly anisotropic axial and lateral resolution, such as images taken on transmission electron microscopes. Our pipeline starts from classification of the pixels based on 3D pixel features, which is followed by segmentation with an Ising model MRF and another classification step, based on object-level features. Classifiers are learned on sparse user labels; a fully annotated data subvolume is not required for training. The algorithm was validated on a set of 238 synapses in 20 serial 7197×7351 pixel images (4.5×4.5×45 nm resolution) of mouse visual cortex, manually labeled by three independent human annotators and additionally re-verified by an expert neuroscientist. The error rate of the algorithm (12% false negative, 7% false positive detections) is better than state-of-the-art, even though, unlike the state-of-the-art method, our algorithm does not require a prior segmentation of the image volume into cells. The software is based on the ilastik learning and segmentation toolkit and the vigra image processing library and is freely available on our website, along with the test data and gold standard annotations (http://www.ilastik.org/synapse-detection/sstem). PMID:24516550

  1. A high-contrast imaging polarimeter with a stepped-transmission filter based coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chao; Ren, De-Qing; Zhu, Yong-Tian; Dou, Jiang-Pei; Guo, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The light reflected from planets is polarized mainly due to Rayleigh scattering, but starlight is normally unpolarized. Thus it provides an approach to enhance the imaging contrast by inducing the imaging polarimetry technique. In this paper, we propose a high-contrast imaging polarimeter that is optimized for the direct imaging of exoplanets, combined with our recently developed stepped-transmission filter based coronagraph. Here we present the design and calibration method of the polarimetry system and the associated test of its high-contrast performance. In this polarimetry system, two liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) act as a polarization modulator, which can extract the polarized signal. We show that our polarimeter can achieve a measurement accuracy of about 0.2% at a visible wavelength (632.8 nm) with linearly polarized light. Finally, the whole system demonstrates that a contrast of 10‑9 at 5λ/D is achievable, which can be used for direct imaging of Jupiter-like planets with a space telescope.

  2. Study of inelastic mean free path of metal nanostructures using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, T; Bardhan, M; Bhattacharya, M; Satpati, B

    2015-06-01

    We report a simple method for measuring the inelastic mean free path of nanostructures of known geometry using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy imaging. The mean free path of inelastic electrons was measured by using systems having known symmetry, such as cylindrical or cubic, combined with Poisson statistics without employing the knowledge of microscope parameters, namely the convergence angle and the collection angle. Having inherent symmetry of such systems, their absolute thickness can be measured from their two-dimensional projection images. We have calculated mean free path of inelastic scattering of electrons in gold, silver and nickel doing case study research by employing gold nanorod, silver nanocube and nickel nanorod lying on a carbon-coated TEM grid at two different electron energies (viz. 200 and 300 keV) following this alternative approach. Results obtained using such alternative approach were verified using microscope parameters. PMID:25787717

  3. Scanning transmission electron microscopic tomography of cortical bone using Z-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth; Nan, Feihong; Botton, Gianluigi A; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2013-06-01

    Previously we presented (McNally et al., 2012) a model for the ultrastructure of bone showing that the mineral resides principally outside collagen fibrils in the form of 5 nm thick mineral structures hundreds of nanometers long oriented parallel to the fibrils. Here we use high-angle annular dark-field electron tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm this model and further elucidate the composite structure. Views of a section cut parallel to the fibril axes show bundles of mineral structures extending parallel to the fibrils and encircling them. The mineral density inside the fibrils is too low to be visualized in these tomographic images. A section cut perpendicular to the fibril axes, shows quasi-circular walls composed of mineral structures, wrapping around apparently empty holes marking the sites of fibrils. These images confirm our original model that the majority of mineral in bone resides outside the collagen fibrils. PMID:23545162

  4. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction. PMID:24474371

  5. Structural analysis of nano structured carbon by transmission electron microscopy and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshida, K.; Murata, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Itaya, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kimura, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Kim, Y. A.; Endo, M.; Kim, B.-H.; Yang, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is one of the highest resolution analysis methods of materials. The three dimensional recognition of the materials is difficult by TEM because the observation data is projection images through the materials. In this study, space structure of carbon nanotubes loaded with metal particles was analyzed by three dimensional TEM (3D-TEM) [1,2]. The nano structured carbons are also observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with Cs corrector. Cup-stack type carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) loaded with Pt particles (2-3 nm in diameter) prepared by GSI Creos Corporation were analyzed by these methods. Pt particles are bound selectively to the edges of hexagonal carbon layers of inside and outer surface of CSCNTs efficiently and can be expected to work well as catalysts of electrodes of fuel cell. It is sometimes difficult that the nano sized area is analyzed by selected area electron diffraction (SAD) because the selected area aperture cannot be so small. The HRTEM and image processing technique give similar results of SAD when it works and revealed to be useful to analyze nano structured carbons.

  6. Targeted Multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Transmission Geometry for Subcellular Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery-Lavenant, Gwendoline; Zavalin, Andre I.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-04-01

    Targeted multiplex imaging mass spectrometry utilizes several different antigen-specific primary antibodies, each directly labeled with a unique photocleavable mass tag, to detect multiple antigens in a single tissue section. Each photocleavable mass tag bound to an antibody has a unique molecular weight and can be readily ionized by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This article describes a mass spectrometry method that allows imaging of targeted single cells within tissue using transmission geometry laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Transmission geometry focuses the laser beam on the back side of the tissue placed on a glass slide, providing a 2 μm diameter laser spot irradiating the biological specimen. This matrix-free method enables simultaneous localization at the sub-cellular level of multiple antigens using specific tagged antibodies. We have used this technology to visualize the co-expression of synaptophysin and two major hormones peptides, insulin and somatostatin, in duplex assays in beta and delta cells contained in a human pancreatic islet.

  7. Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-06-04

    Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

  8. Turbo codes-based image transmission for channels with multiple types of distortion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Cao, Lei

    2008-11-01

    Product codes are generally used for progressive image transmission when random errors and packet loss (or burst errors) co-exist. However, the optimal rate allocation considering both component codes gives rise to high-optimization complexity. In addition, the decoding performance may be degraded quickly when the channel varies beyond the design point. In this paper, we propose a new unequal error protection (UEP) scheme for progressive image transmission by using rate-compatible punctured Turbo codes (RCPT) and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes only. By sophisticatedly interleaving each coded frame, the packet loss can be converted into randomly punctured bits in a Turbo code. Therefore, error control in noisy channels with different types of errors is equivalent to dealing with random bit errors only, with reduced turbo code rates. A genetic algorithm-based method is presented to further reduce the optimization complexity. This proposed method not only gives a better performance than product codes in given channel conditions but is also more robust to the channel variation. Finally, to break down the error floor of turbo decoding, we further extend the above RCPT/CRC protection to a product code scheme by adding a Reed-Solomon (RS) code across the frames. The associated rate allocation is discussed and further improvement is demonstrated. PMID:18854248

  9. Imaging of the dopamine transporter predicts pattern of disease progression and response to levodopa in patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism: a 2-year follow-up multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Matinella, Angela; Bovi, Tommaso; Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Luca, Antonina; Di Stefano, Angela; Morgante, Letterio; Pacchetti, Claudio; Minafra, Brigida; Sciarretta, Massimo; Dallocchio, Carlo; Rossi, Simone; Ulivelli, Monica; Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-02-01

    Similarly to subjects with degenerative parkinsonism, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT has been reported either normal or abnormal in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), challenging the notion that parkinsonism might be entirely due to post-synaptic D2-receptors blockade by antipsychotic drugs. In a previous multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, we identified 97 patients who developed parkinsonism with a similar bi-modal distribution of DAT-SPECT. In this longitudinal study, we reported clinical and imaging features associated with progression of motor disability over 2-year follow-up in 60 out of those 97 patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT at baseline evaluation (normal SPECT=33; abnormal SPECT=27). As second end-point, chronic response to levodopa over a 3-month period was tested in a subgroup of subjects. Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at follow-up significantly increased in patients with abnormal SPECT. Specifically, a 6-point worsening was demonstrated in 18.5% of the subjects with abnormal SPECT and in none of the subjects with normal SPECT. Levodopa treatment improved motor UPDRS only in the group with abnormal SPECT. After adjustment for possible confounders, linear regression analysis demonstrated that abnormal SPECT findings at baseline were the only predictor of motor disability progression and of better outcome of levodopa treatment. Our results support the notion that a degenerative disease might underlie parkinsonism in a minority of schizophrenic patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter can be helpful to select this patient sub-group that might benefit from levodopa therapy. PMID:24369987

  10. Genetic variation and dopamine D2 receptor availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human in vivo molecular imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Gluskin, B S; Mickey, B J

    2016-01-01

    The D2 dopamine receptor mediates neuropsychiatric symptoms and is a target of pharmacotherapy. Inter-individual variation of D2 receptor density is thought to influence disease risk and pharmacological response. Numerous molecular imaging studies have tested whether common genetic variants influence D2 receptor binding potential (BP) in humans, but demonstration of robust effects has been limited by small sample sizes. We performed a systematic search of published human in vivo molecular imaging studies to estimate effect sizes of common genetic variants on striatal D2 receptor BP. We identified 21 studies examining 19 variants in 11 genes. The most commonly studied variant was a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ANKK1 (rs1800497, Glu713Lys, also called ‘Taq1A'). Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses of this variant (5 studies, 194 subjects total) revealed that striatal BP was significantly and robustly lower among carriers of the minor allele (Lys713) relative to major allele homozygotes. The weighted standardized mean difference was −0.57 under the fixed-effect model (95% confidence interval=(−0.87, −0.27), P=0.0002). The normal relationship between rs1800497 and BP was not apparent among subjects with neuropsychiatric diseases. Significant associations with baseline striatal D2 receptor BP have been reported for four DRD2 variants (rs1079597, rs1076560, rs6277 and rs1799732) and a PER2 repeat polymorphism, but none have yet been tested in more than two independent samples. Our findings resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature and establish that rs1800497 robustly influences striatal D2 receptor availability. This genetic variant is likely to contribute to important individual differences in human striatal function, neuropsychiatric disease risk and pharmacological response. PMID:26926883

  11. Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin Rafael; Jotty, Karick; Locke, Jason L; Jones, Sara R; Valenzuela, Carlos Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Fetal ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a range of neurobehavioral alterations, including deficits in emotional processing. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in modulating emotional processing, in part, via dopamine (DA) regulation of GABA transmission. This BLA modulatory system is acquired during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) and we hypothesized that it could be altered by EtOH exposure during this period. We found that exposure of rats to moderate levels of EtOH vapor during the third trimester-equivalent [postnatal days (P) 2-12] alters DA modulation of GABAergic transmission in BLA pyramidal neurons during periadolescence. Specifically, D1R-mediated potentiation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was significantly attenuated in EtOH-exposed animals. However, this was associated with a compensatory decrease in D3R-mediated suppression of miniature IPSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that these effects were not a result of altered D1R or D3R levels. BLA samples from EtOH-exposed animals also had significantly lower levels of the DA precursor (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) but DA levels were not affected. This is likely a consequence of reduced catabolism of DA, as indicated by reduced levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the BLA samples. Anxiety-like behavior was not altered in EtOH-exposed animals. This is the first study to demonstrate that the modulatory actions of DA in the BLA are altered by developmental EtOH exposure. Although compensatory adaptations were engaged in our moderate EtOH exposure paradigm, it is possible that these are not able to restore homeostasis and correct anxiety-like behaviors under conditions of heavier EtOH exposure. Therefore, future studies should investigate the potential role of alterations in the modulatory actions of DA in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID

  12. Detection of Shielded Special Nuclear Material With a Cherenkov-Based Transmission Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Mayer, Michael; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material, SSNM, while in transit, offers a unique challenge. Typical cargo imaging systems are Bremsstrahlung-based and cause an abundance of unnecessary signal in the detectors and doses to the cargo contents and surroundings. Active interrogation with dual monoenergetic photons can unveil the illicit material when coupled with a high-contrast imaging system while imparting significantly less dose to the contents. Cherenkov detectors offer speed, resilience, inherent energy threshold rejection, directionality and scalability beyond the capability of most scintillators. High energy resolution is not a priority when using two well separated gamma rays, 4.4 and 15.1 MeV, generated from low energy nuclear reactions such as 11B(d,n- γ)12C. These gamma rays offer a measure of the effective atomic number, Z, of the cargo by taking advantage of the large difference in photon interaction cross sections, Compton scattering and pair production. This imaging system will be coupled to neutron detectors to provide unique signature of SNM by monitoring delayed neutrons. Our experiments confirm that the Cherenkov imaging system can be used with the monoenergetic source to relate transmission and atomic number of the scanned material.

  13. Multislice simulation of transmission electron microscopy imaging of helium bubbles in Fe.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Edwards, Danny J; Kurtz, Richard J; Odette, G Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Formation of nanoscale helium (He) bubbles in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels may lead to degradation of mechanical properties of materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has commonly been used to image the Fresnel contrast of He bubbles, using an underfocus of 0.5-1 µm. This paper presents our study of multislice simulation of the size correlation between imaged Fresnel rings and the actual He bubbles. It was found that for bubbles equal to or >3 nm in diameter, the imaged bubble size, represented by its inner diameter of the first dark Fresnel ring (D(in)) in underfocused imaging conditions, increases with increasing electron-beam incoherency, but decreases with increasing underfocus. The electron-beam accelerating voltage, bubble size, bubble position and TEM sample thickness were found to have no significant influence on the deviation of D(in) from the actual bubble size (D(0)). However, for bubbles equal to or <2 nm, D(in)/D(0) increases dramatically with increasing underfocus when it is above a threshold limit (e.g. Δf = -1 µm for a 2-nm bubble). The results of this study also suggested that He bubbles can be differentiated from argon (Ar) bubbles by contrast differences. PMID:23042825

  14. Multislice simulation of transmission electron microscopy imaging of helium bubbles in Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Bo; Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, George R.; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2012-10-04

    Formation of nanoscale helium (He) bubbles in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels may lead to degradation of mechanical properties of materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been commonly used to image the Fresnel contrast of He bubbles using a defocus of 0.5 µm ~ 1 µm. This paper presents our study of multislice simulation of the size correlation between imaged Fresnel rings and the actual He bubbles. It was found that for bubbles equal to or larger than 3 nm in diameter, the imaged bubble size, represented by its inner diameter of the first dark Fresnel ring (Din) in under-focused imaging conditions, increases with increasing electron-beam incoherency, but decreases with increasing defocus. The electron-beam accelerating voltage, bubble size, bubble position, and TEM sample thickness were found to have no significant influence on the deviation of Din from the actual bubble size (D0). For bubbles equal to or smaller than 2 nm, however, Din/Do increases dramatically with increasing defocus when it is above a threshold defocus. It was also suggested by this study that He bubbles can be differentiated from argon (Ar) bubbles by contrast differences.

  15. A high-speed area detector for novel imaging techniques in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Caswell, T A; Ercius, P; Tate, M W; Ercan, A; Gruner, S M; Muller, D A

    2009-03-01

    A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) produces a convergent beam electron diffraction pattern at each position of a raster scan with a focused electron beam, but recording this information poses major challenges for gathering and storing such large data sets in a timely manner and with sufficient dynamic range. To investigate the crystalline structure of materials, a 16x16 analog pixel array detector (PAD) is used to replace the traditional detectors and retain the diffraction information at every STEM raster position. The PAD, unlike a charge-coupled device (CCD) or photomultiplier tube (PMT), directly images 120-200keV electrons with relatively little radiation damage, exhibits no afterglow and limits crosstalk between adjacent pixels. Traditional STEM imaging modes can still be performed by the PAD with a 1.1kHz frame rate, which allows post-acquisition control over imaging conditions and enables novel imaging techniques based on the retained crystalline information. Techniques for rapid, semi-automatic crystal grain segmentation with sub-nanometer resolution are described using cross-correlation, sub-region integration, and other post-processing methods. PMID:19162398

  16. Elastic extended images and velocity-sensitive objective functions using multiple reflections and transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravasi, Matteo; Vasconcelos, Ivan; Curtis, Andrew; Meles, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    One interpretation of a seismic image is the instantaneous scattered wave response of a colocated pseudo-source and pseudo-receiver at each point in the subsurface model. If there is no model perturbation at a point then there will be no instantaneous scattered wave so nothing will be imaged; if something is imaged then there must be a perturbation at that location. By extension, so-called extended images (EIs) represent the full spatio-temporal response between offset subsurface pseudo-sources and pseudo-receivers which can be used to constrain elastic properties around each image point. However, one-sided illumination of the subsurface (from the Earth's surface), errors in the initial velocity model estimate, and the use of a linearized, single-scattering assumption (as is usual in seismic imaging) cause errors in EI gathers such as missing events, incorrect amplitudes, and spurious energy. By creating elastic (P-to-P and P-to-S) EIs in a synthetic example of subsalt imaging, we demonstrate the advantages of incorporating multiply scattered waves correctly by non-linear imaging, and of including transmitted waves by using two-sided receiver arrays, and discuss how the recently developed autofocussing methods could provide us with the various required subsurface wavefields. Pre- and post-imaging f-k filtering procedures are introduced to further improve the quality of the EIs by (explicitly or implicitly) limiting the directions of waves arriving at the subsurface pseudo-source and receiver survey line. These filters suppress strong linear events that arise from the erroneous interaction of near-horizontally propagating waves which are not naturally accounted for due to the lack of sources and receivers on either side of the imaging target. Finally, we analyse the sensitivity of elastic P-to-P EIs to errors in the migration velocity models and show that events in the EI are shifted in opposite directions when constructed using reflection or transmission data. In

  17. Enhancement of resident education in sonography using high-speed PACS/ATM image transmission: work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Grant, Edward G.; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Valentino, Daniel J.

    1996-05-01

    Transmission of high quality images between hospitals would be of value by exposing residents at individual institutions to a greater mix of disease processes. This problem is particularly serious in ultrasound where individual hospitals may not perform the entire range of examinations. We undertook this study to assess the effectiveness of image transmission via a PACS/ATM global network in improving ultrasound education among residents at affiliated hospitals. Image management was performed by AGFA PACS; global network was Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Selected cases from the two hospitals (OB/GYN cases at one, vascular at the other) were transmitted. Readout/teaching sessions included cases performed at base hospital and those received via network. Evaluation forms were collected from participants at both institutions. No image degradation occurred with transmission. Residents' exposure to ultrasound cases increased at the two hospitals. The system was considered an excellent teaching tool by all faculty and residents surveyed.

  18. Two matrix approaches for aerial image formation obtained by extending and modifying the transmission cross coefficients.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    This paper physically compares two different matrix representations of partially coherent imaging with the introduction of matrices E and Z, containing the source, object, and pupil. The matrix E is obtained by extending the Hopkins transmission cross coefficient (TCC) approach such that the pupil function is shifted while the matrix Z is obtained by shifting the object spectrum. The aerial image I can be written as a convex quadratic form I = = , where |phi> is a column vector representing plane waves. It is shown that rank(Z) < or = rank(E) = rank(T) = N, where T is the TCC matrix and N is the number of the point sources for a given unpolarized illumination. Therefore, the matrix Z requires fewer than N eigenfunctions for a complete aerial image formation, while the matrix E or T always requires N eigenfunctions. More importantly, rank(Z) varies depending on the degree of coherence determined by the von Neumann entropy, which is shown to relate to the mutual intensity. For an ideal pinhole as an object, emitting spatially coherent light, only one eigenfunction--i.e., the pupil function--is enough to describe the coherent imaging. In this case, we obtain rank(Z) = 1 and the pupil function as the only eigenfunction regardless of the illumination. However, rank(E) = rank(T) = N even when the object is an ideal pinhole. In this sense, aerial image formation with the matrix Z is physically more meaningful than with the matrix E. The matrix Z is decomposed as B(dagger)B, where B is a singular matrix, suggesting that the matrix B as well as Z is a principal operator characterizing the degree of coherence of the partially coherent imaging. PMID:20508699

  19. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  20. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  1. Absence of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons attenuates dopamine release but not conditioned approach during Pavlovian conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jones G.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Clark, Jeremy J.; Evans, Scott B.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, phasic dopamine (DA) responses emerge to reward-predictive stimuli as the subject learns to anticipate reward delivery. This observation has led to the hypothesis that phasic dopamine signaling is important for learning. To assess the ability of mice to develop anticipatory behavior and to characterize the contribution of dopamine, we used a food-reinforced Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. As mice learned the cue–reward association, they increased their head entries to the food receptacle in a pattern that was consistent with conditioned anticipatory behavior. D1-receptor knockout (D1R-KO) mice had impaired acquisition, and systemic administration of a D1R antagonist blocked both the acquisition and expression of conditioned approach in wild-type mice. To assess the specific contribution of phasic dopamine transmission, we tested mice lacking NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) exclusively in dopamine neurons (NR1-KO mice). Surprisingly, NR1-KO mice learned at the same rate as their littermate controls. To evaluate the contribution of NMDARs to phasic dopamine release in this paradigm, we performed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens of awake mice. Despite having significantly attenuated phasic dopamine release following reward delivery, KO mice developed cue-evoked dopamine release at the same rate as controls. We conclude that NMDARs in dopamine neurons enhance but are not critical for phasic dopamine release to behaviorally relevant stimuli; furthermore, their contribution to phasic dopamine signaling is not necessary for the development of cue-evoked dopamine or anticipatory activity in a D1R-dependent Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. PMID:20616081

  2. Development of a medical record and radiographic image transmission system using a high-speed communication network.

    PubMed

    Kim, N H; Yoo, S K; Kim, K M; Kang, Y T; Bae, S H; Kim, S R

    1998-01-01

    A medical record and radiographic image transmission system has been developed using a high-speed communication network. The databases are designed to store and transmit the data acquired from the scanner. To maximally utilize the communication bandwidth, the medical records and radiographic images are compressed using the G3 facsimile and JPEG coding standard method, respectively. TCP/IP, OOP and Windows-based system software enable a modular design, future expandability, open system interconnectivity, and diverse image manipulation functions. PMID:10384462

  3. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  4. Kinetic modeling of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: A novel compound for imaging the dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, S.A.; McElgin, W.T.; Kung, M.P.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vivo binding potential and kinetic rate constants in baboons. A series of three SPECT scans were performed in each of two baboons with a mean bolus injection of 717 {+-} 78 Mbq (19.38 {+-} 2.12 mCi). Dynamic images of the brain were acquired over four hours using a triple-headed camera equipped with fan-beam collimators. Arterial and venous blood compartments were frequently sampled using a peristaltic pump throughout the duration of the study. SPECT images were reconstructed and corrected for attenuation. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the corresponding MRI reference scan to which each functional image was coregistered. Arterial and venous blood samples were corrected for metabolism and converted to units of concentration in the reconstruction domain using experimentally measured calibration factors for the camera. Using analytical solutions to the three-compartment model with the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization technique, each study was individually fit to a kinetic parameter vector. Additionally within each subject the three corresponding studies were fit to a single parameter vector by constraining the binding potential, distribution volume, and dissociation rate constant to improve the identifiability of the convergent solutions. A Monte Carlo simulator provided covariance matrix estimates for parameter vectors. The results showed that [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 localized in the basal ganglia. SPECT image analysis of the caudate yielded binding potential values of 2.16 and 2.91 in the first baboon and 3.30, 2.70, and 2.89 in the second baboon. The respective binding potential values for these subjects using the simultaneous fitting technique yielded values of 2.30 and 1.95. Similar values were obtained for the putamen.

