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Sample records for imf clock angle

  1. Relation between cusp ion structures and dayside reconnection for four IMF clock angles: OpenGGCM-LTPT results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, H. K.; Raeder, J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Trattner, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    When, where, and which type of reconnection (antiparallel or component) happens on the dayside magnetopause are long-standing unsolved questions due to insufficient in situ observation of reconnection sites. Previous studies showed that the dispersed ion signatures observed in the magnetospheric cusps depend on the reconnection mechanism, suggesting that cusp ion signatures can be a good tool to investigate the locations and properties of dayside reconnection. We investigate this close relation between cusp signatures and magnetopause reconnection for four different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angles (CA) using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) and the Liouville Theorem Particle Tracer(LTPT). OpenGGCM produces dayside reconnection under the resistive MHD theory, and LTPT calculates cusp ion signatures caused by the simulated reconnection. Our model results show that for CA = 0°, antiparallel reconnection at both the northern and southern lobes causes a reverse dispersion in which ion energies increase with increasing latitude. For CA = 60°, unsteady antiparallel reconnection at both the northern and southern lobes causes double reverse dispersions. For CA = 120°, component reconnection near the subsolar point produces a dispersionless signature in the low-latitude cusp, and antiparallel reconnection on the duskside northern magnetopause produces a normal dispersion in the high-latitude cusp in which ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. For CA = 180°, antiparallel reconnection near the subsolar point causes a normal dispersion.

  2. Magnetospheric sash dependence on IMF direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Erickson, G. M.; Ö Sonnerup, B. U.; Maynard, N. C.; Siebert, K. D.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. W.

    The magnetospheric sash is a ribbon of weak field shaped like a horseshoe with its open ends adjacent to the north and south dayside, magnetopause cusps and its closed end forming the cross-tail current sheet. The clock angle of the sash in the dawn-dusk meridian plane (as seen from the sun) rotates from 0° to 90° as the clock angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotates from 0° to 180°. We use a global MHD simulation to obtain the sash clock angles for IMF clock angles of 45°, 90°, and 135°. Remarkably, the results are very close to the clock angle of the magnetic null points obtained by superposing a uniform field representing the IMF on a dipole field representing the earth. Contours of magnetic field strength on cross sections perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction show how the sash evolves tailward from the dayside cusps.

  3. IMF dependence of high-latitude thermospheric wind pattern derived from CHAMP cross-track measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, M.; Rentz, S.; Köhler, W.; Liu, H.; Haaland, S. E.

    2008-06-01

    Neutral thermospheric wind pattern at high latitudes obtained from cross-track acceleration measurements of the CHAMP satellite above both North and South polar regions are statistically analyzed in their dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction in the GSM y-z plane (clock angle). We compare this dependency with magnetospheric convection pattern obtained from the Cluster EDI plasma drift measurements under the same sorting conditions. The IMF-dependency shows some similarity with the corresponding high-latitude plasma convection insofar that the larger-scale convection cells, in particular the round-shaped dusk cell for ByIMF+ (ByIMF-) conditions at the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, leave their marks on the dominant general transpolar wind circulation from the dayside to the nightside. The direction of the transpolar circulation is generally deflected toward a duskward flow, in particular in the evening to nighttime sector. The degree of deflection correlates with the IMF clock angle. It is larger for ByIMF+ than for ByIMF- and is systematically larger (~5°) and appear less structured at the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern. Thermospheric cross-polar wind amplitudes are largest for BzIMF-/ByIMF- conditions at the Northern Hemisphere, but for BzIMF-/ByIMF+ conditions at the Southern because the magnetospheric convection is in favour of largest wind accelerations over the polar cap under these conditions. The overall variance of the thermospheric wind magnitude at Southern high latitudes is larger than for the Northern. This is probably due to a larger "stirring effect" at the Southern Hemisphere because of the larger distance between the geographic and geomagnetic frameworks.

  4. The rate of occurrence of dayside Pc 3,4 pulsations - The L-value dependence of the IMF cone angle effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Odera, T. J.; Stuart, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    When the angle of the IMF to the earth sun line is 15 deg or less, the occurrence rate of dayside Pc 3,4 pulsations in 7-8 times the average at L values of 2.4-2.8, and 2.2-3.5 times the average at L of 4-4.3. These waves disappear when the IMF is nearly at right angles to the sun-earth line. Such observations are consistent with a source originating in the waves upstream of the subsolar bow shock, which are transported by convection to the magnetopause. There, they couple to oscillations of magnetospheric field lines. Because the magnetospheric plasma's index of refraction decreases with radial distance except at the plasmapause, inwardly propagating waves should be refracted away from the radial direction. To reach low L values, the waves should therefore couple near the stagnation point and propagate nearly radially inwards. The streamline geometry and its connection to the foreshock region is illustrated for various IMF orientations, using a simple approximation to the magnetosheath flow field.

