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Sample records for imaging gas scintillation

  1. Properties of an imaging gas scintillation proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, W. H.-M.; Hailey, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An instrument which combines the improved energy resolution offered by the gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with the submillimeter imaging capabilities of the multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) is described. The imaging gas scintillation proportional counter detects the centroid of the UV light excited by X-ray photons interacting in the noble gas of the GSPC with a UV sensitive gas in the MWPC. The prototype counter yields a measured performance of 9% (FWHM) energy resolution and 0.9 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 6 keV. Further design refinements should achieve 18% (FWHM) energy resolution and 0.6 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 1 keV.

  2. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for the detection of subkiloelectron-volt X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H. M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A large area imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) was constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counted (GSPC) with a micron polyprotylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. Over a sensitive area of 21 cu cm the instrument has a measured energy resolution of 17.5% (FWHM) and 1.9 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 1.5 keV.

  3. An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter for use in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Vartanian, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) has been constructed for use in X-ray astronomy. The IGSPC consists of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) with a 1 micron polypropylene window coupled to a multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) via a calcium fluoride window. The MWPC, filled with a mixture of argon, methane, and tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene, detects the UV photons emitted by the xenon gas in the GSPC. The measured energy resolution is 17.0 percent (fwhm) and 8.0 percent (fwhm) at 1.5 keV and 5.9 keV, respectively. The measured position resolution is 1.9 mm (fwhm) and 0.9 mm (fwhm) at 1.5 and 5.9 keV, respectively. Possible astrophysical observations which can be performed with an IGSPC at the focal plane of a grazing incidence telescope are also discussed.

  4. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  5. Quenching the scintillation in CF4 Cherenkov gas radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.; D`Ambrosio, C.; Easo, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gibson, V.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Hunt, P.; Jones, C. R.; Lambert, R. W.; Matteuzzi, C.; Muheim, F.; Papanestis, A.; Perego, D. L.; Piedigrossi, D.; Plackett, R.; Powell, A.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Ullaland, O.; Websdale, D.; Wotton, S. A.; Wyllie, K.

    2015-08-01

    CF4 is used as a Cherenkov gas radiator in one of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors at the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CF4 is well known to have a high scintillation photon yield in the near and far VUV, UV and in the visible wavelength range. A large flux of scintillation photons in our photon detection acceptance between 200 and 800 nm could compromise the particle identification efficiency. We will show that this scintillation photon emission system can be effectively quenched, consistent with radiationless transitions, with no significant impact on the photons resulting from Cherenkov radiation.

  6. Neutron detection by scintillation of noble-gas excimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, Jacob Collin

    Neutron detection is a technique essential to homeland security, nuclear reactor instrumentation, neutron diffraction science, oil-well logging, particle physics and radiation safety. The current shortage of helium-3, the neutron absorber used in most gas-filled proportional counters, has created a strong incentive to develop alternate methods of neutron detection. Excimer-based neutron detection (END) provides an alternative with many attractive properties. Like proportional counters, END relies on the conversion of a neutron into energetic charged particles, through an exothermic capture reaction with a neutron absorbing nucleus (10B, 6Li, 3He). As charged particles from these reactions lose energy in a surrounding gas, they cause electron excitation and ionization. Whereas most gas-filled detectors collect ionized charge to form a signal, END depends on the formation of diatomic noble-gas excimers (Ar*2, Kr*2,Xe* 2) . Upon decaying, excimers emit far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons, which may be collected by a photomultiplier tube or other photon detector. This phenomenon provides a means of neutron detection with a number of advantages over traditional methods. This thesis investigates excimer scintillation yield from the heavy noble gases following the boron-neutron capture reaction in 10B thin-film targets. Additionally, the thesis examines noble-gas excimer lifetimes with relationship to gas type and gas pressure. Experimental data were collected both at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, and on a newly developed neutron beamline at the Maryland University Training Reactor. The components of the experiment were calibrated at NIST and the University of Maryland, using FUV synchrotron radiation, neutron imaging, and foil activation techniques, among others. Computer modeling was employed to simulate charged-particle transport and excimer photon emission within the experimental apparatus. The observed excimer

  7. Imaging of gamma emitters using scintillation cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, Marcel

    2004-07-01

    Since their introduction by Hal Anger in the late 1950s, the gamma cameras have been widely used in the field of nuclear medicine. The original concept is based on the association of a large field of view scintillator optically coupled with an array of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), in order to locate the position of interactions inside the crystal. Using a dedicated accessory, like a parallel hole collimator, to focus the field of view toward a predefined direction, it is possible to built up an image of the radioactive distribution. In terms of imaging performances, three main characteristics are commonly considered: uniformity, spatial resolution and energy resolution. Major improvements were mainly due to progress in terms of industrial process regarding analogical electronic, crystal growing or PMTs manufacturing. Today's gamma camera is highly digital, from the PMTs to the display. All the corrections are applied "on the fly" using up to date signal processing techniques. At the same time some significant progresses have been achieved in the field of collimators. Finally, two new technologies have been implemented, solid detectors like CdTe or CdZnTe, and pixellized scintillators plus photodiodes or position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. These solutions are particularly well adapted to build dedicated gamma camera for breast or intraoperative imaging.

  8. Thin scintillators for ultrafast hard X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.; Kapustinsky, Jon S.; Morris, Chris L.; Nelson, Ron O.; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    A multilayer thin-scintillator concept is described for ultrafast imaging. The individual layer thickness is determined by the spatial resolution and light attenuation length, the number of layers is determined by the overall efficiency. By coating the scintillators with a high quantum-efficiency photocathode, single X-ray photon detection can be achieved using fast scintillators with low light yield. The fast, efficient sensors, when combined with MCP and novel nanostructed electron amplification schemes, is a possible way towards GHz hard X-ray cameras for a few frames of images.

  9. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-02-05

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  10. Calibration of Small Plastic Scintillators for Imaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, S.

    2005-01-19

    This report presents the results of measurements and simulations performed with 12 small plastic scintillation detectors manufactured by Scionix for imaging applications. The scintillator is equivalent to a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator. A gamma calibration is presented to determine the voltage to be applied on each detector to ensure uniform detector operation. Time of flight measurements performed with a Cf-252 source are also presented. Comparisons between experimental data and data from the Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement for time lags of 0 to 70 ns.

  11. A model for the secondary scintillation pulse shape from a gas proportional scintillation counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazkaz, K.; Joshi, T. H.

    2016-03-01

    Proportional scintillation counters (PSCs), both single- and dual-phase, can measure the scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) channels from particle interactions within the detector volume. The signal obtained from these detectors depends first on the physics of the medium (the initial scintillation and ionization), and second how the physics of the detector manipulates the resulting photons and liberated electrons. In this paper we develop a model of the detector physics that incorporates event topology, detector geometry, electric field configuration, purity, optical properties of components, and wavelength shifters. We present an analytic form of the model, which allows for general study of detector design and operation, and a Monte Carlo model which enables a more detailed exploration of S2 events. This model may be used to study systematic effects in current detectors such as energy and position reconstruction, pulse shape discrimination, event topology, dead time calculations, purity, and electric field uniformity. We present a comparison of this model with experimental data collected with an argon gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC), operated at 20 C and 1 bar, and irradiated with an internal, collimated 55Fe source. Additionally we discuss how the model may be incorporated in Monte Carlo simulations of both GPSCs and dual-phase detectors, increasing the reliability of the simulation results and allowing for tests of the experimental data analysis algorithms.

  12. Scintillator-fiber charged particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector was developed using a bundle of square cross section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified charge injection device (CID) camera. The tracks of charged particle penetrating into the scintillator fiber bundle are projected onto the CID camera and the imaging information is read out in video format. The detector was exposed to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei and images of their tracks were obtained. Details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and preliminary range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle are presented.

  13. Scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector has been developed using a bundle of square cross-section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified Charge Injection Device (CID) camera. Detector to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei have been exposed and images of their tracks are obtained. This paper presents details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle.

  14. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R. M.; Adler, Jan-Olof; Akkurt, Iskender; Buchanan, Emma; Brudvik, Jason; Fissum, Kevin; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Livingston, Kenneth; Lundin, Magnus; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; MacRae, Roderick; Middleton, Duncan G.; Reiter, Andreas J. H.; Rosner, Günther; Schröder, Bent; Sjögren, Johan; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm3 at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N2 to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in 4He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  15. Bright Semiconductor Scintillator for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Guo, Liang; Irving, Thomas

    2011-08-16

    We report on a novel approach to produce oxygen-doped zinc telluride (ZnTe:O), a remarkable group II-VI semiconductor scintillator, fabricated in the columnar-structured or polycrystalline forms needed to fulfill the needs of many demanding X-ray and {gamma}-ray imaging applications. ZnTe:O has one of the highest conversion efficiencies among known scintillators, emission around 680 nm (which is ideally suited for CCD sensors), high density of 6.4 g/cm{sup 3}, fast decay time of {approx}1 {micro}s with negligible afterglow, and orders of magnitude higher radiation resistance compared to commonly used scintillators. These properties allow the use of ZnTe:O in numerous applications, including X-ray imaging, nuclear medicine (particularly SPECT), room temperature radioisotope identification, and homeland security. Additionally, ZnTe:O offers distinct advantages for synchrotron-based high resolution imaging due to the absence of atomic absorption edges in the low energy range, which otherwise reduce resolution due to secondary X-ray formations. We have fabricated films of ZnTe:O using a vapor deposition technique that allows large-area structured scintillator fabrication in a time- and cost-efficient manner, and evaluated its performance for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at an Argonne National Laboratory synchrotron beamline. Details of the fabrication and characterization of the optical, scintillation and imaging properties of the ZnTe:O films are presented in this paper.

  16. Gamma-ray astronomy using a high pressure gas scintillation drift chamber with a waveshifting fiber readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Parsons, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Smith, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope called SIGHT (Scintillation Imaging Gas-filled Hard X-ray Telescope). SIGHT is a high sensitivity, good energy resolution instrument that images in the 30 to 300 keV region. We discuss the development of a large area, 20 atmosphere, position sensitive xenon gas scintillation drift chamber which is the gamma-ray detector at the heart of the telescope package. Results of the development of the novel waveshifting fiber readout for this chamber are presented.

  17. Detecting Pulsars with Interstellar Scintillation in Variance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Johnston, S.; Bell, M. E.; Coles, W. A.; Hobbs, G.; Ekers, R. D.; Lenc, E.

    2016-08-01

    Pulsars are the only cosmic radio sources known to be sufficiently compact to show diffractive interstellar scintillations. Images of the variance of radio signals in both time and frequency can be used to detect pulsars in large-scale continuum surveys using the next generation of synthesis radio telescopes. This technique allows a search over the full field of view while avoiding the need for expensive pixel-by-pixel high time resolution searches. We investigate the sensitivity of detecting pulsars in variance images. We show that variance images are most sensitive to pulsars whose scintillation time-scales and bandwidths are close to the subintegration time and channel bandwidth. Therefore, in order to maximise the detection of pulsars for a given radio continuum survey, it is essential to retain a high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to make variance images sensitive to pulsars with different scintillation properties. We demonstrate the technique with Murchision Widefield Array data and show that variance images can indeed lead to the detection of pulsars by distinguishing them from other radio sources.

  18. High-pressure /sup 3/He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, /sup 3/He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10/sup -3/ (n/cm/sup 2/)/sup -1/. The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector.

  19. Lithium indium diselenide: A new scintillator for neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukosi, Eric; Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Lee, Kyung-Min; Wiggins, Brenden; Trtik, Pavel; Penumadu, Dayakar; Young, Stephen; Santodonato, Louis; Bilheux, Hassina; Burger, Arnold; Matei, Liviu; Stowe, Ashley C.

    2016-09-01

    Lithium indium diselenide, 6LiInSe2 or LISe, is a newly developed neutron detection material that shows both semiconducting and scintillating properties. This paper reports on the performance of scintillating LISe crystals for its potential use as a converter screen for cold neutron imaging. The spatial resolution of LISe, determined using a 10% threshold of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), was found to not scale linearly with thickness. Crystals having a thickness of 450 μm or larger resulted in an average spatial resolution of 67 μm, and the thinner crystals exhibited an increase in spatial resolution down to the Nyquist frequency of the CCD. The highest measured spatial resolution of 198 μm thick LISe (27 μm) outperforms a commercial 50 μm thick ZnS(Cu):6LiF scintillation screen by more than a factor of three. For the LISe dimensions considered in this study, it was found that the light yield of LISe did not scale with its thickness. However, absorption measurements indicate that the 6Li concentration is uniform and the neutron absorption efficiency of LISe as a function of thickness follows general nuclear theory. This suggests that the differences in apparent brightness observed for the LISe samples investigated may be due to a combination of secondary charged particle escape, scintillation light transport in the bulk and across the LISe-air interface, and variations in the activation of the scintillation mechanism. Finally, it was found that the presence of 115In and its long-lived 116In activation product did not result in ghosting (memory of past neutron exposure), demonstrating potential of LISe for imaging transient systems.

  20. The Scintillator-Layered Imaging Microscope for Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Emily; Kidd, M. F.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.

    2016-03-01

    In microbial ecosystems, a high-throughput analysis can match microorganisms with the compounds they metabolize. This is a vital process, but the current tools are limited in both time and resolution. A new tool, SLIMER (the Scintillator-Layered Imaging Microscope for Environmental Research), will incorporate a thin-film microcolumnar scintillator in a standard fluorescent microscope, to allow measurement of both fluorescence and radioactivity in a single step and to improve by a factor of 10 the resolution of current tools. In order to study the properties of SLIMER, a simulation to illustrate the topology of events was developed from the ground up with the GEANT4 toolkit. The simulation consists of CsI tubes, 1 um in diameter, in a 1 cm by 1 cm array, with a C-14 source. The GEANT4 package for radioactive decay was used to model the decay of C-14, and the package for optical photon processes was used to realistically model the optics of scintillation. The HepRApp Visualization Browser was used to provide a visual model of the scintillator, source, and particle tracks. The developed simulation provides useful information about the capabilities and properties of SLIMER, which in turn will impact the way microbial ecosystems and their impact on the environment are studied.

  1. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  2. Imaging properties of pixellated scintillators with deep pixels

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. Bradford; Fastje, David; Lemieux, Daniel; Grim, Gary P.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Miller, Brian W.; Parkhurst, Philip; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the light-transport properties of scintillator arrays with long, thin pixels (deep pixels) for use in high-energy gamma-ray imaging. We compared 10×10 pixel arrays of YSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 20 mm pixels) made by Proteus, Inc. with similar 10×10 arrays of LSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 15mm pixels) loaned to us by Saint-Gobain. The imaging and spectroscopic behaviors of these scintillator arrays are strongly affected by the choice of a reflector used as an inter-pixel spacer (3M ESR in the case of the Proteus arrays and white, diffuse-reflector for the Saint-Gobain arrays). We have constructed a 3700-pixel LYSO:Ce Prototype NIF Gamma-Ray Imager for use in diagnosing target compression in inertial confinement fusion. This system was tested at the OMEGA Laser and exhibited significant optical, inter-pixel cross-talk that was traced to the use of a single-layer of ESR film as an inter-pixel spacer. We show how the optical cross-talk can be mapped, and discuss correction procedures. We demonstrate a 10×10 YSO:Ce array as part of an iQID (formerly BazookaSPECT) imager and discuss issues related to the internal activity of 176Lu in LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce detectors. PMID:26236070

  3. Imaging properties of pixellated scintillators with deep pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. Bradford; Fastje, David; Lemieux, Daniel; Grim, Gary P.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Miller, Brian W.; Parkhurst, Philip; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the light-transport properties of scintillator arrays with long, thin pixels (deep pixels) for use in high-energy gamma-ray imaging. We compared 10x10 pixel arrays of YSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and BGO (1mm x 1mm x 20 mm pixels) made by Proteus, Inc. with similar 10x10 arrays of LSO:Ce and BGO (1mm x 1mm x 15mm pixels) loaned to us by Saint-Gobain. The imaging and spectroscopic behaviors of these scintillator arrays are strongly affected by the choice of a reflector used as an inter-pixel spacer (3M ESR in the case of the Proteus arrays and white, diffuse-reflector for the Saint-Gobain arrays). We have constructed a 3700-pixel LYSO:Ce Prototype NIF Gamma-Ray Imager for use in diagnosing target compression in inertial confinement fusion. This system was tested at the OMEGA Laser and exhibited significant optical, inter-pixel cross-talk that was traced to the use of a single-layer of ESR film as an inter-pixel spacer. We show how the optical cross-talk can be mapped, and discuss correction procedures. We demonstrate a 10x10 YSO:Ce array as part of an iQID (formerly BazookaSPECT) imager and discuss issues related to the internal activity of 176Lu in LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce detectors.

  4. A fast microchannel plate-scintillator detector for velocity map imaging and imaging mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, B.; King, S. J.; Vallance, C.; Brouard, M.

    2014-02-15

    The time resolution achievable using standard position-sensitive ion detectors, consisting of a chevron pair of microchannel plates coupled to a phosphor screen, is primarily limited by the emission lifetime of the phosphor, around 70 ns for the most commonly used P47 phosphor. We demonstrate that poly-para-phenylene laser dyes may be employed extremely effectively as scintillators, exhibiting higher brightness and much shorter decay lifetimes than P47. We provide an extensive characterisation of the properties of such scintillators, with a particular emphasis on applications in velocity-map imaging and microscope-mode imaging mass spectrometry. The most promising of the new scintillators exhibits an electron-to-photon conversion efficiency double that of P47, with an emission lifetime an order of magnitude shorter. The new scintillator screens are vacuum stable and show no signs of signal degradation even over longer periods of operation.

  5. High quantum efficiency megavoltage imaging with thick scintillator detectors for image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Arun

    In image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), imaging devices serve as guidance systems to aid patient set-up and tumor volume localization. Traditionally, 2-D megavoltage x-ray imagers, referred to as electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), have been used for planar target localization, and have recently been extended to perform 3-D volumetric reconstruction via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, current EPIDs utilize thin and inefficient phosphor screen detectors and are subsequently limited by poor soft tissue visualization, which limits their use for CBCT. Therefore, the use of thick scintillation media as megavoltage x-ray detectors for greater x-ray sensitivity and enhanced image quality has recently been of significant interest. In this research, two candidates for thick scintillators: CsI(Tl) and terbium doped scintillation glass were investigated in separate imaging configurations. In the first configuration, a thick scintillation crystal (TSC) consisting of a thick, monolithic slab of CsI(Tl) was coupled to a mirror-lens-camera system. The second configuration is based on a fiber-optic scintillation glass array (FOSGA), wherein the scintillation glass is drawn into long fiber-optic conduits, inserted into a grid-type housing constructed out of polymer-tungsten alloy, and coupled to an array of photodiodes for digital read-out. The imaging prototypes were characterized using theoretical studies and imaging measurements to obtain fundamental metrics of imaging performance. Spatial resolution was measured based on a modulation transfer function (MTF), noise was evaluated in terms of a noise power spectrum (NPS), and overall contrast was characterized in the form of detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The imaging studies were used to optimize the TSC and FOSGA imagers and propose prototype configurations for order-of-magnitude improvements in overall image quality. In addition, a fast and simple technique was developed to measure the MTF, NPS, and

  6. Neutron detection with noble gas scintillation: a review of recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavelle, C. M.; Coplan, Michael; Miller, Eric C.; Thompson, Alan K.; Kowler, Alex; Vest, Rob; Yue, Andrew; Koeth, Tim; Al-Sheikhly, Mohammad; Clark, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Thermal neutron detection is of vital importance to many disciplines, including neutron scattering, workplace monitoring, and homeland protection. We survey recent results from our collaboration which couple low-pressure noble gas scintillation with novel approaches to neutron absorbing materials and geometries to achieve potentially advantageous detector concepts. Noble gas scintillators were used for neutron detection as early as the late 1950's. Modern use of noble gas scintillation includes liquid and solid forms of argon and xenon in the dark matter and neutron physics experiments and commercially available high pressure applications have achieved high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. Little attention has been paid to the overlap between low pressure noble gas scintillation and thermal neutron detection, for which there are many potential benefits.

  7. Measurement of imaging properties of scintillating fiber optic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentai, George; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Star-Lack, Josh; Virshup, Gary; Hirsh, Hayley; Shedlock, Daniel; Humber, David

    2014-03-01

    Scintillating Fiber Optic Plates (SFOP) or Fiber Optic Scintillator (FOS) made with scintillating fiber-glass, were investigated for x-ray imaging. Two different samples (T x W x L = 2cm x 5cm x 5cm) were used; Sample A: 10μm fibers, Sample B: 50μm fibers both with statistically randomized light absorbing fibers placed in the matrix. A customized holder was used to place the samples in close contact with photodiodes in an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (AS1000, Varian), typically used for portal imaging. The detector has a 392μm pixel pitch and in the standard configuration uses a gadolinium oxy-sulphide (GOS) screen behind a copper plate. X-ray measurements were performed at 120kV (RQA 9 spectrum), 1MeV (5mm Al filtration) and 6MeV (Flattening Filter Free) for Sample A and the latter 2 spectra for Sample B. A machined edge was used for MTF measurements. The measurements showed the MTF degraded with increased X-ray energies because of the increase in Compton scattering. However, at the Nyquist frequency of 1.3lp/mm, the MTF is still high (FOS value vs. Cu+GOS): (a) 37% and 21% at 120kVp for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays, (b) 31%, 20% and 20% at 1MeV and (c) 17%, 11% and 14% at 6MeV for the 10μm FOS, 50μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays. The DQE(0) value comparison were (a) at 120kV ~24% and ~13 % for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays (b) at 1MV 10%, 10% and 7% and (c) at 6MV 12%, ~19% and 1.6% for the 10μm FOS , 50μm FOS and Cu+GOS arrays.

  8. Study of Scintillator thickness optimization of lens-coupled X-ray imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; Du, G.; Deng, B.; Chen, R.; Xiao, T.

    2016-03-01

    Lens-coupled X-ray in-direct imaging detectors are very popular for high-resolution X-ray imaging at the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. This imaging system consists of a scintilator producing a visible-light image of X-ray beam, a microscope objective, a mirror reflecting at 90° and a CCD camera. When the thickness of the scintillator is matched with the numerical aperture (NA) of the microscope objective, the image quality of experimental results will be improved obviously. This paper used an imaging system at BL13W beamline of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to study the matching relation between the scintillator thickness and the NA of the microscope objective with a real sample. By use of the matching relation between the scintillator thickness and the NA of the microscope objective, the optimal imaging results have been obtained.

  9. The Gas Imaging Spectrometer on Board ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Takaya; Ebisawa, Ken; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hiyoshi, Kenji; Horii, Michihiro; Ikebe, Yasushi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hajime; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ishizuka, Toshio; Kamijo, Shunsuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Makishima, Kazuo; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tashiro, Makoto; Murakami, Toshio; Shoumura, Riichirou; Tanaka, Yasuo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Koji; Tsuru, Takeshi; Takeshima, Toshiaki

    1996-04-01

    The Gas Imaging Spectrometer (GIS) system on board ASCA is described. The experiment consists of 2 units of imaging gas scintillation proportional counters with a sealed-off gas cell equipped with an imaging phototube. The performance is characterized by the high X-ray sensitivity (from 0.7 keV to over 10 keV), good energy resolution (7.8% FWHM at 6 keV following E(-0.5) as a function of X- ray energy E), moderate position resolution (0.5 mm FWHM at 6 keV with E(-0.5) dependence), fast time resolution down to 61 mu s, and an effective area of 50 mm diameter . The on-board signal processing system and the data transmitted to the ground are also described. The background rejection efficiency of the GIS is reaching the level achieved by the non-imaging multi-c ell proportional counters.

  10. Evaluations of the new LiF-scintillator and optional brightness enhancement films for neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikura, H.; Tsutsui, N.; Nakamura, T.; Katagiri, M.; Kureta, M.; Kubo, J.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2011-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the neutron scintillator jointly with Chichibu Fuji Co., Ltd. In this study, we evaluated the new ZnS(Ag):Al/ 6Li scintillator developed for neutron imaging. It was confirmed that the brightness increased by about double while maintaining equal performance for the spatial resolution as compared with a conventional scintillator. High frame-rate imaging using a high-speed video camera system and this new scintillator made it possible to image beyond 10 000 frames per second while still having enough brightness. This technique allowed us to obtain a high-frame-rate visualization of oil flow in a running car engine. Furthermore, we devised a technique to increase the light intensity of reception for a camera by adding brightness enhancement films on the output surface of the scintillator. It was confirmed that the spatial resolution degraded more than double, but the brightness increased by about three times.

  11. Milliarcsecond Images of the Ionized ISM From Pulsar Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, C. T.; Berwick, D. E.; Stinebring, D. R.; Walker, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent scintillation observations of pulsars have revealed surprising features of the ionized ISM. Scattering of radio waves from pulsars by density inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium causes an interference pattern at the Earth. High sensitivity single-dish observations of this pattern contain a wealth of information about the ISM on AU-size scales. Furthermore, we have shown recently that discrete features can be tracked for more than 30 days as the pulsar scans past them. We report on an effort to obtain an image of the scattered signal with milliarcesecond resolution. The time development of the interference pattern can be used to resolve image ambiguities since the scattering material is seen from different perspectives. We will present preliminary results for an imaging event of the pulsar PSR B0834+06 obtained in 2004 January. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (PI: DRS) and is based on observations obtained with the Arecibo Observatory, operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  12. Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters for High-Energy X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    A focal plane array of high-pressure gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope is under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center. These detectors have an active area of approx. 20 sq cm, and are filled with a high pressure (10(exp 6) Pa) xenon-helium mixture. Imaging is via crossed-grid position-sensitive phototubes sensitive in the UV region. The performance of the GSPC is well matched to that of the telescopes x-ray optics which have response to 75 keV and a focal spot size of approx. 500 microns. The detector s energy resolution, 4% FWHM at 60 keV, is adequate for resolving the broad spectral lines of astrophysical importance and for accurate continuum measurements. Full details of the instrument and its performance will be provided.

  13. A high resolution gas scintillation proportional counter for studying low energy cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the development of large area gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) suitable for use in X-ray astronomy. The paper deals with a low-energy GSPC for use in detecting sub-keV X-rays from cosmic sources. This instrument has a measured energy resolution of 85 eV (FWHM) at 149 eV over a sensitive area of 5 sq cm. The development of imaging capability for this instrument is discussed. Tests are performed on the feasibility of using an arrangement of several phototubes placed adjacent to one another to determine event locations in a large flat counter. A simple prototype has been constructed and successfully operated.

  14. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams.

    PubMed

    Seravalli, E; de Boer, M; Geurink, F; Huizenga, J; Kreuger, R; Schippers, J M; van Eijk, C W E; Voss, B

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies. PMID:18695295

  15. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seravalli, E.; de Boer, M.; Geurink, F.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schippers, J. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Voss, B.