  5. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia - even prior to antipsychotic use - seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal insulin

  6. Selective modulation of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuits by dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen-Jun; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    2003-03-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, functions that are impacted in age-related memory decline, drug abuse, and a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that dopamine depresses excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Here, using paired recordings, we have investigated dopaminergic modulation of excitatory transmission from pyramidal neurons to fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. In contrast to its effect on recurrent excitation, dopamine was without effect on excitatory transmission to FS interneurons. However, dopamine has directly enhanced the excitability of the FS interneurons to the extent that even a single excitatory postsynaptic potential could initiate spiking with great temporal precision in some of them. These results indicate that dopamine's effects on excitatory transmission are target-specific and that the axon terminals of pyramidal neurons can be selectively regulated at the level of individual synapses. Thus, dopamine's net inhibitory effect on cortical function is remarkably constrained by the nature of the microcircuit elements on which it acts.

  7. Quantifying bone thickness, light transmission, and contrast interrelationships in transcranial photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Li, Ke; Kaanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad

    2015-03-01

    We previously introduced photoacoustic imaging to detect blood vessels surrounded by bone and thereby eliminate the deadly risk of carotid artery injury during endonasal, transsphenoidal surgeries. Light would be transmitted through an optical fiber attached to the surgical drill, while a transcranial probe placed on the temporal region of the skull receives photoacoustic signals. This work quantifies changes in photoacoustic image contrast as the sphenoid bone is drilled. Frontal bone from a human adult cadaver skull was cut into seven 3 cm x 3 cm chips and sanded to thicknesses ranging 1-4 mm. For 700-940 nm wavelengths, the average optical transmission through these specimens increased from 19% to 44% as bone thickness decreased, with measurements agreeing with Monte Carlo simulations within 5%. These skull specimens were individually placed in the optical pathway of a 3.5 mm diameter, cylindrical, vessel-mimicking photoacoustic target, as the laser wavelength was varied between 700-940 nm. The mean optical insertion loss and photoacoustic image contrast loss due to the bone specimens were 56-80% and 46-79%, respectively, with the majority of change observed when the bone was <=2 mm thick. The decrease in contrast is directly proportional to insertion loss over this thickness range by factors of 0.8-1.1 when multiple wavelengths are considered. Results suggest that this proportional relationship may be used to determine the amount of bone that remains to be drilled when the thickness is 2 mm or less.

  8. Imaging Vortices in YBa2Cu4O8 using a Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowell, Charlotte; Loudon, James; Karpinski, Janusz; Midgley, Paul

    2010-03-01

    When magnetic flux penetrates a Type-II superconductor, it does so in the form of superconducting vortices. The study of these vortices can reveal information about the nature of the superconductivity in the material as well as being important for applications. These vortices can be imaged using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as the electron beam is deflected by the penetrated magnetic flux. This technique was pioneered by Tonomura et al. [1], using a specially adapted microscope. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vortex imaging is also possible on a commercial TEM [2]. Here we present results on the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu4O8, in which CuO chains running along the crystal b-direction are thought to become superconducting via a proximity effect with the CuO2 planes. A difficulty encountered with the TEM technique is in producing samples thin enough to be electron transparent. A sample, of size 30 μm x 30 μm x 200 nm, was cut from a bulk YBa2Cu4O8 single crystal using focussed ion beam milling. To look into the influence of the CuO chains, Lorentz imaging was used to investigate the vortex configuration and movement in real time, while holography was employed to study the vortex field profile. [1] Harada et al., Nature 360, 51 - 53 (1992) [2] J. C. Loudon and P. A. Midgley, Ultramicroscopy 109: 700-729 (2009)

  9. Parallel Inhibition of Dopamine Amacrine Cells and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Non-Image-Forming Visual Circuit of the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Helen E.; Hardi, Claudia N.; Barnes, Steven

    2015-01-01

    An inner retinal microcircuit composed of dopamine (DA)-containing amacrine cells and melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (M1 ipRGCs) process information about the duration and intensity of light exposures, mediating light adaptation, circadian entrainment, pupillary reflexes, and other aspects of non-image-forming vision. The neural interaction is reciprocal: M1 ipRGCs excite DA amacrine cells, and these, in turn, feed inhibition back onto M1 ipRGCs. We found that the neuropeptide somatostatin [somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF)] also inhibits the intrinsic light response of M1 ipRGCs and postulated that, to tune the bidirectional interaction of M1 ipRGCs and DA amacrine cells, SRIF amacrine cells would provide inhibitory modulation to both cell types. SRIF amacrine cells, DA amacrine cells, and M1 ipRGCs form numerous contacts. DA amacrine cells and M1 ipRGCs express the SRIF receptor subtypes sst2A and sst4 respectively. SRIF modulation of the microcircuit was investigated with targeted patch-clamp recordings of DA amacrine cells in TH–RFP mice and M1 ipRGCs in OPN4–EGFP mice. SRIF increases K+ currents, decreases Ca2+ currents, and inhibits spike activity in both cell types, actions reproduced by the selective sst2A agonist L-054,264 (N-[(1R)-2-[[[(1S*,3R*)-3-(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl]methyl]amino]-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxoethyl]spiro[1H-indene-1,4′-piperidine]-1′-carboxamide) in DA amacrine cells and the selective sst4 agonist L-803,087 (N2-[4-(5,7-difluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-l-arginine methyl ester trifluoroacetate) in M1 ipRGCs. These parallel actions of SRIF may serve to counteract the disinhibition of M1 ipRGCs caused by SRIF inhibition of DA amacrine cells. This allows the actions of SRIF on DA amacrine cells to proceed with adjusting retinal DA levels without destabilizing light responses by M1 ipRGCs, which project to non-image-forming targets in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE

  10. Compressive sensing imaging through a drywall barrier at sub-THz and THz frequencies in transmission and reflection modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takan, Taylan; Özkan, Vedat A.; Idikut, Fırat; Yildirim, Ihsan Ozan; Şahin, Asaf B.; Altan, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    In this work sub-terahertz imaging using Compressive Sensing (CS) techniques for targets placed behind a visibly opaque barrier is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. Using a multiplied Schottky diode based millimeter wave source working at 118 GHz, metal cutout targets were illuminated in both reflection and transmission configurations with and without barriers which were made out of drywall. In both modes the image is spatially discretized using laser machined, 10 × 10 pixel metal apertures to demonstrate the technique of compressive sensing. The images were collected by modulating the source and measuring the transmitted flux through the apertures using a Golay cell. Experimental results were compared to simulations of the expected transmission through the metal apertures. Image quality decreases as expected when going from the non-obscured transmission case to the obscured transmission case and finally to the obscured reflection case. However, in all instances the image appears below the Nyquist rate which demonstrates that this technique is a viable option for Through the Wall Reflection Imaging (TWRI) applications.

  11. Joint source-channel coding with allpass filtering source shaping for image transmission over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Chen, Chang W.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a fixed-length robust joint source- channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over noisy channels. Three channel models are studied: binary symmetric channels (BSC) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels for memoryless channels, and Gilbert-Elliott channels (GEC) for bursty channels. We derive, in this research, an explicit operational rate-distortion (R-D) function, which represents an end-to-end error measurement that includes errors due to both quantization and channel noise. In particular, we are able to incorporate the channel transition probability and channel bit error rate into the R-D function in the case of bursty channels. With the operational R-D function, bits are allocated not only among different subsources, but also between source coding and channel coding so that, under a fixed transmission rate, an optimum tradeoff between source coding accuracy and channel error protection can be achieved. This JSCC scheme is also integrated with allpass filtering source shaping to further improve the robustness against channel errors. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve not only high PSNR performance, but also excellent perceptual quality. Compared with the state-of-the-art JSCC schemes, this proposed scheme outperforms most of them especially when the channel mismatch occurs.

  12. Robust image transmission over MIMO space-time coded wireless systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daewon; Chen, Chang W.

    2006-05-01

    We present in this paper an integrated robust image transmission scheme using space-time block codes (STBC) over multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless systems. First, in order to achieve an excellent error resilient capability, multiple bitstreams are generated based on wavelet trees along the spatial orientations. The spatial-orientation trees in the wavelet domain are individually encoded using SPIHT. Error propagation is thus limited within each bitstreams. Then, Reed-Solomon (R-S) codes as forward error correction (FEC) are adopted to combat transmission errors over error-prone wireless channels and to detect residual errors so as to avoid error propagation in each bitstream. FEC can reduce the bit error rates at the expenses of increased data rate. However, it is often difficult to design an optimal FEC scheme for a time-varying multi-path fading channel that may fluctuate beyond the capacity of the adopted FEC scheme. Therefore, in order to overcome such difficulty, we propose an approach to alleviate the effect of multi-path fading by employing the STBC for spatial diversity with assumption that channel state information (CSI) is perfectly estimated at the receiver. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve much improved performance in terms of PSNR over Rayleigh flat fading channel as compared with a wireless system without spatial diversity.

  13. Microtubules in Plant Cells: Strategies and Methods for Immunofluorescence, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Live Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Celler, Katherine; Fujita, Miki; Kawamura, Eiko; Ambrose, Chris; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are required throughout plant development for a wide variety of processes, and different strategies have evolved to visualize and analyze them. This chapter provides specific methods that can be used to analyze microtubule organization and dynamic properties in plant systems and summarizes the advantages and limitations for each technique. We outline basic methods for preparing samples for immunofluorescence labeling, including an enzyme-based permeabilization method, and a freeze-shattering method, which generates microfractures in the cell wall to provide antibodies access to cells in cuticle-laden aerial organs such as leaves. We discuss current options for live cell imaging of MTs with fluorescently tagged proteins (FPs), and provide chemical fixation, high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution, and post-fixation staining protocols for preserving MTs for transmission electron microscopy and tomography. PMID:26498784

  14. Microtubules in Plant Cells: Strategies and Methods for Immunofluorescence, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Celler, Katherine; Fujita, Miki; Kawamura, Eiko; Ambrose, Chris; Herburger, Klaus; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are required throughout plant development for a wide variety of processes, and different strategies have evolved to visualize and analyze them. This chapter provides specific methods that can be used to analyze microtubule organization and dynamic properties in plant systems and summarizes the advantages and limitations for each technique. We outline basic methods for preparing samples for immunofluorescence labelling, including an enzyme-based permeabilization method, and a freeze-shattering method, which generates microfractures in the cell wall to provide antibodies access to cells in cuticle-laden aerial organs such as leaves. We discuss current options for live cell imaging of MTs with fluorescently tagged proteins (FPs), and provide chemical fixation, high pressure freezing/freeze substitution, and post-fixation staining protocols for preserving MTs for transmission electron microscopy and tomography. PMID:26498784

  15. Imaging interfacial micro- and nano-bubbles by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Binyu; Xue, Lian; Guo, Zhi; Dong, Yaming; Fang, Haiping; Tai, Renzhong; Hu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Synchrotron-based scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) with nanometer resolution was used to investigate the existence and behavior of interfacial gas nanobubbles confined between two silicon nitride windows. The observed nanobubbles of SF6 and Ne with diameters smaller than 2.5 µm were quite stable. However, larger bubbles became unstable and grew during the soft X-ray imaging, indicating that stable nanobubbles may have a length scale, which is consistent with a previous report using atomic force microscopy [Zhang et al. (2010), Soft Matter, 6, 4515-4519]. Here, it is shown that STXM is a promising technique for studying the aggregation of gases near the solid/water interfaces at the nanometer scale. PMID:23592619

  16. Imaging gene-substance interactions: the effect of the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine on the brain activation during the anticipation of reward.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Peter; Reuter, Martin; Mier, Daniela; Lonsdorf, Tina; Stark, Rudolf; Gallhofer, Bernd; Vaitl, Dieter; Hennig, Jürgen

    2006-09-25

    Dopamine is known as the main neurotransmitter modulating the activation of the reward system of the brain. The DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with dopamine D2 receptor density which plays an important role in the context of reward. Persons carrying an A1 allele have a lower D2 receptor density and a higher risk to show substance abuse. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and the selective D2 receptor agonist bromociptine on the activation of the reward system by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a double-blind crossover study with 24 participants we found an increase of reward system activation from placebo to bromocriptine only in subjects carrying the A1 allele. Furthermore, only A1 carrier showed an increase of performance under bromocriptine. The results are interpreted as reflecting a specific sensitivity for dopamine agonists in persons carrying an A1 allele and may complement actual data and theories of the development of addiction disorders postulating a higher genetic risk for substance abuse in carrier of the A1 allele. PMID:16901644

  17. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; PRATT, R. GERHARD; DURIC, NEB; LITTRUP, PETER

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  18. Sound-speed and attenuation imaging of breast tissue using waveform tomography of transmission ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, R. Gerhard; Huang, Lianjie; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  19. Penetration depth in tissue-mimicking phantoms from hyperspectral imaging in SWIR in transmission and reflection geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hairong; Salo, Daniel; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explored the depth penetration in tissue-mimicking intralipid-based phantoms in SWIR (800-1650 nm) using a hyperspectral imaging system composed from a 2D CCD camera coupled to a microscope. Hyperspectral images in transmission and reflection geometries were collected with a spectral resolution of 5.27 nm and a total acquisition time of 3 minutes or less that minimized artifacts from sample drying. Michelson spatial contrast was used as a metric to evaluate light penetration. Results from both transmission and reflection geometries consistently revealed the highest spatial contrast in the wavelength range of 1300 to 1350 nm.

  20. Parallel Inhibition of Dopamine Amacrine Cells and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Non-Image-Forming Visual Circuit of the Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Helen E; Hardi, Claudia N; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C

    2015-12-01

    An inner retinal microcircuit composed of dopamine (DA)-containing amacrine cells and melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (M1 ipRGCs) process information about the duration and intensity of light exposures, mediating light adaptation, circadian entrainment, pupillary reflexes, and other aspects of non-image-forming vision. The neural interaction is reciprocal: M1 ipRGCs excite DA amacrine cells, and these, in turn, feed inhibition back onto M1 ipRGCs. We found that the neuropeptide somatostatin [somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF)] also inhibits the intrinsic light response of M1 ipRGCs and postulated that, to tune the bidirectional interaction of M1 ipRGCs and DA amacrine cells, SRIF amacrine cells would provide inhibitory modulation to both cell types. SRIF amacrine cells, DA amacrine cells, and M1 ipRGCs form numerous contacts. DA amacrine cells and M1 ipRGCs express the SRIF receptor subtypes sst(2A) and sst4 respectively. SRIF modulation of the microcircuit was investigated with targeted patch-clamp recordings of DA amacrine cells in TH-RFP mice and M1 ipRGCs in OPN4-EGFP mice. SRIF increases K(+) currents, decreases Ca(2+) currents, and inhibits spike activity in both cell types, actions reproduced by the selective sst(2A) agonist L-054,264 (N-[(1R)-2-[[[(1S*,3R*)-3-(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl]methyl]amino]-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxoethyl]spiro[1H-indene-1,4'-piperidine]-1'-carboxamide) in DA amacrine cells and the selective sst4 agonist L-803,087 (N(2)-[4-(5,7-difluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-L-arginine methyl ester trifluoroacetate) in M1 ipRGCs. These parallel actions of SRIF may serve to counteract the disinhibition of M1 ipRGCs caused by SRIF inhibition of DA amacrine cells. This allows the actions of SRIF on DA amacrine cells to proceed with adjusting retinal DA levels without destabilizing light responses by M1 ipRGCs, which project to non-image-forming targets in the brain. PMID:26631476

  1. Transmission-Type 2-Bit Programmable Metasurface for Single-Sensor and Single-Frequency Microwave Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun Bo; Li, Lian Lin; Xu, Bai Bing; Wu, Wei; Wu, Rui Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    The programmable and digital metamaterials or metasurfaces presented recently have huge potentials in designing real-time-controlled electromagnetic devices. Here, we propose the first transmission-type 2-bit programmable coding metasurface for single-sensor and single- frequency imaging in the microwave frequency. Compared with the existing single-sensor imagers composed of active spatial modulators with their units controlled independently, we introduce randomly programmable metasurface to transform the masks of modulators, in which their rows and columns are controlled simultaneously so that the complexity and cost of the imaging system can be reduced drastically. Different from the single-sensor approach using the frequency agility, the proposed imaging system makes use of variable modulators under single frequency, which can avoid the object dispersion. In order to realize the transmission-type 2-bit programmable metasurface, we propose a two-layer binary coding unit, which is convenient for changing the voltages in rows and columns to switch the diodes in the top and bottom layers, respectively. In our imaging measurements, we generate the random codes by computer to achieve different transmission patterns, which can support enough multiple modes to solve the inverse-scattering problem in the single-sensor imaging. Simple experimental results are presented in the microwave frequency, validating our new single-sensor and single-frequency imaging system. PMID:27025907

  2. Transmission-Type 2-Bit Programmable Metasurface for Single-Sensor and Single-Frequency Microwave Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun Bo; Li, Lian Lin; Xu, Bai Bing; Wu, Wei; Wu, Rui Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    The programmable and digital metamaterials or metasurfaces presented recently have huge potentials in designing real-time-controlled electromagnetic devices. Here, we propose the first transmission-type 2-bit programmable coding metasurface for single-sensor and single- frequency imaging in the microwave frequency. Compared with the existing single-sensor imagers composed of active spatial modulators with their units controlled independently, we introduce randomly programmable metasurface to transform the masks of modulators, in which their rows and columns are controlled simultaneously so that the complexity and cost of the imaging system can be reduced drastically. Different from the single-sensor approach using the frequency agility, the proposed imaging system makes use of variable modulators under single frequency, which can avoid the object dispersion. In order to realize the transmission-type 2-bit programmable metasurface, we propose a two-layer binary coding unit, which is convenient for changing the voltages in rows and columns to switch the diodes in the top and bottom layers, respectively. In our imaging measurements, we generate the random codes by computer to achieve different transmission patterns, which can support enough multiple modes to solve the inverse-scattering problem in the single-sensor imaging. Simple experimental results are presented in the microwave frequency, validating our new single-sensor and single-frequency imaging system. PMID:27025907

  3. Transmission-Type 2-Bit Programmable Metasurface for Single-Sensor and Single-Frequency Microwave Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun Bo; Li, Lian Lin; Xu, Bai Bing; Wu, Wei; Wu, Rui Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-01

    The programmable and digital metamaterials or metasurfaces presented recently have huge potentials in designing real-time-controlled electromagnetic devices. Here, we propose the first transmission-type 2-bit programmable coding metasurface for single-sensor and single- frequency imaging in the microwave frequency. Compared with the existing single-sensor imagers composed of active spatial modulators with their units controlled independently, we introduce randomly programmable metasurface to transform the masks of modulators, in which their rows and columns are controlled simultaneously so that the complexity and cost of the imaging system can be reduced drastically. Different from the single-sensor approach using the frequency agility, the proposed imaging system makes use of variable modulators under single frequency, which can avoid the object dispersion. In order to realize the transmission-type 2-bit programmable metasurface, we propose a two-layer binary coding unit, which is convenient for changing the voltages in rows and columns to switch the diodes in the top and bottom layers, respectively. In our imaging measurements, we generate the random codes by computer to achieve different transmission patterns, which can support enough multiple modes to solve the inverse-scattering problem in the single-sensor imaging. Simple experimental results are presented in the microwave frequency, validating our new single-sensor and single-frequency imaging system.

  4. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bosgra, Jeroen; Eastwood, David S.; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; David, Christian; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  5. Dislocation imaging for orthopyroxene using an atom-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Akihito; Kogure, Toshihiro; Raimbourg, Hugues; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-11-01

    Dislocations, one-dimensional lattice defects, appear as a microscopic phenomenon while they are formed in silicate minerals by macroscopic dynamics of the earth crust such as shear stress. To understand ductile deformation mechanisms of silicates, atomic structures of the dislocations have been examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Among them, it has been proposed that {100}<001> primary slip system of orthopyroxene (Opx) is dissociated into partial dislocations, and a stacking fault with the clinopyroxene (Cpx) structure is formed between the dislocations. This model, however, has not been determined completely due to the complex structures of silicates. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has a potential to determine the structure of dislocations with single-atomic column sensitivity, particularly by using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) and annular bright field (ABF) imaging with a probing aberration corrector.[1] Furthermore, successive analyses from light microscopy to atom-resolved STEM have been achieved by focused ion beam (FIB) sampling techniques.[2] In this study, we examined dislocation arrays at a low-angle grain boundary of ∼1° rotation about the b-axis in natural deformed Opx using a simultaneous acquisition of HAADF/ABF (JEM-ARM200F, JEOL) equipped with 100 mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Figure 1 shows averaged STEM images viewed along the b- axis of Opx extracted from repeating units. HAADF provides the cation-site arrangement, and ABF distinguishes the difference of slightly rotated SiO4 tetrahedron around the a- axis. This is useful to distinguish the change of stacking sequence between the partial dislocations. Two types of stacking faults with Cpx and protopyroxene (Ppx) structures were identified between three partial dislocations. Furthermore, Ca accumulation in M2 (Fe) site around the stacking faults was detected by STEM-EDS. Interestingly, Ca is

  6. Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang Beom; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia; Ikeda, Stephen; Lovinger, David

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical dissociation of neurons from the central nervous system has the advantage that presynaptic boutons remain attached to the isolated neuron of interest. This allows for examination of synaptic transmission under conditions where the extracellular and postsynaptic intracellular environments can be well controlled. A vibration-based technique without the use of proteases, known as vibrodissociation, is the most popular technique for mechanical isolation. A micropipette, with the tip fire-polished to the shape of a small ball, is placed into a brain slice made from a P1-P21 rodent. The micropipette is vibrated parallel to the slice surface and lowered through the slice thickness resulting in the liberation of isolated neurons. The isolated neurons are ready for study within a few minutes of vibrodissociation. This technique has advantages over the use of primary neuronal cultures, brain slices and enzymatically isolated neurons including: rapid production of viable, relatively mature neurons suitable for electrophysiological and imaging studies; superior control of the extracellular environment free from the influence of neighboring cells; suitability for well-controlled pharmacological experiments using rapid drug application and total cell superfusion; and improved space-clamp in whole-cell recordings relative to neurons in slice or cell culture preparations. This preparation can be used to examine synaptic physiology, pharmacology, modulation and plasticity. Real-time imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic elements in the living cells and boutons is also possible using vibrodissociated neurons. Characterization of the molecular constituents of pre- and postsynaptic elements can also be achieved with immunological and imaging-based approaches. PMID:21654624

  7. Increased baseline occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Rodenhiser, Janine; Printz, David; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda; Gil, Roberto; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Weiss, Richard; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Van Heertum, Ronald L.; Gorman, Jack M.; Laruelle, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission at the D2 receptor. We measured in vivo occupancy of striatal D2 receptors by dopamine in 18 untreated patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls, by comparing D2 receptor availability before and during pharmacologically induced acute dopamine depletion. Acute depletion of intrasynaptic dopamine resulted in a larger increase in D2 receptor availability in patients with schizophrenia (19% ± 11%) compared with control subjects (9% ± 7%, P = 0.003). The increased occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine occurred both in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients and in previously treated chronic patients experiencing an episode of illness exacerbation. In addition, elevated synaptic dopamine was predictive of good treatment response of positive symptoms to antipsychotic drugs. This finding provides direct evidence of increased stimulation of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia, consistent with increased phasic activity of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:10884434

  8. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    DOEpatents

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  9. Site-isolated Iridium Complexes on MgO Powder: Individual Ir Atoms Imaged by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun, A.; Ortalan, V; D. Browning, N; C. Gates , B

    2009-01-01

    Iridium complexes were synthesized on MgO powder by adsorption of Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(acac) [acac = acetonylacetonate]; images determined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy show individual Ir atoms, demonstrating that the supported complexes were site-isolated.