  5. Solar wind plasma entry into the magnetosphere under northward IMF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenhui; Raeder, Joachim; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Lavraud, Benoit

    2008-04-01

    This study examines how solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, using the Open Geospace General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) for various solar wind, IMF, and geomagnetic dipole conditions. We trace flow paths of individual fluid elements from the solar wind and study the variation of the topology of the magnetic field line along those flow paths. We find that there is an entry window through which the solar wind plasma can enter the magnetosphere as a result of double high-latitude reconnection under northward IMF conditions. We investigate how the entry window depends on solar wind, IMF, and geomagnetic dipole parameters, and we estimate the solar wind plasma entry rate for various conditions. We find that the effective entry rate under northward IMF conditions is of the order of 1026 to 1027 particles per second. We also estimate the conditions for which solar wind plasma entry is most efficient. The newly created flux tubes with closed-field topology are subsequently convected to the nightside and consequently cause magnetosheath plasma to be captured and enter the magnetosphere. Some captured dayside plasma takes about 90 min to convect along the magnetopause to a near tail flank region of the central plasma sheet, thus forming a cold dense plasma sheet. Double high-latitude reconnection can also release the captured plasma. Thus a balance of inflow and outflow of the captured plasma is eventually established under prolonged northward IMF conditions. We find that high-latitude reconnection is common under northward IMF conditions in our simulations. It occurs for IMF with any clock angle within [-90°, 90°], measured in front of the bow shock, and for any geomagnetic dipole tilt angle within [-30°, 30°]. An IMF field line with a zero x component usually first reconnects with a geomagnetic field line at the northern high-latitude boundary when the geomagnetic dipole tilts positive toward the

  6. IMF Dependence of High-Latitude Thermospheric Wind Pattern Derived from CHAMP Cross-Track Accelerometer Data and the Corresponding Magnetospheric Convection from Cluster EDI Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Matthias; Haaland, Stein E.; Rentz, Stefanie; Liu, Huixin

    Neutral thermospheric wind pattern at high latitudes obtained from cross-track acceleration measurements of the CHAMP satellite above both North and South polar regions are statistically analyzed in their dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction in the GSM y-z plane (clock angle). We compare this dependency with magnetospheric convection pattern using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electric drift observations and the same IMF and solar wind sorting conditions. The spatially distributed Cluster/EDI measurements are mapped to a the common reference level at ionospheric F-region heights in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid. We obtained both regular thermospheric wind and plasma drift pattern according to the various IMF conditions. The IMF-dependency shows some similarity with the corresponding high-latitude plasma convection insofar that the larger-scale convection cells, in particular the round-shaped dusk cell for IMF By+ (By-) conditions at the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, leave their marks on the dominant general transpolar wind circulation from the dayside to the nightside. The direction of the transpolar circulation is generally deflected toward a duskward flow, in particular in the evening to nighttime sector. The degree of deflection correlates with the IMF clock angle. It is larger for IMF By+ than for Byand is systematically larger (about 5 deg) and appear less structured at the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern. Thermospheric cross-polar wind amplitudes are largest for IMF Bz-/Byconditions (corresponding to sector 5) at the Northern Hemisphere, but for IMF Bz-/By+ conditions (sector 3) at the Southern because the magnetospheric convection is in favour of largest wind accelerations over the polar cap under these conditions. The overall variance of the thermospheric wind magnitude at Southern high latitudes is larger than for the Northern. This is probably due to a larger "stirring effect" at the Southern Hemisphere because

  7. Dynamics of Solar Wind Flows and Characteristics of Geomagnetic Activity at Different Angles of IMF Spiral for Period of Space Measurements at Near-Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara

    Solar wind streams form a spiral with a different longitude angle U: fast-moving streams moving more directly and slow-moving streams wrapping more around Sun. The azimuth component of spiral corresponds to east-west component By (GSE) which plays important role in reconnection on magnetopause and in progress of geomagnetic activity (GA). We take as our aim to find connection between solar wind parameters (IMF B, solar wind velocity V, concentration N, electric field Е =[VхB], Poyting vector of electromagnetic flux density P =[ExB]) and angle U during period of SC 20-24. Such approach allows not only to identify power quasi-stationary flows on basis of the solar wind parameters for each solar cycle, but to see evolution of the flows during period of 4 SC. Dependence of parameters of flows for odd-even SC and their effects in GA from U allows to find influence of the 22-yr magnetic cycle on interaction efficiency. We use data base of B, V, N, temperature T measured at 1 a.u. near ecliptic plane for period of 1963-2013. In particular, it was shown that E and P for By>0 have its maxima in each solar cycle at mean U=80 deg, herewith the maxima for odd SC 21, 23 are considerably larger than ones for even SC 20, 22. Besides, the value of P for 23 cycle has absolute maximum among SC 20-23! These peaks of P and E for By>0 belongs to slow flow of dense cold plasma. The fact that Bx changes its sign at its external boundary points to internal edge of HCS. We have obtained not only new characteristic of SC23, but and its influence on GA. Really, Dst(U) shows absolute maximum of depression for SC 23 at near the same U=80 (By>0). Polar cap index Pc obtained at Thule shows also absolute maximum for SC23 at the same U for By>0. Our analysis confirms that odd SC with low maximal sunspot numbers Wm will have high P and E for similar flows with By>0 and consequently high GA. So, low value of Wm=121 of SC 23 is a parameter, which does not determine power of solar wind

  8. The dependence of the LLBL thickness on IMF Bz and By components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znatkova, S. S.; Antonova, E. E.; Pulinets, M. S.; Kirpichev, I. P.; Riazantseva, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    The thickness of the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is studied as a function of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using the data of THEMIS mission. The data from intersections of LLBL by Themis-A and -C satellites are analyzed. Solar wind parameters are provided by Themis-B satellite located before the bow shock. We use earlier developed method of LLBL thickness determination based on the analysis of the variation of plasma velocity in the layer perpendicular to the magnetopause. The database for the present analysis consists of 109 single satellite LLBL crossings where the values of LLBL thickness are obtained. The time shift of solar wind propagation from the spacecraft performing measurements outside the bow shock to the LLBL is taken into account. We analyze the dependence of LLBL thickness on IMF Bz and By using data of IMF measurements with 3 s resolution and produce the 180 s averaging of these data. Large scattering of the values of LLBL thickness and the weak dependence on IMF is demonstrated. Dawn-dusk asymmetry of LLBL thickness is not observed. The dependence of LLBL thickness on IMF clock angle is discussed.