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies.

  16. Noble gas excimer scintillation following neutron capture in boron thin films

    SciTech Connect

    McComb, Jacob C.; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Coplan, Michael A.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2014-04-14

    Far-ultraviolet scintillation signals have been measured in heavy noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon) following boron-neutron capture ({sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li) in {sup 10}B thin films. The observed scintillation yields are comparable to the yields from some liquid and solid neutron scintillators. At noble gas pressures of 107 kPa, the number of photons produced per neutron absorbed following irradiation of a 1200 nm thick {sup 10}B film was 14 000 for xenon, 11 000 for krypton, and 6000 for argon. The absolute scintillation yields from the experimental configuration were calculated using data from (1) experimental irradiations, (2) thin-film characterizations, (3) photomultiplier tube calibrations, and (4) photon collection modeling. Both the boron films and the photomultiplier tube were characterized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Monte Carlo modeling of the reaction cell provided estimates of the photon collection efficiency and the transport behavior of {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction products escaping the thin films. Scintillation yields increased with gas pressure due to increased ionization and excitation densities of the gases from the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction products, increased frequency of three-body, excimer-forming collisions, and reduced photon emission volumes (i.e., larger solid angle) at higher pressures. Yields decreased for thicker {sup 10}B thin films due to higher average energy loss of the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction products escaping the films. The relative standard uncertainties in the measurements were determined to lie between 14% and 16%. The observed scintillation signal demonstrates that noble gas excimer scintillation is promising for use in practical neutron detectors.

  17. Noble gas excimer scintillation following neutron capture in boron thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, Jacob C.; Coplan, Michael A.; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2014-04-01

    Far-ultraviolet scintillation signals have been measured in heavy noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon) following boron-neutron capture (10B(n,α)7Li) in 10B thin films. The observed scintillation yields are comparable to the yields from some liquid and solid neutron scintillators. At noble gas pressures of 107 kPa, the number of photons produced per neutron absorbed following irradiation of a 1200 nm thick 10B film was 14 000 for xenon, 11 000 for krypton, and 6000 for argon. The absolute scintillation yields from the experimental configuration were calculated using data from (1) experimental irradiations, (2) thin-film characterizations, (3) photomultiplier tube calibrations, and (4) photon collection modeling. Both the boron films and the photomultiplier tube were characterized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Monte Carlo modeling of the reaction cell provided estimates of the photon collection efficiency and the transport behavior of 10B(n,α)7Li reaction products escaping the thin films. Scintillation yields increased with gas pressure due to increased ionization and excitation densities of the gases from the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction products, increased frequency of three-body, excimer-forming collisions, and reduced photon emission volumes (i.e., larger solid angle) at higher pressures. Yields decreased for thicker 10B thin films due to higher average energy loss of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction products escaping the films. The relative standard uncertainties in the measurements were determined to lie between 14% and 16%. The observed scintillation signal demonstrates that noble gas excimer scintillation is promising for use in practical neutron detectors.

  18. X-ray imaging performance of structured cesium iodide scintillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ristic, Goran; Rowlands, J A

    2004-09-01

    Columnar structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators doped with Thallium (Tl) have been used extensively for indirect x-ray imaging detectors. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for systematic investigation of the inherent imaging performance of CsI as a function of thickness and design type. The results will facilitate the optimization of CsI layer design for different x-ray imaging applications, and allow validation of physical models developed for the light channeling process in columnar CsI layers. CsI samples of different types and thicknesses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were optimized either for light output (HL) or image resolution (HR), and the thickness ranged between 150 and 600 microns. During experimental measurements, the CsI samples were placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS optical sensor with a pixel pitch of 48 microns. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector with different CsI configurations were measured experimentally. The aperture function of the CMOS sensor was determined separately in order to estimate the MTF of CsI alone. We also measured the pulse height distribution of the light output from both the HL and HR CsI at different x-ray energies, from which the x-ray quantum efficiency, Swank factor and x-ray conversion gain were determined. Our results showed that the MTF at 5 cycles/mm for the HR type was 50% higher than for the HL. However, the HR layer produces approximately 36% less light output. The Swank factor below K-edge was 0.91 and 0.93 for the HR and HL types, respectively, thus their DQE(0) were essentially identical. The presampling MTF decreased as a function of thickness L. The universal MTF, i.e., MTF plotted as a function of the product of spatial frequency f and CsI thickness L, increased as a function of L. This indicates that the light channeling process in CsI improved the MTF of

  19. Demonstration of neutron detection utilizing open cell foam and noble gas scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, C. M. Miller, E. C.; Coplan, M.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Yue, A. T.; Kowler, A. L.; Koeth, T.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Clark, Charles W.

    2015-03-02

    We present results demonstrating neutron detection via a closely spaced converter structure coupled to low pressure noble gas scintillation instrumented by a single photo-multiplier tube (PMT). The converter is dispersed throughout the gas volume using a reticulated vitreous carbon foam coated with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). A calibrated cold neutron beam is used to measure the neutron detection properties, using a thin film of enriched {sup 10}B as a reference standard. Monte Carlo computations of the ion energy deposition are discussed, including treatment of the foam random network. Results from this study indicate that the foam shadows a significant portion of the scintillation light from the PMT. The high scintillation yield of Xe appears to overcome the light loss, facilitating neutron detection and presenting interesting opportunities for neutron detector design.

  20. Submicron-diameter phase-separated scintillator fibers for high-resolution X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Nobuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Den, Toru

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrated micrometer-scale resolution X-ray imaging by using phase-separated scintillator fibers. Hexagonally well-aligned 680-nm-diameter GdAlO3(GAP):Ce3+ scintillator fibers surrounded with α-Al2O3 were fabricated from directionally solidified eutectics. The GAP:Ce3+ fibers convert X-rays to lights and emitted lights are confined and transported along the fiber direction by a total reflection mode. High-resolution X-ray image of a gold grating phantom with a 4 μm aperture, corresponding to a bundle of 12 fibers, was achieved even with a 150 -μm-thick scintillator. These scintillator fibers overcome resolution reduction caused by light scattering and almost reach the resolution limit of the material nature itself.

  1. Characterisation of LSO:Tb scintillator films for high resolution X-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, A.; Rack, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Martin, T.; Dos Santos Rolo, T.; Vagovič, P.; Pelliccia, D.; Couchaud, M.; Dupré, K.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-05-01

    Within the framework of an FP6 project (SCINTAX)1The Project SCINTAX is funded by the European Community (STRP 033 427), . we developed a new thin film single crystal scintillator for high resolution X-ray imaging based on a layer of modified LSO (Lu2SiO5) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on a dedicated substrate. In this work we present the characterisation of the scintillating LSO films in terms of optical and scintillation properties as well as spatial resolution performances. The obtained results are discussed and compared with the performances of the thin scintillating films commonly used in synchrotron-based micro-imaging applications.

  2. Scintillation response of Xe gas studied by gamma-ray absorption and Compton electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderski, L.; Chandra, R.; Curioni, A.; Davatz, G.; Friederich, H.; Gendotti, A.; Gendotti, U.; Goeltl, L.; Iwanowska-Hanke, J.; Moszyński, M.; Murer, D.; Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A.; Szawlowski, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we report on the scintillation response of Xe gas under irradiation of gamma-rays in the energy range between 50 keV and 1.5 MeV. Xe gas was pressurized to 50 bar and tested as a detector for gamma spectroscopy. The gas was confined in a titanium vessel of 200 mm length and 101 mm diameter with 2.5 mm thick walls. The vessel was sealed with two 3 inch diameter UV transparent windows. The inner surface of the vessel was covered with a reflecting wavelength shifter. Two photomultipliers coupled to both windows at the end of the vessel allowed for registration of 3700 photoelectrons/MeV, which resulted in 7.0% energy resolution registered for 662 keV γ-rays from a 137Cs source. The non-proportionality of the photoelectron yield and intrinsic resolution was studied with gamma photoabsorption peaks. Due to the thickness of the detector vessel, the response of the Xe gas as a scintillator in the low energy range was performed by means of a Compton Coincidence Technique and compared with the gamma absorption results. The shape of the non-proportionality characteristics of Xe gaseous scintillator was compared to the results obtained for NaI:Tl, LaBr3:Ce and LYSO:Ce. A correlation between non-proportionality and intrinsic resolution of Xe gaseous scintillator was pointed out.

  3. Countering beam divergence effects with focused segmented scintillators for high DQE megavoltage active matrix imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Jiang, Hao

    2012-08-01

    The imaging performance of active matrix flat-panel imagers designed for megavoltage imaging (MV AMFPIs) is severely constrained by relatively low x-ray detection efficiency, which leads to a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of only ∼1%. Previous theoretical and empirical studies by our group have demonstrated the potential for addressing this constraint through the utilization of thick, two-dimensional, segmented scintillators with optically isolated crystals. However, this strategy is constrained by the degradation of high-frequency DQE resulting from spatial resolution loss at locations away from the central beam axis due to oblique incidence of radiation. To address this challenge, segmented scintillators constructed so that the crystals are individually focused toward the radiation source are proposed and theoretically investigated. The study was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport to examine the modulation transfer function and DQE of focused segmented scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 60 mm. The results demonstrate that, independent of scintillator thickness, the introduction of focusing largely restores spatial resolution and DQE performance otherwise lost in thick, unfocused segmented scintillators. For the case of a 60 mm thick BGO scintillator and at a location 20 cm off the central beam axis, use of focusing improves DQE by up to a factor of ∼130 at non-zero spatial frequencies. The results also indicate relatively robust tolerance of such scintillators to positional displacements, of up to 10 cm in the source-to-detector direction and 2 cm in the lateral direction, from their optimal focusing position, which could potentially enhance practical clinical use of focused segmented scintillators in MV AMFPIs.

  4. Countering Beam Divergence Effects with Focused Segmented Scintillators for High DQE Megavoltage Active Matrix Imagers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The imaging performance of active matrix flat-panel imagers designed for megavoltage imaging (MV AMFPIs) is severely constrained by relatively low x-ray detection efficiency, which leads to a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of only ~1%. Previous theoretical and empirical studies by our group have demonstrated the potential for addressing this constraint through utilization of thick, two-dimensional, segmented scintillators with optically isolated crystals. However, this strategy is constrained by degradation of high-frequency DQE resulting from spatial resolution loss at locations away from the central beam axis due to oblique incidence of radiation. To address this challenge, segmented scintillators constructed so that the crystals are individually focused toward the radiation source are proposed and theoretically investigated. The study was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport to examine the modulation transfer function and DQE of focused segmented scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 60 mm. The results demonstrate that, independent of scintillator thickness, the introduction of focusing largely restores spatial resolution and DQE performance otherwise lost in thick, unfocused segmented scintillators. For the case of a 60 mm thick BGO scintillator and at a location 20 cm off the central beam axis, use of focusing improves DQE by up to a factor of ~130 at non-zero spatial frequencies. The results also indicate relatively robust tolerance of such scintillators to positional displacements, of up to 10 cm in the source-to-detector direction and 2 cm in the lateral direction, from their optimal focusing position, which could potentially enhance practical clinical use of focused segmented scintillators in MV AMFPIs. PMID:22854009

  5. An imaging technique for detection and absolute calibration of scintillation light

    SciTech Connect

    Pappalardo, Alfio; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo

    2010-03-15

    Triggered by the need of a detection system to be used in experiments of nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasmas, we developed an imaging technique for the measurement and calibration of the scintillation light yield of scintillating materials. As in such experiments, all the reaction products are generated in an ultrashort time frame, the event-by-event data acquisition scheme is not feasible. As an alternative to the emulsion technique (or the equivalent CR39 sheets) we propose a scintillating screen readout by means of a high performance charge coupled device camera. Even though it is not strictly required in the particular application, this technique allows the absolute calibration of the scintillation light yield.

  6. Detection efficiency of a high-pressure gas scintillation proportional chamber.

    PubMed

    Fahey, F H; Zimmerman, R E; Judy, P F; Lanza, R C

    1987-01-01

    The detection efficiency of a high-pressure, gas scintillation proportional chamber (GSPC), designed for medical imaging in the 30-150 keV energy range, has been investigated through measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. Measurements were conducted on a GSPC containing 4 atm of pure xenon separated from a hexagonal array of seven ultraviolet-sensitive photomultiplier tubes by 1.27-cm-thick fused-silica windows. Experimental measurements of the photopeak efficiency, fluorescence escape efficiency, and the energy collection efficiency were obtained. Results were also obtained for different photon energies and different values of temporal resolution. The measurements were compared with the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation designed specifically for investigating the imaging of low-energy photons (below 150 keV) with a gas-filled detector. The simulation was used to estimate photopeak efficiency, fluorescence escape efficiency, photopeak-to-fluorescence escape peak ratio, quantum interaction efficiency, energy collection efficiency, and local energy collection efficiency. The photopeak efficiency of the GSPC relative to that of a 3-in. (7.62-cm)-thick sodium iodide crystal was measured to be 0.284 +/- 0.001 at 60 keV and 0.057 +/- 0.001 at 140 keV. Of the 60-keV photons incident upon the detector, 70% +/- 4% interacted in the detector, with 28% +/- 1% being in the photopeak, as estimated both by experimentation and through the simulation. The maximum energy collection efficiency was found to be 65% at 60 keV, with 46% being deposited within 0.2 cm of the initial photon interaction. The information gained from this study is being used to design an optimized detector for use in specialized nuclear medicine studies. PMID:3561331

  7. Performance of Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter Array for High-Energy X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeffery

    2004-01-01

    A focal plane array of high-pressure gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPC) for a High Energy X-Ray Observatory (HERO) is developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The array is consisted from eight GSPCs and is a part of balloon born payload scheduled to flight in May 2004. These detectors have an active area of approximately 20 square centimeters, and are filled with a high pressure (10(exp 6) Pa) xenon-helium mixture. Imaging is via crossed-grid position-sensitive phototubes sensitive in the UV region. The performance of the GSPC is well matched to that of the telescopes x-ray optics which have response to 75 keV and a focal spot size of approximately 500 microns. The detector's energy resolution, 4% FWHM at 60 keV, is adequate for resolving the broad spectral lines of astrophysical importance and for accurate continuum measurements. Results of the on-earth detector calibration will be presented and in-flight detector performance will be provided, as available.

  8. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  9. Comparative evaluation of single crystal scintillators under x-ray imaging conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valais, I. G.; David, S.; Michail, C.; Nomicos, C. D.; Panayiotakis, G. S.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2009-06-01

    The present study is a comparative investigation of the luminescence properties of (Lu,Y)2SiO5: Ce (LYSO: Ce), YAlO3: Ce (YAP: Ce), Gd2SiO5: Ce (GSO: Ce) and (Bi4Ge3O12) BGO single crystal scintillators under x-ray excitation. Results will be of value in designing dual modality tomographic systems (PET/CT, SPECT/CT) based on a common scintillator crystal. All scintillating crystals have dimensions of 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 are non-hygroscopic exhibiting high radiation absorption efficiency in the energy range used in medical imaging applications. The comparative investigation was performed by determining the x-ray luminescence efficiency (emitted light flux over incident x-ray energy flux) in the range of x-ray energies employed in: (i) general x-ray imaging (40-140 kV, using a W/Al x-ray spectrum) and (ii) x-ray mammography imaging (22-49 kV, using a Mo/Mo x-ray spectrum). Additionally, light emission spectra of crystals at various x-ray energies were measured, in order to determine the intrinsic conversion efficiency and the spectral compatibility to optical photon detectors incorporated in medical imaging systems. The light emission performance of LYSO:Ce scintillator studied was found very high for x-ray imaging.

  10. Secondary scintillation yield in high-pressure xenon gas for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Ball, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lux, T.; Sánchez, F.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2010-02-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) is an important topic in contemporary physics with many active experiments. New projects are planning to use high-pressure xenon gas as both source and detection medium. The secondary scintillation processes available in noble gases permit large amplification with negligible statistical fluctuations, offering the prospect of energy resolution approaching the Fano factor limit. This Letter reports results for xenon secondary scintillation yield, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap for pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collected the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas. X-rays directly absorbed in the LAAPD are used as a reference for determining the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, hence, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. The number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt, the so-called scintillation amplification parameter, displays a small increase with pressure, ranging from 141±6 at 2 bar to 170±10 at 8 bar. In our setup, this parameter does not increase above 8 bar due to non-negligible electron attachment. The results are in good agreement with those presented in the literature in the 1 to 3 bar range. The increase of the scintillation amplification parameter with pressure for high gas densities has been also observed in former work at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Scintillating quantum dots for imaging x-rays (SQDIX) for aircraft inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, E. R.; DeHaven, S. L.; Williams, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Scintillation is the process currently employed by conventional X-ray detectors to create X-ray images. Scintillating quantum dots (StQDs) or nano-crystals are novel, nanometer-scale materials that upon excitation by X-rays, re-emit the absorbed energy as visible light. StQDs theoretically have higher output efficiency than conventional scintillating materials and are more environmentally friendly. This paper will present the characterization of several critical elements in the use of StQDs that have been performed along a path to the use of this technology in wide spread X-ray imaging. Initial work on the scintillating quantum dots for imaging X-rays (SQDIX) system has shown great promise to create state-of-the-art sensors using StQDs as a sensor material. In addition, this work also demonstrates a high degree of promise using StQDs in microstructured fiber optics. Using the microstructured fiber as a light guide could greatly increase the capture efficiency of a StQDs based imaging sensor.

  12. Two dimensional and linear scintillation detectors for fast neutron imaging — comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikerov, V. I.; Koshelev, A. P.; Ozerov, O. V.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2014-05-01

    The paper was aimed to compare performance capabilities of two types of scintillation detectors commonly used for fast neutron imaging: two dimensional and linear ones. Best-case values of quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and capacity were estimated for detectors with plastic converter-screen in case of 14 MeV neutrons. For that there were examined nuclear reactions produced in converter-screen by fast neutrons, spatial distributions of energy release of emerged charged particles and amplitude distributions of scintillations generated by these particles. The paper shows that the efficiency of the linear detector is essentially higher and this detector provides potentially better spatial resolution in comparison with the two dimensional detector. But, the two dimensional detector surpasses the linear one in capacity. The presented results can be used for designing radiographic fast neutron detectors with organic scintillators.

  13. X-ray imaging with scintillator-sensitized hybrid organic photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchele, Patric; Richter, Moses; Tedde, Sandro F.; Matt, Gebhard J.; Ankah, Genesis N.; Fischer, Rene; Biele, Markus; Metzger, Wilhelm; Lilliu, Samuele; Bikondoa, Oier; MacDonald, J. Emyr; Brabec, Christoph J.; Kraus, Tobias; Lemmer, Uli; Schmidt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Medical X-ray imaging requires cost-effective and high-resolution flat-panel detectors for the energy range between 20 and 120 keV. Solution-processed photodetectors provide the opportunity to fabricate detectors with a large active area at low cost. Here, we present a disruptive approach that improves the resolution of such detectors by incorporating terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator particles into an organic photodetector matrix. The X-ray induced light emission from the scintillators is absorbed within hundreds of nanometres, which is negligible compared with the pixel size. Hence, optical crosstalk, a limiting factor in the resolution of scintillator-based X-ray detectors, is minimized. The concept is validated with a 256 × 256 pixel detector with a resolution of 4.75 lp mm-1 at a MTF = 0.2, significantly better than previous stacked scintillator-based flat-panel detectors. We achieved a resolution that proves the feasibility of solution-based detectors in medical applications. Time-resolved electrical characterization showed enhanced charge carrier mobility with increased scintillator filling, which is explained by morphological changes.

  14. A pill-box design, flow type, gas scintillation proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, S. P.; Sharma, R. C.; Bhati, S.; Somasundaram, S.

    1982-07-01

    A gas scintillation proportional counter of "pill-box" design, operated with argon +2.5% nitrogen gas in continuous flow, has been developed. An energy resolution of 1.6% is obtained for 239Pu α-particles emitted from a mixed nuclide source of 239Pu- 241Am - 244Cm and injected into the counter parallel to the anode. The risetime of the scintillation pulse is found to be less than 0.5 μs. Measurements have been made of charge and light gain factors as a function of anode voltage. It is found that for a given anode voltage, the scintillation pulse amplitude increases sharply with the addition of nitrogen to argon and reaches a maximum at about 2.5% and then decreases slowly, whereas the charge pulse amplitude reduces monotonically. Nitrogen improvement factors with the addition of 2.5% nitrogen to argon are found to be different for two photomultipliers with different photocathode responses. The improvement in energy resolution as a result of addition of nitrogen to argon is discussed. Comments are made on the intrinsic energy resolution capabilities of such a counter.

  15. Small-area fiber-coupled scintillation camera for imaging beta-ray distributions intraoperatively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. R.; Tornai, Martin P.; Levin, C. S.; Park, J.; Atac, Muzaffer; Cline, David B.; Hoffman, Eric G.

    1995-09-01

    A small area, imaging, scintillation probe is being developed for locating small amounts of radio-labeled malignant tissue during surgery. Preliminary in brain surgery, avoiding the removal of excess tissue is a priority. It is possible to locate the main body of a brain tumor both before and during surgery, but once the bulk of the tumor is excised the identification of residual malignant tissue is difficult. A probe that covers an area of 1-2 cm(superscript 2) with an intrinsic resolution of 1-2 mm could locate small tumor masses that pose a threat of recurrence of the disease, and prevent removal of healthy tissue. A pre-operative injection of tumor seeking, beta emitting radiopharmaceutical (e.g. (superscript 18)fluorodeoxyuridine-FDUR-) will label the tumor. The limited range of beta-rays ensures proximity upon successful detection. Plastic scintillators are used for beta detection, and visible light photon counters (VLPCs) detect the scintillation light. For maneuverability in and around the surgical cavity, the scintillators are coupled to the VLPCs via 2 m of optical fiber. An imaging device can cover the tissue bed in a time compatible with surgery, as opposed to a single element detector on the order of 1-2 mm in size with comparable resolution. An imager also distinguishes high background rates (such as from annihilation gammas in FDUR) and concentrations of activity.

  16. Laser pixelation of thick scintillators for medical imaging applications: x-ray studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabet, Hamid; Kudrolli, Haris; Marton, Zsolt; Singh, Bipin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2013-09-01

    To achieve high spatial resolution required in nuclear imaging, scintillation light spread has to be controlled. This has been traditionally achieved by introducing structures in the bulk of scintillation materials; typically by mechanical pixelation of scintillators and fill the resultant inter-pixel gaps by reflecting materials. Mechanical pixelation however, is accompanied by various cost and complexity issues especially for hard, brittle and hygroscopic materials. For example LSO and LYSO, hard and brittle scintillators of interest to medical imaging community, are known to crack under thermal and mechanical stress; the material yield drops quickly with large arrays with high aspect ratio pixels and therefore the pixelation process cost increases. We are utilizing a novel technique named Laser Induced Optical Barriers (LIOB) for pixelation of scintillators that overcomes the issues associated with mechanical pixelation. In this technique, we can introduce optical barriers within the bulk of scintillator crystals to form pixelated arrays with small pixel size and large thickness. We applied LIOB to LYSO using a high-frequency solid-state laser. Arrays with different crystal thickness (5 to 20 mm thick), and pixel size (0.8×0.8 to 1.5×1.5 mm2) were fabricated and tested. The width of the optical barriers were controlled by fine-tuning key parameters such as lens focal spot size and laser energy density. Here we report on LIOB process, its optimization, and the optical crosstalk measurements using X-rays. There are many applications that can potentially benefit from LIOB including but not limited to clinical/pre-clinical PET and SPECT systems, and photon counting CT detectors.

  17. Compact integrated X-ray intensity and beam position monitor based on rare gas scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Revesz, Peter; Ruff, Jacob; Dale, Darren; Krawczyk, Thomas

    2013-05-15

    We have created and tested a compact integrated X-ray beam intensity and position monitor using Ar-gas scintillation. The light generated inside the device's cavity is detected by diametrically opposed PIN diodes located above and below the beam. The intensity is derived from the sum of the top and bottom signals, while the beam position is calculated from the difference-over-sum of the two signals. The device was tested at Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source with both 17 keV and 59 keV x-rays. For intensity monitoring, the Ar-scintillation monitor performance is comparable to standard ion chambers in terms of precision. As an X-ray beam position monitor the new device response is linear with vertical beam position over a 2 mm span with a precision of 2 {mu}m.

  18. The effect of scintillator response on signal difference to noise ratio in X-ray medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninos, K.; Cavouras, D.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of scintillator material properties on the signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR) under X-ray imaging conditions. To this aim, SdNR was modelled in terms of scintillator material properties such as the quantum detection efficiency (QDE), the intrinsic energy conversion efficiency (ICE) and the light transmission efficiency (LTE). Scintillators were assumed to be in the form of scintillator layers (phosphor screens) with various thicknesses ranging from 70 to 110 mg/cm2. Data on the X-ray absorption and optical properties of the scintillators were either calculated from tabulated data, i.e. X-ray attenuation coefficients for QDE estimation, or were obtained from previous experimental studies. It was found that in a wide range of X-ray tube voltages the Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator produced higher SdNR values, while the CsI:Tl scintillator was better at lower voltages (below 65 kVp). It was additionally verified that, in the range of X-ray diagnostic energies, SdNR increases with the thickness of the scintillator layer screen. In conclusion, SdNR may be critically affected by scintillator properties and, hence, it may be significantly improved by appropriately selecting the type and thickness of the phosphor screen to be integrated into an imaging system.