  10. Aberrant striatal dopamine transmitter dynamics in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kelly E; Maina, Francis K; Birbeck, Johnna A; France, Marion M; Roberts, Joseph J P; Colombo, Michelle L; Mathews, Tiffany A

    2012-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates the synaptic transmission of several monoaminergic neuronal systems, including forebrain dopamine-containing neurons. Recent evidence shows a strong correlation between neuropsychiatric disorders and BDNF hypofunction. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of low endogenous levels of BDNF on dopamine system function in the caudate-putamen using heterozygous BDNF (BDNF(+/-) ) mice. Apparent extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen, determined by quantitative microdialysis, were significantly elevated in BDNF(+/-) mice compared with wildtype controls (12 vs. 5 nM, respectively). BDNF(+/-) mice also had a potentiated increase in dopamine levels following potassium (120 mM)-stimulation (10-fold) relative to wildtype controls (6-fold). Slice fast-scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that BDNF(+/-) mice had reductions in both electrically evoked dopamine release and dopamine uptake rates in the caudate-putamen. Superfusion of BDNF led to partial recovery of the electrically stimulated dopamine release response in BDNF(+/-) mice. Conversely, tissue accumulation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites, and spontaneous locomotor activity were unaltered. Together, this study indicates that endogenous BDNF influences dopamine system homeostasis by regulating the release and uptake dynamics of pre-synaptic dopamine transmission. PMID:21988371

  11. Dopamine Transporters, D2 Receptors, and Dopamine Release in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schneier, Franklin R.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Laruelle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter availability in the striatum have each been reported abnormal in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) in studies using single photon computerized tomography (SPECT). D2 receptors and dopamine transporters have not previously been studied within the same GSAD subjects, however, and prior GSAD studies have not assessed dopamine release or subdivided striatum into functional subregions. Methods Unmedicated adults with GSAD (N=17) and matched healthy comparison subjects (HC, N=13) participated in this study. Of these, 15 GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed baseline assessment of D2 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiotracer [11C] raclopride. Twelve GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed a repeat scan after intravenous administration of D-amphetamine, to study dopamine release. Twelve of the GSAD subjects and 10 of the HC subjects also completed SPECT with the radiotracer [123I] methyl 3ß-(4-iodophenyl) tropane-2ß-carboxylate ([123I] ß-CIT) to assess dopamine transporter availability. Results GSAD and HC groups did not differ significantly in striatal dopamine transporter availability, overall striatal or striatal subregion D2 receptor availability at baseline, or change in D2 receptor availability after D-amphetamine. Receptor availability and change after D-amphetamine were not significantly associated with severity of social anxiety or trait detachment. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previous findings of altered striatal dopamine transporter and D2 receptor availability in GSAD subjects assessed with SPECT. The differences from results of prior studies may be due to differences in imaging methods or characteristics of samples. PMID:19180583

  12. Imaging heterostructured quantum dots in cultured cells with epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Erin M.; Trujillo Provencio, Casilda; Steinbrueck, Andrea; Rastogi, Pawan; Dennis, Allison; Hollingsworth, Jennifer; Serrano, Elba

    2011-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with extensive imaging and diagnostic capabilities, including the potential for single molecule tracking. Commercially available QDs offer distinct advantages over organic fluorophores, such as increased photostability and tunable emission spectra, but their cadmium selenide (CdSe) core raises toxicity concerns. For this reason, replacements for CdSe-based QDs have been sought that can offer equivalent optical properties. The spectral range, brightness and stability of InP QDs may comprise such a solution. To this end, LANL/CINT personnel fabricated moderately thick-shell novel InP QDs that retain brightness and emission over time in an aqueous environment. We are interested in evaluating how the composition and surface properties of these novel QDs affect their entry and sequestration within the cell. Here we use epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate the structural properties of cultured Xenopus kidney cells (A6; ATCC) that were exposed either to commercially available CdSe QDs (Qtracker® 565, Invitrogen) or to heterostructured InP QDs (LANL). Epifluorescence imaging permitted assessment of the general morphology of cells labeled with fluorescent molecular probes (Alexa Fluor® ® phalloidin; Hoechst 33342), and the prevalence of QD association with cells. In contrast, TEM offered unique advantages for viewing electron dense QDs at higher resolution with regard to subcellular sequestration and compartmentalization. Preliminary results show that in the absence of targeting moieties, InP QDs (200 nM) can passively enter cells and sequester nonspecifically in cytosolic regions whereas commercially available targeted QDs principally associate with membranous structures within the cell. Supported by: NIH 5R01GM084702.

  13. Direct imaging of light elements by annular dark-field aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotnyk, Andriy Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-02-17

    In this report, we show that an annular dark-field detector in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope allows the direct observation of light element columns in crystalline lattices. At specific imaging conditions, an enhancement of the intensities of light element columns in the presence of heavy element columns is observed. Experimental results are presented for imaging the nitrogen and carbon atomic columns at the GaN-SiC interface and within the GaN and SiC compounds. The crystal polarity of GaN at the interface is identified. The obtained findings are discussed and are well supported by image simulations.

  14. Refraction corrected transmission ultrasound computed tomography for application in breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengying; Jackowski, Marcel; Dione, Donald P.; Varslot, Trond; Staib, Lawrence H.; Mueller, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We present an iterative framework for CT reconstruction from transmission ultrasound data which accurately and efficiently models the strong refraction effects that occur in our target application: Imaging the female breast. Methods: Our refractive ray tracing framework has its foundation in the fast marching method (FNMM) and it allows an accurate as well as efficient modeling of curved rays. We also describe a novel regularization scheme that yields further significant reconstruction quality improvements. A final contribution is the development of a realistic anthropomorphic digital breast phantom based on the NIH Visible Female data set. Results: Our system is able to resolve very fine details even in the presence of significant noise, and it reconstructs both sound speed and attenuation data. Excellent correspondence with a traditional, but significantly more computationally expensive wave equation solver is achieved. Conclusions: Apart from the accurate modeling of curved rays, decisive factors have also been our regularization scheme and the high-quality interpolation filter we have used. An added benefit of our framework is that it accelerates well on GPUs where we have shown that clinical 3D reconstruction speeds on the order of minutes are possible. PMID:20527557

  15. Multivariate statistics applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy X-ray spectrum imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    A modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system can quickly and easily produce spectrum image (SI) datasets containing so much information (hundreds to thousands of megabytes) that they cannot be comprehensively interrogated by a human analyst. Therefore, advanced mathematical techniques are needed to glean materials science and engineering insight into the processing-structure-properties relationship of the examined material from the SI data. This review will discuss recent advances in the application of multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) methods to STEM-EDS SI experiments. In particular, the fundamental mathematics of principal component analysis (PCA) and related methods are reviewed, and advanced methods such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR) are discussed. The applications of PCA and MCR-based techniques to solve difficult materials science problems, such as the analysis of a particle fully embedded in a matrix phase are discussed, as well as confounding effects such as rank deficiency that can confuse the results of MVSA computations. Possible future advances and areas in need of study are also mentioned.

  16. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  17. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  18. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    modulate the activity and/or Dopamine synthesis of substantial numbers of tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons at the somatic and terminal level. The immunohistochemical work also gives support to the view that dopamine D1 receptors and/or dopamine D2 receptors in the lateral palisade zone by mediating dopamine volume transmission may contribute to the inhibition of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release from nerve terminals in this region. PMID:25308843

  19. Dopamine and synaptic plasticity in the neostriatum

    PubMed Central

    ARBUTHNOTT, G. W.; INGHAM, C. A.; WICKENS, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    dopamine, close to the striatal cell being recorded from, and in temporal association with the cortical trains, leads to a similar LTP like effect. The reduction of K+ channel conductance in the bath with TEA also has the effect of making cortical trains induce potentiation of corticostriatal transmission. TEA applied only to the cell being recorded from has no similar effect; the cortical stimulation again depresses the EPSP amplitude, so the site of action of TEA may well be presynaptic to the striatal cell. The morphological and physiological experiments may not necessarily be related but it is tempting to suggest that dopamine protects some corticostriatal synapses by potentiating them but that in the absence of dopamine others simply disconnect and are no longer detectable on electron microscopy. PMID:10923989

  20. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  1. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope. PMID:27472127

  2. Imaging of built-in electric field at a p-n junction by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D.; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Takao; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kohno, Yuji; Otomo, Shinya; Minato, Ryuichiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurement and characterization of electrostatic potential structures and the concomitant electric fields at nanodimensions are essential to understand and control the properties of modern materials and devices. However, directly observing and measuring such local electric field information is still a major challenge in microscopy. Here, differential phase contrast imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy with segmented type detector is used to image a p-n junction in a GaAs compound semiconductor. Differential phase contrast imaging is able to both clearly visualize and quantify the projected, built-in electric field in the p-n junction. The technique is further shown capable of sensitively detecting the electric field variations due to dopant concentration steps within both p-type and n-type regions. Through live differential phase contrast imaging, this technique can potentially be used to image the electromagnetic field structure of new materials and devices even under working conditions. PMID:26067359

  3. Transmission imaging of sodium in the vacuum ultra-violet spectral range: new application for an intense VUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daido, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yoji; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Takeshi; Nakagiri, Toshio; Kaku, Masanori; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.

    2013-09-01

    Metallic sodium (Na) was proposed as a transparent material in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) spectral range in 1930s and in 1960s. However no clear transmission has ever been demonstrated. In this paper we describe firstly the direct measurement of actual transmittance of a sodium samples in a spectral range longer than 115 nm which corresponds to the shortest transmission wavelength of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) windows, resulting in several tens of % transmittance of a 3 mm-thick solid sodium sample including MgF2 windows at the wavelength of ~120 nm. We also find very weak temperature dependency of the transmittance up to 150 degrees centigrade where the solid sample is melted at 97 degrees. The measured transmittance pushes us to make a simple imaging experiment illuminated by the VUV light through a 2-mm thick sodium sample, resulting in obtaining a clear image composed of 100 μm diameter tungsten mesh recorded on a two dimensional Charge Coupled Device detector. The result also opens a way to construct an optical imaging device for objects inside or through a solid or a liquid sodium medium. According to the present experiment, we can make a continuous real time transmission imaging for a liquid sodium sample if we use proper optical setup including an intense continuous VUV source or high repetition rated intense coherent source for holographic data acquisition. Such an experiment opens up a way to perform transmission imaging through or inside a sodium medium for characterization of hydrodynamic and material properties.

  4. Image and Diagnosis Quality of X-Ray Image Transmission via Cell Phone Camera: A Project Study Evaluating Quality and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Andreas; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Weber, Oliver; Gräff, Ingo; Burger, Christof; Montag, Mareen; Koerfer, Felix; Kabir, Koroush

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. Materials and Methods A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. Results Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265–590 kB, SD ±59), average transmission time was 3.29 min ±8 (CI 95%: 1.7–4.9). Applying a score from 1–10 (very poor - excellent), mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2±4% (mean value ± SD) of cases (median 82; 80–89%), there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. Discussion While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone. PMID:23082108

  5. [Non-destructive detection research for hollow heart of potato based on semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging and SVM].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-yu; Xu, Meng-ling; Jin, Rui; Ku, Jing; Xu, Sen-miao; Wu, Zhen-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The quality of potato is directly related to their edible value and industrial value. Hollow heart of potato, as a physiological disease occurred inside the tuber, is difficult to be detected. This paper put forward a non-destructive detection method by using semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging with support vector machine (SVM) to detect hollow heart of potato. Compared to reflection and transmission hyperspectral image, semi-transmission hyperspectral image can get clearer image which contains the internal quality information of agricultural products. In this study, 224 potato samples (149 normal samples and 75 hollow samples) were selected as the research object, and semi-transmission hyperspectral image acquisition system was constructed to acquire the hyperspectral images (390-1 040 nn) of the potato samples, and then the average spectrum of region of interest were extracted for spectral characteristics analysis. Normalize was used to preprocess the original spectrum, and prediction model were developed based on SVM using all wave bands, the accurate recognition rate of test set is only 87. 5%. In order to simplify the model competitive.adaptive reweighed sampling algorithm (CARS) and successive projection algorithm (SPA) were utilized to select important variables from the all 520 spectral variables and 8 variables were selected (454, 601, 639, 664, 748, 827, 874 and 936 nm). 94. 64% of the accurate recognition rate of test set was obtained by using the 8 variables to develop SVM model. Parameter optimization algorithms, including artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search algorithm, were used to optimize the SVM model parameters: penalty parameter c and kernel parameter g. After comparative analysis, AFSA, a new bionic optimization algorithm based on the foraging behavior of fish swarm, was proved to get the optimal model parameter (c=10. 659 1, g=0. 349 7), and the recognition accuracy of 10% were obtained for the AFSA

  6. High-Resolution 3-D Imaging and Tissue Differentiation with Transmission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmarelis, V. Z.; Jeong, J.; Shin, D. C.; Do, S.

    A three-dimensional High-resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) system has been developed recently under the sponsorship of the Alfred Mann Institute at the University of Southern California that holds the promise of early detection of breast cancer (mm-size lesions) with greater sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) than current x-ray mammograghy. In addition to sub-mm resolution in 3-D, the HUTT system has the unique capability of reliable tissue classification by means of the frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics of individual voxels that are extracted from the tomographic data through novel signal processing methods. These methods yield "multi-band signatures" of the various tissue types that are utilized to achieve reliable tissue differentiation via novel segmentation and classification algorithms. The unparalleled high-resolution and tissue differentiation capabilities of the HUTT system have been demonstrated so far with man-made and animal-tissue phantoms. Illustrative results are presented that corroborate these claims, although several challenges remain to make HUTT a clinically acceptable technology. The next critical step is to collect and analyze data from human subjects (female breasts) in order to demonstrate the key capability of the HUTT system to detect breast lesions early (at the mm-size stage) and to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in a manner that is far superior (in terms of sensitivity and specificity) to the current x-ray mammography. The key initial application of the HUTT imaging technology is envisioned to be the early (at the mm-size) detection of breast cancer, which represents a major threat to the well-being of women around the world. The potential impact is estimated in hundreds of thousands lives saved, millions of unnecessary biopsies avoided, and billions of dollars saved in national health-care costs every year - to say nothing of the tens of thousands of

  7. The Role of Dopamine and Its Dysfunction as a Consequence of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Hernández García, Ernestina; Barragán Mejía, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is produced in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus of the brain. Dysfunction of the dopamine system has been implicated in different nervous system diseases. The level of dopamine transmission increases in response to any type of reward and by a large number of strongly additive drugs. The role of dopamine dysfunction as a consequence of oxidative stress is involved in health and disease. Introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potential of antioxidant compounds as a coadjuvant treatment to conventional neurological disorders is discussed. PMID:26770661

  8. Transmission-less attenuation estimation from time-of-flight PET histo-images using consistency equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yusheng; Defrise, Michel; Metzler, Scott D.; Matej, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, attenuation correction with accurate attenuation estimation is crucial for quantitative patient studies. Recent research showed that the attenuation sinogram can be determined up to a scaling constant utilizing the time-of-flight information. The TOF-PET data can be naturally and efficiently stored in a histo-image without information loss, and the radioactive tracer distribution can be efficiently reconstructed using the DIRECT approaches. In this paper, we explore transmission-less attenuation estimation from TOF-PET histo-images. We first present the TOF-PET histo-image formation and the consistency equations in the histo-image parameterization, then we derive a least-squares solution for estimating the directional derivatives of the attenuation factors from the measured emission histo-images. Finally, we present a fast solver to estimate the attenuation factors from their directional derivatives using the discrete sine transform and fast Fourier transform while considering the boundary conditions. We find that the attenuation histo-images can be uniquely determined from the TOF-PET histo-images by considering boundary conditions. Since the estimate of the attenuation directional derivatives can be inaccurate for LORs tangent to the patient boundary, external sources, e.g. a ring or annulus source, might be needed to give an accurate estimate of the attenuation gradient for such LORs. The attenuation estimation from TOF-PET emission histo-images is demonstrated using simulated 2D TOF-PET data.

  9. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging local modulation of strain field in a hetero interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-13

    We present an innovative method for characterizing the strain field in three dimensions in a hetero interface. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy (LDP-STEM) was employed for imaging the inhomogeneous strain field in a germanium (Ge) layer deposited on a silicon (Si) substrate. In the LDP-STEM image, Ge-atomic columns that are relaxed or strained to the Si substrate in the Si/Ge hetero interface were observed to be distinguishable, allowing for the qualitative characterization of the coherency of the crystal growth. Our results revealed that the strain field is locally modulated along the in-plane direction in the Si/Ge hetero interface.

  10. Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  11. Tissue protein imaging at 1 μm laser spot diameter for high spatial resolution and high imaging speed using transmission geometry MALDI TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Hayden, Kevin; Vestal, Marvin; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    We have achieved protein imaging mass spectrometry capabilities at sub-cellular spatial resolution and at high acquisition speed by integrating a transmission geometry ion source with time of flight mass spectrometry. The transmission geometry principle allowed us to achieve a 1 μm laser spot diameter on target. A minimal raster step size of the instrument was 2.5 μm. Use of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone robotically sprayed on top of a tissue sample as a matrix together with additional sample preparation steps resulted in single pixel mass spectra from mouse cerebellum tissue sections having more than 20 peaks in a range 3–22 kDa. Mass spectrometry images were acquired in a standard step raster microprobe mode at 5 pixels/s and in a continuous raster mode at 40 pixels/s. PMID:25673247

  12. Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Maria A; Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Chappell, Ann M; Deal, Alex L; Bonin, Keith D; Weiner, Jeff L; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2016-10-01

    Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward. Using a two bottle choice paradigm (sucrose vs. water), the experiments revealed that tonic optogenetic stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission significantly decreased reward consummatory behaviors. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the number of bouts, licks and amount of sucrose obtained during the drinking session. Notably, activation of VTA dopamine cell bodies or dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens resulted in identical behavioral consequences. No changes in water intake were evident under the same experimental conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tonic optogenetic stimulation of VTA-nucleus accumbens dopamine release is sufficient to inhibit reward consummatory behavior, possibly by preventing this circuit from engaging in phasic activity that is thought to be essential for reward-based behaviors. PMID:27421228

  13. Differential optimal dopamine levels for set-shifting and working memory in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Sean James; Smulders, Katrijn; Esselink, Rianne A; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Cools, Roshan

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important model for the role of dopamine in supporting human cognition. However, despite the uniformity of midbrain dopamine depletion only some patients experience cognitive impairment. The neurocognitive mechanisms of this heterogeneity remain unclear. A genetic polymorphism in the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, predominantly thought to exert its cognitive effect through acting on prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine transmission, provides us with an experimental window onto dopamine's role in cognitive performance in PD. In a large cohort of PD patients (n=372), we examined the association between COMT genotype and two tasks known to implicate prefrontal dopamine (spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting) and on a task less sensitive to prefrontal dopamine (paired associates learning). Consistent with the known neuroanatomical locus of its effects, differences between the COMT genotype groups were observed on dopamine-dependant tasks, but not the paired associates learning task. However, COMT genotype had differential effects on the two prefrontal dopamine tasks. Putative prefrontal dopamine levels influenced spatial working memory in an 'Inverted-U'-shaped fashion, whereas a linear, dose-dependant pattern was observed for attentional set-shifting. Cumulatively, these results revise our understanding of when COMT genotype modulates cognitive functioning in PD patients by showing that the behavioural consequences of genetic variation vary according to task demands, presumably because set-shifting and working memory have different optimal dopamine levels. PMID:26239947

  14. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. PMID:26608248

  15. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) and dopamine DA1 agonist-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase in renal tubule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meister, B; Fryckstedt, J; Schalling, M; Cortés, R; Hökfelt, T; Aperia, A; Hemmings, H C; Nairn, A C; Ehrlich, M; Greengard, P

    1989-01-01

    The cellular localization of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 that appears to mediate certain actions of dopamine in the mammalian brain by acting as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1, was studied in the kidney of several species. DARPP-32 mRNA and DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The specific dopamine DA1 agonist SKF 82526 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, which could be blocked by SCH 23390, a specific DA1 antagonist, and by PKI-(5-24) amide, a specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The results indicate that DA1 dopamine receptors and DARPP-32, an intracellular third messenger for dopamine, are part of the signal-transduction process for dopamine acting on renal tubule cells. Images PMID:2573060

  16. Characterisation of [11C]PR04.MZ in Papio anubis baboon: A selective high-affinity radioligand for quantitative imaging of the dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Riss P. J.; Fowler J.; Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.M.; Shea, C.; Xu, Y.; Carter, P.; Warner, D.; Ferrari V.; Kim, S.W.; Aigbirhio, F.I.; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2011-10-25

    N-(4-fluorobut-2-yn-1-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4{prime}-tolyl)nortropane (PR04.MZ, 1) is a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of the function of the cerebral dopamine transporter (DAT). A reliable automated process for routine production of the carbon-11 labelled analogue [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ ([{sup 11}C]-1) has been developed using GMP compliant equipment. An adult female Papioanubis baboon was studied using a test-retest protocol with [{sup 11}C]-1 in order to assess test-retest reliability, metabolism and CNS distribution profile of the tracer in non-human primates. Blood sampling was performed throughout the studies for determination of the free fraction in plasma (fP), plasma input functions and metabolic degradation of the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-1. Time-activity curves were derived for the putamen, the caudate nucleus, the ventral striatum, the midbrain and the cerebellum. Distribution volumes (VT) and non-displaceable binding potentials (BPND) for various brain regions and the blood were obtained from kinetic modelling. [{sup 11}C]-1 shows promising results as aselective marker of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. With the reliable visualisation of the extra-striatal dopaminergic neurons and no indication on labelled metabolites, the tracer provides excellent potential for translation into man.