  9. High-latitude plasma convection from Cluster EDI measurements: method and IMF-dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S. E.; Paschmann, G.; Förster, M.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; McIlwain, C. E.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2007-02-01

    We have used vector measurements of the electron drift velocity made by the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Cluster between February 2001 and March 2006 to derive statistical maps of the high-latitude plasma convection. The EDI measurements, obtained at geocentric distances between ~4 and ~20 RE over both hemispheres, are mapped into the polar ionosphere, and sorted according to the clock-angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), measured at ACE and propagated to Earth, using best estimates of the orientation of the IMF variations. Only intervals of stable IMF are used, based on the magnitude of a "bias-vector" constructed from 30-min averages. The resulting data set consists of a total of 5862 h of EDI data. Contour maps of the electric potential in the polar ionosphere are subsequently derived from the mapped and averaged ionospheric drift vectors. Comparison with published statistical results based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar and low-altitude satellite measurements shows excellent agreement between the average convection patterns, and in particular the lack of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By, the appearance of a duskward flow component for strongly southward IMF, and the general weakening of the average flows and potentials for northerly IMF directions. This agreement lends credence to the validity of the assumption underlying the mapping of the EDI data, namely that magnetic field lines are equipotentials. For strongly northward IMF the mapped EDI data show the clear emergence of two counter-rotating lobe cells with a channel of sunward flow between them. The total potential drops across the polar caps obtained from the mapped EDI data are intermediate between the radar and the low-altitude satellite results.

  10. High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, M.; Haaland, S. E.; Paschmann, G.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we investigate statistical, systematic variations of the high-latitude convection cell structure during northward IMF. Using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for six and a half years (February 2001 till July 2007), and mapping the spatially distributed measurements to a common reference plane at ionospheric level in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid, we obtained regular drift patterns according to the various IMF conditions. We focus on the particular conditions during northward IMF, where lobe cells at magnetic latitudes >80° with opposite (sunward) convection over the central polar cap are a permanent feature in addition to the main convection cells at lower latitudes. They are due to reconnection processes at the magnetopause boundary poleward of the cusp regions. Mapped EDI data have a particular good coverage within the central part of the polar cap, so that these patterns and their dependence on various solar wind conditions are well verified in a statistical sense. On average, 4-cell convection pattern are shown as regular structures during periods of nearly northward IMF with the tendency of a small shift toward negative clock angles. The positions of these high-latitude convection foci are within 79° to 85° magnetic latitude and 09:00 15:00 MLT. The MLT positions are approximately symmetric ±2 h about 11:30 MLT, i.e. slightly offset from midday toward prenoon hours, while the maximum (minimum) potential of the high-latitude cells is at higher magnetic latitudes near their maximum potential difference at ≍-10° to -15° clock angle for the North (South) Hemisphere. With increasing clock angle distances from ≍IMFBz+, a gradual transition occurs from the 4-cell pattern via a 3-cell to the common 2-cell convection pattern, in the course of which one of the medium-scale high-latitude dayside cells diminishes and disappears while the other intensifies and merges with the

  11. High-Latitude Plasma Convection as a Function of Solar Wind and IMF Using a Simple Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. B.

    2001-12-01

    A simple parameterization of high-latitude ionospheric plasma convection patterns has been developed to study the relationship of the convection patterns to the speed and density of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The parameterization includes the overall size of the convection pattern, the total potential drop, the orientation of the pattern, and the relative sizes of the dawn and dusk convection cells. The spherical harmonic fitting analysis of Ruohoniemi and Baker [1998] was applied to two years (1999, 2000) of SuperDARN HF-Radar data from the northern hemisphere. Solar Wind and IMF data were take from the definitive ACE key parameter data. Linear regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship of the convection pattern parameters to various combinations of solar wind and IMF parameters. The polar cap potential drop was found to be most strongly correlated to vBz, but a weaker correlation to v*abs(By) was also noted. The orientation of the convection pattern was well correlated with either By alone or the IMF clock angle. Ruohoniemi, J. M., and K. B. Baker, Large-scale imaging of high-latitude convection with SuperDARN HF-radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 20,797-20,811, 1998.

  12. The Influence of Clocking Angle of the Projectile on the Simulated Impact Response of a Shuttle Leading Edge Wing Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to determine the influence of clocking angle of a foam projectile impacting a space shuttle leading edge wing panel. Four simulations were performed using LS-DYNA. The leading edge panels are fabricated of multiple layers of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The RCC material was represented using Mat 58, which is a material property that can be used for laminated composite fabrics. Simulations were performed of a rectangular-shaped foam block, weighing 0.23-lb., impacting RCC Panel 9 on the top surface. The material properties of the foam were input using Mat 83. The impact velocity was 1,000 ft/s along the Orbiter X-axis. In two models, the foam impacted on a corner, in one model the foam impacted the panel initially on the 2-in.-long edge, and in the last model the foam impacted the panel on the 7-in.- long edge. The simulation results are presented as contour plots of first principal infinitesimal strain and time history plots of contact force and internal and kinetic energy of the foam and RCC panel.