  19. Scintillating Balloon-Enabled Fiber-Optic System for Radionuclide Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Kosuge, Hisanori; Carpenter, Colin; Sun, Conroy; McConnell, Michael V.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis underlies coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Detection of coronary plaque inflammation remains challenging. In this study, we developed a scintillating balloon-enabled fiber-optic radio-nuclide imaging (SBRI) system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of plaque imaging using 18F-FDG, a marker of vascular inflammation, and tested it in a murine model. Methods The fiber-optic system uses a Complementary Metal-Oxide Silicon (CMOS) camera with a distal ferrule terminated with a wide-angle lens. The novelty of this system is a scintillating balloon in the front of the wide-angle lens to image light from the decay of 18F-FDG emission signal. To identify the optimal scintillating materials with respect to resolution, we calculated the modulation transfer function of yttrium–aluminum–garnet doped with cerium, anthracene, and calcium fluoride doped with europium (CaF2:Eu) phosphors using an edge pattern and a thin-line optical phantom. The scintillating balloon was then fabricated from 10 mL of silicone RTV catalyst mixed with 1 mL of base and 50 mg of CaF2:Eu per mL. The addition of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillating crystal (500 μm thick) to the balloon was also investigated. The SBRI system was tested in a murine atherosclerosis model: carotid-ligated mice (n = 5) were injected with 18F-FDG, followed by ex vivo imaging of the macrophage-rich carotid plaques and nonligated controls. Confirmatory imaging of carotid plaques and controls was also performed by an external optical imaging system and autoradiography. Results Analyses of the different phosphors showed that CaF2:Eu enabled the best resolution of 1.2 μm. The SBRI system detected almost a 4-fold-higher radioluminescence signal from the ligated left carotid artery than the nonligated right carotid: 1.63 × 102 ± 4.01 × 101 vs. 4.21 × 101 ± 2.09 × 100 (photon counts), P = 0.006. We found no significant benefit to adding a

  20. Evaluation of different scintillators for 1MV NDE x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentai, George; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Visrshup, Gary

    2014-03-01

    X-ray radiography is an important and frequently used NDE method of testing metal structures, such as tube welding quality, cracks and voids in cast iron or other metals. It gives fast and visible answer for structural defects. The Varian high energy portal imagers on Clinacs used in cancer treatment were tested for this purpose. We compared the traditional Gadox (LANEX) screen with and without a 1mm Cu buildup plate as used clinically. We also tested different hybrid scintillators, which consisted of different phosphor layers deposited onto fiberoptic plates. The last screen tested was a 2cm thick fiberoptic plate which contained scintillating fibers. The sensitivity (ADU = number of digital counts per a given X-ray dose), the resolution (MTF - modulation transfer function) and the DQE (detective quantum efficiency) were compared, with a 1 MV source, for these X-ray conversion screens. We found that the additional 1mm Cu plate, which improves the absorption and the contrast at 6 or higher energy MeV imaging, does not improve the image quality at 1MV. Rather it attenuates the X-rays, resulting in lower sensitivity and a lower DQE(0) of 2.2% with the additional Cu plate compared to DQE(0) of ~4% without the Cu plate. The hybrid scintillators with evaporated phosphors on fiberoptic plates tested were too thin resulting in low sensitivity. The best results were obtained from the thick scintillating fiberoptic screens, which provided the best DQE and high resolution with the 1MV X-ray beam. Further optimization is planned by changing the thickness of the scintillating fiber optic plate.

  1. A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Thick, segmented scintillating detectors, consisting of 2D matrices of scintillator crystals separated by optically opaque septal walls, hold considerable potential for significantly improving the performance of megavoltage (MV) active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs). Initial simulation studies of the radiation transport properties of segmented detectors have indicated the possibility of significant improvement in DQE compared to conventional MV AMFPIs based on phosphor screen detectors. It is therefore interesting to investigate how the generation and transport of secondary optical photons affect the DQE performance of such segmented detectors. One effect that can degrade DQE performance is optical Swank noise (quantified by the optical Swank factor Iopt), which is induced by depth-dependent variations in optical gain. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation and optical transport have been used to examine Iopt and zero-frequency DQE for segmented CsI:Tl and BGO detectors at different thicknesses and element-to-element pitches. For these detectors, Iopt and DQE were studied as a function of various optical parameters, including absorption and scattering in the scintillator, absorption at the top reflector and septal walls, as well as scattering at the side surfaces of the scintillator crystals. The results indicate that Iopt and DQE are only weakly affected by absorption and scattering in the scintillator, as well as by absorption at the top reflector. However, in some cases, these metrics were found to be significantly degraded by absorption at the septal walls and scattering at the scintillator side surfaces. Moreover, such degradations are more significant for detectors with greater thickness or smaller element pitch. At 1.016 mm pitch and with optimized optical properties, 40 mm thick segmented CsI:Tl and BGO detectors are predicted to provide DQE values of ∼29% and 42%, corresponding to improvement by factors of ∼29 and 42, respectively

  2. Low-Afterglow, High-Refractive-Index Liquid Scintillators for Fast-Neutron Spectrometry and Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauck, Ronald; Brandis, Michal; Bromberger, Benjamin; Dangendorf, Volker; Goldberg, Mark B.; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Vartsky, David

    2009-06-01

    For ion and neutron spectrometry and imaging applications at a high intensity pulsed laser facility, fast liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are required. Furthermore, neutron imaging with fiber (or liquid-core) capillary arrays calls for scintillation materials with high refractive index. To this end, we have examined various combinations of established mixtures of fluors and solvents, that were enriched alternatively with nitrogen or oxygen. Dissolved molecular oxygen is known to be a highly effective quenching agent, that efficiently suppresses the population of the triplet states in the fluor, which are primarily responsible for the afterglow. For measuring the glow curves of scintillators, we have employed the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique, characterized by high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. In this paper we outline the application for the fast scintillators, briefly present the scintillation mechanism in liquids, describe our specific TCSPC method and discuss the results.

  3. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  5. The performance of the curved grid gas proportional scintillation counter in X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, J. M. F.; Bento, A. C. S. S. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a curved grid gas proportional scintillation counter filled with xenon at 1100 mbar and having a 25 mm diameter window is evaluated for X-rays in the 1-11 keV energy range. Energy resolutions of 8.0% were obtained for a 5.9 keV parallel X-ray beam entering the detector through the full size window. The variation of the energy resolution with the X-ray energy is studied and X-ray fluorescence spectra for samples like industrial coal, painted porcelain and car lubrication oil, are presented.

  6. The effect of the photomultiplier nonuniformity on the performance of gas proportional scintillation counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Bento, A. C. S. S. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    1992-09-01

    Experimental results are presented showing that the energy resolution of xenon filled gas proportional scintillation counters with large radiation windows depends not only on the radial but also on the azimuthal variation of the efficiency of the photomultiplier. The commonly used venetian blind dynode photomultipliers are found to present a strong azimuth dependent efficiency and so are not advisable for high performance detectors. With properly chosen 2 in. diameter photomultipliers energy resolutions of less than 9% can be achieved with 20 mm diameter radiation windows in nonfocused detectors.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet light source utilizing rare gas scintillation amplification sustained by photon positive feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena (Inventor); Chen, Danli (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A source of light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region includes a reflective UV-sensitive photocathode supported in spaced parallel relationship with a mesh electrode within a rare gas at low pressure. A high positive potential applied to the mesh electrode creates an electric field which causes drifting of free electrons occurring between the electrodes and producing continuous VUV light output by electric field-driven scintillation amplification sustained by positive photon feedback mediated by photoemission from the photocathode. In one embodiment the lamp emits a narrow-band continuum peaked at 175 nm.

  8. Wavelength-Shifting-Fiber Scintillation Detectors for Thermal Neutron Imaging at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Lowell; Diawara, Yacouba; Ellis, E Darren; Funk, Loren L; Hannan, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A; Wang, Cai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have developed wavelength-Shifting-fiber Scintillator Detector (SSD) with 0.3 m2 area per module. Each module has 154 x 7 pixels and a 5 mm x 50 mm pixel size. Our goal is to design a large area neutron detector offering higher detection efficiency and higher count-rate capability for Time-Of-Flight (TOF) neutron diffraction in Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A ZnS/6LiF scintillator combined with a novel fiber encoding scheme was used to record the neutron events. A channel read-out-card (CROC) based digital-signal processing electronics and position-determination algorithm was applied for neutron imaging. Neutron-gamma discrimination was carried out using pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). A sandwich flat-scintillator detector can have detection efficiency close to He-3 tubes (about 10 atm). A single layer flat-scintillator detector has count rate capability of 6,500 cps/cm2, which is acceptable for powder diffractometers at SNS.

  9. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  10. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  11. Scintillating Quantum Dots for Imaging X-rays (SQDIX) for Aircraft Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Eric (Principal Investigator); Williams, Phillip (Principal Investigator); Dehaven, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Scintillation is the process currently employed by conventional x-ray detectors to create x-ray images. Scintillating quantum dots or nano-crystals (StQDs) are a novel, nanometer-scale material that upon excitation by x-rays, re-emit the absorbed energy as visible light. StQDs theoretically have higher output efficiency than conventional scintillating materials and are more environmental friendly. This paper will present the characterization of several critical elements in the use of StQDs that have been performed along a path to the use of this technology in wide spread x-ray imaging. Initial work on the SQDIX system has shown great promise to create state-of-the-art sensors using StQDs as a sensor material. In addition, this work also demonstrates a high degree of promise using StQDs in microstructured fiber optics. Using the microstructured fiber as a light guide could greatly increase the capture efficiency a StQDs based imaging sensor.

  12. Optical imaging of airglow structure in equatorial plasma bubbles at radio scintillation scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T.; Parris, R. T.; Stephens, B.; Caton, R. G.; Dao, E. V.; Kratochvil, S.; Morton, Y.; Xu, D.; Jiao, Y.; Taylor, S.; Carrano, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Imagery of optical emissions from F-region plasma is one of the few means available todetermine plasma density structure in two dimensions. However, the smallest spatial scalesobservable with this technique are typically limited not by magnification of the lens or resolutionof the detector but rather by the optical throughput of the system, which drives the integrationtime, which in turn causes smearing of the features that are typically moving at speeds of 100m/s or more. In this paper we present high spatio-temporal imagery of equatorial plasma bubbles(EPBs) from an imaging system called the Large Aperture Ionospheric Structure Imager(LAISI), which was specifically designed to capture short-integration, high-resolution images ofF-region recombination airglow at λ557.7 nm. The imager features 8-inch diameter entranceoptics comprised of a unique F/0.87 lens, combined with a monolithic 8-inch diameterinterference filter and a 2x2-inch CCD detector. The LAISI field of view is approximately 30degrees. Filtered all-sky images at common airglow wavelengths are combined with magneticfield-aligned LAISI images, GNSS scintillation, and VHF scintillation data obtained atAscension Island (7.98S, 14.41W geographic). A custom-built, multi-constellation GNSS datacollection system was employed that sampled GPS L1, L2C, L5, GLONASS L1 and L2, BeidouB1, and Galileo E1 and E5a signals. Sophisticated processing software was able to maintainlock of all signals during strong scintillation, providing unprecedented spatial observability ofL band scintillation. The smallest-resolvable scale sizes above the noise floor in the EPBs, as viewed byLAISI, are illustrated for integration times of 1, 5 and 10 seconds, with concurrentzonal irregularity drift speeds from both spaced-receiver VHF measurements and single-stationGNSS measurements of S4 and σφ. These observable optical scale sizes are placed in thecontext of those that give rise to radio scintillation in VHF and L band signals.

  13. Prototype high detective quantum efficiency imaging panel based on a fiber-optic scintillation glass array (FOSGA) for megavoltage imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Sanjiv; Baciak, Jim; Gopal, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Megavoltage imaging has applications in nondestructive imaging for homeland security, radiotherapy, and industrial manufacturing. Current commercial systems are limited by low image quality as measured by detective quantum efficiency (DQE). These systems yield measured DQE=0.01-0.02, limiting efficacy for detection based on automated signal processing. Past efforts to improve DQE have included novel scintillators and manufacturing of large crystal structures. An alternative novel design for a 2D x-ray imager, based on a modification of existing amorphous silicon (a:Si) or flat-panel imagers, is presented. The panel utilizes a fiber-optic scintillation glass array (FOSGA) consisting of scintillation fibers bundled within a pixilated thick sintered tungsten housing. The tungsten housing is constructed using a lithographic manufacturing technique for high fabrication accuracy. The Tb-doped fibers emit light in the 555-565nm range (matched to the sensitive region of current a:Si photodiodes), with a decay time of 2ms (100-to-40%). Monte Carlo simulations, linear cascaded systems analyses, and film studies have been carried out to validate and optimize image quality for radiation beams in the 1-6MV range. An 8cmx8cm prototype array was fabricated using Tb-doped fibers (9mm length, 0.9mm diameter) loaded into a tungsten matrix (1.1mm pixel pitch, 0.1mm septa), yielding measured DQE=0.05 (vs theoretical DQE=0.07) for 6MV imaging , an order of magnitude improvement in image quality over current commercial imagers. Design parameters of a large field-of-view FOSGA imager for cargo container security imaging are presented: 5cm thick FOSGA array, 0.4-1mm pixel pitch, 50-70% fill factor, DQE>0.2 for 1-6MV range.

  14. Scintillating-fiber imaging detector for 14-MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.; Lerche, R.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, G.W.; Nelson, M.B.; Mant, G.; Lehr, D.E.

    1994-07-25

    The authors have created a detector to image the neutrons emitted by imploded inertial-confinement fusion targets. The 14-MeV neutrons, which are produced by deuterium-tritium fusion events in the target, pass through an aperture to create an image on the detector. The neutron radiation is converted to blue light (430 nm) with a 20-cm-square array of plastic scintillating fibers. Each fiber is 10-cm long with a 1-mm-square cross section; approximately 35-thousand fibers make up the array. The resulting blue-light image is reduced and amplified by a sequence of fiber-optic tapers and image intensifiers, then acquired by a CCD camera. The fiber-optic readout system was tested optically for overall throughput the resolution. The authors plan to characterize the scintillator array reusing an ion-beam neutron source as well as DT-fusion neutrons emitted by inertial confinement targets. Characterization experiments will measure the light-production efficiency, spatial resolution, and neutron scattering within the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. They describe the detector and their characterization methods, present characterization results, and give examples of the neutron images.

  15. Characterization of a GEM-based scintillation detector with He–CF4 gas mixture in clinical proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichiporov, D.; Coutinho, L.; Klyachko, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high-spatial resolution dosimetry in proton therapy is a time consuming task, and may be challenging in the case of small fields, due to the lack of adequate instrumentation. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose imaging detector with high spatial resolution and tissue equivalent response to dose in the Bragg peak, suitable for beam commissioning and quality assurance measurements. A scintillation gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector based on a double GEM amplification structure with optical readout was filled with a He/CF4 gas mixture and evaluated in pristine and modulated proton beams of several penetration ranges. The detector’s performance was characterized in terms of linearity in dose rate, spatial resolution, short- and long-term stability and tissue-equivalence of response at different energies. Depth-dose profiles measured with the GEM detector in the 115–205 MeV energy range were compared with the profiles measured under similar conditions using the PinPoint 3D small-volume ion chamber. The GEM detector filled with a He-based mixture has a nearly tissue equivalent response in the proton beam and may become an attractive and efficient tool for high-resolution 2D and 3D dose imaging in proton dosimetry, and especially in small-field applications.

  16. Characterization of a GEM-based scintillation detector with He-CF4 gas mixture in clinical proton beams.

    PubMed

    Nichiporov, D; Coutinho, L; Klyachko, A V

    2016-04-21

    Accurate, high-spatial resolution dosimetry in proton therapy is a time consuming task, and may be challenging in the case of small fields, due to the lack of adequate instrumentation. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel dose imaging detector with high spatial resolution and tissue equivalent response to dose in the Bragg peak, suitable for beam commissioning and quality assurance measurements. A scintillation gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector based on a double GEM amplification structure with optical readout was filled with a He/CF4 gas mixture and evaluated in pristine and modulated proton beams of several penetration ranges. The detector's performance was characterized in terms of linearity in dose rate, spatial resolution, short- and long-term stability and tissue-equivalence of response at different energies. Depth-dose profiles measured with the GEM detector in the 115-205 MeV energy range were compared with the profiles measured under similar conditions using the PinPoint 3D small-volume ion chamber. The GEM detector filled with a He-based mixture has a nearly tissue equivalent response in the proton beam and may become an attractive and efficient tool for high-resolution 2D and 3D dose imaging in proton dosimetry, and especially in small-field applications. PMID:26992243

  17. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. It ... causing painful swelling and destruction of involved tissue. Gas gangrene is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  18. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Patients ... vascular diseases are more prone to spontaneously develop gas gangrene, which is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  19. LPE grown LSO:Tb scintillator films for high-resolution X-ray imaging applications at synchrotron light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, A.; Rack, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Martin, T.; Dos Santos Rolo, T.; Vagovič, P.; Hamann, E.; van de Kamp, T.; Riedel, A.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-08-01

    Within the project ScinTAX of the 6th framework program (FP6) of the European Commission (SCINTAX—STRP 033 427) we have developed a new thin single crystal scintillator for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The scintillator is based on a Tb-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO) film epitaxially grown on an adapted substrate. The high density, effective atomic number and light yield of the scintillating LSO significantly improves the efficiency of the X-ray imaging detectors currently used in synchrotron micro-imaging applications. In this work we present the characterization of the scintillating LSO films in terms of their spatial resolution performance and we provide two examples of high spatial and high temporal resolution applications.

  20. X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Matthias; Engel, Klaus Jürgen; Menser, Bernd; Badel, Xavier; Linnros, Jan

    2008-03-01

    The need for fine detail visibility in various applications such as dental imaging, mammography, but also neurology and cardiology, is the driver for intensive efforts in the development of new x-ray detectors. The spatial resolution of current scintillator layers is limited by optical diffusion. This limitation can be overcome by a pixelation, which prevents optical photons from crossing the interface between two neighboring pixels. In this work, an array of pores was etched in a silicon wafer with a pixel pitch of 50 microm. A very high aspect ratio was achieved with wall thicknesses of 4-7 microm and pore depths of about 400 microm. Subsequently, the pores were filled with Tl-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) as a scintillator in a special process, which includes powder melting and solidification of the CsI. From the sample geometry and x-ray absorption measurement the pore fill grade was determined to be 75%. The scintillator-filled samples have a circular active area of 16 mm diameter. They are coupled with an optical sensor binned to the same pixel pitch in order to measure the x-ray imaging performance. The x-ray sensitivity, i.e., the light output per absorbed x-ray dose, is found to be only 2.5%-4.5% of a commercial CsI-layer of similar thickness, thus very low. The efficiency of the pores to transport the generated light to the photodiode is estimated to be in the best case 6.5%. The modulation transfer function is 40% at 4 lp/mm and 10%-20% at 8 lp/mm. It is limited most likely by the optical gap between scintillator and sensor and by K-escape quanta. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is determined at different beam qualities and dose settings. The maximum DQE(0) is 0.28, while the x-ray absorption with the given thickness and fill factor is 0.57. High Swank noise is suspected to be the reason, mainly caused by optical scatter inside the CsI-filled pores. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport inside the pore array

  1. X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Matthias; Engel, Klaus Juergen; Menser, Bernd; Badel, Xavier; Linnros, Jan

    2008-03-15

    The need for fine detail visibility in various applications such as dental imaging, mammography, but also neurology and cardiology, is the driver for intensive efforts in the development of new x-ray detectors. The spatial resolution of current scintillator layers is limited by optical diffusion. This limitation can be overcome by a pixelation, which prevents optical photons from crossing the interface between two neighboring pixels. In this work, an array of pores was etched in a silicon wafer with a pixel pitch of 50 {mu}m. A very high aspect ratio was achieved with wall thicknesses of 4-7 {mu}m and pore depths of about 400 {mu}m. Subsequently, the pores were filled with Tl-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) as a scintillator in a special process, which includes powder melting and solidification of the CsI. From the sample geometry and x-ray absorption measurement the pore fill grade was determined to be 75%. The scintillator-filled samples have a circular active area of 16 mm diameter. They are coupled with an optical sensor binned to the same pixel pitch in order to measure the x-ray imaging performance. The x-ray sensitivity, i.e., the light output per absorbed x-ray dose, is found to be only 2.5%-4.5% of a commercial CsI-layer of similar thickness, thus very low. The efficiency of the pores to transport the generated light to the photodiode is estimated to be in the best case 6.5%. The modulation transfer function is 40% at 4 lp/mm and 10%-20% at 8 lp/mm. It is limited most likely by the optical gap between scintillator and sensor and by K-escape quanta. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is determined at different beam qualities and dose settings. The maximum DQE(0) is 0.28, while the x-ray absorption with the given thickness and fill factor is 0.57. High Swank noise is suspected to be the reason, mainly caused by optical scatter inside the CsI-filled pores. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport inside the pore array

  2. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francia, G.; Scafè, R.; De Vincentis, G.; La Ferrara, V.; Iurlaro, G.; Nasti, I.; Montani, L.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; Martucciello, N.; Pani, R.

    2006-12-01

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry, (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a 99mTcO 4- solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Scintillating Fiber Array Characterization and Alignment for Neutron Imaging using the High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, R. A., Ali, Z. A., Cradick, J. R., Traille, A. J., Warthan, W. A.

    2009-09-04

    The Neutron Imager diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will produce high-resolution, gated images of neutron-generating implosions. A similar pinhole imaging experiment (PINEX) diagnostic was recently deployed at the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Both the SNL and LLNL neutron imagers use similar fiber array scintillators (BCF-99-555). Despite diverse resolution and magnification requirements, both diagnostics put significant onus on the scintillator spatial quality and alignment precision to maintain optimal point spread. Characterization and alignment of the Z-PINEX scintillator and imaging system were done at NSTec/Livermore Operations in 2009, and is currently underway for the NIF Neutron Imager.

  4. Fission signal detection using helium-4 gas fast neutron scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J. M. Kelley, R. P.; Jordan, K. A.; Murer, D.

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate the unambiguous detection of the fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a high pressure {sup 4}He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. The energy deposition by individual neutrons is quantified, and energy discrimination is used to differentiate the induced fission neutrons from the mono-energetic interrogation neutrons. The detector can discriminate between different incident neutron energies using pulse height discrimination of the slow scintillation component of the elastic scattering interaction between a neutron and the {sup 4}He atom. Energy histograms resulting from this data show the buildup of a detected fission neutron signal at higher energies. The detector is shown here to detect a unique fission neutron signal from a natural uranium sample during active interrogation with a (d, d) neutron generator. This signal path has a direct application to the detection of shielded nuclear material in cargo and air containers. It allows for continuous interrogation and detection while greatly minimizing the potential for false alarms.

  5. Active neutron methods for nuclear safeguards applications using Helium-4 gas scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jason M.

    Active neutron methods use a neutron source to interrogate fissionable material. In this work a 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detection system is used to measure neutrons created by the interrogation. Three new applications of this method are developed: spent nuclear fuel assay, fission rate measurement, and special nuclear material detection. Three active neutron methods are included in this thesis. First a non-destructive plutonium assay technique called Multispectral Active Neutron Interrogation Analysis is developed. It is based on interrogating fuel with neutrons at several different energies. The induced fission rates at each interrogation energy are compared with results from a neutron transport model of the irradiation geometry in a system of equations to iteratively solve the inverse problem for isotopic composition. The model is shown to converge on the correct composition for a material with 3 different fissionable components, a representative neutron absorber, and any neutron transparent material such as oxygen in a variety of geometries. Next an experimental fission rate measurement technique is developed using 4He gas scintillation fast neutron detector. Several unique features of this detector allow it to detect and provide energy information on fast neutrons with excellent gamma discrimination efficiency. The detector can measure induced fission rate by energetically differentiating between interrogation neutrons and higher energy fission neutrons. The detector response to a mono-energetic deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron generator and a 252Cf source are compared to examine the difference in detected energy range. Finally we demonstrate a special nuclear material detection technique by detecting an unambiguous fission neutron signal produced in natural uranium during active neutron interrogation using a deuterium-deuterium neutron generator and a high pressure 4He gas fast neutron scintillation detector. Energy histograms resulting from this

  6. Low-Dose Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT imaging using Thick, Segmented Scintillators

    PubMed Central

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; Choroszucha, Richard B.; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Langechuan

    2011-01-01

    Megavoltage, cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) employing an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a highly promising technique for providing soft-tissue visualization in image-guided radiotherapy. However, current EPIDs based on active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are regarded as the gold standard for portal imaging and referred to as conventional MV AMFPIs, require high radiation doses to achieve this goal due to poor x-ray detection efficiency (~2% at 6 MV). To overcome this limitation, the incorporation of thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators, as a replacement for the phosphor screens used in these AMFPIs, has been shown to significantly improve the DQE performance, leading to improved image quality for projection imaging at low dose. Toward the realization of practical AMFPIs capable of low dose, soft-tissue visualization using MV CBCT imaging, two prototype AMFPIs incorporating segmented scintillators with ~11 mm thick CsI:Tl and BGO crystals were evaluated. Each scintillator consists of 120 × 60 crystalline elements separated by reflective septal walls, with an element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm. The prototypes were evaluated using a bench-top CBCT system, allowing the acquisition of 180 projection, 360° tomographic scans with a 6 MV radiotherapy photon beam. Reconstructed images of a spatial resolution phantom, as well as of a water-equivalent phantom, embedded with tissue equivalent objects having electron densities (relative to water) varying from ~0.28 to ~1.70, were obtained down to one beam pulse per projection image, corresponding to a scan dose of ~4 cGy – a dose similar to that required for a single portal image obtained from a conventional MV AMFPI. By virtue of their significantly improved DQE, the prototypes provided low contrast visualization, allowing clear delineation of an object with an electron density difference of ~2.76%. Results of contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio are presented as a function

  7. Low-dose megavoltage cone-beam CT imaging using thick, segmented scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; Choroszucha, Richard B.; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Langechuan

    2011-03-01

    Megavoltage, cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) employing an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a highly promising technique for providing soft-tissue visualization in image-guided radiotherapy. However, current EPIDs based on active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are regarded as the gold standard for portal imaging and referred to as conventional MV AMFPIs, require high radiation doses to achieve this goal due to poor x-ray detection efficiency (~2% at 6 MV). To overcome this limitation, the incorporation of thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators, as a replacement for the phosphor screens used in these AMFPIs, has been shown to significantly improve the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) performance, leading to improved image quality for projection imaging at low dose. Toward the realization of practical AMFPIs capable of low dose, soft-tissue visualization using MV CBCT imaging, two prototype AMFPIs incorporating segmented scintillators with ~11 mm thick CsI:Tl and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystals were evaluated. Each scintillator consists of 120 × 60 crystalline elements separated by reflective septal walls, with an element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm. The prototypes were evaluated using a bench-top CBCT system, allowing the acquisition of 180 projection, 360° tomographic scans with a 6 MV radiotherapy photon beam. Reconstructed images of a spatial resolution phantom, as well as of a water-equivalent phantom, embedded with tissue equivalent objects having electron densities (relative to water) varying from ~0.28 to ~1.70, were obtained down to one beam pulse per projection image, corresponding to a scan dose of ~4 cGy--a dose similar to that required for a single portal image obtained from a conventional MV AMFPI. By virtue of their significantly improved DQE, the prototypes provided low contrast visualization, allowing clear delineation of an object with an electron density difference of ~2.76%. Results of contrast, noise and contrast

  8. Optimization of the performance of segmented scintillators for radiotherapy imaging through novel binning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Choroszucha, Richard B.; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Langechuan

    2014-02-01

    Thick, segmented crystalline scintillators have shown increasing promise as replacement x-ray converters for the phosphor screens currently used in active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in radiotherapy, by virtue of providing over an order of magnitude improvement in the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). However, element-to-element misalignment in current segmented scintillator prototypes creates a challenge for optimal registration with underlying AMFPI arrays, resulting in degradation of spatial resolution. To overcome this challenge, a methodology involving the use of a relatively high resolution AMFPI array in combination with novel binning techniques is presented. The array, which has a pixel pitch of 0.127 mm, was coupled to prototype segmented scintillators based on BGO, LYSO and CsI:Tl materials, each having a nominal element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm and thickness of ∼1 cm. The AMFPI systems incorporating these prototypes were characterized at a radiotherapy energy of 6 MV in terms of modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, DQE, and reconstructed images of a resolution phantom acquired using a cone-beam CT geometry. For each prototype, the application of 8 × 8 pixel binning to achieve a sampling pitch of 1.016 mm was optimized through use of an alignment metric which minimized misregistration and thereby improved spatial resolution. In addition, the application of alternative binning techniques that exclude the collection of signal near septal walls resulted in further significant improvement in spatial resolution for the BGO and LYSO prototypes, though not for the CsI:Tl prototype due to the large amount of optical cross-talk resulting from significant light spread between scintillator elements in that device. The efficacy of these techniques for improving spatial resolution appears to be enhanced for scintillator materials that exhibit mechanical hardness, high density and high refractive index, such as BGO. Moreover, materials

  9. Optimization of the Performance of Segmented Scintillators for Radiotherapy Imaging through Novel Binning Techniques

    PubMed Central

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Choroszucha, Richard B.; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Langechuan

    2014-01-01

    Thick, segmented crystalline scintillators have shown increasing promise as replacement x-ray converters for the phosphor screens currently used in active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in radiotherapy, by virtue of providing over an order of magnitude improvement in the DQE. However, element-to-element misalignment in current segmented scintillator prototypes creates a challenge for optimal registration with underlying AMFPI arrays, resulting in degradation of spatial resolution. To overcome this challenge, a methodology involving the use of a relatively high resolution AMFPI array in combination with novel binning techniques is presented. The array, which has a pixel pitch of 0.127 mm, was coupled to prototype segmented scintillators based on BGO, LYSO and CsI:Tl materials, each having a nominal element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm and thickness of ~1 cm. The AMFPI systems incorporating these prototypes were characterized at a radiotherapy energy of 6 MV in terms of MTF, NPS, DQE, and reconstructed images of a resolution phantom acquired using a cone-beam CT geometry. For each prototype, the application of 8×8 pixel binning to achieve a sampling pitch of 1.016 mm was optimized through use of an alignment metric which minimized misregistration and thereby improved spatial resolution. In addition, the application of alternative binning techniques that exclude the collection of signal near septal walls resulted in further significant improvement in spatial resolution for the BGO and LYSO prototypes, though not for the CsI:Tl prototype due to the large amount of optical cross-talk resulting from significant light spread between scintillator elements in that device. The efficacy of these techniques for improving spatial resolution appears to be enhanced for scintillator materials that exhibit mechanical hardness, high density and high refractive index, such as BGO. Moreover, materials that exhibit these properties as well as offer significantly higher light

  10. Optimization of the performance of segmented scintillators for radiotherapy imaging through novel binning techniques.