  17. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  18. Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation into a Non-Contact Liquid Vortex Capture Probe for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Bhandari, Deepak; Lorenz, Matthias; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Capture of material from a laser ablation plume into a continuous flow stream of solvent provides the means for uninterrupted sampling, transport and ionization of collected material for coupling with mass spectral analysis. Reported here is the use of vertically aligned transmission geometry laser ablation in combination with a new non-contact liquid vortex capture probe coupled with electrospray ionization for spot sampling and chemical imaging with mass spectrometry. Methods: A vertically aligned continuous flow liquid vortex capture probe was positioned directly underneath a sample surface in a transmission geometry laser ablation (355 nm, 10 Hz, 7 ns pulse width) setup to capture into solution the ablated material. The outlet of the vortex probe was coupled to the Turbo V ion source of an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer. System operation and performance metrics were tested using inked patterns and thin tissue sections. Glass slides and slides designed especially for laser capture microdissection, viz., DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides, were used as sample substrates. Results: The estimated capture efficiency of laser ablated material was 24%, which was enabled by the use of a probe with large liquid surface area (~ 2.8 mm2) and with gravity to help direct ablated material vertically down towards the probe. The swirling vortex action of the liquid surface potentially enhanced capture and dissolution of not only particulates, but also gaseous products of the laser ablation. The use of DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides as sample substrates enabled effective ablation of a wide range of sample types (basic blue 7, polypropylene glycol, insulin and cyctochrome c) without photodamage using a UV laser. Imaging resolution of about 6 m was demonstrated for stamped ink on DIRECTOR slides based on the ability to distinguish features present both in the optical and in the

  19. Image fiber optic space-CDMA parallel transmission experiment using 8 x 8 VCSEL/PD arrays.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Moriya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi; Igasaki, Yasunori; Shamoto, Naoki; Kaneda, Keiji

    2002-11-10

    We experimentally demonstrate space-code-division multiple access (space-CDMA) based twodimensional (2-D) parallel optical interconnections by using image fibers and 8 x 8 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)/photo diode (PD) arrays. Two spatially encoded four-bit (2 x 2) parallel optical signals were emitted fiom 2-D VCSEL arrays and transmitted through image fibers. The encoded signals were multiplexed by an image-fiber coupler and detected by a 2-D PD array on the receiver side. The receiver recovered the intended parallel signal by decoding the signal. The transmission speed was 64 Mbps/ch (total throughput: 512 Mbps). Bit-error-rate (BER) measurement with a laterally misaligned PD array showed the array had a misalignment tolerance of 25 microm for a BER performance of 10(-9). PMID:12440546

  20. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  1. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  2. Terahertz wave two-dimensional transmission imaging with a backward wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyang; Ge, Xinhao; Zhang, Cunlin

    2008-12-01

    We present a terahertz (THz) imaging system with a Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO). BWO Continuous-Wave THz imaging is a new approach to non-destructive testing. Many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light are transparent to THz radiation. THz wave image provides a higher spatial resolution than microwave image by having much shorter wavelength. It also poses no known harm to living organisms, making it a safe and powerful imaging technology. Unlike pulsed THz imaging, BWO THz imaging only yields intensity data without providing any depth, frequency-domain or time-domain information about the subject. However, in most cases the energy plots are sufficient for identification of targets. In exchange for the loss of depth, time-domain and frequency-domain information, BWO imaging offers a simple, fast and relatively low-cost system. In this work we show a simple Terahertz (THz) 2-dimentional scanning imaging system utilizing a BWO source tunable from 0.52 to 0.71 THz and a pyroelectric sensor detector operated in THz range. The sample is placed on an X-Z two-dimensional stage controlled by a computer. The intensity information of the terahertz wave after passing sample is collected. Two-dimensional image of the sample is obtained by raster scanning the sample in X and Z directions. A number of potential imaging applications are demonstrated using the 0.71 THz radiation, including nondestructive real-time testing for campus debit card and various articles contained in an envelop. And we present the digital image processing based on the result of the imaging system. This work reveals that a BWO THz imaging system is very practical, effective and promising in nondestructive identification and security inspections applications in future.

  3. Iterative Stable Alignment and Clustering of 2D Transmission Electron Microscope Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengfan; Fang, Jia; Chittuluru, Johnathan; Asturias, Francisco J.; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of homogeneous subsets of images in a macromolecular electron microscopy (EM) image data set is a critical step in single-particle analysis. The task is handled by iterative algorithms, whose performance is compromised by the compounded limitations of image alignment and K-means clustering. Here we describe an approach, iterative stable alignment and clustering (ISAC) that, relying on a new clustering method and on the concepts of stability and reproducibility, can extract validated, homogeneous subsets of images. ISAC requires only a small number of simple parameters and, with minimal human intervention, can eliminate bias from two-dimensional image clustering and maximize the quality of group averages that can be used for ab initio three-dimensional structural determination and analysis of macromolecular conformational variability. Repeated testing of the stability and reproducibility of a solution within ISAC eliminates heterogeneous or incorrect classes and introduces critical validation to the process of EM image clustering. PMID:22325773

  4. DOPAMINE AND FOOD ADDICTION: LEXICON BADLY NEEDED

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term “addiction” to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates “reward”, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present paper provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors, and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  5. Dopamine and food addiction: lexicon badly needed.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2013-05-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term addiction to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates reward, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present article provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  6. Three-Dimensional Imaging of HIV-1 Virological Synapses Reveals Membrane Architectures Involved in Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thao; Murphy, Gavin; Earl, Lesley A.; Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Li, Guan-Han; Estes, Jacob D.; Rao, Prashant; Trubey, Charles M.; Thomas, James; Spector, Jeffrey; Bliss, Donald; Nath, Avindra; Lifson, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV transmission efficiency is greatly increased when viruses are transmitted at virological synapses formed between infected and uninfected cells. We have previously shown that virological synapses formed between HIV-pulsed mature dendritic cells (DCs) and uninfected T cells contain interdigitated membrane surfaces, with T cell filopodia extending toward virions sequestered deep inside invaginations formed on the DC membrane. To explore membrane structural changes relevant to HIV transmission across other types of intercellular conjugates, we used a combination of light and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to determine the three-dimensional (3D) architectures of contact regions between HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells and either uninfected human CD4+ T cells or human fetal astrocytes. We present evidence that in each case, membrane extensions that originate from the uninfected cells, either as membrane sheets or filopodial bridges, are present and may be involved in HIV transmission from infected to uninfected cells. We show that individual virions are distributed along the length of astrocyte filopodia, suggesting that virus transfer to the astrocytes is mediated, at least in part, by processes originating from the astrocyte itself. Mechanisms that selectively disrupt the polarization and formation of such membrane extensions could thus represent a possible target for reducing viral spread. IMPORTANCE Our findings lead to new insights into unique aspects of HIV transmission in the brain and at T cell-T cell synapses, which are thought to be a predominant mode of rapid HIV transmission early in the infection process. PMID:24965444

  7. Image haze removal algorithm for transmission lines based on weighted Gaussian PDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wanguo; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Li; Wang, Zhenli; Li, Jianxiang; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-03-01

    Histogram specification is a useful algorithm of image enhancement field. This paper proposes an image haze removal algorithm of histogram specification based on the weighted Gaussian probability density function (Gaussian PDF). Firstly, we consider the characteristics of image histogram that captured when sunny, fogging and haze weather. Then, we solve the weak intensity of image specification through changing the variance and weighted Gaussian PDF. The performance of the algorithm could removal the effective of fog and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared with histogram specification. It also has much advantage in respect of low computational complexity, high efficiency, no manual intervention.

  8. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. PMID:26716724

  9. Visualizing dopamine released from living cells using a nanoplasmonic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W. W.; Wang, S. P.; Li, J.; Peng, T. H.; Xu, Y.; Wang, K.; Shi, J. Y.; Fan, C. H.; Li, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive nanoplasmonic probe for discriminative detection and imaging of dopamine released from living cells. The sensing mechanism is based on the dopamine-induced seeded-growth of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) that leads to the shift of the plasmon band. This platform allows for the detection of dopamine with a detection limit down to 0.25 pM within 1 min. This nanoplasmonic assay is further applied to visualize the release of dopamine from living rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under ATP-stimulation with dark-field microscopy (DFM). The DFM results together with real time fluorescence imaging of PC12 cells stained with the Fluo calcium indicator, suggested that ATP stimulated-release of dopamine is concomitant with the Ca2+ influx, and the influx of Ca2+ is through ATP-activated channels instead of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGC).We report the development of an ultrasensitive nanoplasmonic probe for discriminative detection and imaging of dopamine released from living cells. The sensing mechanism is based on the dopamine-induced seeded-growth of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) that leads to the shift of the plasmon band. This platform allows for the detection of dopamine with a detection limit down to 0.25 pM within 1 min. This nanoplasmonic assay is further applied to visualize the release of dopamine from living rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under ATP-stimulation with dark-field microscopy (DFM). The DFM results together with real time fluorescence imaging of PC12 cells stained with the Fluo calcium indicator, suggested that ATP stimulated-release of dopamine is concomitant with the Ca2+ influx, and the influx of Ca2+ is through ATP-activated channels instead of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGC). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S4 and Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04433b

  10. Compact, transmissive two-dimensional spatial disperser design with application in simultaneous endoscopic imaging and laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Metz, Philipp; Adam, Jost; Gerken, Martina; Jalali, Bahram

    2014-01-20

    Minimally invasive surgery procedures benefit from a reduced size of endoscopic devices. A prospective path to implement miniaturized endoscopy is single optical-fiber-based spectrally encoded imaging. While simultaneous spectrally encoded inertial-scan-free imaging and laser microsurgery have been successfully demonstrated in a large table setup, a highly miniaturized optical design would promote the development of multipurpose endoscope heads. This paper presents a highly scalable, entirely transmissive axial design for a spectral 2D spatial disperser. The proposed design employs a grating prism and a virtual imaged phased array (VIPA). Based on semi-analytical device modeling, we performed a systematic parameter analysis to assess the spectral disperser's manufacturability and to obtain an optimum application-specific design. We found that, in particular, a low grating period combined with a high optical input bandwidth and low VIPA tilt showed favorable results in terms of a high spatial resolution, a small device diameter, and a large field of view. Our calculations reveal that a reasonable imaging performance can be achieved with system diameters of below 5 mm, which renders the proposed 2D spatial disperser design highly suitable for use in future endoscope heads that combine mechanical-scan-free imaging and laser microsurgery. PMID:24514122

  11. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  12. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  13. An implementation of wireless medical image transmission system on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, SangBock; Lee, Taesoo; Jin, Gyehwan; Hong, Juhyun

    2008-12-01

    The advanced technology of computing system was followed by the rapid improvement of medical instrumentation and patient record management system. The typical examples are hospital information system (HIS) and picture archiving and communication system (PACS), which computerized the management procedure of medical records and images in hospital. Because these systems were built and used in hospitals, doctors out of hospital have problems to access them immediately on emergent cases. To solve these problems, this paper addressed the realization of system that could transmit the images acquired by medical imaging systems in hospital to the remote doctors' handheld PDA's using CDMA cellular phone network. The system consists of server and PDA. The server was developed to manage the accounts of doctors and patients and allocate the patient images to each doctor. The PDA was developed to display patient images through remote server connection. To authenticate the personal user, remote data access (RDA) method was used in PDA accessing the server database and file transfer protocol (FTP) was used to download patient images from the remove server. In laboratory experiments, it was calculated to take ninety seconds to transmit thirty images with 832 x 488 resolution and 24 bit depth and 0.37 Mb size. This result showed that the developed system has no problems for remote doctors to receive and review the patient images immediately on emergent cases. PMID:19058651

  14. Design and evaluation of web-based image transmission and display with different protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bin; Chen, Kuangyi; Zheng, Xichuan; Zhang, Jianguo

    2011-03-01

    There are many Web-based image accessing technologies used in medical imaging area, such as component-based (ActiveX Control) thick client Web display, Zerofootprint thin client Web viewer (or called server side processing Web viewer), Flash Rich Internet Application(RIA) ,or HTML5 based Web display. Different Web display methods have different peformance in different network environment. In this presenation, we give an evaluation on two developed Web based image display systems. The first one is used for thin client Web display. It works between a PACS Web server with WADO interface and thin client. The PACS Web server provides JPEG format images to HTML pages. The second one is for thick client Web display. It works between a PACS Web server with WADO interface and thick client running in browsers containing ActiveX control, Flash RIA program or HTML5 scripts. The PACS Web server provides native DICOM format images or JPIP stream for theses clients.

  15. Dopamine receptors - IUPHAR Review 13.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  16. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Martinez, G. T.; Van Aert, S.; Dekker, A. J. den; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-08-11

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, are often discussed hereby aiming at improvements of the direct visual interpretability. However, when images are interpreted quantitatively, one needs an alternative criterion, which we derive based on statistical detection theory. Using realistic simulations of technologically important materials, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method and compare the results with existing approaches.

  17. Energy Efficient Image/Video Data Transmission on Commercial Multi-Core Processors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungju; Kim, Heegon; Chung, Yongwha; Park, Daihee

    2012-01-01

    In transmitting image/video data over Video Sensor Networks (VSNs), energy consumption must be minimized while maintaining high image/video quality. Although image/video compression is well known for its efficiency and usefulness in VSNs, the excessive costs associated with encoding computation and complexity still hinder its adoption for practical use. However, it is anticipated that high-performance handheld multi-core devices will be used as VSN processing nodes in the near future. In this paper, we propose a way to improve the energy efficiency of image and video compression with multi-core processors while maintaining the image/video quality. We improve the compression efficiency at the algorithmic level or derive the optimal parameters for the combination of a machine and compression based on the tradeoff between the energy consumption and the image/video quality. Based on experimental results, we confirm that the proposed approach can improve the energy efficiency of the straightforward approach by a factor of 2∼5 without compromising image/video quality. PMID:23202181

  18. Coded aperture x-ray diffraction imaging with transmission computed tomography side-information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odinaka, Ikenna; Greenberg, Joel A.; Kaganovsky, Yan; Holmgren, Andrew; Hassan, Mehadi; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Carin, Lawrence; Brady, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Coded aperture X-ray diffraction (coherent scatter spectral) imaging provides fast and dose-efficient measurements of the molecular structure of an object. The information provided is spatially-dependent and material-specific, and can be utilized in medical applications requiring material discrimination, such as tumor imaging. However, current coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system assume a uniformly or weakly attenuating object, and are plagued by image degradation due to non-uniform self-attenuation. We propose accounting for such non-uniformities in the self-attenuation by utilizing an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image (reconstructed attenuation map). In particular, we present an iterative algorithm for coherent scatter spectral image reconstruction, which incorporates the attenuation map, at different stages, resulting in more accurate coherent scatter spectral images in comparison to their uncorrected counterpart. The algorithm is based on a spectrally grouped edge-preserving regularizer, where the neighborhood edge weights are determined by spatial distances and attenuation values.

  19. Analyzing the effect of absorption and refractive index on image formation in high numerical aperture transmission microscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Ryan L.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    Transmission bright-field microscopy is the clinical mainstay for disease diagnosis where image contrast is provided by absorptive and refractive index differences between tissue and the surrounding media. Different microscopy techniques often assume one of the two contrast mechanisms is negligible as a means to better understand the tissue scattering processes. This particular work provides better understanding of the role of refractive index and absorption within Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy (OPTM) through the development of a generalized computational model based upon the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The model mimics OPTM by simulating axial scanning of the objective focal plane through the cell to produce projection images. These projection images, acquired from circumferential positions around the cell, are reconstructed into isometric three-dimensional images using the filtered backprojection normally employed in Computed Tomography (CT). The model provides a platform to analyze all aspects of bright-field microscopes, such as the degree of refractive index matching and the numerical aperture, which can be varied from air-immersion to high NA oil-immersion. In this preliminary work, the model is used to understand the effects of absorption and refraction on image formation using micro-shells and idealized nuclei. Analysis of absorption and refractive index separately provides the opportunity to better assess their role together as a complex refractive index for improved interpretation of bright-field scattering, essential for OPTM image reconstruction. This simulation, as well as ones in the future looking at other effects, will be used to optimize OPTM imaging parameters and triage efforts to further improve the overall system design.

  20. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  1. Optical clearing of unsectioned specimens for three-dimensional imaging via optical transmission and emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark; Sakhalkar, Harshad; Oliver, Tim; Johnson, G. Allan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques that enable unprecedented high-resolution 3-D multimodal imaging of tissue structure and function. Applications include imaging macroscopic gene expression and microvasculature structure in unsectioned biological specimens up to 8 cm3. A key requisite for these imaging techniques is effective sample preparation including optical clearing, which enables light transport through the sample while preserving the signal (either light absorbing stain or fluorescent proteins) in representative form. We review recent developments in optical-CT and optical-ECT, and compatible “fluorescence-friendly” optical clearing protocols. PMID:18465962

  2. Characterization of the morphological properties of welding fume particles by transmission electron microscopy and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Farrants, G; Schüler, B; Karlsen, J; Reith, A; Langård, S

    1989-09-01

    The morphological characteristics of welding fume particles have been determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and automatic image analysis (AIA). Two personal samples and one background sample were collected using a new, easy to handle sampling method, during tungsten inert gas (TIG) and manual metal arc (MMA) welding on Inconel in the same shop. The collection method gave samples which were suitable for TEM and AIA. Electron micrographs were taken in a transmission electron microscope and further analyzed using an image analysis unit. Aggregates composed of many individual particles were analyzed both for the parameters of the aggregate and for the parameters of the individual particles by using an algorithm based on a grain boundary reconstruction technique. The morphological parameters allowed the welding fume's particulate matter to be divided into three types - here called small, medium, and large - with a somewhat unclear distinction between medium and large. Medium and large particles occur either as individual particles or as clusters of approximately spherical particles with average diameters of 0.07 and 0.15 microm, respectively. Small particles occur almost exclusively as long chains or lace-like structures of aggregates of particles, often in the range of 5-10 microm. The aggregates have an average projected area of 2.6 x 10-3 microm2 and are composed of several hundred individual particles. PMID:2801515

  3. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  4. Experimental quantification of annular dark-field images in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, James M; Stemmer, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on a method to obtain atomic resolution Z-contrast (high-angle annular dark-field) images with intensities normalized to the incident beam. The procedure bypasses the built-in signal processing hardware of the microscope to obtain the large dynamic range necessary for consecutive measurements of the incident beam and the intensities in the Z-contrast image. The method is also used to characterize the response of the annular dark-field detector output, including conditions that avoid saturation and result in a linear relationship between the electron flux reaching the detector and its output. We also characterize the uniformity of the detector response across its entire area and determine its size and shape, which are needed as input for image simulations. We present normalized intensity images of a SrTiO(3) single crystal as a function of thickness. Averaged, normalized atom column intensities and the background intensity are extracted from these images. The results from the approach developed here can be used for direct, quantitative comparisons with image simulations without any need for scaling. PMID:18707809

  5. Thin-film transducers for the detection and imaging of Brillouin oscillations in transmission on cultured cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Cota, F.; Smith, R. J.; Moradi, E.; Webb, K.; Clark, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical imaging and characterisation of biological cells has been a subject of interest for the last twenty years. Ultrasonic imaging based on the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) and mechanical probing have been extensively reported. Large acoustic attenuation at high frequencies and the use of conventional piezo-electric transducers limit the operational frequency of a SAM. This limitation results in lower resolution compared to an optical microscope. Direct mechanical probing in the form of applied stress by contacting probes causes stress to cells and exhibits poor depth resolution. More recently, laser ultrasound has been reported to detect ultrasound in the GHz range via Brillouin oscillations on biological cells. This technique offers a promising new high resolution acoustic cell imaging technique. In this work, we propose, design and apply a thin-film based opto-acoustic transducer for the detection in transmission of Brillouin oscillations on cells. The transducer is used to generate acoustic waves, protect the cells from laser radiation and enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental traces are presented in water films as well as images of the Brillouin frequency of phantom and fixed 3T3 fibroblast cells.

  6. Characterization of aluminum oxide tunnel barriers by combining transport measurements and transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Aref, T.; Averin, A.; Nguyend, H. Q.; Pekola, J. P.; Dijken, S. van; Yao, L. D.; Ferring, A.; Koberidze, M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2014-08-21

    We present two approaches for studying the uniformity of a tunnel barrier. The first approach is based on measuring single-electron and two-electron tunneling in a hybrid single-electron transistor. Our measurements indicate that the effective area of a conduction channel is about one order of magnitude larger than predicted by theoretical calculations. With the second method, transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that variations in the barrier thickness are a plausible explanation for the larger effective area and an enhancement of higher order tunneling processes.

  7. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  8. Acquisition and automated 3-D segmentation of respiratory/cardiac-gated PET transmission images

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, B.W.; Klein, G.J.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H. |

    1996-12-31

    To evaluate the impact of respiratory motion on attenuation correction of cardiac PET data, we acquired and automatically segmented gated transmission data for a dog breathing on its own under gas anesthesia. Data were acquired for 20 min on a CTI/Siemens ECAT EXACT HR (47-slice) scanner configured for 12 gates in a static study, Two respiratory gates were obtained using data from a pneumatic bellows placed around the dog`s chest, in conjunction with 6 cardiac gates from standard EKG gating. Both signals were directed to a LabVIEW-controlled Macintosh, which translated them into one of 12 gate addresses. The respiratory gating threshold was placed near end-expiration to acquire 6 cardiac-gated datasets at end-expiration and 6 cardiac-gated datasets during breaths. Breaths occurred about once every 10 sec and lasted about 1-1.5 sec. For each respiratory gate, data were summed over cardiac gates and torso and lung surfaces were segmented automatically using a differential 3-D edge detection algorithm. Three-dimensional visualizations showed that lung surfaces adjacent to the heart translated 9 mm inferiorly during breaths. Our results suggest that respiration-compensated attenuation correction is feasible with a modest amount of gated transmission data and is necessary for accurate quantitation of high-resolution gated cardiac PET data.