  13. On magnetopause inflation under radial IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full understanding of the magnetosphere interaction with radial IMF structures embedded in the solar wind flow is far from completeness. In order to analyze the effects of radial IMF, we use THEMIS observations of the magnetopause and magnetosheath together with upstream data acquired from ACE and Wind monitors as well as from the OMNI data base. We demonstrate a prominent magnetopause inflation and low pressure magnetosheath (LPM) mode under long-lasting radial IMF. We propose that these phenomena result from a kinetic effect of energetic ions taking the energy away from the pressure balance at the magnetopause. We show that strict quantitative determination of the inflation and LPM mode as a function of the cone angle is difficult because of the problems with reliable determination of the upstream and magnetosheath conditions. The shortcomings are caused by such effects as ambiguous time delay for the solar wind propagation, THEMIS orbital bias and model-dependent estimations of the magnetopause inflation.

  14. Clocks, Angles and Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Andy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a week of "timely" open-ended lessons with a high ability Y9 group of boys. He gives lessons that would give the students some sense of purpose, as they try to generate a mathematical entity to represent something they used regularly. He states that understanding metric time is something his students really…

  15. The Myth of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, J.

    2009-11-01

    The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!

  16. Coupling the Solar-Wind/IMF to the Ionosphere through the High Latitude Cusps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nelson C.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic merging is a primary means for coupling energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The location and nature of the process remain as open questions. By correlating measurements form diverse locations and using large-scale MHD models to put the measurements in context, it is possible to constrain out interpretations of the global and meso-scale dynamics of magnetic merging. Recent evidence demonstrates that merging often occurs at high latitudes in the vicinity of the cusps. The location is in part controlled by the clock angle in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Y-Z plane. In fact, B(sub Y) bifurcated the cusp relative to source regions. The newly opened field lines may couple to the ionosphere at MLT locations of as much as 3 hr away from local noon. On the other side of noon the cusp may be connected to merging sites in the opposite hemisphere. In face, the small convection cell is generally driven by opposite hemisphere merging. B(sub X) controls the timing of the interaction and merging sites in each hemisphere, which may respond to planar features in the IMF at different times. Correlation times are variable and are controlled by the dynamics of the tilt of the interplanetary electric field phase plane. The orientation of the phase plane may change significantly on time scales of tens of minutes. Merging is temporally variable and may be occurring at multiple sites simultaneously. Accelerated electrons from the merging process excite optical signatures at the foot of the newly opened field lines. All-sky photometer observations of 557.7 nm emissions in the cusp region provide a "television picture" of the merging process and may be used to infer the temporal and spatial variability of merging, tied to variations in the IMF.

  17. Localized polar cap flow enhancement tracing using airglow patches: Statistical properties, IMF dependence, and contribution to polar cap convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Lyons, Larry R.; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Donovan, Eric F.; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2015-05-01

    Recent radar observations have suggested that polar cap flows are highly structured and that localized flow enhancements can lead to nightside auroral disturbances. However, knowledge of these flows is limited to available echo regions. Utilizing wide spatial coverage by an all-sky imager at Resolute Bay and simultaneous Super Dual Auroral Radar Network measurements, we statistically determined properties of such flows and their interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) dependence. We found that narrow flow enhancements are well collocated with airglow patches with substantially larger velocities (≥200 m/s) than the weak large-scale background flows. The flow azimuthal widths are similar to the patch widths. During the evolution across the polar cap, the flow directions and speeds are consistent with the patch propagation directions and speeds. These correspondences indicate that patches can optically trace localized flow enhancements reflecting the flow width, speed, and direction. Such associations were found common (~67%) in statistics, and the typical flow speed, propagation time, and width within our observation areas are 600 m/s, tens of minutes, and 200-300 km, respectively. By examining IMF dependence of the occurrence and properties of these flows, we found that they tend to be observed under By-dominated IMF. Flow speeds are large under oscillating IMF clock angles. Localized flow enhancements are usually observed as a channel elongated in the noon-midnight meridian and directed toward premidnight (postmidnight) for +By (-By). The potential drops across localized flow enhancements account for ~10-40% of the cross polar cap potential, indicating that they significantly contribute to polar cap plasma transport.

  18. Polar, Cluster and SuperDARN Evidence for High-Latitude Merging during Southward IMF: Temporal/Spatial Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Ober, D. M.; Burke, W. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Lester, M.; Dunlap, M.; Wild, J. A.; Grocott, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lund, E. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic merging on the dayside magnetopause often occurs at high latitudes. Polar measured fluxes of accelerated ions and wave Poynting vectors while skimming the subsolar magnetopause. The measurements indicate that their source was located to the north of the spacecraft, well removed from expected component merging sites. This represents the first use of wave Poynting flux as a merging discriminator at the magnetopause. We argue that wave Poynting vectors, like accelerated particle fluxes and the Walen tests, are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions, for identifying merging events. The Polar data are complemented with nearly simultaneous measurements from Cluster in the northern cusp, with correlated observations from the SuperDARN radar, to show that the locations and rates of merging vary. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used to place the measurements into a global context. The MHD simulations confirm the existence of a high-latitude merging site and suggest that Polar and SuperDARN observed effects are attributable to both exhaust regions of a temporally varying X-line. A survey of 13 merging events places the location at high latitudes whenever the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle is less than approximately 150 degrees. While inferred high-latitude merging sites favor the antiparallel merging hypothesis, our data alone cannot exclude the possible existence of a guide field. Merging can even move away from equatorial latitudes when the IMF has a strong southward component. MHD simulations suggest that this happens when the dipole tilt angle increases or when IMF B(sub X) increases the effective dipole tilt.