    PubMed

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E; Choroszucha, Richard B; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Langechuan

    2014-02-21

    Thick, segmented crystalline scintillators have shown increasing promise as replacement x-ray converters for the phosphor screens currently used in active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in radiotherapy, by virtue of providing over an order of magnitude improvement in the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). However, element-to-element misalignment in current segmented scintillator prototypes creates a challenge for optimal registration with underlying AMFPI arrays, resulting in degradation of spatial resolution. To overcome this challenge, a methodology involving the use of a relatively high resolution AMFPI array in combination with novel binning techniques is presented. The array, which has a pixel pitch of 0.127 mm, was coupled to prototype segmented scintillators based on BGO, LYSO and CsI:Tl materials, each having a nominal element-to-element pitch of 1.016 mm and thickness of ∼ 1 cm. The AMFPI systems incorporating these prototypes were characterized at a radiotherapy energy of 6 MV in terms of modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, DQE, and reconstructed images of a resolution phantom acquired using a cone-beam CT geometry. For each prototype, the application of 8 × 8 pixel binning to achieve a sampling pitch of 1.016 mm was optimized through use of an alignment metric which minimized misregistration and thereby improved spatial resolution. In addition, the application of alternative binning techniques that exclude the collection of signal near septal walls resulted in further significant improvement in spatial resolution for the BGO and LYSO prototypes, though not for the CsI:Tl prototype due to the large amount of optical cross-talk resulting from significant light spread between scintillator elements in that device. The efficacy of these techniques for improving spatial resolution appears to be enhanced for scintillator materials that exhibit mechanical hardness, high density and high refractive index, such as BGO. Moreover, materials

  11. A High-Energy Focal-Plane Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Austin, R. A.; Apple, J. A.; Dietz, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a high-pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) for the focus of a hard-x-ray telescope. It features an absorption region 50 mm in diameter and 50 mm deep, filled with Xenon + 4% He at 10(exp 6) Pa total pressure, which gives useful response (greater than 75% efficiency) up to the mirror cut-off of 70 keV. Tests with a prototype unit show an energy resolution of 3.5% at 60 keV and a spatial resolution of 0.35 mm from 30-50 keV. Two flight units are currently under construction for a balloon flight in September 1999. Full details of their design and performance will be presented together with available quick-look background data from the flight.

  12. Development of Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter for Light Heavy-Ion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hohara, Sin-ya; Imamura, Minoru; Kin, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maki, Daiske; Saiho, Fuminobu; Ikeda, Katsuhiko; Uozumi, Yusuke; Matoba, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    In recent years, nuclear data have been needed in the medical field. Nuclear data induced by light heavy ions are especially needed at high precision for cancer treatment, although there are not enough usable data at present.We have a plan to measure light heavy-ion nuclear data with a dE-E detector. Low density is needed for the dE detector. We have two options for the dE detector: a semiconductor detector (SSD) and a Gas Counter. On one hand, SSD has good energy resolution, but on the other hand, it is expensive and its decay time is on the 100-microsecond order. A Gas Counter is inexpensive, and a Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter (GPSC) has fast decay time. Then, we developed a GPSC for the dE detector, and its evaluation experiment was carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC).We will report the results of the experiment with the performance of the GPSC.

  13. Simple charge division readouts for imaging scintillator arrays using a multi-channel PMT

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Silverman, R.W.; Shao, Y.; Cherry, S.R.

    1996-06-01

    Three simple charge division circuits were assembled and tested as 2-D position encoding readouts for multi-channel photomultiplier tubes (MC-PMT). They were evaluated with an 8 x 8 array of individual scintillators (2 x 2 x 10 mm BGO) coupled to a 64 channel MC-PMT (Philips XP1722) via 25 cm long, 2 mm diameter, double clad, optical fibers (Kuraray). This type of gamma-ray imaging detector has many potential applications in medical and industrial imaging. Though independent channel readout would allow for the discrimination of scatter within the array, and higher count rates, it would also require an excessive amount of supporting electronics. This is especially true for systems comprised of many MC-PMTs. In this study, the number of channels being read out was reduced from 64 to 4 using three different simple resistor networks. These circuits take advantage of the discretized nature of the scintillator array, the low interchannel crosstalk of the MC-PMT and low input impedance current-sensitive preamplifiers. For each circuit, the scintillator identification accuracy was compared. The identification accuracy as a function of deposited energy was also determined by exposure to various gamma-ray emitters. It was found that the preamplifier circuit noise contributed the most to the degradation of the detector`s spatial response so several low noise op amps were evaluated. It was also determined that keeping the preamplifier input impedance small was necessary for accurate positioning. The coincidence timing resolution of the detector (15 ns) is only slightly degraded by the readout circuit.

  14. Monte Carlo investigations of the effect of beam divergence on thick, segmented crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua

    2010-01-01

    The use of thick segmented scintillators in electronic portal imagers offers the potential for significant improvement in x-ray detection efficiency compared to conventional phosphor screens. Such improvement substantially increases the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), leading to the possibility of achieving soft-tissue visualization at clinically-practical (i.e. low) doses using megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography. While these DQE increases are greatest at zero spatial frequency, they are diminished at higher frequencies as a result of degradation of spatial resolution due to lateral spreading of secondary radiation within the scintillator – an effect that is more pronounced for thicker scintillators. The extent of this spreading is even more accentuated for radiation impinging the scintillator at oblique angles of incidence due to beam divergence. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport, performed to investigate and quantify the effects of beam divergence on the imaging performance of MV imagers based on two promising scintillators (BGO and CsI:T1), are reported. In these studies, 10 – 40 mm thick scintillators, incorporating low-density polymer, or high-density tungsten septal walls were examined for incident angles corresponding to that encountered at locations up to ~15 cm from the central beam axis (for an imager located 130 cm from a radiotherapy x-ray source). The simulations demonstrate progressively more severe spatial resolution degradation (quantified in terms of the effect on modulation transfer function) as a function of increasing angle of incidence (as well as of scintillator thickness). Since the noise power behavior was found to be largely independent of incident angle, the dependence of the DQE on incident angle is therefore primarily determined by the spatial resolution. The observed DQE degradation suggests that 10 mm thick scintillators are not strongly affected by beam divergence for detector areas up

  15. Development of proton CT imaging system using plastic scintillator and CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sodai; Nishio, Teiji; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Tsuneda, Masato; Kabuki, Shigeto; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    A proton computed tomography (pCT) imaging system was constructed for evaluation of the error of an x-ray CT (xCT)-to-WEL (water-equivalent length) conversion in treatment planning for proton therapy. In this system, the scintillation light integrated along the beam direction is obtained by photography using the CCD camera, which enables fast and easy data acquisition. The light intensity is converted to the range of the proton beam using a light-to-range conversion table made beforehand, and a pCT image is reconstructed. An experiment for demonstration of the pCT system was performed using a 70 MeV proton beam provided by the AVF930 cyclotron at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Three-dimensional pCT images were reconstructed from the experimental data. A thin structure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed, with spatial resolution of pCT images at the same level as that of xCT images. The pCT images of various substances were reconstructed to evaluate the pixel value of pCT images. The image quality was investigated with regard to deterioration including multiple Coulomb scattering.

  16. Development of proton CT imaging system using plastic scintillator and CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sodai; Nishio, Teiji; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Tsuneda, Masato; Kabuki, Shigeto; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    A proton computed tomography (pCT) imaging system was constructed for evaluation of the error of an x-ray CT (xCT)-to-WEL (water-equivalent length) conversion in treatment planning for proton therapy. In this system, the scintillation light integrated along the beam direction is obtained by photography using the CCD camera, which enables fast and easy data acquisition. The light intensity is converted to the range of the proton beam using a light-to-range conversion table made beforehand, and a pCT image is reconstructed. An experiment for demonstration of the pCT system was performed using a 70 MeV proton beam provided by the AVF930 cyclotron at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Three-dimensional pCT images were reconstructed from the experimental data. A thin structure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed, with spatial resolution of pCT images at the same level as that of xCT images. The pCT images of various substances were reconstructed to evaluate the pixel value of pCT images. The image quality was investigated with regard to deterioration including multiple Coulomb scattering. PMID:27191962

  17. R&D for high energy gamma-ray telescope using scintillation fiber with image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, T.; Muraki, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Sato, M.; Niwa, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, S.; Nakano, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Okuno, H.

    1996-02-01

    A new gamma-ray telescope using scintillation fiber together with an image intensifier is presented. The image intensifier we used has been improved in the sensitive range of the wavelength (beyond 300 nm) and the quantum efficiency (maximum 20%). The results of the beam test using the accelerator and the Monte Carlo simulation for the prototype telescope show that the device has the angular resolution of 0.5° at 900 MeV. On the basis of results of the prototype telescope, we propose a new SCIFI (SCIntillation FIber) telescope for future gamma-ray astronomy. The new telescope has achieved a large solid angle. With this merit, the new telescope can investigate very dark gamma-ray sources and monitor transient events such as gamma-ray burst. In addition, the cost of devices used in the telescope is not expensive so that an extension of the area of the telescope is easily realized in comparison with telescopes using silicon detector such as GLAST.

  18. Comparison of scintillators for single shot imaging of laser accelerated proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathan

    2012-03-01

    The application of intense laser pulses incident on specialized targets provides exciting new means for generating energetic beams of protons and ions. Recent work has demonstrated the utility of these beams of particles in a variety of applications, from inertial confinement fusion to radiation therapy. These applications require precise control, and subsequently precise feedback from the beam. Imaging techniques can provide the necessary shot-to-shot characterization to be effective as diagnostics. However, the utility of imaging methods scales with the capability of scintillating materials to emit well characterized and consistent radiation upon irradiance by a charged particle beam. We will discuss three candidates for an ideal diagnostic for MeV range protons and light ions. CsI:Tl^+ and Al2O3:Cr^3+ are two inorganic scintillators which exhibit excellent response to hadrons in this energy range. They are compared with the combination diagnostic micro-channel plate with a P43 phosphor screen, which offers advantages in refresh rate and resolution over direct exposure methods. Ultimately we will determine which candidate performs optimally as part of a robust, inexpensive diagnostic for laser accelerated protons and light ions.

  19. Investigations of x-ray response of single wire anode Ar-N 2 flow type gas scintillation proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, S. P.; Sharma, R. C.

    1984-05-01

    The X-ray response of single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters of two different geometries operated with argon + nitrogen gases in continuous flow has been investigated with wire anodes of diameters 25 μm to 1.7 mm. An energy resolution of 19% is obtained for 5.9 keV X-rays entering the counter perpendicular to the anode in pill-box geometry with 25 μm diameter anode. With cylindrical geometry counters energy resolutions obtained at 5.9 keV are 18%, 24% and 33% for 50 μm, 0.5 mm and 1.7 mm diameter anodes respectively. An analysis of the observed resolution shows that the contribution from photon counting statistics to the relative variance of scintillation pulses even for X-rays in Ar-N 2 single wire anode gas scintillation proportional counters is small and is not a limiting factor. The energy resolution with thicker anodes, where the contribution from the variance of the charge multiplication factor also has been minimised, is found to deteriorate mainly by the interactions in the scintillation production region. Comments are made on the possibility of improvement in energy resolution by suppression of pulses due to such interactions with the help of the pulse risetime discrimination technique.

  20. Fast-neutron imaging spectrometer based on liquid scintillator loaded capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Brandis, M.; Goldberg, M. B.; Bar, D.; Mardor, I.; Dangendorf, V.; Bromberger, B.

    2012-04-01

    A fast-neutron imaging detector based on micrometric glass capillaries loaded with high refractive index liquid scintillator has been developed Neutron energy spectrometry is based on event-by-event detection and reconstruction of neutron energy from the measurement of the knock-on proton track length and the amount of light produced in the track. In addition, the detector can provide fast-neutron imaging with position resolution of tens of microns. The detector principle of operation, simulations and experimental results obtained with a small detector prototype are described. We have demonstrated by simulation energy spectrum reconstruction for incident neutrons in the range of 4-20 MeV. The energy resolution in this energy range was 10-15%. Preliminary experimental results of detector spectroscopic capabilities are presented

  1. In situ diagnostics of the crystal-growth process through neutron imaging: application to scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Perrodin, Didier; Shalapska, Tetiana; Khodyuk, Ivan V.; Trtik, Pavel; Boillat, Pierre; Vogel, Sven C.; Losko, Adrian S.; Strobl, Markus; Kuhn, L. Theil; Bizarri, Gregory A.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrons are known to be unique probes in situations where other types of radiation fail to penetrate samples and their surrounding structures. In this paper it is demonstrated how thermal and cold neutron radiography can provide time-resolved imaging of materials while they are being processed (e.g. while growing single crystals). The processing equipment, in this case furnaces, and the scintillator materials are opaque to conventional X-ray interrogation techniques. The distribution of the europium activator within a BaBrCl:Eu scintillator (0.1 and 0.5% nominal doping concentrations per mole) is studied in situ during the melting and solidification processes with a temporal resolution of 5–7 s. The strong tendency of the Eu dopant to segregate during the solidification process is observed in repeated cycles, with Eu forming clusters on multiple length scales (only for clusters larger than ∼50 µm, as limited by the resolution of the present experiments). It is also demonstrated that the dopant concentration can be quantified even for very low concentration levels (∼0.1%) in 10 mm thick samples. The interface between the solid and liquid phases can also be imaged, provided there is a sufficient change in concentration of one of the elements with a sufficient neutron attenuation cross section. Tomographic imaging of the BaBrCl:0.1%Eu sample reveals a strong correlation between crystal fractures and Eu-deficient clusters. The results of these experiments demonstrate the unique capabilities of neutron imaging for in situ diagnostics and the optimization of crystal-growth procedures. PMID:27275133

  2. Monte Carlo investigations of the effect of beam divergence on thick, segmented crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua

    2010-07-01

    The use of thick, segmented scintillators in electronic portal imagers offers the potential for significant improvement in x-ray detection efficiency compared to conventional phosphor screens. Such improvement substantially increases the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), leading to the possibility of achieving soft-tissue visualization at clinically practical (i.e. low) doses using megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography. While these DQE increases are greatest at zero spatial frequency, they are diminished at higher frequencies as a result of degradation of spatial resolution due to lateral spreading of secondary radiation within the scintillator—an effect that is more pronounced for thicker scintillators. The extent of this spreading is even more accentuated for radiation impinging the scintillator at oblique angles of incidence due to beam divergence. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport, performed to investigate and quantify the effects of beam divergence on the imaging performance of MV imagers based on two promising scintillators (BGO and CsI:Tl), are reported. In these studies, 10-40 mm thick scintillators, incorporating low-density polymer, or high-density tungsten septal walls, were examined for incident angles corresponding to that encountered at locations up to ~15 cm from the central beam axis (for an imager located 130 cm from a radiotherapy x-ray source). The simulations demonstrate progressively more severe spatial resolution degradation (quantified in terms of the effect on the modulation transfer function) as a function of increasing angle of incidence (as well as of the scintillator thickness). Since the noise power behavior was found to be largely independent of the incident angle, the dependence of the DQE on the incident angle is therefore primarily determined by the spatial resolution. The observed DQE degradation suggests that 10 mm thick scintillators are not strongly affected by beam divergence for

  3. Gas-scintillation proportional counters for X-ray astronomy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H.; Koyama, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Ohashi, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Waki, I.

    Gas-scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs), which have twice better energy resolution than conventional proportional counters, have manifested their potential for X-ray astronomy in recent rocket experiments, and are now in the phase of satellite-born use for observing cosmic X-rays. The first satellite-born GSPC is on board HINOTORI, the Japanese solar X-ray flare observatory satellite, launched in February, 1981. It has an effective area of 1 sq cm, and is obtaining detailed energy spectra of solar X-ray flares. A large area, sealed GSPC with 100 sq cm effective area, has also been developed achieving an energy resolution of 10.5 percent for 5.9 keV X-ray illuminated over the full area. Ten modules of these GSPCs will be on board the second Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, Astro-B, due for launch in February, 1983. The configuration and the performance characteristics are described in this paper. These detectors will provide qualitatively new information on the energy spectra of the cosmic X-ray sources in the energy range 1.5 - 60 keV.

  4. Study of a prototype high quantum efficiency thick scintillation crystal video-electronic portal imaging device

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun

    2006-08-15

    Image quality in portal imaging suffers significantly from the loss in contrast and spatial resolution that results from the excessive Compton scatter associated with megavoltage x rays. In addition, portal image quality is further reduced due to the poor quantum efficiency (QE) of current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Commercial video-camera-based EPIDs or VEPIDs that utilize a thin phosphor screen in conjunction with a metal buildup plate to convert the incident x rays to light suffer from reduced light production due to low QE (<2% for Eastman Kodak Lanex Fast-B). Flat-panel EPIDs that utilize the same luminescent screen along with an a-Si:H photodiode array provide improved image quality compared to VEPIDs, but they are expensive and can be susceptible to radiation damage to the peripheral electronics. In this article, we present a prototype VEPID system for high quality portal imaging at sub-monitor-unit (subMU) exposures based on a thick scintillation crystal (TSC) that acts as a high QE luminescent screen. The prototype TSC system utilizes a 12 mm thick transparent CsI(Tl) (thallium-activated cesium iodide) scintillator for QE=0.24, resulting in significantly higher light production compared to commercial phosphor screens. The 25x25 cm{sup 2} CsI(Tl) screen is coupled to a high spatial and contrast resolution Video-Optics plumbicon-tube camera system (1240x1024 pixels, 250 {mu}m pixel width at isocenter, 12-bit ADC). As a proof-of-principle prototype, the TSC system with user-controlled camera target integration was adapted for use in an existing clinical gantry (Siemens BEAMVIEW{sup PLUS}) with the capability for online intratreatment fluoroscopy. Measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) were conducted to characterize the TSC spatial resolution. The measured MTF along with measurements of the TSC noise power spectrum (NPS) were used to determine the system detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A theoretical expression of DQE(0) was

  5. Study of a prototype high quantum efficiency thick scintillation crystal video-electronic portal imaging device.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sanjiv S; Gopal, Arun

    2006-08-01

    Image quality in portal imaging suffers significantly from the loss in contrast and spatial resolution that results from the excessive Compton scatter associated with megavoltage x rays. In addition, portal image quality is further reduced due to the poor quantum efficiency (QE) of current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Commercial video-camera-based EPIDs or VEPIDs that utilize a thin phosphor screen in conjunction with a metal buildup plate to convert the incident x rays to light suffer from reduced light production due to low QE (<2% for Eastman Kodak Lanex Fast-B). Flat-panel EPIDs that utilize the same luminescent screen along with an a-Si:H photodiode array provide improved image quality compared to VEPIDs, but they are expensive and can be susceptible to radiation damage to the peripheral electronics. In this article, we present a prototype VEPID system for high quality portal imaging at sub-monitor-unit (subMU) exposures based on a thick scintillation crystal (TSC) that acts as a high QE luminescent screen. The prototype TSC system utilizes a 12 mm thick transparent CsI(Tl) (thallium-activated cesium iodide) scintillator for QE=0.24, resulting in significantly higher light production compared to commercial phosphor screens. The 25 X 25 cm2 CsI(Tl) screen is coupled to a high spatial and contrast resolution Video-Optics plumbicon-tube camera system (1240 X 1024 pixels, 250 microm pixel width at isocenter, 12-bit ADC). As a proof-of-principle prototype, the TSC system with user-controlled camera target integration was adapted for use in an existing clinical gantry (Siemens BEAMVIEW(PLUS)) with the capability for online intratreatment fluoroscopy. Measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) were conducted to characterize the TSC spatial resolution. The measured MTF along with measurements of the TSC noise power spectrum (NPS) were used to determine the system detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A theoretical expression of DQE(0) was developed

  6. Hard x-ray and gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy using scintillators coupled to silicon drift detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, P.; Eckhard, R.; Fiorini, C.; Gola, A.; Longoni, A.; Niculae, A.; Peloso, R.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2008-07-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) are used as low-capacitance photon detectors for the optical light emitted by scintillators. The scintillator crystal is directly coupled to the SDD entrance window. The entrance window's transmittance can be optimized for the scintillator characteristic by deposition of a wavelength-selective anti-reflective coating. Compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes the SDD readout offers improved energy resolution and avoids the practical problems of incompatibility with magnetic fields, instrument volume and requirement of high voltage. A compact imaging spectrometer for hard X-rays and γ-rays has been developed by coupling a large area (29 × 26 mm2) monolithic SDD array with 77 hexagonal cells to a single non-structured CsI-scintillator of equal size. The scintillation light generated by the absorption of an energetic photon is seen by a number of detector cells and the position of the photon interaction is reconstructed by the centroid method. The measured spatial resolution of the system (<= 500 μm) is considerably smaller than the SDD cell size (3.2 mm) and in the order required at the focal plane of high energy missions. The energy information is obtained by summing the detector cell signals. Compared to direct converting pixelated detectors, e.g. CdTe with equal position resolution the scintillator-SDD combination requires a considerably lower number of readout channels. In addition it has the advantages of comprehensive material experience, existing technologies, proven long term stability, and practically unlimited availability of high quality material.

  7. Excellent pulse height uniformity response of a new LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal for gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Fabbri, A.; Orlandi, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Scafè, R.; Colarieti-Tosti, M.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine SPECT imaging is taking on new challenges, regarding the improvement of quality and contrast of images. In order to reach this goal, energy resolution and Compton rejection capability have to be enhanced. For detectors based on scintillation crystal, the choice of a scintillator with high light yield is suitable; recently one of the major candidates is Lanthanum Tri-Bromide (LaBr3:Ce), with its high 63,000 ph/MeV light yield. Unfortunately, LaBr3:Ce suffers size limitations due to the actual growth techniques (maximum 3 in. diameter) and has also elevated cost. For these reasons, great interest is shown on small field of view detectors based on LaBr3:Ce, thought for imaging of specific physiological process or organ. To improve energy resolution, continuous crystals are more appropriate instead than pixelated ones. Since in a continuous crystal a decrease in position linearity, due to the light reflections, is typically obtained at the edges, an absorbent treatment of surfaces is generally utilized for SPECT applications. On the other hand, light absorption causes a relevant degradation of local energy resolution and pulse height uniformity response, affecting local image contrast. In this work an analysis on a new continuous LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal with size proper to a small field of view gamma imager but with reflective treatment of surfaces is presented. This leads up to outstanding overall and local energy resolution results and excellent pulse height uniformity response on the whole field of view. Furthermore, preliminary imaging results are satisfactory, compared to the ones from a scintillation crystal with absorbent edges.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a novel water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device using plastic scintillating fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Pang, G.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Most electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) developed so far use a thin Cu plate/phosphor screen to convert x-ray energies into light photons, while maintaining a high spatial resolution. This results in a low x-ray absorption and thus a low quantum efficiency (QE) of approximately 2-4% for megavoltage (MV) x-rays. A significant increase of QE is desirable for applications such as MV cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). Furthermore, the Cu plate/phosphor screen contains high atomic number (high-Z) materials, resulting in an undesirable over-response to low energy x-rays (due to photoelectric effect) as well as high energy x-rays (due to pair production) when used for dosimetric verification. Our goal is to develop a new MV x-ray detector that has a high QE and uses low-Z materials to overcome the obstacles faced by current MV x-ray imaging technologies. Methods: A new high QE and low-Z EPID is proposed. It consists of a matrix of plastic scintillating fibers embedded in a water-equivalent medium and coupled to an optically sensitive 2D active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. It differs from the previous approach that uses segmented crystalline scintillators made of higher density and higher atomic number materials to detect MV x-rays. The plastic scintillating fibers are focused toward the x-ray source to avoid image blurring due to oblique incidence of off-axis x-rays. When MV x-rays interact with the scintillating fibers in the detector, scintillation light will be produced. The light photons produced in a fiber core and emitted within the acceptance angle of the fiber will be guided toward the AMFPI by total internal reflection. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to investigate imaging and dosimetric characteristics of the proposed detector under irradiation of MV x-rays. Results: Properties, such as detection efficiency, modulation transfer function, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), energy dependence of detector

  9. Scatter correction in scintillation camera imaging of positron-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungberg, M.; Danfelter, M.; Strand, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    The use of Anger scintillation cameras for positron SPECT has become of interest recently due to their use with imaging 2-{sup 18}F deoxyglucose. Due to the special crystal design (thin and wide), a significant amount of primary events will be also recorded in the Compton region of the energy spectra. Events recorded in a second Compton window (CW) can add information to the data in the photopeak window (PW), since some events are correctly positioned in the CW. However, a significant amount of the scatter is also included in CW which needs to be corrected. This work describes a method whereby a third scatter window (SW) is used to estimate the scatter distribution in the CW and the PW. The accuracy of estimation has been evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations in a homogeneous elliptical phantom for point and extended sources. Two examples of clinical application are also provided. Results from simulations show that essentially only scatter from the phantom is recorded between the 511 keV PW and 340 keV CW. Scatter projection data with a constant multiplier can estimate the scatter in the CW and PW, although the scatter distribution in SW corresponds better to the scatter distribution in the CW. The multiplier k for the CW varies significantly more with depth than it does for the PW. Clinical studies show an improvement in image quality when using scatter corrected combined PW and CW.