  9. High-speed multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2016-02-23

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses each being of a programmable pulse duration, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has a plurality of plates. A control system having a digital sequencer controls the laser and a plurality of switching components, synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to enable programmable pulse durations and programmable inter-pulse spacings.

  10. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.; Dehope, William J; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M

    2016-06-21

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  11. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2015-10-20

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  12. Transmission-type holographic screen for displaying projected three-dimensional images with large viewing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangsu; Liu, Shou; Ren, Xuechang

    2008-03-01

    A new type of holographic screen used to display projected 3-dimensional (3D) images with large viewing angle and relatively high brightness is presented. The screen is 2-dimensional hexagonal lattice relief in micron-scale lattice period, fabricated in plastic sheet using holographic technique and pattern replication method so that the fabrication of the screen is fast and cost effective and large-size screen can be obtained. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that larger lattice period generates more diffracted rays thus provides larger viewing anlge and brighter image. 45° horizontal and 30° vertical viewing anlges have been achieved and the images with parallax have been observed. The screen has the potential of being applied for 3D holographic movie display and 3D art exhibition.

  13. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of Diffuse Gliomas: Effect of Saturation Pulse Length in Parallel Transmission-Based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hiwatashi, Akio; Keupp, Jochen; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yoneyama, Masami; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Sagiyama, Koji; Takahashi, Masaya; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the dependence of saturation pulse length on APT imaging of diffuse gliomas using a parallel transmission-based technique. Twenty-two patients with diffuse gliomas (9 low-grade gliomas, LGGs, and 13 high-grade gliomas, HGGs) were included in the study. APT imaging was conducted at 3T with a 2-channel parallel transmission scheme using three different saturation pulse lengths (0.5 s, 1.0 s, 2.0 s). The 2D fast spin-echo sequence was used for imaging. Z-spectrum was obtained at 25 frequency offsets from -6 to +6 ppm (step 0.5 ppm). A point-by-point B0 correction was performed with a B0 map. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) and ΔMTRasym (contrast between tumor and normal white matter) at 3.5 ppm were compared among different saturation lengths. A significant increase in MTRasym (3.5 ppm) of HGG was found when the length of saturation pulse became longer (3.09 ± 0.54% at 0.5 s, 3.83 ± 0.67% at 1 s, 4.12 ± 0.97% at 2 s), but MTRasym (3.5 ppm) was not different among the saturation lengths in LGG. ΔMTRasym (3.5 ppm) increased with the length of saturation pulse in both LGG (0.48 ± 0.56% at 0.5 s, 1.28 ± 0.56% at 1 s, 1.88 ± 0.56% at 2 s and HGG (1.72 ± 0.54% at 0.5 s, 2.90 ± 0.49% at 1 s, 3.83 ± 0.88% at 2 s). In both LGG and HGG, APT-weighted contrast was enhanced with the use of longer saturation pulses. PMID:27227746

  14. Non-invasive Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Lilach; Azhari, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity at the site ablated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) plays an important role in the final therapeutic outcome, as it influences the temperature's spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, as tissue thermal diffusivity is different in tumors as compared with normal tissue, it could also potentially be used as a new source of imaging contrast. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of combining through-transmission ultrasonic imaging and HIFU to estimate thermal diffusivity non-invasively. The concept was initially evaluated using a computer simulation. Then it was experimentally tested on phantoms made of agar and ex vivo porcine fat. A computerized imaging system combined with a HIFU system was used to heat the phantoms to temperatures below 42°C to avoid irreversible damage. Through-transmission scanning provided the time-of-flight values in a region of interest during its cooling process. The time-of-flight values were consequently converted into mean values of speed of sound. Using the speed-of-sound profiles along with the developed model, we estimated the changes in temperature profiles over time. These changes in temperature profiles were then used to calculate the corresponding thermal diffusivity of the studied specimen. Thermal diffusivity for porcine fat was found to be lower by one order of magnitude than that obtained for agar (0.313×10(-7)m(2)/s vs. 4.83×10(-7)m(2)/s, respectively, p < 0.041). The fact that there is a substantial difference between agar and fat implies that non-invasive all-ultrasound thermal diffusivity mapping is feasible. The suggested method may particularly be suitable for breast scanning. PMID:26489364

  15. Optical tomographic image reconstruction from ultrafast time-sliced transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; Gayen, S K; Xu, M; Zevallos, M; Alrubaiee, M; Lax, M; Alfano, R R

    1999-07-01

    Optical imaging and localization of objects inside a highly scattering medium, such as a tumor in the breast, is a challenging problem with many practical applications. Conventional imaging methods generally provide only two-dimensional (2-D) images of limited spatial resolution with little diagnostic ability. Here we present an inversion algorithm that uses time-resolved transillumination measurements in the form of a sequence of picosecond-duration intensity patterns of transmitted ultrashort light pulses to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) images of an absorbing object located inside a slab of a highly scattering medium. The experimental arrangement used a 3-mm-diameter collimated beam of 800-nm, 150-fs, 1-kHz repetition rate light pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser and amplifier system to illuminate one side of the slab sample. An ultrafast gated intensified camera system that provides a minimum FWHM gate width of 80 ps recorded the 2-D intensity patterns of the light transmitted through the opposite side of the slab. The gate position was varied in steps of 100 ps over a 5-ns range to obtain a sequence of 2-D transmitted light intensity patterns of both less-scattered and multiple-scattered light for image reconstruction. The inversion algorithm is based on the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer theory for photon transport in a turbid medium. It uses a Green s function perturbative approach under the Rytov approximation and combines a 2-D matrix inversion with a one-dimensional Fourier-transform inversion to achieve speedy 3-D image reconstruction. In addition to the lateral position, the method provides information about the axial position of the object as well, whereas the 2-D reconstruction methods yield only lateral position. PMID:18323906

  16. [Transmission electron microscopy image of wear particles of joint endoprostheses and ultrastructural cell changes].

    PubMed

    Bos, I; Johannisson, R

    2003-01-01

    Wear particles from joint endoprostheses vary considerably in size, and may be detectable in tissue only by electron microscopy. Wear debris plays a central role in the non-infectious late loosening of prostheses, and it has been estimated that the submicron particles induce increased liberation of mediators of osteolysis by activated macrophages. From the types of prostheses currently in use, bone cement and polyethylene particles greatly predominate over metallic and ceramic particles. Since it had formerly not been possible to reliably identify wear particles in the transmission electron microscopy, and descriptions of them in the literature varied considerably, we analysed ultrathin sections obtained from periprosthetic tissue containing wear particles previously identified by laser microprobe mass analysis. Using this method, it proved possible to classify almost all the wear particles detected in the electron microscope, to determine their size range and to represent the cellular alterations caused by them. PMID:12655845

  17. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  18. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. S.; Guymer, T. M.; Kline, J. L.; Morton, J.; Taccetti, M.; Lanier, N. E.; Bentley, C.; Workman, J.; Peterson, B.; Mussack, K.; Cowan, J.; Prasad, R.; Richardson, M.; Burns, S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Hsing, W.; Stevenson, M.

    2012-10-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors it records 16 time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000 eV with 100 ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300 eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, evidence a <100 μm spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10 eV at photon energies of 300 eV.

  19. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-10-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors it records 16 time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000 eV with 100 ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300 eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, evidence a <100 μm spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10 eV at photon energies of 300 eV. PMID:23126953

  20. Three-dimensional imaging of chemical phase transformations at the nanoscale with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meirer, Florian; Cabana, Jordi; Liu, Yijin; Mehta, Apurva; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-09-01

    The ability to probe morphology and phase distribution in complex systems at multiple length scales unravels the interplay of nano- and micrometer-scale factors at the origin of macroscopic behavior. While different electron- and X-ray-based imaging techniques can be combined with spectroscopy at high resolutions, owing to experimental time limitations the resulting fields of view are too small to be representative of a composite sample. Here a new X-ray imaging set-up is proposed, combining full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) with X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to follow two-dimensional and three-dimensional morphological and chemical changes in large volumes at high resolution (tens of nanometers). TXM XANES imaging offers chemical speciation at the nanoscale in thick samples (>20 µm) with minimal preparation requirements. Further, its high throughput allows the analysis of large areas (up to millimeters) in minutes to a few hours. Proof of concept is provided using battery electrodes, although its versatility will lead to impact in a number of diverse research fields. PMID:21862859

  1. Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M.; Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J.; Chèze, C.

    2014-01-21

    Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

  2. Fine structures and ion images on fresh frozen dried ultrathin sections by transmission electron and scanning ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaya, K.; Okabe, M.; Sawataishi, M.; Takashima, H.; Yoshida, T.

    2003-01-01

    Ion microscopy (IM) of air-dried or freeze-dried cryostat and semi-thin cryosections has provided ion images of elements and organic substances in wide areas of the tissue. For reproducible ion images by a shorter time of exposure to the primary ion beam, fresh frozen dried ultrathin sections were prepared by freezing the tissue in propane chilled with liquid nitrogen, cryocut at 60 nm, mounted on grids and silicon wafer pieces, and freeze-dried. Rat Cowper gland and sciatic nerve, bone marrow of the rat administered of lithium carbonate, tree frog and African toad spleen and buffy coat of atopic dermatitis patients were examined. Fine structures and ion images of the corresponding areas in the same or neighboring sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) followed by sector type and time-of-flight type IM. Cells in the buffy coat contained larger amounts of potassium and magnesium while plasma had larger amounts of sodium and calcium. However, in the tissues, lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium were distributed in the cell and calcium showed a granular appearance. A granular cell of the tree frog spleen contained sodium and potassium over the cell and magnesium and calcium were confined to granules.

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscope Imaging and first-principles simulations of atomic-scale features in graphene membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-thin membranes such as graphene[1] are of great importance for basic science and technology applications. Graphene sets the ultimate limit of thinness, demonstrating that a free-standing single atomic layer not only exists but can be extremely stable and strong [2--4]. However, both theory [5, 6] and experiments [3, 7] suggest that the existence of graphene relies on intrinsic ripples that suppress the long-wavelength thermal fluctuations which otherwise spontaneously destroy long range order in a two dimensional system. Here we show direct imaging of the atomic features in graphene including the ripples resolved using monochromatic aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the images observed in TEM with simulated images based on an accurate first-principles total potential. We show that these atomic scale features can be mapped through accurate first-principles simulations into high resolution TEM contrast. [1] Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191, (2007). [2] Novoselov, K. S.et al. Science 306, 666-669, (2004). [3] Meyer, J. C. et al. Nature 446, 60-63, (2007). [4] Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Science 321, 385-388, (2008). [5] Nelson, D. R. & Peliti, L. J Phys-Paris 48, 1085-1092, (1987). [6] Fasolino, A., Los, J. H. & Katsnelson, M. I. Nat. Mater. 6, 858-861, (2007). [7] Meyer, J. C. et al. Solid State Commun. 143, 101-109, (2007).

  4. Temperature imaging with speed of ultrasonic transmission tomography for medical treatment control: A physical model-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhe-Qi; Yuan, Jie; Stephen, Z. Pinter; Oliver, D. Kripfgans; Wang, Xue-Ding; Paul, L. Carson; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Hyperthermia is a promising method to enhance chemo and radiation therapy of breast cancer. In the process of hyperthermia, temperature monitoring is of great importance to assure the effectiveness of treatment. The transmission speed of ultrasound in biomedical tissue changes with temperature. However, when mapping the speed of sound directly to temperature in each pixel as desired for using all speeds of ultrasound data, temperature bipolar edge enhancement artifacts occur near the boundary of two tissues with different speeds of ultrasound. After the analysis of the reasons for causing these artifacts, an optimized method is introduced to rebuild the temperature field image by using the continuity constraint as the judgment criterion. The significant smoothness of the rebuilding image in the transitional area shows that our proposed method can build a more precise temperature image for controlling the medical thermal treatment. Project supported in part by DoD/BCRP Idea Award, BC095397P1, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61201425), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131280), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of United States (Grant Nos. R01AR060350, R01CA91713, and R01AR055179).

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of chemical phase transformations at the nanoscale with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meirer, Florian; Cabana, Jordi; Liu, Yijin; Mehta, Apurva; Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The ability to probe morphology and phase distribution in complex systems at multiple length scales unravels the interplay of nano- and micrometer-scale factors at the origin of macroscopic behavior. While different electron- and X-ray-based imaging techniques can be combined with spectroscopy at high resolutions, owing to experimental time limitations the resulting fields of view are too small to be representative of a composite sample. Here a new X-ray imaging set-up is proposed, combining full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) with X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to follow two-dimensional and three-dimensional morphological and chemical changes in large volumes at high resolution (tens of nanometers). TXM XANES imaging offers chemical speciation at the nanoscale in thick samples (>20 µm) with minimal preparation requirements. Further, its high throughput allows the analysis of large areas (up to millimeters) in minutes to a few hours. Proof of concept is provided using battery electrodes, although its versatility will lead to impact in a number of diverse research fields. PMID:21862859

  6. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels. PMID:24257812

  7. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  8. Fast macro-scale transmission imaging of microvascular networks using KESM

    PubMed Central

    Mayerich, David; Kwon, Jaerock; Sung, Chul; Abbott, Louise; Keyser, John; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2011-01-01

    Accurate microvascular morphometric information has significant implications in several fields, including the quantification of angiogenesis in cancer research, understanding the immune response for neural prosthetics, and predicting the nature of blood flow as it relates to stroke. We report imaging of the whole mouse brain microvascular system at resolutions sufficient to perform accurate morphometry. Imaging was performed using Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) and is the first example of this technique that can be directly applied to clinical research. We are able to achieve ≈ 0.7μm resolution laterally with 1μm depth resolution using serial sectioning. No alignment was necessary and contrast was sufficient to allow segmentation and measurement of vessels. PMID:22091443

  9. THz transmission spectroscopy and imaging: application to the energetic materials PBX 9501 and PBX 9502.

    PubMed

    Funk, David J; Calgaro, F; Averitt, R D; Asaki, M L T; Taylor, A J

    2004-04-01

    We report the measurement of the effective complex index of refraction near 1 THz for the Plastic-Bonded eXplosives PBX 9501 and PBX 9502. These plastic-bonded explosives consist of organic crystalline energetic materials, HMX and TATB, embedded in a binder matrix. We find that they are partially transparent at a few hundred GHz and we have applied a two-dimensional imaging technique for the detection of pre-fabricated defects in small samples. PMID:17140492

  10. Classification and quantification of suspended dust from steel plants by using color and transmission image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umegaki, Yoshiyuki; Kazama, Akira; Fukuda, Yoshinori

    2014-09-01

    Some kind of dust can arise from ironmaking and steelmaking processes in steel works. In JFE Steel's steel plants, various measures to prevent the suspended dust from scattering to the surrounding area have been taken. To take effective preventive measures against the dust scattering, it's important to identify dust sources and scattering routes by much observation and analysis of the dust particles. Conventionally, dust particles were sampled at many observation points in and around JFE's plants and the amount of particles of each kind was measured visually through a microscope. In such a way, however, the operation is inefficient to measure many dust samples, and also the accuracy of the results depends on the operator. To achieve efficient, operator-independent measurement, a system that can classify and quantify the dust particles automatically has been developed [1]. The system extracts particles from color images of the dust and classifies the particles into three color types - black particles (coke, coal), red particles (iron ore, sintered ore) and white particles (slag, lime). These processes are done basically in the YCrCb color space, where colors are represented by luminance (Y) and chrominance (Cr and Cb). The YCrCb color space is more manageable than the RGB color space to distinguish the three color types. The thresholds for the classification are automatically set on the basis of the mean values of the luminance and chrominance in each image. This means there is no need to tune the thresholds to each image manually. This scheme makes the results independent of operators. Quick analysis is also realized because what the operators have to do is to capture the images of the dust and the analysis is fully automated. Classification results of the sampled particles by the developed system and the obtained statistics in terms of the color type, approach direction and diameter are shown.

  11. Human brain imaging at 9.4 T using a tunable patch antenna for transmission.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jens; Shajan, G; Budde, Juliane; Scheffler, Klaus; Pohmann, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    For human brain imaging at ultrahigh fields, the traveling wave concept can provide a more uniform B1+ field over a larger field of view with improved patient comfort compared to conventional volume coils. It suffers, however, from limited transmit efficiency and receive sensitivity and is not readily applicable in systems where the radiofrequency shield is too narrow to allow for unattenuated wave propagation. Here, the near field of a capacitively adjustable patch antenna for excitation is combined with a receive-only array at 9.4 T. The antenna is designed in compact size and placed in close proximity to the subject to improve the transmit efficiency in narrow bores. Experimental and numerical comparisons to conventional microstrip arrays reveal improved B1+ homogeneity and longitudinal coverage, but at the cost of elevated local specific absorption rate. High-resolution functional and anatomical images demonstrate the use of this setup for in vivo human brain imaging at 9.4 T. PMID:22706783

  12. Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bergman, O; Åhs, F; Furmark, T; Appel, L; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Bani, M; Pich, E M; Bettica, P; Henningsson, S; Manuck, S B; Ferrell, R E; Nikolova, Y S; Hariri, A R; Fredrikson, M; Westberg, L; Eriksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli. Amygdala reactivity was examined by comparing regional cerebral blood flow, measured with positron emission tomography and [(15)O]water, during exposure to angry and neutral faces, respectively, in a Swedish sample comprising 32 patients with social anxiety disorder and 17 healthy volunteers. In a separate US sample, comprising 85 healthy volunteers studied with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, amygdala reactivity was assessed by comparing the activity during exposure to threatening faces and neutral geometric shapes, respectively. In both the Swedish and the US sample, 9-repeat carriers displayed higher amygdala reactivity than 10-repeat homozygotes. The results suggest that this polymorphism contributes to individual variability in amygdala reactivity. PMID:25093598

  13. Midbrain dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Heli; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Laakso, Mikko P; Viinamäki, Heimo; Husso, Minna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2006-09-01

    Several studies suggest that dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission in the midbrain and thalamus may contribute to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the putative alteration of dopamine D(2/3 )receptor densities in the thalamus and midbrain of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients. We used the high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand [(123)I]epidepride for imaging D(2/3 )receptor binding sites in six neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients, and seven healthy controls. Schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Significantly lower D(2/3 )values were observed in the midbrain of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was observed in the thalamus between two groups. Negative correlations were found between thalamic D(2/3 )receptor binding and general psychopathological schizophrenic symptoms (r from -0.78 to -0.92). These observations implicate altered dopaminergic activity in the midbrain of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16783502

  14. Association between amygdala reactivity and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, O; Åhs, F; Furmark, T; Appel, L; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Bani, M; Pich, E M; Bettica, P; Henningsson, S; Manuck, S B; Ferrell, R E; Nikolova, Y S; Hariri, A R; Fredrikson, M; Westberg, L; Eriksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Essential for detection of relevant external stimuli and for fear processing, the amygdala is under modulatory influence of dopamine (DA). The DA transporter (DAT) is of fundamental importance for the regulation of DA transmission by mediating reuptake inactivation of extracellular DA. This study examined if a common functional variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of the DAT gene (SLC6A3) influences amygdala function during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli. Amygdala reactivity was examined by comparing regional cerebral blood flow, measured with positron emission tomography and [15O]water, during exposure to angry and neutral faces, respectively, in a Swedish sample comprising 32 patients with social anxiety disorder and 17 healthy volunteers. In a separate US sample, comprising 85 healthy volunteers studied with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, amygdala reactivity was assessed by comparing the activity during exposure to threatening faces and neutral geometric shapes, respectively. In both the Swedish and the US sample, 9-repeat carriers displayed higher amygdala reactivity than 10-repeat homozygotes. The results suggest that this polymorphism contributes to individual variability in amygdala reactivity. PMID:25093598

  15. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain-dopamine interface.

    PubMed

    Rössger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal's reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future. PMID:24127594

  16. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  17. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain–dopamine interface

    PubMed Central

    Rössger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal’s reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future. PMID:24127594

  18. Dopamine increases in striatum do not elicit craving in cocaine abusers unless they are coupled with cocaine cues.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Logan, Jean; Childress, Anna-Rose; Jayne, Millard; Ma, Yeming; Wong, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    Imaging studies have shown an association between dopamine increases in striatum and cue induced craving in cocaine abusers. However, the extent to which dopamine increases reflect a primary rather than a secondary response to the cues remains unclear. Here we evaluated the extent to which dopamine increases by themselves can induce craving in cocaine abusers. Using PET and [(11)C]raclopride (D2 receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine) we show that in cocaine abusers (n=20) oral methylphenidate (20 mg), which significantly increased dopamine in striatum, did not induce craving unless subjects were concomitantly exposed to cocaine cues (video scenes of subjects self-administering cocaine). This suggests that dopamine increases associated with conditioned cues are not primary responses but reflect downstream stimulation of dopamine cells (presumably glutamatergic afferents from prefrontal cortex and/or amygdala). Inasmuch as afferent stimulation of dopamine neurons results in phasic cell firing these findings suggest that "fast" dopamine increases, in contrast to the "slow" dopamine increases as achieved when using oral methylphenidate (mimicking tonic dopamine cell firing), are required for cues to trigger craving. The fact that methylphenidate induced craving only when given with the cocaine cues highlights the context dependency of methylphenidate's effects and suggests that its use for the treatment of ADHD subjects with co-morbid drug abuse should not increase craving. PMID:18024160

  19. CRF acts in the midbrain to attenuate accumbens dopamine release to rewards but not their predictors

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Matthew J.; Bonci, Antonello; Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stressors impact dopamine-dependent behaviors such as motivation, though the underlying neurobiological mechanism is not well defined. We report that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to reduce the motivation to work for food rewards. CRF in the VTA regulates dopamine output in a stimulus- and pathway-specific manner, collectively offering a mechanism by which acute stress selectively regulates information transmission via the VTA to reprioritize motivated behavior. PMID:23416448

  20. Terahertz imaging of composite materials in reflection and transmission mode with a time-domain spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørgârd, Trygve R.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Haakestad, Magnus W.

    2016-02-01

    A fiber-coupled Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system based on photoconductive antennas, pumped by a 100-fs fiber laser, has been used to characterize materials in transmission and reflection mode. THz images are acquired by mounting the samples under investigation on an x-y stage, which is stepped through the beam while the transmitted or reflected THz waveform is captured. The samples include a carbon fiber epoxy composite and a sandwich-structured composite panel with an aramid fiber honeycomb core in between two skin layers of fiberglass reinforced plastic. The former has an artificially induced void, and from a comparison of recorded reflected time-domain signals, with and without the void, a simple model for the structure of the composite is proposed that describes the time-domain signals reasonably well.