  19. A review of IMF theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, R.

    An overview is presented of theories of the initial mass function (IMF), starting from those essentially based on stochastic arguments to those involving more physics. Consideration is given to the scheme of Auluck and Kothari (1960, 1965), hierarchical theories, the predicted IMF, coalescence theories, DiFazio's theory (1986), fragmentation from sheets and filaments (bimodal star formation), and the criteria for determining stellar masses. The following concepts are proposed as being the most likely to survive: the general statistical arguments supporting log-normal laws, or power laws; the opacity-limited fragmentation concept; and the concept that the IMF is not a pure product of cloud fragmentation processes but also depends on internal properties of the object itself.

  20. Observations at Low Latitudes of Magnetic Merging Signatures Within a Flux Transfer Event During a Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Flux transfer events (FTE) have been postulated to result from transient magnetic merging. If so, the ion distributions within an event should exhibit features known to result from merging. Observations of a FTE by instruments on the Polar spacecraft revealed classical merging signatures that included: 1) D-shaped, accelerated, magnetosheath ion distributions, 2) a well defined de Hoffman-Teller frame, 3) local stress balance, and 4) a P-N magnetic field signature. This FTE was observed near the magnetic equator at approx. 13 MLT under conditions of a moderately northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) (clock angle of less than 10 deg). The nature of the ion distributions and the consistency of the measured cutoff speed with that calculated from the measured local magnetic field and the derived de Hoffman-Teller speed show the ion injection to be local. Coupled with the northward IMF these results lead to the conclusion that component merging in the low latitude region was responsible for the FTE.

  1. IMF Prediction with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Kuwabara, T.; Pei, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic rays impacting Earth have passed through and interacted with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) surrounding Earth, and in some sense they carry information on the three-dimensional structure of that field. This work uses neutron monitor data in an effort to extract that information and use it to predict the future behavior of the IMF, especially the north-south component (Bz) which is so crucial in determining geomagnetic activity. We consider 161 events from a published list of interplanetary coronal mass ejections and compare hourly averages of the predicted field with the actual field measured later. We find that the percentage of events with 'good' predictions of Bz (in the sense of having a positive correlation between the prediction and the subsequent measurement) varies from about 85% for predictions 1 hour into the future to about 60% for predictions 4 hours into the future. We present several ideas for how the method might be improved in future implementations. Supported by NASA grant NNX08AQ01G and NSF grant ANT-0739620.

  2. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population. PMID:26874823

  3. Relation of PC index to magnetic disturbances developing under conditions of northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorozhkina, N.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.

    2012-04-01

    Substorms and storms occurring under conditions of northward IMF (BZN) are commonly examined as "extraordinary events" since they are developed when the efficiency of the interplanetary electric field EY = vBZS (Reiff and Luhmann, 1986) falls to zero. Examination of these events demonstrates that all of them occur, like to ordinary substorms and storms, under conditions that are necessary and sufficient for development of substorms (PC ≥ 1.5 mV/m) and storms ( >2 mV/m). The specified values of the PC index testify that the magnetosphere is affected by the intense interplanetary electric field EKL=vBTsin2θ/2 (Kan and Lee, 1979), where BT is the IMF tangential component and θ is an angle between BT component and the geomagnetic Z-axis. The principal difference between coupling functions EY and EKL lies in the fact that EKL function includes the IMF azimuthal (BY) component. As BY increases relative to BZ, the difference between electric fields EY and EKL quickly grows, and the value of EKL field can be as large as 5-10 mV/m even under conditions of northward IMF orientation, when EY reaches to zero. The same situation is valid for substorms triggered by sharp northward turning of the IMF BZ component following the prolonged period of southward IMF influence. Examination of these substorms demonstrates that they are initiated by increase of coupling function EKL and that the substorm sudden onsets were preceded by the PC index growth. Consistency between the IMF northward turning and substorm sudden onset in these cases is coincidence that explains why substorm are only occasionally initiated by the IMF northward turning. Thus, the "extraordinary" storms and substorms occurring under conditions of ineffective northward IMF component turned out to be events nothing out of the ordinary, if examining them in relation to proper coupling function (EKL) and monitoring them by the PC index.

  4. Control of lunar external magnetic enhancements by IMF polarity: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Fujimoto, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro

    2012-12-01

    We study an interaction between the solar wind and crustal magnetic fields on the lunar surface using SELENE (Kaguya) data. It has been known that magnetic enhancements are at times detected near the limb external to the lunar wake, which is thus called lunar external magnetic enhancement (LEME), as a result of direct interaction between the solar wind and lunar crustal fields. Although previous observational studies showed that LEMEs in the high solar zenith angle region favor stronger interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and higher solar wind density, the relation between the IMF and the crustal field orientation has not been taken into account. We show evidence that the relation between the IMF and crustal field orientation is also one of the key factors that control the extent of LEME, focusing on one-day observations at 100 km altitude that include data above strong crustal fields around South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. Strong LEMEs are detected at 100 km altitude around SPA basin under the stronger and northward IMF condition, while they weaken under southward IMF. All LEME's peaks are located in the region where unperturbed crustal fields at 300 km altitude are directed northward while they are less related to unperturbed crustal fields at 100 km or lower, which suggests that lunar crustal fields are compressed by the solar wind dynamic pressure, and its large scale component parallel to the IMF is essential to the formation of the LEME.