  10. Structured CsI(Tl) scintillators for x-ray imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, V.V.; Gupta, T.K.; Miller, S.R.; Klugerman, Y.; Squillante, M.R.; Entine, G.

    1998-06-01

    The authors are developing large-area, thick, structured CsI(Tl) imaging sensors for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. Recently they have fabricated structured CsI(Tl) scintillators ranging from 30 {micro}m (16 mg/cm{sup 2}) to 2,000 {micro}m (900 mg/cm{sup 2}) in thickness and up to 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} in area. Even 2,000-{micro}m-thick film showed well-controlled columnar growth throughout the film. Material characterization confirmed that the film is crystalline in nature and that the stoichiometry is preserved. To improve the spatial resolution of thick films, post-deposition treatments were performed. The effect of these treatments on film characteristics was quantitatively evaluated by measuring signal output, modulation transfer function [MTF(f)], noise power spectrum [NPS(f)], and detective quantum efficiency[DQE(f)]. The data show that by proper film treatments, the film DQE(f) can be improved.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of pixelated Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens for digital X-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongyul; Kyoung Cha, Bo; Hyung Bae, Jun; Lee, Chae-Hun; Kim, Hyungtaek; Chang, Sungho; Cho, Gyuseong; Sim, Cheulmuu; Kim, Taejoo

    2011-05-01

    X-ray imaging detectors in combination with scintillator screens have been widely used in digital X-ray imaging applications. Gd2O2S:Tb was used as scintillation material for pixelated scintillator screens based on silicon substrates (wafer) with a micropore array of various dimensions fabricated using the photolithography and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process. The relative light output and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of each fabricated scintillator screen were measured by a cooled CCD and compared with those of Lanex screens. The spatial resolution of our scintillator screens was higher but their light outputs were lower than those of Lanex screen probably due to the loss of light at the wall surfaces. Therefore further treatment of the wall surface, such as reflective coating, seems necessary to compensate the light loss.

  12. Scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout for low dose x-ray imaging: Lag

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei; Nanba, Masakazu; Egami, Norifomi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A new concept of indirect conversion flat-panel imager with avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated. It is referred to as scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The present work investigates the temporal performance, i.e., lag, of SAPHIRE. Methods: Since the temporal performance of the x-ray detection materials, i.e., the structured scintillator and avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor, has been studied previously, the investigation is focused on lag due to the FEA readout method. The principle of FEA readout is similar to that of scanning electron beam readout used in camera tubes, where the dominant source of lag is the energy spread of electrons. Since the principles of emission and beam focusing methods for FEA are different from thermionic emission used in camera tubes, its electron beam energy spread and hence lag is expected to be different. In the present work, the energy spread of the electrons emitted from a FEA was investigated theoretically by analyzing different contributing factors due to the FEA design and operations: The inherent energy spread of field emission, the FEA driving pulse delay, and the angular distribution of emitted electrons. The electron energy spread determined the beam acceptance characteristic curve of the photoconductive target, i.e., the accepted beam current (Ia) as a function of target potential (Vt), from which lag could be calculated numerically. Lag calculation was performed using FEA parameters of two prototype HARP-FEA image sensors, and the results were compared with experimental measurements. Strategies for reducing lag in SAPHIRE were proposed and analyzed. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that the dominant factor for lag is the angular distribution of electrons emitted from the FEA. The first frame lags for two prototype sensors with 4 and 25 μm HARP layer thicknesses were 62.1% and 9.1%, respectively. A

  13. A method of extending the depth of focus of the high-resolution X-ray imaging system employing optical lens and scintillator: a phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The high-resolution X-ray imaging system employing synchrotron radiation source, thin scintillator, optical lens and advanced CCD camera can achieve a resolution in the range of tens of nanometers to sub-micrometer. Based on this advantage, it can effectively image tissues, cells and many other small samples, especially the calcification in the vascular or in the glomerulus. In general, the thickness of the scintillator should be several micrometers or even within nanometers because it has a big relationship with the resolution. However, it is difficult to make the scintillator so thin, and additionally thin scintillator may greatly reduce the efficiency of collecting photons. Methods In this paper, we propose an approach to extend the depth of focus (DOF) to solve these problems. We develop equation sets by deducing the relationship between the high-resolution image generated by the scintillator and the degraded blur image due to defect of focus first, and then we adopt projection onto convex sets (POCS) and total variation algorithm to get the solution of the equation sets and to recover the blur image. Results By using a 20 μm thick unmatching scintillator to replace the 1 μm thick matching one, we simulated a high-resolution X-ray imaging system and got a degraded blur image. Based on the algorithm proposed, we recovered the blur image and the result in the experiment showed that the proposed algorithm has good performance on the recovery of image blur caused by unmatching thickness of scintillator. Conclusions The method proposed is testified to be able to efficiently recover the degraded image due to defect of focus. But, the quality of the recovery image especially of the low contrast image depends on the noise level of the degraded blur image, so there is room for improving and the corresponding denoising algorithm is worthy for further study and discussion. PMID:25602532

  14. Effect of direct x-ray interaction in the photodetector on image noise for a CCD/scintillator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Michael J.; Hames, Sean M.; Ciarelli, James J.

    1996-04-01

    Digital x-ray imaging detectors for soft x-rays (1 to 50 keV) are significant for medical mammography, dental radiography, microradiography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray telescope applications. For systems in which a scintillator is optically coupled to a photodetector, a small number of electrons are produced for each interaction in the scintillator (more than 10 e- in well designed systems). However, x-rays interacting directly in the photodetector produce a large charge for each detected event (about 4,700 e- for a 17 keV x-ray absorbed in silicon. These direct interactions can significantly increase image noise even when their interaction probability and contribution to image signal are low. In this paper we report on analytic investigations of the direct and indirect contributions to noise for a system consisting of a CsI scintillator, fiber optic coupler, and CCD photo-detector. The fiber optic coupler is shown to be essential to shield the CCD detector from direct interactions. A 3 mm thick fiber optic coupler is sufficient to eliminate most of the events that can noticeably increase noise.

  15. Application of scintillating properties of liquid xenon and silicon photomultiplier technology to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Benlloch-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ferrario, Paola

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new positron emission time-of-flight apparatus using liquid xenon. The detector is based in a liquid xenon scintillating cell. The cell shape and dimensions can be optimized depending on the intended application. In its simplest form, the liquid xenon scintillating cell is a box in which two faces are covered by silicon photomultipliers and the others by a reflecting material such as Teflon. It is a compact, homogenous and highly efficient detector which shares many of the desirable properties of monolithic crystals, with the added advantage of high yield and fast scintillation offered by liquid xenon. Our initial studies suggest that good energy and spatial resolution comparable with that achieved by lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals can be obtained with a detector based in liquid xenon scintillating cells. In addition, the system can potentially achieve an excellent coincidence resolving time of better than 100 ps.

  16. X-ray Luminescence Efficiency of GAGG:Ce Single Crystal Scintillators for use in Tomographic Medical Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S. L.; Valais, I. G.; Michail, C. M.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different scintillator crystal samples, with a cross section of 3×3mm2 and various thicknesses ranging from 4mm up to 20mm, of the new mixed Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) scintillator material under X-ray irradiation, for potential applications in Tomographic Medical Imaging systems. Evaluation was performed by determining the X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) (emitted light energy flux over incident X-ray energy flux) in energies employed in general X-ray imaging. For the luminescence efficiency measurements, the scintillator samples were exposed to X-rays using a BMI General Medical Merate tube, with rotating Tungsten anode and inherent filtration equivalent to 2 mm Al. X-ray tube voltages between 50 to 130 kV were selected. An additional 20 mm filtration was introduced to the beam to simulate beam quality alternation equivalent to a human body. The emitted light energy flux measurements were performed using an experimental set up comprising a light integration sphere coupled to an EMI 9798B photomultiplier tube which was connected to a Cary 401 vibrating reed electrometer. The GAGG:Ce sample with dimensions 3×3×10 mm3 exhibited higher XLE values, in the whole X- ray energy range examined. XLE value equal to 0.013 was recorded for this crystal at 130 kVp - a setting frequently used in Computed Tomography applications.

  17. Scintillating optical fiber array for high-resolution X-ray imaging over 5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigler, E.; Polack, F.

    1985-04-01

    An X-ray image detector having a 10-5-micron resolution for 5-keV X-rays in high flux conditions is described. It consists of an array of optical fibers, the core of which has been replaced by a high-index fluorescent material. Preliminary realizations and experiments are reported, which give hope that good efficiencies will be obtained by matching a scintillating fiber array to an image intensifier. Such detectors should find useful applications, for example, to synchrotron radiation experiments.

  18. Performance and fabrication of thin film NaI(Tl) scintillators for use on imaging photomultiplier tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, J.A.; Sobottka, S.E.; Williams, M.B. . Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics)

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the preparation and performance of thin film NaI(Tl) scintillators using two techniques, standard bulk load evaporation (BLE) in which a single resistance-heated boat contains the total source quantity, and powder flash evaporation (PFE). Using PFE, a film's characteristics can be easily reproduced, and the relative light yield can be predicted by controlling the substrate temperature, the boat temperature, and the composition of the source. The authors have made PFE films with homogeneous thallium concentration which surpass the highest light yield they measured for two commercially available single crystal NaI(Tl) scintillators and for BLE films with optimized light yield. They discuss the parameters that control the film's light yield and the predicted detection efficiency of an x-ray detector using these films coupled to an imaging phototube.

  19. Three-dimensional SPECT imaging with LaBr3:Ce scintillator for characterization of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tushar; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of nuclear waste in terms of radioactivity distribution is important not only for their safe disposal but also for nuclear material accounting. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) provides a non-invasive technique for the characterization and activity distribution of the gamma-emitting sources in a matrix. Sodium iodide scintillators, which are most commonly used, suffer from poor energy resolution and do not provide accurate peak discrimination for radioisotopes like 239Pu which have overlapping peaks. Cerium-activated lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators have better energy resolution and provide better peak discrimination. In this paper, experimental studies using LaBr3:Ce for 3D SPECT imaging of dummy waste drum has been discussed. The reconstruction has been done using the Filtered Backprojection scheme with attenuation compensation based on Novikov's inversion formula.

  20. Efficient high-resolution hard x-ray imaging with transparent Lu2O3:Eu scintillator thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Zsolt; Miller, Stuart R.; Brecher, Charles; Kenesei, Peter; Moore, Matthew D.; Woods, Russell; Almer, Jonathan D.; Miceli, Antonino; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed microstructured Lu2O3:Eu scintillator films that provide spatial resolution on the order of micrometers for hard X-ray imaging. In addition to their outstanding resolution, Lu2O3:Eu films also exhibits both high absorption efficiency for 20 to 100 keV X-rays, and bright 610 nm emission whose intensity rivals that of the brightest known scintillators. At present, high spatial resolution of such a magnitude is achieved using ultra-thin scintillators measuring only about 1 to 5 μm in thickness, which limits absorption efficiency to ~3% for 12 keV X-rays and less than 0.1% for 20 to 100 keV X-rays; this results in excessive measurement time and exposure to the specimen. But the absorption efficiency of Lu2O3:Eu (99.9% @12 keV and 30% @ 70 keV) is much greater, significantly decreasing measurement time and radiation exposure. Our Lu2O3:Eu scintillator material, fabricated by our electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, combines superior density of 9.5 g/cm3, a microcolumnar structure for higher spatial resolution, and a bright emission (48000 photons/MeV) whose wavelength is an ideal match for the underlying CCD detector array. We grew thin films of this material on a variety of matching substrates, measuring some 5-10μm in thickness and covering areas up to 1 x 1 cm2, which can be a suitable basis for microtomography, digital radiography as well as CT and hard X-ray Micro-Tomography (XMT). The microstructure and optical transparency of such screens was optimized, and their imaging performance was evaluated in the Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source. Spatial resolution and efficiency were also characterized.

  1. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Calorimeters with Scintillator and with Gas Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Marco

    2014-06-01

    The time structure of hadronic showers is characterized by a prompt component from relativistic particles and by late components predominantly connected to neutrons in the cascade. The sensitivity to this late component thus depends on the choice of the active medium for hadronic calorimeters. The time structure and the differences originating from different readout technologies in a calorimeter with tungsten absorbers are studied with two dedicated setups using scintillator tiles read out with SiPMs and glass RPCs. In both cases, a radial strip of 15 cells with a size of 3 × 3 cm2 each is read out with fast digitizers with deep buffers, providing detailed information on the time structure of the recorded signals over a long sampling window. We will discuss the technical aspects of these systems, and present results on the time structure measurements, which demonstrate sizeable differences in the response of scintillator and gaseous detectors to the neutron components of the hadronic cascade.

  2. An experimental method to determine the effective luminescence efficiency of scintillator-photodetector combinations used in X-ray medical imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Cavouras, D; Kandarakis, I; Bakas, A; Triantis, D; Nomicos, C D; Panayiotakis, G S

    1998-07-01

    The scintillator effective luminescence efficiency, which may be defined in terms of the scintillator's X-ray luminescence efficiency and the scintillator-photodetector spectral matching and geometrical configuration, was studied for various X-ray imaging applications. Four scintillator materials Gd2O2S:Tb, Y2O2S:Tb, ZnSCdS:Ag and CsI:Na were used to prepare test screens. They were evaluated in relation to various photodetectors used in X-ray imaging, such as radiographic films, photocathodes, and photodiodes. Effective luminescence efficiency was determined for a range of X-ray tube voltages (50-140 kVp) by measuring the light flux emitted per unit of incident exposure rate and the spectra of the light emitted by the four scintillators. Scintillator-photodetector combinations resulting in higher image brightness level were determined for different X-ray imaging systems. Findings indicate that CsI:Na is very efficient with orthochromatic radiographic films, Gd2O2S:Tb could be useful in conventional or digital fluoroscopy and in CT and ZnSCdS:Ag could be employed in some medium to low voltage digital radiography applications. PMID:9771388

  3. A photoelastic measurement system for residual stress analysis in scintillating crystals by conoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, L.; Paone, N.; Scalise, L.; Rinaldi, D.

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of the stress state of scintillating crystals is an important issue for producers as well as users of such materials, because residual stress may arise during growth process. In this paper, a measurement system, based on the use of a photoelastic, conoscopic optical setup, is proposed for the assessment of stress state in scintillating crystals. Local stress values can be measured on the crystal in order to observe their spatial distribution. With the proposed system, it is possible to vary the dimensions of the inspected measurement volume. It has been validated with reference to a known stress state induced in a birefringent crystal sample and it has been tested for the case of loaded and unloaded samples, showing sub-millimetric spatial resolution and stress uncertainty ≤0.25 MPa. The proposed measurement system is a valid method for the inspection of scintillating crystals required by producers and users of such materials.

  4. A High-Pressure Gas-Scintillation-Proportional Counter for the Focus of a Hard-X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. A.; Ramsey, B. D.; Tse, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a high-pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) for the focus of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. The device has a total active diameter of 50 mm, of which the central 20 mm only is used, and is filled with xenon + 4% helium at a total pressure of 10 6 Pa giving a quantum efficiency of greater than 85% up to 60 keV. The detector entrance is sealed with a beryllium window, 3-mm thick, which provides useful transmission down to 6 keV, way below the atmospheric cut-off at balloon float altitudes. Scintillation light exits the detector via a UV transmitting window in its base and is registered by a Hamamatsu position-sensitive crossed-grid-readout photomultiplier tube. Initial testing is underway, quantifying light yield and energy resolution. Following that, the spatial resolution and absolute efficiency will be calibrated. Simulations show that a spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm FWHM should be achievable up to 60 keV, and this is well matched to the angular resolution and plate scale of the mirror system. The energy resolution will be around 5% at 22 keV. Full details of the instrument design and its performance will be presented. A first flight is scheduled for the Fall of 99, on a stratospheric balloon to be launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

  5. Recent progress of MPPC-based scintillation detectors in high precision X-ray and gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y.; Tsujikawa, T.; Oshima, T.; Taya, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Ogata, H.; Okochi, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-06-01

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a promising light sensor for various applications, not only in physics experiments but also in nuclear medicine, industry, and even high-energy astrophysics. In this paper, we present the current status and most recent progress of the MPPC-based scintillation detectors, such as (1) a high-precision X-ray and gamma-ray spectral image sensor, (2) next-generation PET detectors with MRI, TOF, and DOI measurement capabilities, and (3) a compact gamma camera for environmental radiation surveys. We first present a new method of fabricating a Ce:GAGG scintillator plate (1 or 2 mm thick) with ultra-fine resolution (0.2 mm/pixel), cut using a dicing saw to create 50 μm wide micro-grooves. When the plate is optically coupled with a large-area MPPC array, excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) and energy resolution of 14% (FWHM) are obtained for 122 keV gamma rays. Hence, the detector can act as a convenient "multi-color" imaging device that can potentially be used for future SPECT and photon-counting CT. We then show a prototype system for a high-resolution MPPC-based PET scanner that can realize ≃1 mm (FWHM) spatial resolution, even under a strong magnetic field of 4.7 T. We develop a front-end ASIC intended for future TOF-PET scanner with a 16-channel readout that achieves a coincidence time resolution of 489 ps (FWHM). A novel design for a module with DOI-measurement capability for gamma rays is also presented by measuring the pulse height ratio of double-sided MPPCs coupled at both ends of scintillation crystal block. Finally, we present the concept of a two-plane Compton camera consisting of Ce:GAGG scintillator arrays coupled with thin MPPC arrays. As a result of the thin and compact features of the MPPC device, the camera not only achieves a small size (14×14×15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg) but also excellent sensitivity, compared to the conventional PMT-based pinhole camera used in Fukushima. Finally, we briefly

  6. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dan; Zhao Wei

    2008-07-15

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 {mu}m. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 {mu}m. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  7. Segmented crystalline scintillators: An initial investigation of high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Amit; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao Qihua; Li Yixin; Su Zhong; Wang Yi; Yamamoto, Jin; Du Hong; Cunningham, Ian; Klugerman, Misha; Shah, Kanai

    2005-10-15

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) based on indirect detection, active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPIs) have become the technology of choice for geometric verification of patient localization and dose delivery in external beam radiotherapy. However, current AMFPI EPIDs, which are based on powdered-phosphor screens, make use of only {approx}2% of the incident radiation, thus severely limiting their imaging performance as quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) ({approx}1%, compared to {approx}75% for kilovoltage AMFPIs). With the rapidly increasing adoption of image-guided techniques in virtually every aspect of radiotherapy, there exist strong incentives to develop high-DQE megavoltage x-ray imagers, capable of providing soft-tissue contrast at very low doses in megavoltage tomographic and, potentially, projection imaging. In this work we present a systematic theoretical and preliminary empirical evaluation of a promising, high-quantum-efficiency, megavoltage x-ray detector design based on a two-dimensional matrix of thick, optically isolated, crystalline scintillator elements. The detector is coupled with an indirect detection-based active matrix array, with the center-to-center spacing of the crystalline elements chosen to match the pitch of the underlying array pixels. Such a design enables the utilization of a significantly larger fraction of the incident radiation (up to 80% for a 6 MV beam), through increases in the thickness of the crystalline elements, without loss of spatial resolution due to the spread of optical photons. Radiation damage studies were performed on test samples of two candidate scintillator materials, CsI(Tl) and BGO, under conditions relevant to radiotherapy imaging. A detailed Monte Carlo-based study was performed in order to examine the signal, spatial spreading, and noise properties of the absorbed energy for several segmented detector configurations. Parameters studied included scintillator material, septal wall

  8. Optical imaging: Ultrafast buffering by molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, Edouard; Lavorel, Bruno; Faucher, Olivier

    2011-02-01

    A simple molecular gas sample can be used to achieve ultrafast optical buffering in two-dimensional optical imaging, thus serving as a promising extension of the well-developed liquid-crystal display technology.

  9. Progress in Evaluating Quantitative Optical Gas Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of advanced fugitive emission detection and assessment technologies that facilitate cost effective leak and malfunction mitigation strategies is an ongoing goal shared by industry, regulators, and environmental groups. Optical gas imaging (OGI) represents an importan...

  10. An experimental method for the determination of spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of scintillators used in X-ray imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Panayiotakis, G. S.; Triantis, D.; Nomicos, C. D.

    1997-02-01

    The spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of imaging scintillators was studied independently of the optical detector (film, photocathode, or photodiode) employed in medical imaging devices. A method was developed to experimentally determine the scintillator DQE in terms of its luminescence efficiency (LE), quantum detection efficiency, modulation transfer function, and light emission spectrum. Gd 2O 2S : Tb, La 2O 2S : Tb, Y 2O 2S : Tb and ZnSCdS : Ag scintillating screens were prepared in laboratory and were excited to luminescence by a medical X-ray tube. Maximum DQE values varied between 0.13 and 0.33 depending on the scintillator material, the screen coating weight, and the tube voltage; Gd 2O 2S : Tb was superior to La 2O 2S : Tb followed by ZnSCdS : Ag and Y 2O 2S : Tb. This ranking was maintained at frequencies up to 100 cycles/cm. Considering the same material, DQE of thin screens was found superior to DQE of thicker screens at medium-to-high frequencies. The proposed method allows for the comparison of imaging characteristics of scintillating materials without the inclusion of optical detector imaging properties.

  11. Mitigation of Memory Effects in Beta Scintillation Cells for Radioactive Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Carolyn E; McIntyre, Justin I; Antolick, Kathryn C; Carman, April J; Cooper, Matthew W; Hayes, James C; Heimbigner, Tom R; Hubbard, C W; Litke, Kevin E; Ripplinger, Mike D; Suarez, Reynold

    2005-08-31

    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at PNNL measures the relative concentrations of xenon isotopes using a coincidence system. Previous tests of the ARSA system have shown that latent radioactivity remains in the plastic cells after evacuation of the gases, leading to a “memory effect” in which the background count rate is dependent on the sample history. The increased background results in lower detection sensitivity. Two possible solutions to the memory effect are explored in this work: depositing a thin layer of metal on the plastic cell (“metallization”), and using an inorganic scintillating cell composed of yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP). In both cases, the presence of inorganic material at the surface is intended to inhibit the diffusion of gases into the cell walls.

  12. Light output measurements and computational models of microcolumnar CsI scintillators for x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nillius, Peter Klamra, Wlodek; Danielsson, Mats; Sibczynski, Pawel; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The authors report on measurements of light output and spatial resolution of microcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator detectors for x-ray imaging. In addition, the authors discuss the results of simulations aimed at analyzing the results of synchrotron and sealed-source exposures with respect to the contributions of light transport to the total light output. Methods: The authors measured light output from a 490-μm CsI:Tl scintillator screen using two setups. First, the authors used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the response of the scintillator to sealed-source exposures. Second, the authors performed imaging experiments with a 27-keV monoenergetic synchrotron beam and a slit to calculate the total signal generated in terms of optical photons per keV. The results of both methods are compared to simulations obtained with hybridMANTIS, a coupled x-ray, electron, and optical photon Monte Carlo transport package. The authors report line response (LR) and light output for a range of linear absorption coefficients and describe a model that fits at the same time the light output and the blur measurements. Comparing the experimental results with the simulations, the authors obtained an estimate of the absorption coefficient for the model that provides good agreement with the experimentally measured LR. Finally, the authors report light output simulation results and their dependence on scintillator thickness and reflectivity of the backing surface. Results: The slit images from the synchrotron were analyzed to obtain a total light output of 48 keV{sup −1} while measurements using the fast PMT instrument setup and sealed-sources reported a light output of 28 keV{sup −1}. The authors attribute the difference in light output estimates between the two methods to the difference in time constants between the camera and PMT measurements. Simulation structures were designed to match the light output measured with the camera while providing good agreement with the

  13. A compact, discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator/Si photodiode gamma camera for breast cancer imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Gregory J.

    2000-12-01

    Recent clinical evaluations of scintimammography (radionuclide breast imaging) are promising and suggest that this modality may prove a valuable complement to X-ray mammography and traditional breast cancer detection and diagnosis techniques. Scintimammography, however, typically has difficulty revealing tumors that are less than 1 cm in diameter, are located in the medial part of the breast, or are located in the axillary nodes. These shortcomings may in part be due to the use of large, conventional Anger cameras not optimized for breast imaging. In this thesis I present compact single photon camera technology designed specifically for scintimammography which strives to alleviate some of these limitations by allowing better and closer access to sites of possible breast tumors. Specific applications are outlined. The design is modular, thus a camera of the desired size and geometry can be constructed from an array (or arrays) of individual modules and a parallel hole lead collimator for directional information. Each module consists of: (1) an array of 64 discrete, optically-isolated CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals 3 x 3 x 5 mm{sup 3} in size, (2) an array of 64 low-noise Si PIN photodiodes matched 1-to-1 to the scintillator crystals, (3) an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that amplifies the 64 photodiode signals and selects the signal with the largest amplitude, and (4) connectors and hardware for interfacing the module with a motherboard, thereby allowing straightforward computer control of all individual modules within a camera.

  14. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  15. Comparison of photon counting and conventional scintillation detectors in a pinhole SPECT system for small animal imaging: Monte carlo simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wan; Kim, Dae-Hong; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2013-05-01

    The photon counting detector based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a promising imaging modality that provides many benefits compared to conventional scintillation detectors. By using a pinhole collimator with the photon counting detector, we were able to improve both the spatial resolution and the sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the photon counting and conventional scintillation detectors in a pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system. We designed five pinhole SPECT systems of two types: one type with a CdTe photon counting detector and the other with a conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. We conducted simulation studies and evaluated imaging performance. The results demonstrated that the spatial resolution of the CdTe photon counting detector was 0.38 mm, with a sensitivity 1.40 times greater than that of a conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the same detector thickness. Also, the average scatter fractions of the CdTe photon counting and the conventional NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors were 1.93% and 2.44%, respectively. In conclusion, we successfully evaluated various pinhole SPECT systems for small animal imaging.