  1. The dopamine hypothesis of drug addiction and its potential therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission is deeply affected by drugs of abuse, and alterations in DA function are involved in the various phases of drug addiction and potentially exploitable therapeutically. In particular, basic studies have documented a reduction in the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons in alcohol, opiate, cannabinoid, and other drug-dependent rats. Further, DA release in the Nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is decreased in virtually all drug-dependent rodents. In parallel, these studies are supported by increments in intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) thresholds during withdrawal from alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and other drugs of abuse, thereby suggesting a hypofunction of the neural substrate of ICSS. Accordingly, morphological evaluations fed into realistic computational analysis of the medium spiny neuron of the Nacc, post-synaptic counterpart of DA terminals, show profound changes in structure and function of the entire mesolimbic system. In line with these findings, human imaging studies have shown a reduction of dopamine receptors accompanied by a lesser release of endogenous DA in the ventral striatum of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol-dependent subjects, thereby offering visual proof of the "dopamine-impoverished" addicted human brain. The lasting reduction in physiological activity of the DA system leads to the idea that an increment in its activity, to restore pre-drug levels, may yield significant clinical improvements (reduction of craving, relapse, and drug-seeking/taking). In theory, it may be achieved pharmacologically and/or with novel interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Its anatomo-physiological rationale as a possible therapeutic aid in alcoholics and other addicts will be described and proposed as a theoretical framework to be subjected to experimental testing in human addicts. PMID:22144966

  2. The Dopamine Hypothesis of Drug Addiction and Its Potential Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission is deeply affected by drugs of abuse, and alterations in DA function are involved in the various phases of drug addiction and potentially exploitable therapeutically. In particular, basic studies have documented a reduction in the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons in alcohol, opiate, cannabinoid, and other drug-dependent rats. Further, DA release in the Nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is decreased in virtually all drug-dependent rodents. In parallel, these studies are supported by increments in intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) thresholds during withdrawal from alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and other drugs of abuse, thereby suggesting a hypofunction of the neural substrate of ICSS. Accordingly, morphological evaluations fed into realistic computational analysis of the medium spiny neuron of the Nacc, post-synaptic counterpart of DA terminals, show profound changes in structure and function of the entire mesolimbic system. In line with these findings, human imaging studies have shown a reduction of dopamine receptors accompanied by a lesser release of endogenous DA in the ventral striatum of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol-dependent subjects, thereby offering visual proof of the “dopamine-impoverished” addicted human brain. The lasting reduction in physiological activity of the DA system leads to the idea that an increment in its activity, to restore pre-drug levels, may yield significant clinical improvements (reduction of craving, relapse, and drug-seeking/taking). In theory, it may be achieved pharmacologically and/or with novel interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Its anatomo-physiological rationale as a possible therapeutic aid in alcoholics and other addicts will be described and proposed as a theoretical framework to be subjected to experimental testing in human addicts. PMID:22144966

  3. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    iterative least square method to identify the spherically stratified index of refraction from transmission eigenvalues. On the characterization of transmission eigenvalues in terms of far-field measurements, a promising new result is obtained by Kirsch and Lechleiter [21] showing how one can identify the transmission eigenvalues using the eigenvalues of the scattering operator which are available in terms of measured scattering data. In the paper by Kleefeld [22], an accurate method for computing transmission eigenvalues based on a surface integral formulation of the interior transmission problem and numerical methods for nonlinear eigenvalue problems is proposed and numerically validated for the scalar problem in three dimensions. On the other hand, the paper by Sun and Xu [23] investigates the computation of transmission eigenvalues for Maxwell's equations using a standard iterative method associated with a variational formulation of the interior transmission problem with an emphasis on the effect of anisotropy on transmission eigenvalues. From the perspective of using transmission eigenvalues in non-destructive testing, the paper by Cakoni and Moskow [24] investigates the asymptotic behavior of transmission eigenvalues with respect to small inhomogeneities. The paper by Nakamura and Wang [25] investigates the linear sampling method for the time dependent heat equation and analyses the interior transmission problem associated with this equation. Finally, in the paper by Finch and Hickmann [26], the spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. We hope that this collection of papers will stimulate further research in the rapidly growing area of transmission eigenvalues and inverse scattering theory.

  4. Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro by Rapid Freezing/Freeze Substitution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Eno E; Macaluso, Frank P; Spray, David C; Tarbell, John M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Recent publications questioned the validity of endothelial cell (EC) culture studies of glycocalyx (GCX) function, due to findings that GCX in vitro may be substantially thinner than in vivo. The assessment of thickness differences is complicated by GCX collapse during dehydration for traditional electron microscopy. We measured in vitro GCX thickness using rapid freezing/freeze substitution transmission electron microscopy (RF/FS-TEM), taking advantage of high spatial resolution provided by TEM and the capability to stably preserve the GCX in its hydrated configuration by RF/FS. Methods and Results Bovine aortic and rat fat pad endothelial cells (BAEC and RFPEC) were subjected to conventional- or RF/FS-TEM. Conventionally preserved BAEC GCX was ~0.040 μm in thickness. RF/FS-TEM revealed impressively thick BAEC GCX of ~11 μm and RFPEC GCX of ~5 μm. RF/FS-TEM also discerned GCX structure and thickness variations due to heparinase III enzyme treatment and extracellular protein removal, respectively. Immunoconfocal studies confirmed that the in vitro GCX is several microns thick and is comprised of extensive and well integrated heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and protein layers. Conclusions New observations by RF/FS-TEM reveal substantial GCX layers on cultured EC, supporting their continued use for fundamental studies of GCX and its function in the vasculature. PMID:21474821

  5. Light scattering and transmission measurement using digital imaging for online analysis of constituents in milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Pranay; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2015-05-01

    Milk is an emulsion of fat globules and casein micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium with dissolved lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Quantification of constituents in milk is important in various stages of the dairy supply chain for proper process control and quality assurance. In field-level applications, spectrophotometric analysis is an economical option due to the low-cost of silicon photodetectors, sensitive to UV/Vis radiation with wavelengths between 300 - 1100 nm. Both absorption and scattering are witnessed as incident UV/Vis radiation interacts with dissolved and dispersed constituents in milk. These effects can in turn be used to characterize the chemical and physical composition of a milk sample. However, in order to simplify analysis, most existing instrument require dilution of samples to avoid effects of multiple scattering. The sample preparation steps are usually expensive, prone to human errors and unsuitable for field-level and online analysis. This paper introduces a novel digital imaging based method of online spectrophotometric measurements on raw milk without any sample preparation. Multiple LEDs of different emission spectra are used as discrete light sources and a digital CMOS camera is used as an image sensor. The extinction characteristic of samples is derived from captured images. The dependence of multiple scattering on power of incident radiation is exploited to quantify scattering. The method has been validated with experiments for response with varying fat concentrations and fat globule sizes. Despite of the presence of multiple scattering, the method is able to unequivocally quantify extinction of incident radiation and relate it to the fat concentrations and globule sizes of samples.

  6. Reflection and Transmission Imaging of the Upper Crust Using Local Earthquake Seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S.; Langston, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    We utilize the characteristic features of primary P- and SH-wave coda, and Sp waveforms from local microearthquake data and perform pre-stack migration in an attempt to image prominent reflectors in the upper crust of the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ. Our case study uses data from a broadband station, PARM, of the Cooperative New Madrid seismic Network (CNMSN). Near-by exploration well log data of the Wilson 2-14 and Dow Chemical/Wilson #1 wells are used to constrain the upper 4 km of the velocity model in the region. A constant velocity of Vp 2.50 km/sec and Vs 0.70 km/sec for the unconsolidated sediments and Vp 6.0 km/sec and Vs 3.2 km/sec for the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks can represent the structure beneath PARM. Despite polarity differences among P-, SH-, and Sp waveforms, seismic images show consistent reflectors common among the three wave types. There are excellent correlations associated with the base of the upper Cretaceous/Holocene Mississippi Embayment Supergroup and the base of Knox group, which were also reported in a study of near-by seismic-reflection profiles by Hamilton and Zoback (1982). The Bonneterre Formation seems to be a prominent seismic stratigraphic marker associated with an interface displayed in the profiling. We find that earthquake event S-P times must be ~3 sec or more to resolve reflectors at about 4 km depth. The basement occurs at about 4 km and appears on the reflected P- and SH-wave images.

  7. Initial experience with automatic image transmission to an intensive care unit using PACS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravin, Carl E.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the refinement of the interaction between a CR system and PACS that has made the automatic distribution of images to specified locations possible. Those interactions between the CR and the PACS that were considered important to the acceptance of the data to be sent to the ICU are described. Display and user interface considerations that were important for physician acceptance of the unit are also discussed. System enhancements and future applications will be developed based on the possible implications of this technology in both Radiology and the ICUs.

  8. Joint source-channel coding: secured and progressive transmission of compressed medical images on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Babel, Marie; Parrein, Benoît; Déforges, Olivier; Normand, Nicolas; Guédon, Jean-Pierre; Coat, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    The joint source-channel coding system proposed in this paper has two aims: lossless compression with a progressive mode and the integrity of medical data, which takes into account the priorities of the image and the properties of a network with no guaranteed quality of service. In this context, the use of scalable coding, locally adapted resolution (LAR) and a discrete and exact Radon transform, known as the Mojette transform, meets this twofold requirement. In this paper, details of this joint coding implementation are provided as well as a performance evaluation with respect to the reference CALIC coding and to unequal error protection using Reed-Solomon codes. PMID:18289830

  9. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V.; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    dopamine neurons are capable of glutamate cotransmission. With conditional expression of channelrhodopsin in dopamine neurons, we systematically explored dopamine neuron connections in the forebrain and identified regionally specific dopamine neuron excitatory connections. Establishing that only a subset of forebrain regions receive excitatory connections from dopamine neurons will help to determine the function of dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission, which likely involves transmission of precise temporal signals and enhancement of the dynamic range of dopamine neuron signals. PMID:26658874

  10. Quality improvement of transmission images for transparent displays with micro-lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.-W.; Jeng, W.-D.; Ouyang, Y.; Tsai, Y.-H.; Lee, K.-C.; Ou-Yang, M.

    2014-09-01

    The technology of electrowetting display (EWD) is the most important method for the traditional displays that can work more efficiently. When the voltage drives, the aperture ratio of the ink will reach 75% and the transmittance can reach 60%. Furthermore, the EWD technology has the advantages such as high transmittance, high switching speed, color performance, low power consumption, and etc. They make the advances of technology development for the transparent displays. However, due to the diffraction phenomenon resulted from periodic pixel structures, when the users observe the background object through the transparent display, the transmitted image will be blurred. In this paper, we recognized the problems by the simulation and constructed the optical model first. In order to avoid the diffraction, we use micro lens array to prevent the rays interfere on the micro structure, so that it will not produce the destructive and constructive interference, so the diffraction effect can be reduced. The micro lens array avoid the light touches the outer frame of EWD pixels. The simulations are simulate at different distance, and the distance of diffraction width is condensed to 91% with respect to the origin. In the future, this concept can apply in other transmitted images of transparent displays.

  11. Breaking the bottleneck: high-speed medical image transmission through ATM network--implementation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hailei L.; Meissner, Marion C.; Cleary, Kevin R.; Rodgers, James E.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, Georgetown University Medical Center's (GUMC) experience with utilizing ATM technology in a telemedicine application will be presented. This application involves 3D radiation treatment planning where radiological imaging, calculation of the treatment plan, and 3D display all take place at different sites. To do this, GUMC must exchange large amounts of radiology images and data with other institutions in real time. A high speed network consisting of an ATM infrastructure and satellite links was created to connect seamlessly the three sites, GUMC, University of Hawaii, and Ohio Supercomputing Center, which are thousands of miles apart. This paper studies the performance of the ATM network between GUMC and Goddard Space Flight Center, which provides satellite service to link partners in this project. The steps required to test and evaluate the ATM system will be presented. A performance comparison between ATM and Internet-LAN connections will be featured in the presentation. In particular, the theoretical speed of 155 Mbps is hard to reach due to the lack of ATM-native protocols in the transport level of the communication structure.

  12. Two-Photon Optical Interrogation of Individual Dendritic Spines with Caged Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel caged dopamine compound (RuBi-Dopa) based on ruthenium photochemistry. RuBi-Dopa has a high uncaging efficiency and can be released with visible (blue-green) and IR light in a two-photon regime. We combine two-photon photorelease of RuBi-Dopa with two-photon calcium imaging for an optical imaging and manipulation of dendritic spines in living brain slices, demonstrating that spines can express functional dopamine receptors. This novel compound allows mapping of functional dopamine receptors in living brain tissue with exquisite spatial resolution. PMID:23672485

  13. Differential dopamine function in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Daniel S; MacKie, Palmer J; Kareken, David A; Hutchins, Gary D; Chumin, Evgeny J; Christian, Bradley T; Yoder, Karmen K

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 30 % of Americans suffer from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia (FM), which can cause debilitating pain. Many pain-killing drugs prescribed for chronic pain disorders are highly addictive, have limited clinical efficacy, and do not treat the cognitive symptoms reported by many patients. The neurobiological substrates of chronic pain are largely unknown, but evidence points to altered dopaminergic transmission in aberrant pain perception. We sought to characterize the dopamine (DA) system in individuals with FM. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]fallypride (FAL) was used to assess changes in DA during a working memory challenge relative to a baseline task, and to test for associations between baseline D2/D3 availability and experimental pain measures. Twelve female subjects with FM and 11 female controls completed study procedures. Subjects received one FAL PET scan while performing a "2-back" task, and one while performing a "0-back" (attentional control, "baseline") task. FM subjects had lower baseline FAL binding potential (BP) in several cortical regions relative to controls, including anterior cingulate cortex. In FM subjects, self-reported spontaneous pain negatively correlated with FAL BP in the left orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Baseline BP was significantly negatively correlated with experimental pain sensitivity and tolerance in both FM and CON subjects, although spatial patterns of these associations differed between groups. The data suggest that abnormal DA function may be associated with differential processing of pain perception in FM. Further studies are needed to explore the functional significance of DA in nociception and cognitive processing in chronic pain. PMID:26497890

  14. Holographic particle image velocimetry: optical conjugate reconstruction using a simplified transmission geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Rob D.; Garner, Colin P.; Halliwell, Neil A.; Coupland, Jeremy M.

    2003-11-01

    A new simplified Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry technique to make simultaneous measurements of 3D velocity vector information throughout a complex fluid flow is presented in this paper. The method uses a variation of Optical Conjugate Reconstruction with complex correlation analysis and dispenses with the need to have a Holographic Optical Element to correct for distortions introduced by non-uniform windows. Subsequent analysis to extract a map of particle velocity is performed digitally using ray tracing techniques to model the effect of the windows. Results are presented for measurements made within a thick windowed diesel engine, showing that flow velocity vectors can be measured to an accuracy of 3% using the technique and, illustrating the ray trace mapping procedure.

  15. Neuropharmacology of dopamine receptors:

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Frank I.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an extraordinary recent accumulation of information concerning the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of dopamine (DA) receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. Many new DA molecular entities have been cloned, their gene, peptide sequences and structures have been identified, their anatomical distributions in the mammalian brain described, and their pharmacology characterized. Progress has been made toward developing selective ligands and drug-candidates for different DA receptors. The new discoveries have greatly stimulated preclinical and clinical studies to explore the neuropharmacology of DA receptors and their implications in the neuropathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Accordingly, it seems timely to review the salient aspects of this specialized area of preclinical neuropharmacology and its relevance to clinical neuropsychiatry. PMID:24019715

  16. Movies of molecular motions and reactions: the single-molecule, real-time transmission electron microscope imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    "The truth is, the Science of Nature has been already too long made only a work of the Brain and the Fancy: It is now high time that it should return to the plainness and soundness of Observations on material and obvious things," proudly declared Robert Hooke in his highly successful picture book of microscopic and telescopic images, "Micrographia" in 1665. Hooke's statement has remained true in chemistry, where a considerable work of the brain and the fancy is still necessary. Single-molecule, real-time transmission electron microscope (SMRT-TEM) imaging at an atomic resolution now allows us to learn about molecules simply by watching movies of them. Like any dream come true, the new analytical technique challenged the old common sense of the communities, and offers new research opportunities that are unavailable by conventional methods. With its capacity to visualize the motions and the reactions of individual molecules and molecular clusters, the SMRT-TEM technique will become an indispensable tool in molecular science and the engineering of natural and synthetic substances, as well as in science education. PMID:23280645

  17. Dopamine-deficient mice are hypersensitive to dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Szczypka, M S; Palmiter, R D

    2000-06-15

    Dopamine-deficient (DA-/-) mice were created by targeted inactivation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in dopaminergic neurons. The locomotor activity response of these mutants to dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonists and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was 3- to 13-fold greater than the response elicited from wild-type mice. The enhanced sensitivity of DA-/- mice to agonists was independent of changes in steady-state levels of dopamine receptors and the presynaptic dopamine transporter as measured by ligand binding. The acute behavioral response of DA-/- mice to a dopamine D1 receptor agonist was correlated with c-fos induction in the striatum, a brain nucleus that receives dense dopaminergic input. Chronic replacement of dopamine to DA-/- mice by repeated l-DOPA administration over 4 d relieved the hypersensitivity of DA-/- mutants in terms of induction of both locomotion and striatal c-fos expression. The results suggest that the chronic presence of dopaminergic neurotransmission is required to dampen the intracellular signaling response of striatal neurons. PMID:10844009

  18. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  19. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Joshua L.; Tanner, Alexandra S.; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J.; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Greve, Douglas N.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L.; Manoach, Dara S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory–emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits. PMID:27386561

  20. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) System: Development of Combined Transmission and Reflection Ultrasound with New Reconstruction Algorithms for Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T

    2001-09-07

    Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image

  1. Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Arif A; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Mabrouk, Omar S; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Kennedy, Robert T; Aragona, Brandon J; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (phasic) dopamine fluctuations support learning, whereas much slower (tonic) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We found that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covaried with reward rate and motivational vigor. Second-by-second dopamine release encoded an estimate of temporally discounted future reward (a value function). Changing dopamine immediately altered willingness to work and reinforced preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, which is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  2. Investigation of Parallel Radiofrequency Transmission for the Reduction of Heating in Long Conductive Leads in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    McElcheran, Clare E; Yang, Benson; Anderson, Kevan J T; Golenstani-Rad, Laleh; Graham, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk of high local power deposition, and therefore tissue heating, at the tip of the lead. The localized power deposition arises from currents induced in the leads caused by coupling with the radiofrequency (RF) transmission field during imaging. In the present work, parallel RF transmission (pTx) is used to tailor the RF electric field to suppress coupling effects. Electromagnetic simulations were performed for three pTx coil configurations with 2, 4, and 8-elements, respectively. Optimal input voltages to minimize coupling, while maintaining RF magnetic field homogeneity, were determined for all configurations using a Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. Resulting electric and magnetic fields were compared to that of a 16-rung birdcage coil. Experimental validation was performed with a custom-built 4-element pTx coil. In simulation, 95-99% reduction of the electric field at the tip of the lead was observed between the various pTx coil configurations and the birdcage coil. Maximal reduction in E-field was obtained with the 8-element pTx coil. Magnetic field homogeneity was comparable to the birdcage coil for the 4- and 8-element pTx configurations. In experiment, a temperature increase of 2±0.15°C was observed at the tip of the wire using the birdcage coil, whereas negligible increase (0.2±0.15°C) was observed with the optimized pTx system. Although further research is required, these initial results suggest that the concept of optimizing pTx to reduce DBS

  3. Investigation of Parallel Radiofrequency Transmission for the Reduction of Heating in Long Conductive Leads in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    McElcheran, Clare E.; Yang, Benson; Anderson, Kevan J. T.; Golenstani-Rad, Laleh; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk of high local power deposition, and therefore tissue heating, at the tip of the lead. The localized power deposition arises from currents induced in the leads caused by coupling with the radiofrequency (RF) transmission field during imaging. In the present work, parallel RF transmission (pTx) is used to tailor the RF electric field to suppress coupling effects. Electromagnetic simulations were performed for three pTx coil configurations with 2, 4, and 8-elements, respectively. Optimal input voltages to minimize coupling, while maintaining RF magnetic field homogeneity, were determined for all configurations using a Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. Resulting electric and magnetic fields were compared to that of a 16-rung birdcage coil. Experimental validation was performed with a custom-built 4-element pTx coil. In simulation, 95-99% reduction of the electric field at the tip of the lead was observed between the various pTx coil configurations and the birdcage coil. Maximal reduction in E-field was obtained with the 8-element pTx coil. Magnetic field homogeneity was comparable to the birdcage coil for the 4- and 8-element pTx configurations. In experiment, a temperature increase of 2±0.15°C was observed at the tip of the wire using the birdcage coil, whereas negligible increase (0.2±0.15°C) was observed with the optimized pTx system. Although further research is required, these initial results suggest that the concept of optimizing pTx to reduce DBS

  4. Real-Time Electrochemical Recording of Dopamine Release under Optogenetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wen-Tai; Lin, Che-Ming; Tsai, Tien-Chun; Wu, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Ching-Lin; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic PC12 cells can synthesize and release dopamine, providing a good cellular model for investigating dopamine regulation. Optogenetic stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 provides high spatial and temporal precision for selective stimulation as a powerful neuromodulation tool for neuroscience studies. The aim of this study is to measure dopamine release from dopaminergic PC12 cells under optogenetic stimulation using electrochemical recording of self-assembled monolayers modified microelectrode with amperometric measurement in real time. The activation of PC12 cells under various optogenetic stimulation schemes are characterized by measuring single-cell Ca2+ imaging. After 10 seconds of optogenetic stimulation, the evoked intracellular Ca2+ level and dopamine current of channelrhodopsin-2-transfected PC12 cells were 1.6- and 3.5-fold higher than those of the control cells. The optogenetic stimulation effects on Ca2+ influx and dopamine release were 81% and 63% inhibition by using a Ca2+ channel antagonist Nifedipine. The results indicate that optogenetic stimulation can evoke voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-dependent dopamine exocytosis from PC12 cells in a cell specific, temporally precise and dose-dependent manner. This proposed dopamine recording system can be developed to be a good cell model for dopamine regulation and drug screening in vitro, or dopaminergic cell implantation therapy in vivo using optogenetic stimulation in a precise and convenient way. PMID:24586667