  5. Latitudinal electron precipitation patterns during large and small IMF magnitudes for northward IMF conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makita, K.; Meng, C.-I.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated that there are distinct differences in the electron precipitation patterns (or the polar cap size), geomagnetic activity, and field-aligned currents in the highest-latitude region for small and large IMF B(z) values when the IMF B(z) component is positive. First, during periods of weakly northward IMF, there is a distinct area in the highest-latitude region in which the electron precipitation is absent except for the polar rain. By contrast, during strongly northward IMF, the entire polar region is often filled with burst-type soft electron precipitations. Second, geomagnetic disturbances and field-aligned-current intensities in the highest-latitude region are less during a weak IMF B(z) condition than those during a strongly northward IMF B(z) condition. Geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone for both conditions is absent or very weak.

  6. The Square Light Clock and Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, J. Ronald; Amiri, Farhang

    2012-01-01

    A thought experiment that includes a square light clock is similar to the traditional vertical light beam and mirror clock, except it is made up of four mirrors placed at a 45[degree] angle at each corner of a square of length L[subscript 0], shown in Fig. 1. Here we have shown the events as measured in the rest frame of the square light clock. By…

  7. Simulating Future GPS Clock Scenarios with Two Composite Clock Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Matthias; Matsakis, Demetrios; Greenhall, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Using the GPS Toolkit, the GPS constellation is simulated using 31 satellites (SV) and a ground network of 17 monitor stations (MS). At every 15-minutes measurement epoch, the monitor stations measure the time signals of all satellites above a parameterized elevation angle. Once a day, the satellite clock estimates the station and satellite clocks. The first composite clock (B) is based on the Brown algorithm, and is now used by GPS. The second one (G) is based on the Greenhall algorithm. The composite clock of G and B performance are investigated using three ground-clock models. Model C simulates the current GPS configuration, in which all stations are equipped with cesium clocks, except for masers at USNO and Alternate Master Clock (AMC) sites. Model M is an improved situation in which every station is equipped with active hydrogen masers. Finally, Models F and O are future scenarios in which the USNO and AMC stations are equipped with fountain clocks instead of masers. Model F is a rubidium fountain, while Model O is more precise but futuristic Optical Fountain. Each model is evaluated using three performance metrics. The timing-related user range error having all satellites available is the first performance index (PI1). The second performance index (PI2) relates to the stability of the broadcast GPS system time itself. The third performance index (PI3) evaluates the stability of the time scales computed by the two composite clocks. A distinction is made between the "Signal-in-Space" accuracy and that available through a GNSS receiver.

  8. On the use of a sunward-libration-point orbiting spacecraft as an IMF monitor for magnetospheric studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, T. J.; Crooker, N. U.; Siscoe, G. L.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetospheric studies often require knowledge of the orientation of the IMF. In order to test the accuracy of using magnetometer data from a spacecraft orbiting the sunward libration point for this purpose, the angle between the IMF at ISEE 3, when it was positioned around the libration point, and at ISEE 1, orbiting Earth, has been calculated for a data set of two-hour periods covering four months. For each period, a ten-minute average of ISEE 1 data is compared with ten-minute averages of ISEE 3 data at successively lagged intervals. At the lag time equal to the time required for the solar wind to convect from ISEE 3 to ISEE 1, the median angle between the IMF orientation at the two spacecraft is 20 deg, and 80% of the cases have angles less than 38 deg. The results for the angles projected on the y-z plane are essentially the same.

  9. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  10. IMF Direction Derived from Cycloid-Like Ion Distributions Observed by Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Futaana, Y.; Fedorov, A.; Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Winningham, D.; Frahm, R.; Barabash, S.; Holmstrom, M.; Woch, J.; Fraenz, M.; Budnik, E.; Borg, H.; Sharber, J. R.; Coates, A. J.; Soobiah, Y.; Koskinen, H.; Kallio, E.; Asamura, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Curtis, C.; Hsieh, K. C.; Sandel, B. R.; Grande, M.; Grigoriev, A.; Wurz, P.; Orsini, S.; Brandt, P.; McKenna-Lawler, S.; Kozyra, J.; Luhmann, J.

    Although the Mars Express (MEX) does not carry a magnetometer, it is in principle possible to derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation from the three dimensional velocity distribution of pick-up ions measured by the Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) on board MEX because pick-up ions' orbits, in velocity phase space, are expected to gyrate around the IMF when the IMF is relatively uniform on a scale larger than the proton gyroradius. Upstream of bow shock, MEX often observed cycloid distributions (two dimensional partial ring distributions in velocity phase space) of protons in a narrow channel of the IMA detector (only one azimuth for many polar angles). We show two such examples. Three different methods are used to derive the IMF orientation from the observed cycloid distributions. One method is intuitive (intuitive method), while the others derive the minimum variance direction of the velocity vectors for the observed ring ions. These velocity vectors are selected either manually (manual method) or automatically using simple filters (automatic method). While the intuitive method and the manual method provide similar IMF orientations by which the observed cycloid distribution is well arranged into a partial circle (representing gyration) and constant parallel velocity, the automatic method failed to arrange the data to the degree of the manual method, yielding about a 30° offset in the estimated IMF direction. The uncertainty of the derived IMF orientation is strongly affected by the instrument resolution. The source population for these ring distributions is most likely newly ionized hydrogen atoms, which are picked up by the solar wind.