  16. Thin film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Warren; McKinney, George; Tzolov, Marian

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating materials convert energy flux (particles or electromagnetic waves) into light with spectral characteristic matching a subsequent light detector. Commercial scintillators such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) are commonly used. These are inefficient at lower energies due to the conductive coating present on their top surface, which is needed to avoid charging. We hypothesize that nano-structured thin film scintillators will outperform the commercial scintillators at low electron energies. We have developed alternative thin film scintillators, zinc tungstate and zinc oxide, which show promise for higher sensitivity to lower energy electrons since they are inherently conductive. Zinc tungstate films exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 74%. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was applied in transmission and reflection geometries. The comparison between the thin films and the YAG and YAP commercial scintillators shows much higher light output from the zinc tungstate and zinc oxide at electron energies less than 5 keV. Our films were integrated in a backscattered electron detector. This detector delivers better images than an identical detector with commercial YAG scintillator at low electron energies. Dr. Nicholas Barbi from PulseTor LLC, Dr. Anura Goonewardene, NSF Grants: #0806660, #1058829, #0923047.

  17. Optimisation of the imaging and dosimetric characteristics of an electronic portal imaging device employing plastic scintillating fibres using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S. J.; McNamara, A. L.; Vial, P.; Holloway, L.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-11-01

    A Monte Carlo model of a novel electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been developed using Geant4 and its performance for imaging and dosimetry applications in radiotherapy has been characterised. The EPID geometry is based on a physical prototype under ongoing investigation and comprises an array of plastic scintillating fibres in place of the metal plate/phosphor screen in standard EPIDs. Geometrical and optical transport parameters were varied to investigate their impact on imaging and dosimetry performance. Detection efficiency was most sensitive to variations in fibre length, achieving a peak value of 36% at 50 mm using 400 keV x-rays for the lengths considered. Increases in efficiency for longer fibres were partially offset by reductions in sensitivity. Removing the extra-mural absorber surrounding individual fibres severely decreased the modulation transfer function (MTF), highlighting its importance in maximising spatial resolution. Field size response and relative dose profile simulations demonstrated a water-equivalent dose response and thus the prototype’s suitability for dosimetry applications. Element-to-element mismatch between scintillating fibres and underlying photodiode pixels resulted in a reduced MTF for high spatial frequencies and quasi-periodic variations in dose profile response. This effect is eliminated when fibres are precisely matched to underlying pixels. Simulations strongly suggest that with further optimisation, this prototype EPID may be capable of simultaneous imaging and dosimetry in radiotherapy.

  18. Nondestructive imaging of an ultracold lattice gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Y. S.; Chakram, S.; Aycock, L. M.; Vengalattore, M.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of a lattice gas of ultracold bosons. Atomic fluorescence is induced in the simultaneous presence of degenerate Raman sideband cooling. The combined influence of these processes controllably cycles an atom between a dark state and a fluorescing state while eliminating heating and loss. Through spatially resolved sideband spectroscopy following the imaging sequence, we demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging technique in various regimes of lattice depth and fluorescence acquisition rate. Our work provides an important extension of quantum gas imaging to the nondestructive detection, control, and manipulation of atoms in optical lattices. In addition, our technique can also be extended to atomic species that are less amenable to molasses-based lattice imaging.

  19. ANTS — a simulation package for secondary scintillation Anger-camera type detector in thermal neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Defendi, I.; Engels, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Guerard, B.; Jurkovic, M.; Kemmerling, G.; Manzin, G.; Margato, L. M. S.; Niko, H.; Pereira, L.; Petrillo, C.; Peyaud, A.; Piscitelli, F.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N. J.; Sacchetti, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Van Esch, P.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2012-08-01

    A custom and fully interactive simulation package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations) has been developed to optimize the design and operation conditions of secondary scintillation Anger-camera type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging. The simulation code accounts for all physical processes related to the neutron capture, energy deposition pattern, drift of electrons of the primary ionization and secondary scintillation. The photons are traced considering the wavelength-resolved refraction and transmission of the output window. Photo-detection accounts for the wavelength-resolved quantum efficiency, angular response, area sensitivity, gain and single-photoelectron spectra of the photomultipliers (PMTs). The package allows for several geometrical shapes of the PMT photocathode (round, hexagonal and square) and offers a flexible PMT array configuration: up to 100 PMTs in a custom arrangement with the square or hexagonal packing. Several read-out patterns of the PMT array are implemented. Reconstruction of the neutron capture position (projection on the plane of the light emission) is performed using the center of gravity, maximum likelihood or weighted least squares algorithm. Simulation results reproduce well the preliminary results obtained with a small-scale detector prototype. ANTS executables can be downloaded from http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei/.

  20. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-01-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator∕HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 μm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 μm×50 μm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 μm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity. PMID:18697540

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of intrinsic count rate performance of a scintillation camera for diagnostic images.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; de Denaro, Mario; Fornasier, Maria Rosa; Binesh, Alireza

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes Monte Carlo simulation of intrinsic count rate performance of a scintillation gamma camera. MCNP Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate pulse height spectrum and detector efficiency. A custom code written in Fortran language was then developed to simulate, by Monte Carlo method, the distortion in pulse height spectrum due to the pile-up effect for paralyzable and nonparalyzable systems. The results of the simulations, compared with the experimental measurement of count rate performance, showed a good agreement between the two different approaches. PMID:16343910

  2. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  3. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  4. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  5. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  6. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  7. Imaging with SiPMs in noble-gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahlali, N.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; González, K.; Garcia, A. N. C.; Soriano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photosensors widely used for imaging in a variety of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. In noble-gas detectors for double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, SiPMs are attractive photosensors for imaging. However they are insensitive to the VUV scintillation emitted by the noble gases (xenon and argon). This difficulty is overcome in the NEXT experiment by coating the SiPMs with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) to convert the VUV light into visible light. TPB requires stringent storage and operational conditions to prevent its degradation by environmental agents. The development of UV sensitive SiPMs is thus of utmost interest for experiments using electroluminescence of noble-gas detectors. It is in particular an important issue for a robust and background free ββ0ν experiment with xenon gas aimed by NEXT. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of UV-enhanced SiPMs provided by Hamamatsu was determined for light in the range 250-500 nm. The PDE of standard SiPMs of the same model (S10362-33-50C), coated and non-coated with TPB, was also determined for comparison. In the UV range 250-350 nm, the PDE of the standard SiPM is shown to decrease strongly, down to about 3%. The UV-enhanced SiPM without window is shown to have the maximum PDE of 44% at 325 nm and 30% at 250 nm. The PDE of the UV-enhanced SiPM with silicon resin window has a similar trend in the UV range, although it is about 30% lower. The TPB-coated SiPM has shown to have about 6 times higher PDE than the non-coated SiPM in the range 250-315 nm. This is however below the performance of the UV-enhanced prototypes in the same wavelength range. Imaging in noble-gas detectors using UV-enhanced SiPMs is discussed.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath

    2009-01-01

    This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu2SiO5: Ce in short LSO), Barium Fluoride (BaF2) and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr3) scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF2 and LaBr3, although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work) method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom. PMID:20098551

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic as a nanocomposite scintillator for x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Struebing, Christian; Wagner, Brent; Summers, Christopher; Ding, Yong; Bryant, Alex; Thadhani, Naresh; Shedlock, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-05-20

    Transparent glass ceramics with embedded light-emitting nanocrystals show great potential as low-cost nanocomposite scintillators in comparison to single crystal and transparent ceramic scintillators. In this study, cubic structure BaGdF5:Tb nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix are reported for potential high performance MeV imaging applications. Scintillator samples with systematically varied compositions were prepared by a simple conventional melt-quenching method followed by annealing. Optical, structural and scintillation properties were characterized to guide the design and optimization of selected material systems, aiming at the development of a system with higher crystal volume and larger crystal size for improved luminosity. It is observed that enhanced scintillation performance was achieved by tuning the glass matrix composition and using GdF3 in the raw materials, which served as a nucleation agent. A 26% improvement in light output was observed from a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic with addition of GdF3. PMID:27044066

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic as a nanocomposite scintillator for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Struebing, Christian; Wagner, Brent; Summers, Christopher; Ding, Yong; Bryant, Alex; Thadhani, Naresh; Shedlock, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-05-01

    Transparent glass ceramics with embedded light-emitting nanocrystals show great potential as low-cost nanocomposite scintillators in comparison to single crystal and transparent ceramic scintillators. In this study, cubic structure BaGdF5:Tb nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix are reported for potential high performance MeV imaging applications. Scintillator samples with systematically varied compositions were prepared by a simple conventional melt-quenching method followed by annealing. Optical, structural and scintillation properties were characterized to guide the design and optimization of selected material systems, aiming at the development of a system with higher crystal volume and larger crystal size for improved luminosity. It is observed that enhanced scintillation performance was achieved by tuning the glass matrix composition and using GdF3 in the raw materials, which served as a nucleation agent. A 26% improvement in light output was observed from a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic with addition of GdF3.

  11. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators.

    PubMed

    España, Samuel; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Keereman, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel

    2014-07-01

    A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm(3). Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm(3) optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with (18)F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an (18)F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq(-1) and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated

  12. Development of a prototype scintillator-based portable γ-ray imager with coded aperture for intraoperative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Horiki, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2015-06-01

    In surgical treatment, the intraoperative detection of tissues is becoming important in order to localize malignant functionality. Visual inspection, which is mostly used, results in lower contrast whereas dual inspection with radio and optical sensors is more promising for accurate detection. A scintillator-based portable gamma-ray imager with a coded aperture has been designed and fabricated for exploring the use of coded-aperture imaging in intraoperative applications. The gamma-ray detector is composed of a 12×12 array of 2×2×10 mm3 Ce:GAGG (Ce doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12) crystals individually coupled to a 12×12 avalanche photodiode (APD) array. The APDs are individually read out using a custom-designed readout system using a time-over-threshold application-specific integrated circuit and field-programmable gate array. The coded aperture consists of M-array based holes of 0.5 mm size on a 0.3-mm thickness tungsten collimator. The imaging performance in the x, y, and z directions is measured and characterized for 122-keV gamma rays.

  13. Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-05-16

    We report the first application of gas total emission using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total emissions and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation cross-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas emissions. PMID:27409967

  14. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible. PMID:27280308

  15. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u‑1. Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  16. Comparative study of luminescence properties of LuYAP:Ce and LYSO:Ce single-crystal scintillators for use in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valais, I.; David, S.; Michail, C.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Liaparinos, P.; Cavouras, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

    2007-09-01

    The luminescence properties of Lu 0.7Y 0.3AlO 3:Ce (LuYAP:Ce) and (Lu 0.9,Y 0.1) 2SiO 5:Ce (LYSO:Ce) crystals were studied for use in medical X-ray imaging. LuYAP:Ce and LYSO:Ce are single-crystal scintillators of high density, non-hygroscopic, high light yield and short decay time. The two cerium doped crystals have dimensions of 2×2×8 mm 3 with all surfaces polished. Evaluation was performed by determining the absolute luminescence efficiency (emitted light flux over incident X-ray exposure) in X-ray energies employed in general medical X-ray imaging (40-140 kVp) and in mammographic X-ray imaging (22-49 kV). Additionally, the light emission spectrum at various X-ray energies was measured in order to determine the spectral compatibility to optical photon detectors, incorporated in medical imaging systems. The optical characteristics, such as emission spectra, were investigated and important correlations with the scintillation properties were pointed out. The light emission performance of the two scintillation materials studied was found adequately high for medical X-ray imaging.

  17. Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    1999-12-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved by the EPA, however, they are under consideration. If the remote sensing technology is available with the sensitivity to monitor emission at the required levels and man portable it can reduce the cost and improve the reliability of performing such measurements. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) believes that it currently has this technology available to industry. This paper will present results from a field test where gas vapors during a refueling process were imaged and identified. In addition images of propane from a leaking stove will be presented. We at PAT have developed a real time image processing board that enhances the signal to noise ratio of low contrast gases and makes them easily viewable using the Image Multispectral Sensing (IMSS) imaging spectrometer. The IMSS imaging spectrometer is the size of a camcorder. Currently the data is stored in a Notebook computer thus allowing the system to be easily carried into power plants to look for fugitive leaks. In the future the IMSS will have an embedded processor and DSP and will be able to transfer data over an Ethernet link.

  18. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR-PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J. C.; Cela, J. M.; Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2013-02-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR-PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  19. Imaging performance comparison between a LaBr3: Ce scintillator based and a CdTe semiconductor based photon counting compact gamma camera.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Mettivier, G; Pani, R; Pellegrini, R; Cinti, M N; Bennati, P

    2009-04-01

    The authors report on the performance of two small field of view, compact gamma cameras working in single photon counting in planar imaging tests at 122 and 140 keV. The first camera is based on a LaBr3: Ce scintillator continuous crystal (49 x 49 x 5 mm3) assembled with a flat panel multianode photomultiplier tube with parallel readout. The second one belongs to the class of semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors, specifically, a CdTe pixel detector (14 x 14 x 1 mm3) with 256 x 256 square pixels and a pitch of 55 microm, read out by a CMOS single photon counting integrated circuit of the Medipix2 series. The scintillation camera was operated with selectable energy window while the CdTe camera was operated with a single low-energy detection threshold of about 20 keV, i.e., without energy discrimination. The detectors were coupled to pinhole or parallel-hole high-resolution collimators. The evaluation of their overall performance in basic imaging tasks is presented through measurements of their detection efficiency, intrinsic spatial resolution, noise, image SNR, and contrast recovery. The scintillation and CdTe cameras showed, respectively, detection efficiencies at 122 keV of 83% and 45%, intrinsic spatial resolutions of 0.9 mm and 75 microm, and total background noises of 40.5 and 1.6 cps. Imaging tests with high-resolution parallel-hole and pinhole collimators are also reported. PMID:19472638

  20. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, A. Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 μm, respectively.

  1. Position and time resolution measurements with a microchannel plate image intensifier: A comparison of monolithic and pixelated CeBr3 scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Ulrich; Eschbaumer, Stephan; Bergmaier, Andreas; Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter; Greubel, Christoph; Löwe, Benjamin; Schotanus, Paul; Dollinger, Günther

    2016-07-01

    To perform Four Dimensional Age Momentum Correlation measurements in the near future, where one obtains the positron lifetime in coincidence with the three dimensional momentum of the electron annihilating with the positron, we have investigated the time and position resolution of two CeBr3 scintillators (monolithic and an array of pixels) using a Photek IPD340/Q/BI/RS microchannel plate image intensifier. The microchannel plate image intensifier has an active diameter of 40 mm and a stack of two microchannel plates in chevron configuration. The monolithic CeBr3 scintillator was cylindrically shaped with a diameter of 40 mm and a height of 5 mm. The pixelated scintillator array covered the whole active area of the microchannel plate image intensifier and the shape of each pixel was 2.5·2.5·8 mm3 with a pixel pitch of 3.3 mm. For the monolithic setup the measured mean single time resolution was 330 ps (FWHM) at a gamma energy of 511 keV. No significant dependence on the position was detected. The position resolution at the center of the monolithic scintillator was about 2.5 mm (FWHM) at a gamma energy of 662 keV. The single time resolution of the pixelated crystal setup reached 320 ps (FWHM) in the region of the center of the active area of the microchannel plate image intensifier. The position resolution was limited by the cross-section of the pixels. The gamma energy for the pixel setup measurements was 511 keV.

  2. Imaging performance comparison between a LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator based and a CdTe semiconductor based photon counting compact gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, P.; Mettivier, G.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Bennati, P.

    2009-04-15

    The authors report on the performance of two small field of view, compact gamma cameras working in single photon counting in planar imaging tests at 122 and 140 keV. The first camera is based on a LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator continuous crystal (49x49x5 mm{sup 3}) assembled with a flat panel multianode photomultiplier tube with parallel readout. The second one belongs to the class of semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors, specifically, a CdTe pixel detector (14x14x1 mm{sup 3}) with 256x256 square pixels and a pitch of 55 {mu}m, read out by a CMOS single photon counting integrated circuit of the Medipix2 series. The scintillation camera was operated with selectable energy window while the CdTe camera was operated with a single low-energy detection threshold of about 20 keV, i.e., without energy discrimination. The detectors were coupled to pinhole or parallel-hole high-resolution collimators. The evaluation of their overall performance in basic imaging tasks is presented through measurements of their detection efficiency, intrinsic spatial resolution, noise, image SNR, and contrast recovery. The scintillation and CdTe cameras showed, respectively, detection efficiencies at 122 keV of 83% and 45%, intrinsic spatial resolutions of 0.9 mm and 75 {mu}m, and total background noises of 40.5 and 1.6 cps. Imaging tests with high-resolution parallel-hole and pinhole collimators are also reported.

  3. Evaluation of the light emission efficiency of LYSO:Ce scintillator under X-ray excitation for possible applications in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valais, Ioannis G.; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios N.; Sianoudis, Ioannis; Cavouras, Dionisis A.; Dimitropoulos, Nikolaos; Nomicos, Constantinos D.; Panayiotakis, George S.

    2006-12-01

    Lutetium-yttrium-based scintillators, such as LYSO:Ce, have a high effective atomic number, are non-hygroscopic, fast emitting materials, and promising candidates for use in positron emission imagers. The present study investigates the light emission characteristics of (Lu, Y) 2SiO 5:Ce (LYSO:Ce) single-crystal scintillator under X-ray imaging conditions. Also, the parameters related to the luminescence emission spectrum and emission efficiency were studied using experimental methods. Various X-ray tube voltages currently employed in X-ray imaging techniques were used. Measurements were performed using an experimental set-up based on a photomultiplier coupled to an integration sphere. In addition, the emission spectrum under UV and X-ray excitation was measured using an optical grating monochromator to determine the spectral compatibility of optical photon detectors incorporated in medical imaging systems. The absolute efficiency of LYSO:Ce was found to increase with increasing X-ray tube voltage (from 2.2 EU at 22 kVp to 22.4 EU at 140 kVp), while its spectrum, peaking at about 430 nm, was found compatible with most optical detectors (photodiodes, photocathodes, charge coupled devices, etc.). The matching factor was estimated to range from 0.76 to 0.92 (for a silicon photodiode and for a GaAsP photocathode, respectively).

  4. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  5. On the response of Y 3Al 5O 12: Ce (YAG: Ce) powder scintillating screens to medical imaging X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Sianoudis, I.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Episkopakis, A.; Linardatos, D.; Margetis, D.; Nirgianaki, E.; Roussou, M.; Melissaropoulos, P.; Kalivas, N.; Kalatzis, I.; Kourkoutas, K.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Louizi, A.; Nomicos, C.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Y 3Al 5O 12:Ce (also known as YAG:Ce) powder scintillator under X-ray imaging conditions. This material shows a very fast scintillation decay time and it has never been used in X-ray medical imaging. In the present study various scintillator layers (screens) with coating thickness ranging from 13 to 166 mg/cm 2 were prepared in our laboratory by sedimentation of Y 3Al 5O 12: Ce powder. Optical emission spectra and light emission efficiency (spectrum area over X-ray exposure) of the layers were measured under X-ray excitation using X-ray tube voltages (80-120 kVp) often employed in general medical radiography and fluoroscopy. Spectral compatibility with various optical photon detectors (photodiodes, photocathodes, charge coupled devices, films) and intrinsic conversion efficiency values were determined using emission spectrum data. In addition, parameters related to X-ray detection, energy absorption efficiency and K-fluorescence characteristic emission were calculated. A theoretical model describing radiation and light transfer through scattering media was used to fit experimental data. Intrinsic conversion efficiency (η≈0.03-0.05) and light attenuation coefficients (σ≈26.5 cm/g) were derived through this fitting. Y 3Al 5O 12:Ce showed peak emission in the wavelength range 530-550 nm. The light emission efficiency was found to be maximum for the 107 mg/cm 2 layer. Due to its "green" emission spectrum, Y 3Al 5O 12:Ce showed excellent compatibility (of the order of 0.9) with the sensitivity of many currently used photodetectors. Taking into account its very fast response Y 3Al 5O 12:Ce could be considered for application in X-ray imaging especially in various digital detectors.

  6. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  7. Plastic scintillation dosimetry: Optimal selection of scintillating fibers and scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Arsenault, Jean; Gingras, Luc; Sam Beddar, A.; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc

    2005-07-15

    Scintillation dosimetry is a promising avenue for evaluating dose patterns delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans or for the small fields involved in stereotactic radiosurgery. However, the increase in signal has been the goal for many authors. In this paper, a comparison is made between plastic scintillating fibers and plastic scintillator. The collection of scintillation light was measured experimentally for four commercial models of scintillating fibers (BCF-12, BCF-60, SCSF-78, SCSF-3HF) and two models of plastic scintillators (BC-400, BC-408). The emission spectra of all six scintillators were obtained by using an optical spectrum analyzer and they were compared with theoretical behavior. For scintillation in the blue region, the signal intensity of a singly clad scintillating fiber (BCF-12) was 120% of that of the plastic scintillator (BC-400). For the multiclad fiber (SCSF-78), the signal reached 144% of that of the plastic scintillator. The intensity of the green scintillating fibers was lower than that of the plastic scintillator: 47% for the singly clad fiber (BCF-60) and 77% for the multiclad fiber (SCSF-3HF). The collected light was studied as a function of the scintillator length and radius for a cylindrical probe. We found that symmetric detectors with nearly the same spatial resolution in each direction (2 mm in diameter by 3 mm in length) could be made with a signal equivalent to those of the more commonly used asymmetric scintillators. With augmentation of the signal-to-noise ratio in consideration, this paper presents a series of comparisons that should provide insight into selection of a scintillator type and volume for development of a medical dosimeter.

  8. Scintillator efficiency study with MeV x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Stuart; Brown, Kristina; Curtis, Alden; Lutz, Stephen S.; Howe, Russell; Malone, Robert; Mitchell, Stephen; Danielson, Jeremy; Haines, Todd; Kwiatkowski, Kris

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated scintillator efficiency for MeV radiographic imaging. This paper discusses the modeled detection efficiency and measured brightness of a number of scintillator materials. An optical imaging camera records images of scintillator emission excited by a pulsed x-ray machine. The efficiency of various thicknesses of monolithic LYSO:Ce (cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) are being studied to understand brightness and resolution trade-offs compared with a range of micro-columnar CsI:Tl (thallium-doped cesium iodide) scintillator screens. The micro-columnar scintillator structure apparently provides an optical gain mechanism that results in brighter signals from thinner samples. The trade-offs for brightness versus resolution in monolithic scintillators is straightforward. For higher-energy x-rays, thicker materials generally produce brighter signal due to x-ray absorption and the optical emission properties of the material. However, as scintillator thickness is increased, detector blur begins to dominate imaging system resolution due to the volume image generated in the scintillator thickness and the depth of field of the imaging system. We employ a telecentric optical relay lens to image the scintillator onto a recording CCD camera. The telecentric lens helps provide sharp focus through thicker-volume emitting scintillators. Stray light from scintillator emission can also affect the image scene contrast. We have applied an optical light scatter model to the imaging system to minimize scatter sources and maximize scene contrasts.

  9. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B J M; Hunt, D C; Rowlands, J A; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-01

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d(Se) and the applied electric field E(Se) of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E(Se) dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 microm HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E(Se): (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 microm can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy. PMID:16266110

  10. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: Fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wei; Li Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B.J.M.; Hunt, D.C.; Rowlands, J.A.; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-15

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d{sub Se} and the applied electric field E{sub Se} of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E{sub Se} dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 {mu}m HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E{sub Se}: (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 {mu}m can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  11. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    PubMed

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples. PMID:24007128

  12. Photon statistics in scintillation crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Vaibhav Joga Singh

    Scintillation based gamma-ray detectors are widely used in medical imaging, high-energy physics, astronomy and national security. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors are eld-tested, relatively inexpensive, and have good detection eciency. Semi-conductor detectors are gaining popularity because of their superior capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. However, they are relatively hard to manufacture and therefore, at this time, not available in as large formats and much more expensive than scintillation gamma-ray detectors. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors consist of: a scintillator, a material that emits optical (scintillation) photons when it interacts with ionization radiation, and an optical detector that detects the emitted scintillation photons and converts them into an electrical signal. Compared to semiconductor gamma-ray detectors, scintillation gamma-ray detectors have relatively poor capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. This is in large part attributed to the "statistical limit" on the number of scintillation photons. The origin of this statistical limit is the assumption that scintillation photons are either Poisson distributed or super-Poisson distributed. This statistical limit is often dened by the Fano factor. The Fano factor of an integer-valued random process is dened as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Therefore, a Poisson process has a Fano factor of one. The classical theory of light limits the Fano factor of the number of photons to a value greater than or equal to one (Poisson case). However, the quantum theory of light allows for Fano factors to be less than one. We used two methods to look at the correlations between two detectors looking at same scintillation pulse to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons. The relationship between the Fano factor and the correlation between the integral of the two signals detected was analytically derived, and the Fano factor was estimated using the measurements for SrI2:Eu, YAP

  13. Experimental study of heavy-ion computed tomography using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device camera for human head imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraishi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hidetake; Abe, Shinji; Yokose, Mamoru; Watanabe, Takara; Takeda, Tohoru; Koba, Yusuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a heavy-ion computed tomography (IonCT) system using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD) camera that can measure a large object such as a human head. In this study, objective with the development of the system was to investigate the possibility of applying this system to heavy-ion treatment planning from the point of view of spatial resolution in a reconstructed image. Experiments were carried out on a rotation phantom using 12C accelerated up to 430 MeV/u by the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). We demonstrated that the reconstructed image of an object with a water equivalent thickness (WET) of approximately 18 cm was successfully achieved with the spatial resolution of 1 mm, which would make this IonCT system worth applying to the heavy-ion treatment planning for head and neck cancers.