  5. Attenuating GABAA Receptor Signaling in Dopamine Neurons Selectively Enhances Reward Learning and Alters Risk Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jones G.; Wanat, Matthew J.; Soden, Marta E.; Ahmad, Kinza; Zweifel, Larry S.; Bamford, Nigel S.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Phasic dopamine transmission encodes the value of reward-predictive stimuli and influences both learning and decision-making. Altered dopamine signaling is associated with psychiatric conditions characterized by risky choices such as pathological gambling. These observations highlight the importance of understanding how dopamine neuron activity is modulated. While excitatory drive onto dopamine neurons is critical for generating phasic dopamine responses, emerging evidence suggests that inhibitory signaling also modulates these responses. To address the functional importance of inhibitory signaling in dopamine neurons, we generated mice lacking the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor specifically in dopamine neurons (β3-KO mice) and examined their behavior in tasks that assessed appetitive learning, aversive learning, and risk preference. Dopamine neurons in midbrain slices from β3-KO mice exhibited attenuated GABA-evoked inhibitory post-synaptic currents. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents to dopamine neurons elicited more dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of β3-KO mice as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. β3-KO mice were more active than controls when given morphine, which correlated with potential compensatory upregulation of GABAergic tone onto dopamine neurons. β3-KO mice learned faster in two food-reinforced learning paradigms, but extinguished their learned behavior normally. Enhanced learning was specific for appetitive tasks, as aversive learning was unaffected in β3-KO mice. Finally, we found that β3-KO mice had enhanced risk preference in a probabilistic selection task that required mice to choose between a small certain reward and a larger uncertain reward. Collectively, these findings identify a selective role for GABAA signaling in dopamine neurons in appetitive learning and decision-making. PMID:22114279

  6. Assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using optical spectral transmission measurements, a non-invasive imaging technique

    PubMed Central

    van Onna, M; Ten Cate, D F; Tsoi, K L; Meier, A J L; Jacobs, J W G; Westgeest, A A A; Meijer, P B L; van Beek, M C; Rensen, W H J; Bijlsma, J W J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treat-to-target strategies require instruments for valid detection of joint inflammation. Therefore, imaging modalities are increasingly used in clinical practice. Optical spectral transmission (OST) measurements are non-invasive and fast and may therefore have benefits over existing imaging modalities. We tested whether OST could measure disease activity validly in patients with RA. Methods In 59 patients with RA and 10 patients with arthralgia, OST, joint counts, Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 and ultrasonography (US) were performed. Additionally, MRI was performed in patients with DAS28<2.6. We developed and validated within the same cohort an algorithm for detection of joint inflammation by OST with US as reference. Results At the joint level, OST and US performed similarly inproximal interphalangeal-joints (area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.79, p<0.0001) andmetacarpophalangeal joints (AUC 0.78, p<0.0001). Performance was less similar in wrists (AUC 0.62, p=0.006). On the patient level, OST correlated moderately with clinical examination (DAS28 r=0.42, p=0.001), and US scores (r=0.64, p<0.0001). Furthermore, in patients with subclinical and low disease activity, there was a correlation between OST and MRI synovitis score (RAMRIS (Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring) synovitis), r=0.52, p=0.005. Conclusions In this pilot study, OST performed moderately in the detection of joint inflammation in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to determine the diagnostic performance in a new cohort of patients with RA. PMID:26452538

  7. Characterization and classification of psittacine atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology, digital image analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier G; Holder, Kali; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a degenerative and inflammatory vascular disease characterized in mammals and birds by the accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipids, calcium, and formation of large fibrofatty lesions within the intima of arteries resulting in the disorganization of the arterial wall and stenosis of the lumen. Despite the high incidence of atherosclerosis in parrots and the high number of case reports, there are few pathologic investigations and the ultrastructural study of the lesions has not been documented. Sixty-three major arteries were collected from 24 psittacine birds of 11 species during routine post-mortem examinations. Samples from the major arteries were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and 1.25% glutaraldehyde, and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional samples were fixed in 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. Additional histochemical stains for calcium, elastic fibres, and lipid were performed. Toluidine blue-stained 0.5 µm-thick resin sections were also obtained. Digital image analysis was performed to provide objective quantitative information on the different lesions. The histopathology and ultrastructure of psittacine atherosclerosis were found to be similar to other avian and mammalian species. Seven lesion types could be described, which were similar to the human classification system. Digital image analysis, TEM, and SEM helped to further describe the lesions and refine the classification system. TEM findings were similar to other avian and mammalian species with the notable presence of macrophage-derived and smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells and extracellular lipid. SEM revealed various stages of endothelial surface defects and, occasionally, adherent blood cells. PMID:21879992

  8. Dopamine D1 receptor expression is bipolar cell type-specific in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Farshi, Pershang; Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Krolewski, David M; Walker, Paul D; Ichinose, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    In the retina, dopamine is a key molecule for daytime vision. Dopamine is released by retinal dopaminergic amacrine cells and transmits signaling either by conventional synaptic or by volume transmission. By means of volume transmission, dopamine modulates all layers of retinal neurons; however, it is not well understood how dopamine modulates visual signaling pathways in bipolar cells. Here we analyzed Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice and found that the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is expressed in retinal bipolar cells in a type-dependent manner. Strong tdTomato fluorescence was detected in the inner nuclear layer and localized to type 1, 3b, and 4 OFF bipolar cells and type 5-2, XBC, 6, and 7 ON bipolar cells. In contrast, type 2, 3a, 5-1, 9, and rod bipolar cells did not express Drd1a-tdTomato. Other interneurons were also found to express tdTomato including horizontal cells and a subset (25%) of AII amacrine cells. Diverse visual processing pathways, such as color or motion-coded pathways, are thought to be initiated in retinal bipolar cells. Our results indicate that dopamine sculpts bipolar cell performance in a type-dependent manner to facilitate daytime vision. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2059-2079, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587737

  9. A full-field transmission x-ray microscope for time-resolved imaging of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, J.; Wessels, P.; Wieland, M.; Nisius, T.; Vogel, A.; Abbati, G.; Baumbach, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Viefhaus, J.; Meier, G.; Wilhein, T.; Drescher, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-nanosecond magnetization dynamics of small permalloy (Ni80Fe20) elements has been investigated with a new full-field transmission microscope at the soft X-ray beamline P04 of the high brilliance synchrotron radiation source PETRA III. The soft X-ray microscope generates a flat-top illumination field of 20 μm diameter using a grating condenser. A tilted nanostructured magnetic sample can be excited by a picosecond electric current pulse via a coplanar waveguide. The transmitted light of the sample plane is directly imaged by a micro zone plate with < 65 nm resolution onto a 2D gateable X-ray detector to select one particular bunch in the storage ring that probes the time evolution of the dynamic information successively via XMCD spectromicroscopy in a pump-probe scheme. In the experiments it was possible to generate a homogeneously magnetized state in patterned magnetic layers by a strong magnetic Oersted field pulse of 200 ps duration and directly observe the recovery to the initial flux-closure vortex patterns.

  10. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  11. Imaging individual lanthanum atoms in zeolite Y by scanning transmission electron microscopy: evidence of lanthanum pair sites

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pinghong; Lu, Jing; Aydin, C.; Debefve, Louise M.; Browning, Nigel D.; Chen, Cong-Yan; Gates, Bruce C.

    2015-09-01

    Images of La-exchanged NaY zeolite obtained with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) show that about 80% of the La cations were present as site-isolated species, with the remainder in pair sites. The distance between La cations in the pair sites ranged from 1.44 to 3.84 Å, consistent with the presence of pairs of cations tilted at various angles with respect to the support surface. The actual distance between La cations in the pair sites is inferred to be approximately 3.84 Å, which is shorter than the distance between the nearest Al sites in the zeolite (4.31 Å). The results therefore suggest the presence of dimeric structures of La cations bridged with OH groups, and the presence of such species has been inferred previously on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (W. Grünert, U. Sauerlandt, R. Schlögl, H.G. Karge, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 1413).

  12. Transmission electron microscopy as a tool to image bioinorganic nanohybrids: the case of phage-gold nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Binrui; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, bioinorganic nanohybrids composed of biological macromolecules and functional inorganic nanomaterials have revealed many unique properties that show promise for the future. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a popular and relatively simple tool that can offer a direct visualization of the nanomaterials with high resolutions. When TEM is applied to visualize bioinorganic nanohybrids, a treatment of negative staining is necessary due to the presence of biological molecules in the nanohybrids except for those with densely packed inorganic materials. However, the conventional negative-staining procedure for regular biological samples cannot be directly applied to such bioinorganic nanohybrids. To image a specific bioinorganic nanohybrid, negative-staining factors such as negative stain type, working pH, staining time, and drying method, should be identified. Currently, no detailed studies have been done to investigate how to adjust negative-staining factors based on specific bioinorganic nanohybrids. In this study, bacteriophage-gold nanoparticle hybrids were chosen as a model to systematically study the effects of each factor on the negative staining of the nanohybrids. The best staining conditions for gold nanoparticle-phage nanohybrids were obtained and the effects of each factor on the negative staining of general nanohybrids were discussed. This work indicates that with proper staining it is possible to use TEM to visualize directly both biological and inorganic components without introducing any artifact. PMID:21678527

  13. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  14. Application of feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method for quantitative PET imaging of dopamine transporters with [(18)F]β-CFT-FE in conscious monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Norihiro; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Tsukada, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The competitive inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) with cocaine, a specific DAT inhibitor, was evaluated with a feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method using animal positron emission tomography (PET) in the living brain of conscious monkey. 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl) nortropane ([(18)F]β-CFT-FE; Harada et al. [2004] Synapse 54:37-45) was used for this study because it provided specific, fast, and reversible kinetic properties to DAT in the striatum. In FC-B/I method, the real-time image reconstruction was started just after intravenous bolus injection of [(18)F]β-CFT-FE to generate a time-activity curve in the striatum, and the infusion rate was adjusted to achieve an equilibrium state of the striatal radioactivity concentrations by means of a feedback-control algorithm. The first equilibrium state in the brain was reached within 20 min after the infusion start. Intravenous administration of cocaine at the doses of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg shifted the equilibrium radioactivity level to the second equilibrium state in a dose-dependent manner, while no significant alterations was observed in the cerebellum. The present results demonstrated that the combined use of FC-B/I method and PET probe with fast kinetics like [(18)F]β-CFT-FE could be useful to assess the occupancy of drugs in the living brain with PET. PMID:23042662

  15. The role of dopamine in risk taking: a specific look at Parkinson's disease and gambling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Crystal A; Dagher, Alain

    2014-01-01

    An influential model suggests that dopamine signals the difference between predicted and experienced reward. In this way, dopamine can act as a learning signal that can shape behaviors to maximize rewards and avoid punishments. Dopamine is also thought to invigorate reward seeking behavior. Loss of dopamine signaling is the major abnormality in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agonists have been implicated in the occurrence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients, the most common being pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive buying. Recently, a number of functional imaging studies investigating impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease have been published. Here we review this literature, and attempt to place it within a decision-making framework in which potential gains and losses are evaluated to arrive at optimum choices. We also provide a hypothetical but still incomplete model on the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on these value and risk assessments. Two of the main brain structures thought to be involved in computing aspects of reward and loss are the ventral striatum (VStr) and the insula, both dopamine projection sites. Both structures are consistently implicated in functional brain imaging studies of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24910600

  16. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  17. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth. PMID:26921458

  18. Dopamine transporter availability in clinically normal aging is associated with individual differences in white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, Anna; Hedden, Trey; Younger, Alayna P.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related differences in white matter integrity, the presence of amyloid plaques, and density of biomarkers indicative of dopamine functions can be detected and quantified with in vivo human imaging. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether these imaging-based measures constitute independent imaging biomarkers in older adults, which would speak to the hypothesis that the aging brain is characterized by multiple independent neurobiological cascades. We assessed MRI-based markers of white matter integrity and PET-based marker of dopamine transporter density and amyloid deposition in the same set of 53 clinically normal individuals (age 65–87). A multiple regression analysis demonstrated that dopamine transporter availability is predicted by white matter integrity, which was detectable even after controlling for chronological age. Further post-hoc exploration revealed that dopamine transporter availability was further associated with systolic blood pressure, mirroring the established association between cardiovascular health and white matter integrity. Dopamine transporter availability was not associated with the presence of amyloid burden. Neurobiological correlates of dopamine transporter measures in aging are therefore likely unrelated to Alzheimer’s disease but are aligned with white matter integrity and cardiovascular risk. More generally, these results suggest that two common imaging markers of the aging brain that are typically investigated separately do not reflect independent neurobiological processes. PMID:26542307

  19. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, S.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.; Wilhein, T.

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  20. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, S; Kanngießer, B; Malzer, W; Stiel, H; Wilhein, T

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns. PMID:26329204

  1. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, S. Wilhein, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  2. Sound wave transmission (image)

    MedlinePlus

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  3. Treatment of Parkinson’s disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    López, Tessy; Bata-García, José L; Esquivel, Dulce; Ortiz-Islas, Emma; Gonzalez, Richard; Ascencio, Jorge; Quintana, Patricia; Oskam, Gerko; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Heredia-López, Francisco J; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We have evaluated the use of silica–dopamine reservoirs synthesized by the sol–gel approach with the aim of using them in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, specifically as a device for the controlled release of dopamine in the striatum. Theoretical calculations illustrate that dopamine is expected to assume a planar structure and exhibit weak interactions with the silica surface. Methods Several samples were prepared by varying the wt% of dopamine added during the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The silica–dopamine reservoirs were characterized by N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release profiles were determined using ultraviolet visible absorbance spectroscopy. The textural analyses showed a maximum value for the surface area of 620 m2/g nanostructured silica materials. The stability of dopamine in the silica network was confirmed by infrared and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The reservoirs were evaluated by means of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats. Results The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent. Conclusion The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine. PMID:21289978

  4. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26764301

  5. The effects in rats of lisdexamfetamine in combination with olanzapine on mesocorticolimbic dopamine efflux, striatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and stimulus generalization to a D-amphetamine cue.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Peter H; Rowley, Helen L; Gosden, James; Kulkarni, Rajiv S; Slater, Nigel; Love, Patrick L; Wang, Yiyun; Heal, David

    2016-02-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia is poorly understood and two principle hypotheses have dominated the field. Firstly, that subcortical dopamine function is enhanced while cortical dopamine function is reduced and secondly, that cortical glutamate systems are dysfunctional. It is also widely accepted that currently used antipsychotics have essentially no impact on cognitive deficits and persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine transmission via dopamine D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex has been hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of these symptom domains and enhancing cortical dopamine transmission within an optimal window has been suggested to be potentially beneficial. In these pre-clinical studies we have determined that combined administration of the d-amphetamine pro-drug, lisdexamfetamine and the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine increased dopamine efflux in the rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens to an extent greater than either drug given separately without affecting olanzapine's ability to block striatal dopamine D2 receptors which is important for its antipsychotic activity. Furthermore, in an established rodent model used to compare the subjective effects of novel compounds the ability of lisdexamfetamine to generalize to a d-amphetamine cue was dose-dependently attenuated when co-administered with olanzapine suggesting that lisdexamfetamine may produce less marked subjective effects when administered adjunctively with olanzapine. PMID:26384654

  6. Assessment of dopamine receptor densities in the human brain with carbon-11-labeled N-methylspiperone

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstroem, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    We describe the use of carbon-11-labeled 3-N-methylspiperone, a ligand that preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and, for the first time, in a human. The method has now been used in 58 humans for noninvasive assessment of the state of brain dopamine receptors under normal and pathological conditions.

  7. The structure of dodecagonal (Ta,V){sub 1.6}Te imaged by phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krumeich, F.; Mueller, E.; Wepf, R.A.; Conrad, M.; Reich, C.; Harbrecht, B.; Nesper, R.

    2012-10-15

    While HRTEM is the well-established method to characterize the structure of dodecagonal tantalum (vanadium) telluride quasicrystals and their periodic approximants, phase-contrast imaging performed on an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) represents a favorable alternative. The (Ta,V){sub 151}Te{sub 74} clusters, the basic structural unit in all these phases, can be visualized with high resolution. A dependence of the image contrast on defocus and specimen thickness has been observed. In thin areas, the projected crystal potential is basically imaged with either dark or bright contrast at two defocus values close to Scherzer defocus as confirmed by image simulations utilizing the principle of reciprocity. Models for square-triangle tilings describing the arrangement of the basic clusters can be derived from such images. - Graphical abstract: PC-STEM image of a (Ta,V){sub 151}Te{sub 74} cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub s}-corrected STEM is applied for the characterization of dodecagonal quasicrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The projected potential of the structure is mirrored in the images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase-contrast STEM imaging depends on defocus and thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For simulations of phase-contrast STEM images, the reciprocity theorem is applicable.

  8. Dopamine modulation of GABAergic function enables network stability and input selectivity for sustaining working memory in a computational model of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sergio E; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine modulation of GABAergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to be critical for sustaining cognitive processes such as working memory and decision-making. Here, we developed a neurocomputational model of the PFC that includes physiological features of the facilitatory action of dopamine on fast-spiking interneurons to assess how a GABAergic dysregulation impacts on the prefrontal network stability and working memory. We found that a particular non-linear relationship between dopamine transmission and GABA function is required to enable input selectivity in the PFC for the formation and retention of working memory. Either degradation of the dopamine signal or the GABAergic function is sufficient to elicit hyperexcitability in pyramidal neurons and working memory impairments. The simulations also revealed an inverted U-shape relationship between working memory and dopamine, a function that is maintained even at high levels of GABA degradation. In fact, the working memory deficits resulting from reduced GABAergic transmission can be rescued by increasing dopamine tone and vice versa. We also examined the role of this dopamine-GABA interaction for the termination of working memory and found that the extent of GABAergic excitation needed to reset the PFC network begins to occur when the activity of fast-spiking interneurons surpasses 40 Hz. Together, these results indicate that the capability of the PFC to sustain working memory and network stability depends on a robust interplay of compensatory mechanisms between dopamine tone and the activity of local GABAergic interneurons. PMID:24975022

  9. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  10. Planar Quadrature RF Transceiver Design Using Common-Mode Differential-Mode (CMDM) Transmission Line Method for 7T MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  11. Development of in-situ full-field spectroscopic imaging analysis and application on Li-ion battery using transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen K.; Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the advance in spectroscopic imaging technique and analysis method from the newly developed transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at the beamline X8C of National Synchrotron Light Source. Through leastsquares linear combination fitting we developed on the in situ spectroscopic images, a time-dependent and spatially resolved chemical composition mapping can be obtained and quantitatively analyzed undergone chemical/electrochemical reactions. A correlation of morphological evolution, chemical state distribution changes and reaction conditions can be revealed. We successfully applied this method to study the electrochemical evolution of CuO, an anode material of Li-ion battery, during the lithiation-delitiation cycling.

  12. Imaging of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and observations of GaN-based violet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Shiojiri, M; Saijo, H

    2006-09-01

    The first part of this paper is devoted to physics, to explain high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging and to interpret why HAADF-STEM imaging is incoherent, instructing a strict definition of interference and coherence of electron waves. Next, we present our recent investigations of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and AlGaN/GaN strained-layer superlattice claddings in GaN-based violet laser diodes, which have been performed by HAADF-STEM and high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy. PMID:17059523

  13. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  14. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. PMID:22871438

  15. An updated view on the role of dopamine in myopia.

    PubMed

    Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2013-09-01

    A large body of data is available to support the hypothesis that dopamine (DA) is one of the retinal neurotransmitters involved in the signaling cascade that controls eye growth by vision. Initially, reduced retinal DA levels were observed in eyes deprived of sharp vision by either diffusers ("deprivation myopia", DM) or negative lenses ("lens induced myopia", LIM). Simulating high retinal DA levels by intravitreal application of a DA agonist can suppress the development of both DM and LIM. Also more recent studies using knock-out mouse models of DA receptors support the idea of an association between decreased DA levels and DM. There seem to be differences in the magnitude of the effects of DA on DM and LIM, with larger changes in DM but the degrees of image degradation by both treatments need to be matched to support this conclusion. Although a number of studies have shown that the inhibitory effects of dopamine agonists on DM and LIM are mediated through stimulation of the D2-receptor, there is also recent evidence that the balance of D2- and D1-receptor activation is important. Inhibition of D2-receptors can also slow the development of spontaneous myopia in albino guinea pigs. Retinal DA content displays a distinct endogenous diurnal, and partially circadian rhythm. In addition, retinal DA is regulated by a number of visual stimuli like retinal illuminance, spatial frequency content of the image, temporal contrast and, in chicks, by the light input from the pineal organ. A close interaction was found between muscarinergic and dopaminergic systems, and between nitric oxide and dopaminergic pathways, and there is evidence for crosstalk between the different pathways, perhaps multiple binding of the ligands to different receptors. It was shown that DA agonists interact with the immediate early signaling molecule ZENK which triggers the first steps in eye growth regulation. However, since long treatment periods were often needed to induce significant changes in

  16. Transmission of 10 micron radiation over coastal waters: comparison of point-source image intensities with aerosol extinction and MODTRAN calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B.; de Leeuw, Gerrit; van Eijk, Alexander M.

    1996-10-01

    During the MAPTIP experiments in the Dutch coastal waters, 11 October - 5 November 1993, transmission curves were determined from the intensities of the image of a point source suspended from a helicopter at ranges between 0.5 and 6 NMi. The images were recorded with a 10 micrometer USFA 9092 camera from the MeetPost Noordwijk, a research tower in the North Sea at 9 km from the Dutch coast. The transmission determined from the point source intensities at several ranges is compared with calculated values. The transmission is determined by extinction due to aerosols and molecular species in the propagation path. Both contributions can be determined using code using measured size distributions. Also effects of path radiance and background on the image intensity are considered. In this coastal area, and the off- shore winds that were usually encountered during MAPTIP, the aerosol size distributions are known to be a complicated mixture of continental and marine aerosols. Hence the common aerosol models, that usually work well over the open ocean, are often not so reliable in a coastal environment. An attempt is made to assess the influence of marine and anthropogenic contributions to the aerosol on the detection range of point targets in a coastal atmosphere.