  11. IMF Direction Derived from Cycloid-Like Ion Distributions Observed by Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Futaana, Y.; Fedorov, A.; Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Winningham, D.; Frahm, R.; Barabash, S.; Holmstrom, M.; Woch, J.; Fraenz, M.; Budnik, E.; Borg, H.; Sharber, J. R.; Coates, A. J.; Soobiah, Y.; Koskinen, H.; Kallio, E.; Asamura, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Curtis, C.; Hsieh, K. C.; Sandel, B. R.; Grande, M.; Grigoriev, A.; Wurz, P.; Orsini, S.; Brandt, P.; McKenna-Lawler, S.; Kozyra, J.; Luhmann, J.

    2006-10-01

    Although the Mars Express (MEX) does not carry a magnetometer, it is in principle possible to derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation from the three dimensional velocity distribution of pick-up ions measured by the Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) on board MEX because pick-up ions' orbits, in velocity phase space, are expected to gyrate around the IMF when the IMF is relatively uniform on a scale larger than the proton gyroradius. During bow shock outbound crossings, MEX often observed cycloid distributions (two dimensional partial ring distributions in velocity phase space) of protons in a narrow channel of the IMA detector (only one azimuth for many polar angles). We show two such examples. Three different methods are used to derive the IMF orientation from the observed cycloid distributions. One method is intuitive (intuitive method), while the others derive the minimum variance direction of the velocity vectors for the observed ring ions. These velocity vectors are selected either manually (manual method) or automatically using simple filters (automatic method). While the intuitive method and the manual method provide similar IMF orientations by which the observed cycloid distribution is well arranged into a partial circle (representing gyration) and constant parallel velocity, the automatic method failed to arrange the data to the degree of the manual method, yielding about a 30° offset in the estimated IMF direction. The uncertainty of the derived IMF orientation is strongly affected by the instrument resolution. The source population for these ring distributions is most likely newly ionized hydrogen atoms, which are picked up by the solar wind.

  12. Magnetic substorms and northward IMF turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    To determine the relation of the northward IMF turnings to substorm sudden onsets, we separated all events with sharp northward IMF turnings observed in years of solar maximum (1999-2002) and solar minimum (2007-2008). The events (N=261) have been classified in 5 groups in accordance with average magnetic activity in auroral zone (low, moderate or high levels of AL index) at unchanged or slightly changed PC index and with dynamics of PC (steady distinct growth or distinct decline) at arbitrary values of AL index. Statistical analysis of relationships between the IMF turning and changes of PC and AL indices has been fulfilled separately for each of 5 classes. Results of the analysis showed that, irrespective of geophysical conditions and solar activity epoch, the magnetic activity in the polar caps and in the auroral zone demonstrate no response to the sudden northward IMF turning, if the moment of northward turning is taken as a key date. Sharp increases of magnetic disturbance in the auroral zone are observed only under conditions of the growing PC index and statistically they are related to moment of the PC index exceeding the threshold level (~1.5 mV/m), not to northward turnings timed, as a rule, after the moment of sudden onset. Magnetic disturbances observed in these cases in the auroral zone (magnetic substorms) are guided by behavior of the PC index, like to ordinary magnetic substorms or substorms developed under conditions of the prolonged northward IMF impact on the magnetosphere. The evident inconsistency between the sharp IMF changes measured outside of the magnetosphere and behavior of the ground-based PC index, the latter determining the substorm development, provides an additional argument in favor of the PC index as a ground-based proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into magnetosphere.

  13. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2-3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10-15% relative to its mean value realized during a broad 9-year period centered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this 9-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small in relation to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant.

  14. Special Relativistic Clock Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tom

    2007-03-01

    Time mappings of a stationary clock's time points onto a moving clock's time line heuristically resolve certain temporal asymmetries in time dilation. Time mapping postulates are identified and transforms are derived. `Clock Re-phasing' vs. `Time Leap' is discussed.

  15. Atomic Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynands, Robert

    Time is a strange thing. On the one hand it is arguably the most inaccessible physical phenomenon of all: both in that it is impossible to manipulate or modify—for all we know—and in that even after thousands of years mankind's philosophers still have not found a fully satisfying way to understand it. On the other hand, no other quantity can be measured with greater precision. Today's atomic clocks allow us to reproduce the length of the second as the SI unit of time with an uncertainty of a few parts in 1016—orders of magnitude better than any other quantity. In a sense, one can say [1

  16. Molecular clocks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S Y; Ho, Simon Y W

    2016-05-23

    In the 1960s, several groups of scientists, including Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling, had noted that proteins experience amino acid replacements at a surprisingly consistent rate across very different species. This presumed single, uniform rate of genetic evolution was subsequently described using the term 'molecular clock'. Biologists quickly realised that such a universal pacemaker could be used as a yardstick for measuring the timescale of evolutionary divergences: estimating the rate of amino acid exchanges per unit of time and applying it to protein differences across a range of organisms would allow deduction of the divergence times of their respective lineages (Figure 1). PMID:27218841

  17. IMF draping around the geotail - IMP 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Siscoe, George; Luhmann, Janet G.