  14. Validation of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for modelling a CsI(Tl) scintillation camera dedicated to small-animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, D; Buvat, I; Loudos, G; Strul, D; Santin, G; Giokaris, N; Donnarieix, D; Maigne, L; Spanoudaki, V; Styliaris, S; Staelens, S; Breton, V

    2004-01-21

    Monte Carlo simulations are increasingly used in scintigraphic imaging to model imaging systems and to develop and assess tomographic reconstruction algorithms and correction methods for improved image quantitation. GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) is a new Monte Carlo simulation platform based on GEANT4 dedicated to nuclear imaging applications. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a prototype of scintillation camera dedicated to small-animal imaging and consisting of a CsI(Tl) crystal array coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The relevance of GATE to model the camera prototype was assessed by comparing simulated 99mTc point spread functions, energy spectra, sensitivities, scatter fractions and image of a capillary phantom with the corresponding experimental measurements. Results showed an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental data: experimental spatial resolutions were predicted with an error less than 100 microns. The difference between experimental and simulated system sensitivities for different source-to-collimator distances was within 2%. Simulated and experimental scatter fractions in a [98-182 keV] energy window differed by less than 2% for sources located in water. Simulated and experimental energy spectra agreed very well between 40 and 180 keV. These results demonstrate the ability and flexibility of GATE for simulating original detector designs. The main weakness of GATE concerns the long computation time it requires: this issue is currently under investigation by the GEANT4 and the GATE collaborations. PMID:15083671

  15. Validation of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for modelling a CsI(Tl) scintillation camera dedicated to small-animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro, D.; Buvat, I.; Loudos, G.; Strul, D.; Santin, G.; Giokaris, N.; Donnarieix, D.; Maigne, L.; Spanoudaki, V.; Styliaris, S.; Staelens, S.; Breton, V.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are increasingly used in scintigraphic imaging to model imaging systems and to develop and assess tomographic reconstruction algorithms and correction methods for improved image quantitation. GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) is a new Monte Carlo simulation platform based on GEANT4 dedicated to nuclear imaging applications. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a prototype of scintillation camera dedicated to small-animal imaging and consisting of a CsI(Tl) crystal array coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The relevance of GATE to model the camera prototype was assessed by comparing simulated 99mTc point spread functions, energy spectra, sensitivities, scatter fractions and image of a capillary phantom with the corresponding experimental measurements. Results showed an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental data: experimental spatial resolutions were predicted with an error less than 100 µm. The difference between experimental and simulated system sensitivities for different source-to-collimator distances was within 2%. Simulated and experimental scatter fractions in a [98-182 keV] energy window differed by less than 2% for sources located in water. Simulated and experimental energy spectra agreed very well between 40 and 180 keV. These results demonstrate the ability and flexibility of GATE for simulating original detector designs. The main weakness of GATE concerns the long computation time it requires: this issue is currently under investigation by the GEANT4 and the GATE collaborations.

  16. A comparative study of the luminescence properties of LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce, GSO:Ce and BGO single crystal scintillators for use in medical X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Valais, I; Michail, C; David, S; Nomicos, C D; Panayiotakis, G S; Kandarakis, I

    2008-06-01

    The present study is a comparative investigation of the luminescence properties of (Lu,Y)(2)SiO(5):Ce (LYSO:Ce), Lu(2)SiO(5):Ce (LSO:Ce), Gd(2)SiO(5):Ce (GSO:Ce) and (Bi(4)Ge(3)O(12)) BGO single crystal scintillators under medical X-ray excitation. All scintillating crystals have dimensions of 10 x 10 x 10 mm(3) are non-hygroscopic exhibiting high radiation absorption efficiency in the energy range used in medical imaging applications. The comparative investigation was performed by determining the absolute luminescence efficiency (emitted light flux over incident X-ray exposure) in X-ray energies employed in general X-ray imaging (40-140 kV) and in mammographic X-ray imaging (22-49 kV). Additionally, light emission spectra of crystals at various X-ray energies were measured, in order to determine the spectral compatibility to optical photon detectors incorporated in medical imaging systems and the overall efficiency (effective efficiency) of a scintillator-optical detector combination. The light emission performance of LYSO:Ce and LSO:Ce scintillators studied was found very high for X-ray imaging. PMID:18313965

  17. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  18. A sensitive image intensifier which uses inert gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerns, Q. A.; Miller, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    High gain optical image intensifier utilizes inert gas cavity with copper electrodes to form electron avalanches without excessive pulse voltages. Estimated optical gain for device is two times 10 to the power of seven.

  19. Seeing the invisible: Direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Türkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S.; Pratx, Guillem; Ceballos, Andrew

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Methods: Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300–430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Results: Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Conclusions: Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

  20. Investigation of luminescent properties of LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and GSO:Ce crystal scintillators under low-energy γ-ray excitation used in nuclear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valais, Ioannis; David, Stratos; Michail, Christos; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George S.

    2007-10-01

    LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and GSO:Ce single-crystal scintillator light emission characteristics were studied in the low γ-ray energy range ( 99mTc source) used in nuclear medical imaging. The absolute luminescence efficiency and the optical emission spectrum of the three scintillators were measured, under γ-ray excitation using an integration sphere coupled to a photomultiplier and an optical spectrometer, respectively. Spectral compatibility of all scintillators to optical sensors was also estimated. The absolute luminescence efficiency of all crystals was found adequately high (8.7 μW m -2/μGy s -1 for GSO:Ce, 15.3 μW m -2/μGy s -1 for LYSO:Ce and 20.0 μW m -2/μGy s -1 for LSO:Ce). Their emission spectra were found compatible (57-94%) to currently employed optical photon detectors.

  1. Functional imaging of the lungs with gas agents.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Stanley J; Nagle, Scott K; Couch, Marcus J; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Albert, Mitchell; Fain, Sean B

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of the three major classes of gas contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-hyperpolarized (HP) gas, molecular oxygen, and fluorinated gas--and their application to clinical pulmonary research. During the past several years there has been accelerated development of pulmonary MRI. This has been driven in part by concerns regarding ionizing radiation using multidetector computed tomography (CT). However, MRI also offers capabilities for fast multispectral and functional imaging using gas agents that are not technically feasible with CT. Recent improvements in gradient performance and radial acquisition methods using ultrashort echo time (UTE) have contributed to advances in these functional pulmonary MRI techniques. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the main functional imaging methods and gas agents are compared and applications to measures of ventilation, diffusion, and gas exchange are presented. Functional lung MRI methods using these gas agents are improving our understanding of a wide range of chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis in both adults and children. PMID:26218920

  2. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2014-07-15

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  3. Scintillators and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard T.

    2015-09-01

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  4. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L.; Henderson, John R.

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  5. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  6. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  7. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-08-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  8. Wide-band gas leak imaging detection system using UFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei-qi; Li, Jia-kun; Dun, Xiong; Jin, Minglei; Wang, Xia

    2014-11-01

    The leakage of toxic or hazardous gases not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens people's lives and property safety. Many countries attach great importance to the rapid and effective gas leak detection technology and instrument development. However, the gas leak imaging detection systems currently existing are generally limited to a narrow-band in Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) or Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) cooled focal plane imaging, which is difficult to detect the common kinds of the leaking gases. Besides the costly cooled focal plane array is utilized, the application promotion is severely limited. To address this issue, a wide-band gas leak IR imaging detection system using Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) detector is proposed, which is composed of wide-band IR optical lens, sub-band filters and switching device, wide-band UFPA detector, video processing and system control circuit. A wide-band (3µm~12µm) UFPA detector is obtained by replacing the protection window and optimizing the structural parameters of the detector. A large relative aperture (F#=0.75) wide-band (3μm~12μm) multispectral IR lens is developed by using the focus compensation method, which combining the thickness of the narrow-band filters. The gas leak IR image quality and the detection sensitivity are improved by using the IR image Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) technology and Digital Detail Enhancement (DDE) technology. The wide-band gas leak IR imaging detection system using UFPA detector takes full advantage of the wide-band (MWIR&LWIR) response characteristic of the UFPA detector and the digital image processing technology to provide the resulting gas leak video easy to be observed for the human eyes. Many kinds of gases, which are not visible to the naked eyes, can be sensitively detected and visualized. The designed system has many commendable advantages, such as scanning a wide range simultaneously, locating the leaking source quickly, visualizing the gas

  9. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  10. Methods for the continuous production of plastic scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Mellott, Kerry

    1999-10-19

    Methods for producing plastic scintillating material employing either two major steps (tumble-mix) or a single major step (inline-coloring or inline-doping). Using the two step method, the polymer pellets are mixed with silicone oil, and the mixture is then tumble mixed with the dopants necessary to yield the proper response from the scintillator material. The mixture is then placed in a compounder and compounded in an inert gas atmosphere. The resultant scintillator material is then extruded and pelletized or formed. When only a single step is employed, the polymer pellets and dopants are metered into an inline-coloring extruding system. The mixture is then processed under a inert gas atmosphere, usually argon or nitrogen, to form plastic scintillator material in the form of either scintillator pellets, for subsequent processing, or as material in the direct formation of the final scintillator shape or form.

  11. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

  12. Structural Measurements from Images of Noble Gas Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadman, Robert V.; Kadlecek, Stephen J.; Emami, Kiarash; MacDuffie Woodburn, John; Vahdat, Vahid; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of externally polarized noble gases such as ^3He has been used for pulmonary imaging for more than a decade. Because gas diffusion is impeded by the alveoli, the diffusion coefficient of gas in the lung, measured on a time scale of milliseconds, is reduced compared to that of the same gas mixture in the absence of restrictions. When the alveolar walls decay, as in emphysema, diffusivity in the lung increases. In this paper, the relationship between diffusion measurements and the size of the restricting structures will be discussed. The simple case of diffusion in an impermeable cylinder, a structure similar to the upper respiratory airways in mammals, has been studied. A procedure will be presented by which airways of order 2 mm in diameter may be accurately measured; demonstration experiments with plastic tubes will also be presented. The additional developments needed before this technique becomes practical will be briefly discussed.

  13. Windowless Gas Target for Neutron-based Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah S.; Ellsworth, J. L.; Fitsos, P. J.; Hall, J. M.; Rusnak, B.

    2015-10-01

    National security and safeguards agencies are seeking technologies to image very dense objects. Critical to their mission objectives is the need to measure the geometry and internal components of the dense objects. One possible method is to use neutron-based imaging because of the neutron's long mean path length. Neutrons can be produced in a variety of reactions with a variety of materials. For this presentation, we will discuss our method to use (d,n) production reaction on deuterium gas. A windowless gas target for this particular system is required because of the large power of the 7 MeV, 300 μA deuteron beams. We will discuss our windowless gas target and its capabilities. We will present measurements and discuss the results and outlook. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Gas plume quantification in downlooking hyperspectral longwave infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Davenport, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    Algorithms have been developed to support quantitative analysis of a gas plume using down-looking airborne hyperspectral long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagery. The resulting gas quantification "GQ" tool estimates the quantity of one or more gases at each pixel, and estimates uncertainty based on factors such as atmospheric transmittance, background clutter, and plume temperature contrast. GQ uses gas-insensitive segmentation algorithms to classify the background very precisely so that it can infer gas quantities from the differences between plume-bearing pixels and similar non-plume pixels. It also includes MODTRAN-based algorithms to iteratively assess various profiles of air temperature, water vapour, and ozone, and select the one that implies smooth emissivity curves for the (unknown) materials on the ground. GQ then uses a generalized least-squares (GLS) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the most likely mixture of background (terrain) material and foreground plume gases. Cross-linking of plume temperature to the estimated gas quantity is very non-linear, so the GLS solution was iteratively assessed over a range of plume temperatures to find the best fit to the observed spectrum. Quantification errors due to local variations in the camera-topixel distance were suppressed using a subspace projection operator. Lacking detailed depth-maps for real plumes, the GQ algorithm was tested on synthetic scenes generated by the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software. Initial results showed pixel-by-pixel gas quantification errors of less than 15% for a Freon 134a plume.

  15. Fission gas bubble identification using MATLAB's image processing toolbox

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Keiser, Jr., D.; Miller, B.; Madden, J.; Schulthess, J.

    2016-06-08

    Automated image processing routines have the potential to aid in the fuel performance evaluation process by eliminating bias in human judgment that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. In addition, this study presents several MATLAB based image analysis routines designed for fission gas void identification in post-irradiation examination of uranium molybdenum (U–Mo) monolithic-type plate fuels. Frequency domain filtration, enlisted as a pre-processing technique, can eliminate artifacts from the image without compromising the critical features of interest. This process is coupled with a bilateral filter, an edge-preserving noise removal technique aimed at preparing the image for optimal segmentation. Adaptive thresholding provedmore » to be the most consistent gray-level feature segmentation technique for U–Mo fuel microstructures. The Sauvola adaptive threshold technique segments the image based on histogram weighting factors in stable contrast regions and local statistics in variable contrast regions. Once all processing is complete, the algorithm outputs the total fission gas void count, the mean void size, and the average porosity. The final results demonstrate an ability to extract fission gas void morphological data faster, more consistently, and at least as accurately as manual segmentation methods.« less

  16. Industrial X-ray imaging based on scintillators and CMOS APS array: direct X-ray irradiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Jeon, Sung Chae; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Gyuseong

    2005-01-01

    To see the effects of the direct X-ray in a Lanex screen-coupled CMOS APS imager, we measured modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). These measurements were performed under the condition of non-destructive test (NDT). By increasing the cumulative exposure on the imager, the MTF was degraded, and also leading to the DQE degradation. Each parameter changed by the exposure is described in detail.

  17. Multi-PSPMT scintillation camera

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Trotta, G.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.; Vincentis, G. de; Scafe, R.; Pergola, A.

    1999-06-01

    Gamma ray imaging is usually accomplished by the use of a relatively large scintillating crystal coupled to either a number of photomultipliers (PMTs) (Anger Camera) or to a single large Position Sensitive PMT (PSPMT). Recently the development of new diagnostic techniques, such as scintimammography and radio-guided surgery, have highlighted a number of significant limitations of the Anger camera in such imaging procedures. In this paper a dedicated gamma camera is proposed for clinical applications with the aim of improving image quality by utilizing detectors with an appropriate size and shape for the part of the body under examination. This novel scintillation camera is based upon an array of PSPMTs (Hamamatsu R5900-C8). The basic concept of this camera is identical to the Anger Camera with the exception of the substitution of PSPMTs for the PMTs. In this configuration it is possible to use the high resolution of the PSPMTs and still correctly position events lying between PSPMTs. In this work the test configuration is a 2 by 2 array of PSPMTs. Some advantages of this camera are: spatial resolution less than 2 mm FWHM, good linearity, thickness less than 3 cm, light weight, lower cost than equivalent area PSPMT, large detection area when coupled to scintillating arrays, small dead boundary zone (< 3 mm) and flexibility in the shape of the camera.

  18. Neutron-sensitive ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator detector as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector for a plutonium canister assay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Ohzu, A.; Toh, K.; Sakasai, K.; Suzuki, H.; Honda, K.; Birumachi, A.; Ebine, M.; Yamagishi, H.; Takase, M.; Haruyama, M.; Kureta, M.; Soyama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Seya, M.

    2014-11-01

    A neutron-sensitive ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator detector was developed as an alternative to a 3He-gas-based detector for use in a plutonium canister assay system. The detector has a modular structure, with a flat ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillator strip that is installed diagonally inside a light-reflecting aluminium case with a square cross-section, and where the scintillation light is detected using two photomultiplier tubes attached at both ends of the case. The prototype detectors, which have a neutron-sensitive area of 30 mm×250 mm, exhibited a sensitivity of 21.7-23.4±0.1 cps/nv (mean±SD) for thermal neutrons, a 137Cs gamma-ray sensitivity of 1.1-1.9±0.2×10-7 and a count variation of less than 6% over the detector length. A trial experiment revealed a temperature coefficient of less than -0.24±0.05%/°C over the temperature range of 20-50 °C. The detector design and the experimental results are presented.

  19. Recent development in organic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrocks, D. L.; Wirth, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Discussion on recent developments of organic scintillators includes studies of organic compounds that form glass-like masses which scintillate and are stable at room temperature, correlations between molecular structure of organic scintillators and self-quenching, recently developed fast scintillators, and applications of liquid-scintillation counters.

  20. Scintillator diagnostics for the detection of laser accelerated ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, N.; Tresca, O.; Lefferts, R.

    2014-09-01

    Laser plasma interaction with ultraintense pulses present exciting schemes for accelerating ions. One of the advantages conferred by using a gaseous laser and target is the potential for a fast (several Hz) repetition rate. This requires diagnostics which are not only suited for a single shot configuration, but also for repeated use. We consider several scintillators as candidates for an imaging diagnostic for protons accelerated to MeV energies by a CO2 laser focused on a gas jet target. We have measured the response of chromium-doped alumina (chromox) and polyvinyl toluene (PVT) screens to protons in the 2-8 MeV range. We have calibrated the luminescent yield in terms of photons emitted per incident proton for each scintillator. We also discuss how light scattering and material properties affect detector resolution. Furthermore, we consider material damage and the presence of an afterglow under intense exposures. Our analysis reveals a near order of magnitude greater yield from chromox in response to proton beams at > 8 MeV energies, while scattering effects favor PVT-based scintillators at lower energies.

  1. Scintillators for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Like most applications that utilize scintillators for gamma detection, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) desires materials with high light output, short decay time, and excellent stopping power that are also inexpensive, mechanically rugged, and chemically inert. Realizing that this ``ultimate`` scintillator may not exist, this paper evaluates the relative importance of these qualities and describes their impact on the imaging performance of PET. The most important PET scintillator quality is the ability to absorb 511 keV photons in a small volume, which affects the spatial resolution of the camera. The dominant factor is a short attenuation length ({le} 1.5 cm is required), although a high photoelectric fraction is also important (> 30% is desired). The next most important quality is a short decay time, which affects both the dead time and the coincidence timing resolution. Detection rates for single 511 keV photons can be extremely high, so decay times {le} 500 ns are essential to avoid dead time losses. In addition, positron annihilations are identified by time coincidence so {le}5 ns fwhm coincidence pair timing resolution is required to identify events with narrow coincidence windows, reducing contamination due to accidental coincidences. Current trends in PET cameras are toward septaless, ``fully-3D`` cameras, which have significantly higher count rates than conventional 2-D cameras and so place higher demands on scintillator decay time. Light output affects energy resolution, and thus the ability of the camera to identify and reject events where the initial 511 keV photon has undergone Compton scatter in the patient. The scatter to true event fraction is much higher in fully-3D cameras than in 2-D cameras, so future PET cameras would benefit from scintillators with a 511 keV energy resolution < 10--12% fwhm.

  2. Scanning electron and cathodoluminescence imaging of thin film Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce scintillating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, P. D.; Peak, J. D.; Melcher, C. L.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.

    2007-12-10

    Cerium doped lutetium orthosilicate thin films were sputter deposited onto rough and smooth alumina substrates to compare their extrinsic photoluminescence efficiency. To understand the photoluminescence results, scanning electron and cathodoluminescence imaging were performed. The plane view and cross-section images revealed that dark cathodoluminescence regions were correlated with topology in both films, though the mechanisms for the degraded luminescence were different. For the rough films, substrate topology causes localized shadowing of the sputtered species which creates compositional inhomogeneities. The smooth films have protrusions caused by thermally induced stress and the reduced cathodoluminescence intensity is attributed to electron-hole surface recombination.

  3. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  4. Imaging PVC gas pipes using 3-D GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, J.; Ramaswamy, M.; Peddy, C.

    1996-11-01

    Over the years, many enhancements have been made by the oil and gas industry to improve the quality of seismic images. The GPR project at GTRI borrows heavily from these technologies in order to produce 3-D GPR images of PVC gas pipes. As will be demonstrated, improvements in GPR data acquisition, 3-D processing and visualization schemes yield good images of PVC pipes in the subsurface. Data have been collected in cooperation with the local gas company and at a test facility in Texas. Surveys were conducted over both a metal pipe and PVC pipes of diameters ranging from {1/2} in. to 4 in. at depths from 1 ft to 3 ft in different soil conditions. The metal pipe produced very good reflections and was used to fine tune and optimize the processing run stream. It was found that the following steps significantly improve the overall image: (1) Statics for drift and topography compensation, (2) Deconvolution, (3) Filtering and automatic gain control, (4) Migration for focusing and resolution, and (5) Visualization optimization. The processing flow implemented is relatively straightforward, simple to execute and robust under varying conditions. Future work will include testing resolution limits, effects of soil conditions, and leak detection.

  5. Velocity of mist droplets and suspending gas imaged separately.

    PubMed

    Kuethe, Dean O; McBride, Amber; Altobelli, Stephen A

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of the velocity of water droplets and velocity of the suspending gas, hexafluoroethane, are presented for a vertical and horizontal mist pipe flow. In the vertical flow, the upward velocity of the droplets is clearly slower than the upward velocity of the gas. The average droplet size calculated from the average falling velocity in the upward flow is larger than the average droplet size of mist drawn from the top of the pipe measured with a multi-stage aerosol impactor. Vertical flow concentrates larger particles because they have a longer transit time through the pipe. In the horizontal flow there is a gravity-driven circulation with high-velocity mist in the lower portion of the pipe and low-velocity gas in the upper portion. MRI has the advantages that it can image both phases and that it is unperturbed by optical opacity. A drawback is that the droplet phase of mist is difficult to image because of low average spin density and because the signal from water coalesced on the pipe walls is high. To our knowledge these are the first NMR images of mist. PMID:22361269

  6. Velocity of mist droplets and suspending gas imaged separately

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuethe, Dean O.; McBride, Amber; Altobelli, Stephen A.

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of the velocity of water droplets and velocity of the suspending gas, hexafluoroethane, are presented for a vertical and horizontal mist pipe flow. In the vertical flow, the upward velocity of the droplets is clearly slower than the upward velocity of the gas. The average droplet size calculated from the average falling velocity in the upward flow is larger than the average droplet size of mist drawn from the top of the pipe measured with a multi-stage aerosol impactor. Vertical flow concentrates larger particles because they have a longer transit time through the pipe. In the horizontal flow there is a gravity-driven circulation with high-velocity mist in the lower portion of the pipe and low-velocity gas in the upper portion. MRI has the advantages that it can image both phases and that it is unperturbed by optical opacity. A drawback is that the droplet phase of mist is difficult to image because of low average spin density and because the signal from water coalesced on the pipe walls is high. To our knowledge these are the first NMR images of mist.

  7. An evaluation of the Y2O3:Eu3+ scintillator for application in medical x-ray detectors and image receptors.

    PubMed

    Cavouras, D; Kandarakis, I; Panayiotakis, G S; Evangelou, E K; Nomicos, C D

    1996-12-01

    The suitability off a Y2O3:Eu3+ scintillator for use in radiation detectors and medical image receptors was studied. Y2O3:Eu3+ was used in the form of laboratory prepared screens of different coating thicknesses. The x-ray luminescence efficiency of the screens was measured for tube voltages between 50-200 kVp and in both transmission and reflection modes of observation. The intrinsic x ray to light conversation efficiency (nc) and other parameters of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor material related to optical scattering, absorption, and reflection were determined. These were used in the calculation of the image transfer characteristics, MTF and zero frequency DQE, for various screen coating thicknesses and x-ray tube voltages. The light emission spectrum of Y2O3:Eu3+ was measured (narrow band peak at 613 nm) and its spectral compatibility to the spectral sensitivity of several commonly employed optical photon detectors was determined. The x-ray luminescence efficiency varied with x-ray tube voltage, attaining maximum value at about 80 kVp for all screen thicknesses. It also varied with coating thickness reaching 25 microW m(-2)/mR s(-1) and 18 microW m(-2)/mR s(-1) at 175 mg/cm2 for reflection and transmission modes, respectively. The intrinsic x ray to light conversion efficiency and the image transfer characteristics were found to be comparable to several commercially used phosphors: nc = 0.095, MTF0.05 ranged between 10 and 25 line pairs per mm and peal values of DQE(0) varied between 0.33 and 0.14 in the coating thickness and kVp ranges useful for x-ray imaging. Spectral compatibility to some red sensitive optical photon detectors was excellent (0.9 or better). Results indicated that Y2O3:Eu3+ is a medium to high overall performance material that could be used in medical x-ray detectors and image receptors. PMID:8994161

  8. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  9. Extruded plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

    1999-04-16

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  10. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-11-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Study of equatorial scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza, J.; Woodman, R.; Tisnado, G.; Nakasone, E.

    1972-01-01

    Observations of the amplitude scintillations produced by the F-region in equatorial areas are presented. The equipment used for conducting the observations is described. The use of transmissions from the ATS-1, ATS-3, and ATS-5 for obtaining data is described. The two principal subjects discussed are: (1) correlation between satellite and incoherent radar observations of scintillations and (2) simultaneous observations of scintillations at 136 MHz and 1550 MHz.

  12. Performance of x-ray imaging systems with optical coupling for demagnification between scintillator and CCD readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Yu, Tong; Schempp, William V.

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses the performance of x-ray imaging devices employing optical coupling between the x-ray detector (phosphor screen) and the readout (CCD). Optical coupling can be performed with the aid of a lens or with the aid of a fiber-optic taper. Conventional wisdom predicts that fiber-optic coupling is superior on account of superior light collection efficiency. For the same demagnification, fiber-optic tapers usually have a higher numerical aperture in the object plane than a lens. This paper presents a review of critical imaging system components and provides a comparison of factors such as light collection efficiency, phosphor screen light output and CCD sensitivity. The paper presents data obtained with two commercially available x-ray imaging systems, one a lens coupled system, the other a fiber- optically coupled system. These systems are used for mammographically guided stereotactic breast biopsy to determine the x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the lesion to be biopsied. The paper concludes that a lens coupled x-ray imaging system can be superior to a fiber-optic one, particularly with respect to Detective Quantum Efficiency. This superiority is based on a quantum gain of about 5 CCD electrons per absorbed x-ray photon, which is (however barely) sufficient to preserve most of the information collected by the system's Lanex screen.

  13. Analysis of the detective quantum efficiency of coupling a CCD to a scintillating phosphor for x-ray microtomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmore, Michael S.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    1993-09-01

    We are developing an x-ray microtomographic imaging system ((mu) CT) for imaging small objects at very high (approximately 25 micrometers ) spatial resolution. The detector for this system consists of a CCD array coupled to a phosphor screen through a fiber-optic faceplate. For the purposes of signal and noise analysis, this system is modeled as a multi-stage cascaded imaging system consisting of: (a) conversion of x-ray quanta to optical quanta in the phosphor; (b) collection and transfer of optical quanta from the phosphor to the CCD; and (c) detection of optical quanta by the CCD. We use the model of Rabbani et al. for cascaded systems to theoretically calculate the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency. We have developed the theoretical basis of a spatial-frequency dependent nomogram in terms of the system DQE. This approach is used to identify any sources of image degradation, and to make optimal design decisions of system parameters such as optical gains or numerical apertures. Using this approach, we show that the spreading of optical photons in the phosphor screen is the most significant factor degrading the MTF.

  14. Gas diffusion optic flow calculation and its applications in gas cloud infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shao-hua; Luo, Xiu-li; Wang, Ling-xue; Cai, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Motion detection frequently employs Optic Flow to get the velocity of solid targets in imaging sequences. This paper suggests calculate the gas diffusion velocity in infrared gas leaking videos by optic flow algorithms. Gas target is significantly different from solid objects, which has variable margin and gray values in diffusion. A series of tests with various scenes and leakage rate were performed to compare the effect of main stream methods, such as Farneback algorithm, PyrLK and BM algorithm. Farneback algorithm seems to have the best result in those tests. Besides, the robustness of methods used in uncooled infrared imaging may decline seriously for the low resolution, big noise and poor contrast ratio. This research adopted a special foreground detection method (FDM) and spectral filtering technique to address this issue. FDM firstly computes corresponding sample sets of each pixel, and uses the background based on the sets to make a correlation analysis with the current frame. Spectral filtering technique means get two or three images in different spectrum by band pass filters, and show a better result by mixing those images. In addition, for Optic Flow methods have ability to precisely detect directional motion and to ignore the nondirectional one, these methods could be employed to highlight the gas area and reduce the background noise. This paper offers a credible way for obtaining the diffusion velocity and resolves the robust troubles in practical application. In the meanwhile, it is an exploration of optic flow in varied shape target detection.