  17. Dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra are involved in the regulation of muscle tone.

    PubMed Central

    Double, K L; Crocker, A D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to localize the dopamine receptors involved in the regulation of muscle tone. A strategy was used whereby the effects on muscle tone of injecting the irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) in discrete brain regions were assessed. Increases in muscle tone were measured as changes in electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and tibialis muscles of conscious, unrestrained rats. No increases in muscle tone were found after injections of EEDQ into the anterior and posterior striatum, which produced marked reductions in dopamine receptor concentration. The effects of muscle tone of injecting EEDQ into the substantia nigra pars reticulata were also assessed. Large increases in muscle tone were observed associated with inactivation of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra. The increased muscle tone was not reduced by subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, despite the presence of a normal population of striatal dopamine receptors. These findings provide evidence that dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra play an important role in the regulation of muscle tone. Further, they challenge the hypothesis that the muscle rigidity of Parkinson disease results primarily from loss of striatal dopamine receptor stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7878037

  18. Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum form an anatomically distinct subclass

    PubMed Central

    Menegas, William; Bergan, Joseph F; Ogawa, Sachie K; Isogai, Yoh; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Osten, Pavel; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Combining rabies-virus tracing, optical clearing (CLARITY), and whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we mapped the monosynaptic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to different targets (different parts of the striatum, cortex, amygdala, etc) in mice. We found that most populations of dopamine neurons receive a similar set of inputs rather than forming strong reciprocal connections with their target areas. A common feature among most populations of dopamine neurons was the existence of dense ‘clusters’ of inputs within the ventral striatum. However, we found that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum were outliers, receiving relatively few inputs from the ventral striatum and instead receiving more inputs from the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and zona incerta. These results lay a foundation for understanding the input/output structure of the midbrain dopamine circuit and demonstrate that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum constitute a unique class of dopamine neurons regulated by different inputs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10032.001 PMID:26322384

  19. Varenicline-Induced Elevation of Dopamine in Smokers: A Preliminary [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO PET Study.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Guranda, Mihail; Lagzdins, Dina; Tyndale, Rachel F; Gamaleddin, Islam; Selby, Peter; Boileau, Isabelle; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist, is the most effective treatment for tobacco use disorder. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear and may involve stimulating dopaminergic transmission. Here we used PET imaging with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO to explore for the first time the impact of varenicline on dopamine transmission in the D2-rich striatum and D3-rich extra-striatal regions and its relationship with craving, withdrawal and smoking. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers underwent two PET scans with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, each following 12-h overnight smoking abstinence both prior to receiving varenicline and following 10-11 days of varenicline treatment (ie, at steady-state drug levels). Subjective measures of craving and urges to smoke were also assessed on the days of the PET scans. Varenicline treatment significantly reduced [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the dorsal caudate (p=0.008) and reduced some craving measures. These findings provide the first evidence that varenicline is able to increase DA levels in the human brain, a factor that may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26442600

  20. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    PubMed

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction. PMID:25343991

  1. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  2. [Multi-Target Recognition of Internal and External Defects of Potato by Semi-Transmission Hyperspectral Imaging and Manifold Learning Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Xiao-yu; Jin, Rui; Ku, Jing; Xu, Sen-miao; Xu, Meng-ling; Wu, Zhen-zhong; Kong, De-guo

    2015-04-01

    The present paper put forward a non-destructive detection method which combines semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) to recognize internal and external defects in potatoes simultaneously. Three hundred fifteen potatoes were bought in farmers market as research object, and semi-transmission hyperspectral image acquisition system was constructed to acquire the hyperspectral images of normal external defects (bud and green rind) and internal defect (hollow heart) potatoes. In order to conform to the actual production, defect part is randomly put right, side and back to the acquisition probe when the hyperspectral images of external defects potatoes are acquired. The average spectrums (390-1,040 nm) were extracted from the region of interests for spectral preprocessing. Then three kinds of manifold learning algorithm were respectively utilized to reduce the dimension of spectrum data, including supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE), locally linear embedding (LLE) and isometric mapping (ISOMAP), the low-dimensional data gotten by manifold learning algorithms is used as model input, Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) and LSSVM were combined to develop the multi-target classification model. By comparing and analyzing results of the three models, we concluded that SLLE is the optimal manifold learning dimension reduction algorithm, and the SLLE-LSSVM model is determined to get the best recognition rate for recognizing internal and external defects potatoes. For test set data, the single recognition rate of normal, bud, green rind and hollow heart potato reached 96.83%, 86.96%, 86.96% and 95% respectively, and he hybrid recognition rate was 93.02%. The results indicate that combining the semi-transmission hyperspectral imaging technology with SLLE-LSSVM is a feasible qualitative analytical method which can simultaneously recognize the internal and

  3. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlated with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang, L.; Ernst, T.; /Fowler, J.S.

    2009-06-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  4. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients.

  5. [Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma with neurofibromatosis type 1 : a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Akiyama, Kotaro; Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2012-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma occurs in 0.1-5.7% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), while dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma is rare. We report here a rare case of dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma in a patient with NF1. A 46-year-old woman with NF1 was referred to our hospital with epigastralgia. The patient had no history of hypertension. Abdominal sonography incidentally revealed a left adrenal tumor, while abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings showed a left adrenal tumor, sized 63×58 mm. Laboratory evaluations revealed exclusively elevated urine dopamine levels in addition to elevated serum adrenaline and noradrenaline levels. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed and the dopamine levels and other cathecolamine levels returned to normal postoperatively. PMID:23235276

  6. The effect of striatal dopamine depletion on striatal and cortical glutamate: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Gerretsen, Philip; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate in the striatum has become the highlight of several theories of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Using in vivo brain imaging in humans, alterations in dopamine and glutamate concentrations have been observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear a priori how alterations in striatal dopamine should modulate glutamate concentrations in the basal ganglia. In this selective mini-review, we examine the consequence of reducing striatal dopamine functioning on glutamate concentrations in the striatum and cortex; regions of interest heavily examined in the human brain imaging studies. We examine the predictions of the classical model of the basal ganglia, and contrast it with findings in humans and animals. The review concludes that chronic dopamine depletion (>4months) produces decreases in striatal glutamate levels which are consistent with the classical model of the basal ganglia. However, acute alterations in striatal dopamine functioning, specifically at the D2 receptors, may produce opposite affects. This has important implications for models of the basal ganglia and theorizing about neurochemical alterations in neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, these findings may help guide a priori hypotheses for (1)H-MRS studies measuring glutamate changes given alterations in dopaminergic functioning in humans. PMID:26334687

  7. Functional dopamine D2 receptors on rat vagal afferent neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A J; Krstew, E; Jarrott, B

    1995-01-01

    1. In the present study in vitro electrophysiology and receptor autoradiography were used to determine whether rat vagal afferent neurones possess dopamine D2 receptors. 2. Dopamine (10-300 microM) elicited a temperature- and concentration-dependent depolarization of the rat isolated nodose ganglion preparation. When applied to the tissue 15 min prior to agonist, raclopride (10 microM), clozapine (10 microM) or a mixture of raclopride and clozapine (10 microM each) all produced a threefold parallel shift to the right of the dopamine concentration-response curve. In contrast, SCH 23390 (100 nM), phentolamine and propranolol (1 microM each) failed to antagonize the dopamine-mediated depolarization. 3. [125I]-NCQ 298 (0.5 nM), a D2 selective radioligand, bound topographically to sections of rat brainstem. Densitometric quantification of autoradiograms revealed 93.8 +/- 0.5% specific binding of this salicylamide radioligand, as determined by raclopride (10 microM, n = 10 animals). Binding was highest in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), particularly the medial and gelatinous subnuclei. In addition, specific binding was also observed in the interpolar spinal trigeminal nucleus and the inferior olive. 4. Unilateral nodose ganglionectomy caused a 36.6 +/- 3.0% reduction in specific binding in the denervated NTS compared to the contralateral NTS. Furthermore, the loss of binding was confined to the dorsal aspect of the medial subnucleus of the NTS. Sham surgery had no effect on the binding of [125I]-NCQ 298 in rat brainstem. 5. The present data provide evidence for the presence of functionally relevant dopamine D2 receptors on both the soma and central terminals of rat vagal afferent neurones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 3 PMID:7606337

  8. Dopamine Modulates the Activity of Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cecilia; Trapani, Josef G.; Pacentine, Itallia; Maeda, Reo; Sheets, Lavinia; Mo, Weike

    2015-01-01

    The senses of hearing and balance are subject to modulation by efferent signaling, including the release of dopamine (DA). How DA influences the activity of the auditory and vestibular systems and its site of action are not well understood. Here we show that dopaminergic efferent fibers innervate the acousticolateralis epithelium of the zebrafish during development but do not directly form synapses with hair cells. However, a member of the D1-like receptor family, D1b, tightly localizes to ribbon synapses in inner ear and lateral-line hair cells. To assess modulation of hair-cell activity, we reversibly activated or inhibited D1-like receptors (D1Rs) in lateral-line hair cells. In extracellular recordings from hair cells, we observed that D1R agonist SKF-38393 increased microphonic potentials, whereas D1R antagonist SCH-23390 decreased microphonic potentials. Using ratiometric calcium imaging, we found that increased D1R activity resulted in larger calcium transients in hair cells. The increase of intracellular calcium requires Cav1.3a channels, as a Cav1 calcium channel antagonist, isradipine, blocked the increase in calcium transients elicited by the agonist SKF-38393. Collectively, our results suggest that DA is released in a paracrine fashion and acts at ribbon synapses, likely enhancing the activity of presynaptic Cav1.3a channels and thereby increasing neurotransmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neurotransmitter dopamine acts in a paracrine fashion (diffusion over a short distance) in several tissues and bodily organs, influencing and regulating their activity. The cellular target and mechanism of the action of dopamine in mechanosensory organs, such as the inner ear and lateral-line organ, is not clearly understood. Here we demonstrate that dopamine receptors are present in sensory hair cells at synaptic sites that are required for signaling to the brain. When nearby neurons release dopamine, activation of the dopamine receptors increases the activity of

  9. Restoring defect structures in 3C-SiC/Si (001) from spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope images by means of deconvolution processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, C; Wan, W; Li, F H; Tang, D

    2015-04-01

    The [110] cross-sectional samples of 3C-SiC/Si (001) were observed with a spherical aberration-corrected 300 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Two images taken not close to the Scherzer focus condition and not representing the projected structures intuitively were utilized for performing the deconvolution. The principle and procedure of image deconvolution and atomic sort recognition are summarized. The defect structure restoration together with the recognition of Si and C atoms from the experimental images has been illustrated. The structure maps of an intrinsic stacking fault in the area of SiC, and of Lomer and 60° shuffle dislocations at the interface have been obtained at atomic level. PMID:25637810

  10. Quantitative imaging analysis and investigation of transmission loss in PbF2 crystals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoxia; Wang, Zheng; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Yan; Du, Yiping

    2016-07-01

    We developed a procedure for preparing matrix-matched calibration standards for the quantitative imaging of multiple trace elements in PbF2 crystals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In this facile approach, PbO powder was employed as the matrix with the addition of a series of standard solutions, followed by drying and tableting, for determining the concentrations of (24)Mg, (27)Al, (89)Y, (103)Rh, (133)Cs, (175)Lu and (209)Bi in transparent samples (with homogeneous element distribution). (206)Pb was chosen as the internal standard and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for all elements ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9999 after internal standard correction. The analysis showed good agreement with the results observed by established ICP-MS methods, following acid dissolution of the samples. Finally, the element distributions and transmission curves of a PbF2 sample with non-transparent and transparent sections were visualized. The distribution images, in conjunction with the transmission curves, suggested that the enrichment of Mg, Al, Rh, Cs, and Bi atoms in the non-transparent section of the sample could explain the loss in transmission observed for that section. PMID:27154704

  11. Dopamine neurons control striatal cholinergic neurons via regionally heterogeneous dopamine and glutamate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chuhma, Nao; Mingote, Susana; Moore, Holly; Rayport, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Midbrain dopamine neurons fire in bursts conveying salient information. Bursts are associated with pauses in tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons. While the reciprocal balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum is well known, how dopamine neurons control cholinergic neurons has not been elucidated. Here we show that dopamine neurons make direct fast dopaminergic and glutamatergic connections with cholinergic interneurons, with regional heterogeneity. Dopamine neurons drive a burst-pause firing sequence in cholinergic interneurons in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, mixed actions in the accumbens core, and a pause in the dorsal striatum. This heterogeneity is due mainly to regional variation in dopamine-neuron glutamate cotransmission. A single dose of amphetamine attenuates dopamine neuron connections to cholinergic interneurons with dose-dependent regional specificity. Overall, the present data indicate that dopamine neurons control striatal circuit function via discrete, plastic connections with cholinergic interneurons. PMID:24559678

  12. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  13. Modulation of dopamine-mediated facilitation at the neuromuscular junction of Wistar rats: A role for adenosine A1/A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Elnozahi, Neveen A; AlQot, Hadir E; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; Bistawroos, Azza E; Abou Zeit-Har, Mohamed S

    2016-06-21

    This study aims to understand how dopamine and the neuromodulators, adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) modulate neuromuscular transmission. Adenosine and ATP are well-recognized for their regulatory effects on dopamine in the central nervous system. However, if similar interactions occur at the neuromuscular junction is unknown. We hypothesize that the activation of adenosine A1/A2A and/or P2 purinoceptors may influence the action of dopamine on neuromuscular transmission. Using the rat phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm, we assessed the influence of dopamine, adenosine and ATP on the height of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. We investigated how the selective blockade of adenosine A1 receptors (2.5nM DPCPX), adenosine A2A receptors (50nM CSC) and P2 purinoceptors (100μM suramin) modified the effects of dopamine. Dopamine alone increased indirect muscle contractions while adenosine and ATP either enhanced or depressed nerve-evoked muscle twitches in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory effects of 256μM dopamine were significantly reduced to 29.62±2.79% or 53.69±5.45% in the presence of DPCPX or CSC, respectively, relative to 70.03±1.57% with dopamine alone. Alternatively, the action of 256μM dopamine was potentiated from 70.03±1.57, in the absence of suramin, to 86.83±4.36%, in the presence of suramin. It can be concluded that the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors potentially play a central role in the regulation of dopamine effects at the neuromuscular junction. Clinically this study offers new insights for the indirect manipulation of neuromuscular transmission for the treatment of disorders characterized by motor dysfunction. PMID:27060487

  14. Evaluation of a smartphone camera system to enable visualization and image transmission to aid tracheal intubation with the Airtraq(®) laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Delice Weishan; Thampi, Swapna; Yap, Eric Peng Huat; Liu, Eugene Hern Choon

    2016-06-01

    Using three-dimensional printing, we produced adaptors to attach a smartphone with camera to the eyepiece of the Airtraq(®) laryngoscope. This low-cost system enabled a team to simultaneously view the laryngoscopy process on the smartphone screen, and also enabled image transmission. We compared the Airtraq(®) with the smartphone Airtraq(®) system in a crossover study of trainee anesthesiologists performing tracheal intubation in a manikin. We also evaluated the smartphone Airtraq(®) system for laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in 30 patients, including image transmission to and communication with a remote instructor. In the manikin study, the smartphone Airtraq(®) system enabled instruction where both trainee and instructor could view the larynx simultaneously, and did not substantially increase the time required for intubation. In the patient study, we were able to view the larynx in all 30 patients, and the remote instructor was able to receive the images and to respond on correctness of laryngoscopy and tracheal tube placement. Tracheal intubation was successful within 90s in 19 (63 %) patients. In conclusion, use of a smartphone with the Airtraq(®) may facilitate instruction and communication of laryngoscopy with the Airtraq(®), overcoming some of its limitations. PMID:26825311

  15. A transmission electron microscopy study of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles in silica aerogel matrix using HREM and STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy and EELS.

    PubMed

    Falqui, Andrea; Corrias, Anna; Wang, Peng; Snoeck, Etienne; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic nanocomposite materials consisting of 5 and 10 wt% CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a silica aerogel matrix have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. For the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) images showed distinct, rounded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, with typical diameters of roughly 8 nm. For the CoFe2O4-5wt% sample, BF STEM images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements showed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with diameters of roughly 3 +/- 1 nm. EDX measurements indicate that all nanoparticles consist of stoichiometric CoFe2O4, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements from lines crossing nanoparticles in the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample show a uniform composition within nanoparticles, with a precision of at best than +/-0.5 nm in analysis position. BF STEM images obtained for the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample showed many "needle-like" nanostructures that typically have a length of 10 nm and a width of 1 nm, and frequently appear to be attached to nanoparticles. These needle-like nanostructures are observed to contain layers with interlayer spacing 0.33 +/- 0.1 nm, which could be consistent with Co silicate hydroxide, a known precursor phase in these nanocomposite materials. PMID:20199712

  16. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  17. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  18. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-01

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19853009

  19. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  20. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26871628

  1. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  2. Local symmetry breaking of a thin crystal structure of β-Si3N4 as revealed by spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwang Su; Zhang, Zaoli; Kaiser, Ute

    2012-06-01

    This report is an extension of the study for structural imaging of 5-6 nm thick β-Si(3)N(4) [0001] crystal with a spherical aberration corrected transmission electron microscope by Zhang and Kaiser [2009. Structure imaging of β-Si(3)N(4) by spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 109, 1114-1120]. In this work, a local symmetry breaking with an uneven resolution of dumbbells in the six-membered rings revealed in the reported images in the study of Zhang and Kaiser has been analyzed in detail. It is found that this local asymmetry in the image basically is not relevant to a slight mistilt of the specimen and/or a beam tilt (coma). Rather the certain variation of the tetrahedral bond length of Si-N(4) in the crystal structure is found to be responsible for the uneven resolution with a local structural variation from region to region. This characteristic of the variation is also supposed to give a distorted lattice of apparently 2°-2.5° deviations from the perfect hexagonal unit cell as observed in the reported image in the work of Zhang and Kaiser. It is discussed that this variation may prevail only in a thin specimen with a thickness ranging ~≤ 5-6 nm. At the same time, it is noted that the average of the bond length variation is close to the fixed length known in a bulk crystal of β-Si(3)N(4). PMID:22499470

  3. Somatodendritic dopamine release: recent mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Rice, Margaret E; Patel, Jyoti C

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites. Somatodendritic DA release leads to activation of D2 DA autoreceptors on DA neurons that inhibit their firing via G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. This helps determine patterns of DA signalling at distant axonal release sites. Somatodendritically released DA also acts via volume transmission to extrasynaptic receptors that modulate local transmitter release and neuronal activity in the midbrain. Thus, somatodendritic release is a pivotal intrinsic feature of DA neurons that must be well defined in order to fully understand the physiology and pathophysiology of DA pathways. Here, we review recent mechanistic aspects of somatodendritic DA release, with particular emphasis on the Ca(2+) dependence of release and the potential role of exocytotic proteins. PMID:26009764

  4. Cocaine self-administration produces a persistent increase in dopamine D2 High receptors.

    PubMed

    Briand, Lisa A; Flagel, Shelly B; Seeman, Philip; Robinson, Terry E

    2008-08-01

    Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high-affinity state, and dopamine exerts its effects via the more functionally relevant high-affinity D2 receptor (D2 High). We report here that cocaine self-administration experience produces a large (approximately 150%) increase in the proportion of D2 High receptors in the striatum with no change in the total number of D2 receptors, and this effect is evident both 3 and 30 days after the discontinuation of cocaine self-administration. Changes in D2 High receptors would not be evident with the probes used in human (and non-human primate) imaging studies. We suggest, therefore, that cocaine addicts and animals previously treated with cocaine may be hyper-responsive to dopaminergic drugs in part because an increase in D2 High receptors results in dopamine supersensitivity. This may also help explain why stimuli that increase dopamine neurotransmission, including drugs themselves, are so effective in producing relapse in individuals with a history of exposure to cocaine. PMID:18284941

  5. The role of dopamine in risk taking: a specific look at Parkinson’s disease and gambling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Crystal A.; Dagher, Alain

    2014-01-01

    An influential model suggests that dopamine signals the difference between predicted and experienced reward. In this way, dopamine can act as a learning signal that can shape behaviors to maximize rewards and avoid punishments. Dopamine is also thought to invigorate reward seeking behavior. Loss of dopamine signaling is the major abnormality in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine agonists have been implicated in the occurrence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients, the most common being pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive buying. Recently, a number of functional imaging studies investigating impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease have been published. Here we review this literature, and attempt to place it within a decision-making framework in which potential gains and losses are evaluated to arrive at optimum choices. We also provide a hypothetical but still incomplete model on the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on these value and risk assessments. Two of the main brain structures thought to be involved in computing aspects of reward and loss are the ventral striatum (VStr) and the insula, both dopamine projection sites. Both structures are consistently implicated in functional brain imaging studies of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24910600

  6. Rapid Recovery of Vesicular Dopamine Levels in Methamphetamine Users in Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; McCluskey, Tina; Tong, Junchao; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported very low levels of dopamine in post-mortem striatum of chronic methamphetamine users, raising the possibility that restoration of normal dopamine levels could help in this addiction and perhaps prevent early relapse. To establish relevance of this finding to the living brain, we tested whether striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding, a vesicular monoamine transporter probe sensitive to changes in (stored) vesicular dopamine, is elevated in methamphetamine users. Chronic methamphetamine users underwent [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography scans during early (mean 2.6 days) and later (~10 days) abstinence. Striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding was elevated (suggesting low stored dopamine) in methamphetamine users (n=28; 2.6 days after last use) relative to controls (n=22) (+28%, p<0.0001) and correlated with severity and recency of drug use and with cognitive impairment and withdrawal symptoms. Mean [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding levels in the subgroup of methamphetamine users who could remain abstinent ~10 days following last use (n=17) were normal at the follow-up scan. Our imaging data support post-mortem findings and suggest that chronic methamphetamine users have low brain levels of stored dopamine during very early abstinence from MA, which could contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits. Findings also suggest a rapid recovery of stored dopamine in some methamphetamine users who become abstinent and who therefore might not benefit from dopamine replacement medication (eg, levodopa). Further study is necessary to establish whether those users who could not maintain abstinence for the second scan might have a more severe and persistent dopamine deficiency and who could benefit from this medication. PMID:26321315

  7. Ultrathin and stable active layer of dense composite membrane enabled by poly(dopamine).

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Liu, Wanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Baoyi; Zhong, Yurong

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate that dopamine is able to self-polymerize and adhere firmly onto the substrate, which can create a hierarchical structure comprising an ultrathin active layer and a porous support layer. Such an approach opens a novel way to fabricating highly efficient and stable composite materials including composite membranes. More specifically, in this study the composite membranes are fabricated by simply dipping microporous substrate in aqueous dopamine solution under mild conditions. Nanoindentation measurement reveals the tight adhesion of dopamine onto microporous substrate, which is ascribed to numerous pi-pi and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The chemical composition of the active layer is analyzed by XPS, which demonstrates the self-polymerization of dopamine. The water contact angle of the dopamine coated membranes is reduced remarkably compared with that of the uncoated counterpart. Stylus profiler measurements display that the poly(dopamine) thickness increases as the coating time increases. FESEM images of the membranes' cross section show that an active layer (<100 nm) is deposited on the porous polysulfone (PS) substrate. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is introduced to probe the fractional free volume properties throughout the cross section of the composite membranes and reveal that after dopamine double-coating the active layer becomes thicker and more compact. Moreover, pH and concentration of the dopamine solution exert notable influence on the fractional free volume of the composite membranes. The as-prepared membranes are tentatively employed for pervaporative desulfurization and exhibits satisfying separation performance as well as durability. This facile, versatile, and efficient approach enables a promising prospect for the wide applications of such novel kinds of ultrathin composite materials. PMID:19366196

  8. Oxidation-state sensitive imaging of cerium dioxide by atomic-resolution low-angle annular dark field sca