  15. Natural gas leak dispersion studies using an infrared gas-imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Thomas G.; Altpeter, L. L. T.

    1995-02-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been investigating improved methods for the detection of gas leaks, particularly from buried pipes. Detection of natural gas leaks by infrared remote sensing, using topographical targets, can provide a significantly improved method for gas leak surveys, where the remote sensing system is capable of scanning large areas for leaks. For any candidate remote sensing system, the performance goal of greatest interest is the detection limit (DL), which should be as low as possible. A method is described by means of which a realistic DL may be estimated before the start of any proposed R & D project. A key feature of this method is the ability to challenge candidate remote sensing systems with a realistic 3-D model of small turbulent plumes from ground level gas leaks. To obtain these 3-D models, a novel electro-optical technique was developed in which real-time infrared optical density distributions and fluctuations of gas leak plumes from controlled releases of methane were captured as video images. These optical density plume images may be used with the infrared beam geometry of the candidate remote sensing system to achieve realistic estimates of the DL.

  16. IR gas cloud imaging in oil and gas applications: immunity to false stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Edward; Baliga, Shakar; Park, John; Bernascolle, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Fixed gas detection equipment for the petroleum industries is no ordinary equipment. It is designed for continued unattended surveillance in harsh environments. The equipment must be reliable and require limited field maintenance. An additional requirement is a high resistance to false alarms and interferences, which can potentially reduce the detector's efficacy and the level of protection provided. In recent years, several manufactures of IR imaging devices have launched commercial models that are applicable to a wide range of chemical species and suitable for industrial use. These cameras are rugged and sufficiently sensitive to detect low concentrations of combustible and toxic gases. Nonetheless, as users become acquainted with these imaging systems, questions of resilience to solar and flame radiation and other IR sources, interferences by fog or steam, have begun to emerge. These questions, in fact, reflect similar concerns as those raised with open path IR gas detectors when they first appeared in the market over 20 years ago. This paper examines an IR gas imager's performance when exposed to several false alarm sources. Gas detection sensitivity in the presence of false stimuli and response and recovery times under an uncontrolled outdoor environment were measured. The results show the specific model tested is reasonably immune to false alarms, while response times were unaffected by the presence of these sources.

  17. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas Jan; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Sommers, Ricky; Goers, Uta-Barbara; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  18. GPS phase scintillation correlated with auroral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, D. L.; Azeem, S. I.; Crowley, G.; Santana, J.; Reynolds, A.

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of radio wave propagation due to rapid changes in electron density caused by auroral precipitation has been observed for several decades. In a few cases the disruption of GPS signals has been attributed to distinct auroral arcs [Kintner, 2007; Garner, 2011], but surprisingly there has been no systematic study of the characteristics of the auroral forms that cause GPS scintillation. In the Fall of 2012 ASTRA deployed four CASES GPS receivers at UAF observatories in Alaska (Kaktovik, Fort Yukon, Poker Flat and Gakona) specifically to address the effects of auroral activity on the high latitude ionosphere. We have initiated an analysis that compares the phase scintillation, recorded at high cadence, with filtered digital all-sky camera data to determine the auroral morphology and electron precipitation parameters that cause scintillation. From correlation studies from a single site (Poker Flat), we find that scintillation is well correlated with discrete arcs that have high particle energy flux (power per unit area), and not as well correlated with pulsating forms which typically have high characteristic energy, but lower energy flux . This indicates that the scintillation is correlated with the magnitude of the change in total electron density as expected. We will also report on ongoing work where we correlate the scintillation from the Fort Yukon receiver with the all-sky images at Poker Flat to determine the altitude that produces the greatest disturbance. These studies are aimed at a model that can predict the expected local disturbance to navigation due to auroral activity.

  19. Characterization of Ionospheric Scintillation Using Simultaneous Formosat-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Observations and AFRL SCINDA Ground Scintillation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starks, M. J.; Lin, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Basu, S.; Syndergaard, S.; Rocken, C.

    2007-05-01

    Ionospheric scintillation at low latitudes has been studied using ionospheric radio occultation (RO) measurements by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC micro-satellites in conjunction with ground-based data from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) station at Kwajalein Atoll. The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed the SCINDA network for monitoring low-latitude ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and scintillation associated with equatorial spread F. The network currently consists of sixteen stations distributed around the globe and the data have been used to conduct numerous studies on the characteristics and climatology of equatorial scintillation. The present study focuses on COSMIC RO and SCINDA data during the three COSMIC campaigns in 2006. Radio occultation events are selected by requiring that ionospheric scintillation was detected by the SCINDA VHF scintillation monitor at Kwajalein, and that the occultation ray path intersected the Kwajalein longitude below the satellite altitude, which varied from 500 to 800 km for the six FORMOSAT-3 satellites. In order to exclude tropospheric effects, only GPS signal amplitudes from FORMOSAT-3 with ray path tangent altitudes above 100 km are considered. Locations of ionospheric scintillation are estimated by triangulation using the satellites and the SCINDA ground station. Airglow images at Kwajalein are also used to confirm occurrence of equatorial ionospheric scintillations. For the selected events, large amplitude L1 and L2 scintillations tend to occur at altitudes below 200 km at frequencies around 0.5 Hz. The results are discussed as a potential path toward better specifying the occurrence of equatorial scintillations.

  20. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  1. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  2. Frequency dependence in seismoacoustic imaging of shallow free gas due to gas bubble resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Keil, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Shallow free gas is investigated in seismoacoustic data in 10 frequency bands covering a frequency range between 0.2 and 43 kHz. At the edge of a gassy patch in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea), compressional wave attenuation caused by free gas is estimated from reflection amplitudes beneath the gassy sediment layer. Imaging of shallow free gas is considerably influenced by gas bubble resonance, because in the resonance frequency range attenuation is significantly increased. At the resonance frequency of the largest bubbles between 3 and 5 kHz, high scattering causes complete acoustic blanking beneath the top of the gassy sediment layer. In the wider resonance frequency range between 3 and 15 kHz, the effect of smaller bubbles becomes dominant and the attenuation slightly decreases. This allows acoustic waves to be transmitted and reflections can be observed beneath the gassy sediment layer for higher frequencies. Above resonance beginning at ˜19 kHz, attenuation is low and the presence of free gas can be inferred from the decreased reflection amplitudes beneath the gassy layer. Below the resonance frequency range (<1 kHz), attenuation is generally very low and not dependent on frequency. Using the geoacoustic model of Anderson and Hampton, the observed frequency boundaries suggest gas bubble sizes between 1 and 4-6 mm, and gas volume fractions up to 0.02% in a ˜2 m thick sediment layer, whose upper boundary is the gas front. With the multifrequency acoustic approach and the Anderson and Hampton model, quantification of free gas in shallow marine environments is possible if the measurement frequency range allows the identification of the resonance frequency peak. The method presented is limited to places with only moderate attenuation, where the amplitudes of a reflection can be analyzed beneath the gassy sediment layer.

  3. The SNO+ Scintillator Purification Plant and Projected Sensitivity to Solar Neutrinos in the Pure Scintillator Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, Teal; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The SNO+ detector is a neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment utilizing the renovated SNO detector. In the second phase of operation, the SNO+ detector will contain 780 tons of organic liquid scintillator composed of 2 g/L 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). In this phase, SNO+ will strive to detect solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV range, including CNO production neutrinos and pp production neutrinos. To achieve the necessary detector sensitivity, a four-part scintillator purification plant has been constructed in SNOLAB for the removal of ionic and radioactive impurities. We present an overview of the SNO+ scintillator purification plant stages, including distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and metal scavenger columns. We also give the projected SNO+ sensitivities to various solar-produced neutrinos based on the scintillator plant's projected purification efficiency.

  4. Site-Resolved Imaging with the Fermi Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian Gerhard

    The recent development of quantum gas microscopy for bosonic rubidium atoms trapped in optical lattices has made it possible to study local structure and correlations in quantum many-body systems. Quantum gas microscopes are a perfect platform to perform quantum simulation of condensed matter systems, offering unprecedented control over both internal and external degrees of freedom at a single-site level. In this thesis, this technique is extended to fermionic particles, paving the way to fermionic quantum simulation, which emulate electrons in real solids. Our implementation uses lithium, the lightest atom amenable to laser cooling. The absolute timescales of dynamics in optical lattices are inversely proportional to the mass. Therefore, experiments are more than six times faster than for the only other fermionic alkali atom, potassium, and more then fourteen times faster than an equivalent rubidium experiment. Scattering and collecting a sufficient number of photons with our high-resolution imaging system requires continuous cooling of the atoms during the fluorescence imaging. The lack of a resolved excited hyperfine structure on the D2 line of lithium prevents efficient conventional sub-Doppler cooling. To address this challenge we have applied a Raman sideband cooling scheme and achieved the first site-resolved imaging of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice.

  5. VLT imaging of the β Pictoris gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Fathi, K.; Thébault, Ph.; Liseau, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star β Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca ii gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation to exclude or confirm its connection to observed dust structures or suggested cometary bodies on inclined eccentric orbits. Aims: We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe i and Ca ii gas emission around β Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. Methods: The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), with the large integral-field-unit ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra (from 385.9 to 404.8 nm) in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe i (at 386.0 nm) and Ca ii (at 393.4 and 396.8 nm) were mapped and could be used to fit a parametric function for the disk gas distribution, using a gas-ionisation code for gas-poor debris disks. Results: Both Fe i and Ca ii emission are clearly detected, with the former dominating along the disk midplane, and the latter revealing vertically more extended gas. The surface intensity of the Fe i emission is lower but more extended in the northeast (reaching the 210 AU limit of our observations) than in the southwest, while Ca ii shows the opposite asymmetry. The modelled Fe gas disk profile shows a linear increase in scale height with radius, and a vertical profile that suggests dynamical interaction with the dust. We also qualitatively demonstrate that the Ca ii emission profile can be

  6. Evaluation of the GSO:Ce scintillator in the X-ray energy range from 40 to 140 kV for possible applications in medical X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Valais, I.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Linardatos, D.; Sianoudis, I.; Louizi, A.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Vattis, D.; Episkopakis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, under X-ray medical imaging conditions, the X-ray luminescence efficiency (XLE) and the optical quantum gain (OQG) of the Gd 2SiO 5:Ce scintillator in single crystal form, suitable for tomographic applications. Intrinsic physical properties and light emission characteristics of the Gd 2SiO 5:Ce scintillator, were also studied. Both experimental and Monte Carlo techniques were used. Various X-ray tube voltages (40-140 kV), currently employed in X-ray imaging applications, were used. XLE was found to vary slowly with X-ray tube voltage from (0.021±0.003) to (0.017±0.003). OQG varied from (317±18) to (466±23) light photons per incident X-ray. These values were adequately high for imaging applications using the particular energy range. Additionally, it was found by Monte Carlo simulations that for crystal thicknesses higher than 0.5 cm both XLE and OQG reached saturation levels, indicating that higher thickness crystals are of no practical use in X-ray medical imaging.

  7. Parallel magnetic resonance imaging of gas-liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Christoph; Penn, Alexander; Pruessmann, Klaas P.

    2015-03-01

    Gas-liquids flows are commonly encountered in nature and industry. Experimental measurements of gas-liquid flows are challenging since such systems can be visually opaque and highly dynamic. Here we report the implementation of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies allowing us to probe the dynamics (voidage and velocity measurements) of gas-liquid flows with ultra-fast acquisition speeds. Specifically, parallel MRI which exploits the spatial encoding capabilities of multiple receiver coils was implemented. To this end a tailored, 16 channels MR receive array was constructed and employed in the MR acquisition. A magnetic susceptibility matched gas-liquid system was set-up and used to probe the motion, splitting and coalescence of bubbles. The temporal and spatial resolution of our acquired data was 5 ms and 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm, respectively. The total field of view was 200 mm x 200 mm. We will conclude with an outlook of further possible advances in MRI that have the potential to reduce substantially the acquisition time, providing flexible gains in temporal and spatial resolution.

  8. Edge turbulence measurements in NSTX by gas puff imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda, R. J.; Wurden, G. A.; Zweben, S.; Roquemore, L.; Kugel, H.; Johnson, D.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Maingi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Turbulent filaments in visible light emission corresponding mainly to density fluctuations at the edge have been observed in large aspect ratio tokamaks: TFTR, ASDEX, Alcator C-Mod, and DIII-D. This article reports on similar turbulent structures observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) using a fast-framing, intensified, digital visible camera. These filaments were previously detected mainly in high recycling regions, such as at limiters or antennas, where the line emission from neutral atoms was modulated by the fluctuations in local plasma density. However, by introducing controlled edge gas puffs, i.e., gas puff imaging, we have increased the brightness and contrast in the fluctuation images and allowed the turbulent structure to be measured independently of the recycling. A set discrete fiber-optically coupled sight-lines also measured the frequency spectra of these light fluctuations with a 200 kHz bandwidth. Initial results in NSTX show that the turbulent filaments are well aligned with the magnetic field which can be up to 45° from the horizontal at the outer midplane of NSTX. The dominant wavelength perpendicular to the magnetic field is ˜7-11 cm, corresponding to a k⊥ ρs of ˜0.3 at an assumed Te=25 eV, and the frequency spectra has a typical broad shape characteristic of edge turbulence extending to about 100 kHz. By imaging a He gas puff along a magnetic field line the characteristic radial scalelength appears to be in the 3-5 cm range.

  9. Digital Volume Imaging of the PEFC Gas Diffusion Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays a key role in the overall performance/durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Of profound importance, especially in the context of water management and flooding phenomena, is the influence of the underlying pore morphology and wetting characteristics of the GDL microstructure. In this article, we present the digital volumetric imaging (DVI) technique in order to generate the 3-D carbon paper GDL microstructure. The internal pore structure and the local microstructural variations in terms of fiber alignment and fiber/binder distributions are investigated using the several 3-D thin sections of the sample obtained from DVI.

  10. Digital volume imaging of the PEFC gas diffusion layer

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Mukherjee, Partha; Shim, Eunkyoung

    2010-01-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays a key role in the overall performance/durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Of profound importance, especially in the context of water management and flooding phenomena, is the influence of the underlying pore morphology and wetting characteristics Of the GDL microstructure. In this article, we present the digital volumetric imaging (DVI) technique in order to generate the 3-D carbon paper GDL microstructure. The internal pore structure and the local microstructural variations in terms of fiber alignment and fiber/binder distributions are investigated using the several 3-D thin sections of the sample obtained from DVI.

  11. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    station in Cairo, Egypt (lat= 29.8641 °, long= 31.3172 °). It was observed that the level of asymmetry was significantly increased during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. This was due to the changes in ionization, which in turn produced large gradients along occulted ray path in the ionosphere. A very good correlation was found between the evaluated ionospheric asymmetry index and the S4 scintillation index. Additionally, the correlation between evaluated ionospheric asymmetry and errors related to the RO inversion products such as peak electron density (delta NmF2) and Vertical TEC (delta VTEC) estimates also showed promising results. This work is carried out under the framework of the TRANSMIT project (Training Research and Applications Network to Support the Mitigation of Ionospheric Threats - www.transmit-ionosphere.net). [1]Basu Sa. and Basu Su., (1981), ‘Equatorial Scintillation - A Review’, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 43, p. 473. [2]Davies K., (1990), ‘Ionospheric Radio’, IEEE Electromagnetic Waves Series 31, Peter Peregrinus Ltd. [3]Spencer, P., Mitchell, C.N., (2007) ‘Imaging of fast moving electron-density structures in the polar cap’, Annals of Geophysics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 427-434. [4]Shaikh, M.M., Notarpietro, R., Nava, B., (2013) ‘The Impact of Spherical Symmetry Assumption on Radio Occultation Data Inversion in the Ionosphere: An Assessment Study’, Advances in Space Research, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.10.025.

  12. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-11-01

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  13. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. Dynamic 99mTc-MAG3 renography: images for quality control obtained by combining pharmacokinetic modelling, an anthropomorphic computer phantom and Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolin, Gustav; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina; Ljungberg, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In dynamic renal scintigraphy, the main interest is the radiopharmaceutical redistribution as a function of time. Quality control (QC) of renal procedures often relies on phantom experiments to compare image-based results with the measurement setup. A phantom with a realistic anatomy and time-varying activity distribution is therefore desirable. This work describes a pharmacokinetic (PK) compartment model for 99mTc-MAG3, used for defining a dynamic whole-body activity distribution within a digital phantom (XCAT) for accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based images for QC. Each phantom structure is assigned a time-activity curve provided by the PK model, employing parameter values consistent with MAG3 pharmacokinetics. This approach ensures that the total amount of tracer in the phantom is preserved between time points, and it allows for modifications of the pharmacokinetics in a controlled fashion. By adjusting parameter values in the PK model, different clinically realistic scenarios can be mimicked, regarding, e.g., the relative renal uptake and renal transit time. Using the MC code SIMIND, a complete set of renography images including effects of photon attenuation, scattering, limited spatial resolution and noise, are simulated. The obtained image data can be used to evaluate quantitative techniques and computer software in clinical renography.

  16. Imaging Gas Counters for X- and Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-filled detectors, such as proportional counters, have long been used in x-ray astronomy. They are robust, relatively easy to fabricate, and can provide large collecting areas with reasonable spatial and energy resolution. Despite coming of age in the 50's and 60's, their versatility is such that they are still planned for future missions. A vigorous development program, led mostly by the high energy physics community, has ensured continued improvements in proportional counter technology. These include multistep counters, microstrip technologies and optical avalanche chambers. High fill-gas pressures and the use of suitable converters permit operation up to 100s of GeV. The current status of imaging gas-filled detectors will be reviewed, concentrating on the lower energy region (less than 100 keV) but also briefly covering higher energy applications up to the GeV region. This review is not intended to be exhaustive and draws heavily on work currently in progress at MSFC.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a photon radiation detector. This generic type of device may include...

  1. Imaging strategies for the study of gas turbine spark ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gord, James R.; Tyler, Charles; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cochran, Michael J.; Frus, John R.

    1999-10-01

    Spark-ignition systems play a critical role in the performance of essentially all gas turbine engines. These devices are responsible for initiating the combustion process that sustains engine operation. Demanding applications such as cold start and high-altitude relight require continued enhancement of ignition systems. To characterize advanced ignition systems, we have developed a number of laser-based diagnostic techniques configured for ultrafast imaging of spark parameters including emission, density, temperature, and species concentration. These diagnostics have been designed to exploit an ultrafast- framing charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera and high- repetition-rate laser sources including mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillators and regenerative amplifiers. Spontaneous-emission and laser-shlieren measurements have been accomplished with this instrumentation and the result applied to the study of a novel Unison Industries spark igniter that shows great promise for improved cold-start and high-altitude-relight capability as compared to that of igniters currently in use throughout military and commercial fleets. Phase-locked and ultrafast real-time imaging strategies are explored, and details of the imaging instrumentation, particularly the CCD camera and laser sources, are discussed.

  2. Resolving gas-liquid interface geometry using light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafek, Alexander; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    We present a novel approach for reconstructing the geometry of a three-dimensional specular gas-liquid interface from an image captured by a light-field camera. Whereas the scanning of a diffuse surface can be accomplished with a simple projector-camera system, the local reconstruction of a specular surface is non-unique and requires a more constrained sampling method. In our set-up, a known array of laser points is reflected by the unknown specular surface onto the image plane of a light-field camera. For each illuminated pixel, possible surfaces are generated that are defined by a depth location and local surface normal vector. We show that when the aperture is sufficiently small we can find the exact location and orientation of the local surface. Further, we present an algorithm that allows us to reconstruct a reflective surface from images that are taken with wider apertures. The algorithm searches the possible surfaces for points and normal vectors that are most consistent with each other based on input parameters. We present our simulated results with experimental validation.

  3. Scintillation properties of polycrystalline LaxY1-xO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahi, Sunil; Chen, Wei; Kenarangui, Rasool

    2015-03-01

    Scintillators are the material that absorbs the high-energy photons and emits visible photons. Scintillators are commonly used in radiation detector for security, medical imaging, industrial applications and high energy physics research. Two main types of scintillators are inorganic single crystals and organic (plastic or liquid) scintillators. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, some efficient inorganic scintillator such as NaI and CsI are not environmental friendly. But on the other hand, organic scintillators have low density and hence poor energy resolution which limits their use in gamma spectroscopy. Polycrystalline ceramic can be a cost effective alternative to expensive inorganic single crystal scintillators. Here we have fabricated La0.2Y1.8O3 ceramic scintillator and studied their luminescence and scintillation properties. Ceramic scintillators were fabricated by vacuum sintering of La0.2Y1.8O3 nanoparticles at temperature below the melting point. La0.2Y1.8O3 ceramic were characterized structurally using XRD and TEM. Photoluminescence and radioluminescence studies were done using UV and X-ray as an excitation source. We have used gamma isotopes with different energy to studies the scintillation properties of La0.2Y1.8O3 scintillator. Preliminary studies of La0.2Y1.8O3 scintillator shows promising result with energy resolution comparable to that of NaI and CsI.

  4. Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuliano, J.; Bahcivan, H.

    2015-12-01

    NSF has recently selected Ionospheric Scintillation Explorer (ISX), a 3U Cubesat mission to explore the three-dimensional structure of scintillation-scale ionospheric irregularities associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF). ISX is a collaborative effort between SRI International and Cal Poly. This project addresses the science question: To what distance along a flux tube does an irregularity of certain transverse-scale extend? It has been difficult to measure the magnetic field-alignment of scintillation-scale turbulent structures because of the difficulty of sampling a flux tube at multiple locations within a short time. This measurement is now possible due to the worldwide transition to DTV, which presents unique signals of opportunity for remote sensing of ionospheric irregularities from numerous vantage points. DTV spectra, in various formats, contain phase-stable, narrowband pilot carrier components that are transmitted simultaneously. A 4-channel radar receiver will simultaneously record up to 4 spatially separated transmissions from the ground. Correlations of amplitude and phase scintillation patterns corresponding to multiple points on the same flux tube will be a measure of the spatial extent of the structures along the magnetic field. A subset of geometries where two or more transmitters are aligned with the orbital path will be used to infer the temporal development of the structures. ISX has the following broad impact. Scintillation of space-based radio signals is a space weather problem that is intensively studied. ISX is a step toward a CubeSat constellation to monitor worldwide TEC variations and radio wave distortions on thousands of ionospheric paths. Furthermore, the rapid sampling along spacecraft orbits provides a unique dataset to deterministically reconstruct ionospheric irregularities at scintillation-scale resolution using diffraction radio tomography, a technique that enables prediction of scintillations at other radio frequencies, and

  5. Scintillator Measurements for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    SNO+ is a neutrino detector located 2km underground in the SNOLAB facility with the primary goal of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. The detector will be filled with a liquid scintillator target primarily composed of linear alkyl benzene (LAB). As charged particles travel through the detector the LAB produces scintillation light which is detected by almost ten thousand PMTs. The LAB is loaded with Te130, an isotope known to undergo double beta decay. Additionally, the LAB is mixed with an additional fluor and wavelength shifter to improve the light output and shift the light to a wavelength regime in which the PMTs are maximally efficient. The precise scintillator optics drastically affect the ultimate sensitivity of SNO+. I will present work being done to measure the optical properties of the SNO+ scintillator cocktail. The measured properties are used as input to a scintillation model that allows us to extrapolate to the SNO+ scale and ultimately predict the sensitivity of the experiment. Additionally, I will present measurements done to characterize the R5912 PMT, a candidate PMT for the second phase of SNO+ that provides better light collection, improved charge resolution, and a narrower spread in timing.

  6. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Shuman, D.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gil, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jinete, M. A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Moiseenko, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Natal da Luz, H.; Navarro, G.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Palma, R.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Tomás, A.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  7. Performance Evaluations and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras That Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical gas imaging (OGI) cameras have the unique ability to exploit the electromagnetic properties of fugitive chemical vapors to make invisible gases visible. This ability is extremely useful for industrial facilities trying to mitigate product losses from escaping gas and fac...

  8. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin.

  9. New Structured Scintillators for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarkar, V. V.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Bhandari, H. B.; Soundara-Pandian, L.; More, M. J.; Riedel, R. A.; Miller, S. R.

    We report on the development of novel neutron scintillators fabricated in microcolumnar formats using the physical vapour deposition (PVD) method. Such structures mitigate the conventional trade-off between spatial resolution and detection efficiency by channelling the scintillation light towards the detector while minimizing lateral spread in the film. Consequently, high resolution and high contrast neutron images can be acquired in a time efficient manner. In this paper, we discuss methods and characterization for scintillator films made from three distinct compositions, Thallium (Tl) or Europium (Eu) doped Lithium CesiumIodide (Li3Cs2I5:Tl,Eu, referred to as LCI), Tl or Eudoped Lithium Sodium Iodide (LixNa1-xI:Tl,Eu, referred to as LNI), and Cerium (Ce)-doped Gadolinium Iodide (GdI3:Ce, referred to as GDI). LCI and LNI scintillators are derived from the well-known CsI and NaI scintillators by the incorporation of 6Li into their lattice. Based on our measurements reported here, LCI/LNI scintillators have shown to exhibit bright emissions, fast, sub-microsecond decay, and an ability to effectively discriminate between neutron and gamma interactions using pulse shape (PSD) and/or pulse height (PHD) discrimination. LCI has a density of 4.5 g/cm3, a measured peak emission wavelength of 460 nm (doped with Eu), and a light yield of ∼50,000 photons/thermal neutron. LNI has a density of 3.6 g/cm3, an emission peak measured at 420 nm, and a light yield of ∼100,000 photons/thermal neutron. The recently discovered GDI exhibits excellent scintillation properties including a bright emission of up to 5,000 photons/thermal neutron interaction, 550 nm green emission, a rise time of ∼0.5 ns and a primary decay time of ∼38 ns (Glodo et al., 2006). Its high thermal neutron cross-section of ∼255 kb makes it an attractive candidate for neutron detection and imaging. Although it has high density of 5.2 gm/cm3 and effective atomic number of 57, its gamma sensitivity can be

  10. First results of ground-based LWIR hyperspectral imaging remote gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zheng-gang; Yu, Chun-chao; Wang, Hai-yang; Fu, Yan-peng; Liao, Ning-fang; Su, Jun-hong

    2014-11-01

    The new progress of ground-based long-wave infrared remote sensing is presented. The LWIR hyperspectral imaging by using the windowing spatial and temporal modulation Fourier spectroscopy, and the results of outdoor ether gas detection, verify the features of LWIR hyperspectral imaging remote sensing and technical approach. It provides a new technical means for ground-based gas remote sensing.