    1992-01-01

    The draping pattern for the full range of IMF directions is mapped in the GSM yz-plane using a large data set for studying magnetic field draping around the tail. Based on the maps, it is concluded that the dominant pattern is draping as found by Ohtani and Kokubun (1991) and Sanchez and Siscoe (1990). A new finding is that the draping pattern is rotated relative to the plane formed by the IMF and the aberrated x-axis, with the degree of rotation varying from zero for strongly northward and southward IMF to a peak of 17 deg for moderately southward IMF. It is also found that the tail radius is bigger for southward IMF than for northward IMF.

  18. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2 to 3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10-15 percent relative to its mean value realized during a broad nine-year period centered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this nine-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small relative to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant.

  19. VLBI clock synchronization. [for atomic clock rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The potential accuracy of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) for clock epoch and rate comparisons was demonstrated by results from long- and short-baseline experiments. It was found that atomic clocks at widely separated sites (several thousand kilometers apart) can be synchronized to within several nanoseconds from a few minutes of VLBI observations and to within one nanosecond from several hours of observations.

  20. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  1. The IMF at intermediate masses from Galactic Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, R.; Robin, A. C.; Figueras, F.; Lemasle, B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: To constrain the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the Galactic young (<1 Gyr) thin Disc population using Cepheids. Methods: We have optimized the flexibility of the new Besançon Galaxy Model (Czekaj 2014) to simulate magnitude and distance complete samples of young intermediate mass stars assuming different IMFs and Star Formation Histories (SFH). Comparing the simulated synthetic catalogues with the observational data we studied which IMF reproduces better the observational number of Cepheids in the Galactic thin Disc. We analysed three different IMF: (1) Salpeter, (2) Kroupa-Haywood and (3) Haywood-Robin IMFs with a decreasing SFH from Aumer & Binney (2009). Results: For the first time the Besançon Galaxy Model is used to characterize the galactic Cepheids. We found that for most of the cases the Salpeter IMF overestimates the number of observed Cepheids and Haywood-Robin IMF underestimates it. The Kroupa-Haywood IMF, with a slope α = 3.2, is the one that best reproduces the observed Cepheids. From the comparison of the predicted and observed number of Cepheids up to V = 12, we point that the model might underestimate the scale height of the young population. Conclusions: In agreement with Kroupa & Weidner (2003) our study shows that the Salpeter IMF (α = 2.35) overestimates the star counts in the range 4 ≤ M/M⊙≤ 10 and supports the idea that the slope of the intermediate and massive stars IMF is steeper than the Salpeter IMF. The poster can be found online at: https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_R._Mor_Great.pdf.

  2. Hanle detection for optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengnan; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2015-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard. PMID:25734183

  3. Hanle Detection for Optical Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengnan; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2015-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard. PMID:25734183

  4. Atomic clocks for astrophysical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.; Mattison, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that recently developed atomic hydrogen masers have achieved stability well into the 10 to the -16th domain for averaging time intervals beyond 1000 sec and that further improvements are in prospect. These devices are highly adaptable for space use in very high precision measurements of angle through Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and of range and range-rate through Doppler techniques. Space missions that will use these clocks for measuring the sun's gravity field distribution and for testing gravitation and relativity (a project that will include a search for pulsed low-frequency gravitational waves) are discussed. Estimates are made of system performance capability, and the accuracy capability of relativistic measurements is evaluated in terms of the results from the 1976 NASA/SAO spaceborne clock test of the Einstein Equivalence Principle.

  5. Connection between dynamically derived IMF normalisation and stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.

    2015-04-01

    In this contributed talk I present recent results on the connection between stellar population properties and the normalisation of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) measured using stellar dynamics, based on a large sample of 260 early-type galaxies observed as part of the ATLAS3D project. This measure of the IMF normalisation is found to vary non-uniformly with age- and metallicity-sensitive absorption line strengths. Applying single stellar population models, there are weak but measurable trends of the IMF with age and abundance ratio. Accounting for the dependence of stellar population parameters on velocity dispersion effectively removes these trends, but subsequently introduces a trend with metallicity, such that `heavy' IMFs favour lower metallicities. The correlations are weaker than those found from previous studies directly detecting low-mass stars, suggesting some degree of tension between the different approaches of measuring the IMF. Resolving these discrepancies will be the focus of future work.

  6. Thermospheric Neutral Density Responses to Changes in IMF Sector Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Kim, K.; Forbes, J.; Lee, S.

    2008-12-01

    The thermospheric density is important not only for satellite orbital tracking, but also in understanding the thermosphere-ionosphere coupling process as well. Thermospheric density variations are controlled by various sources such as Joule/particle heating, Lorentz force, thermal expansion, upwelling and horizontal wind circulation. These sources are directly or indirectly associated with the direction and/or strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). That is, there is an intimate relationship between IMF variation and thermospheric density variation. In order to examine how thermospheric density variations are influenced on the orientation and/or strength of the IMF, we used total mass density around 400 km, derived from the high- accuracy accelerometer on board the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) spacecraft, in 2003 when the IMF exhibited a well-defined sector polarity change with a ~27-day periodicity; directed toward the Sun (i.e., +Bx and -By) and away the Sun (-Bx and +By). It has been known that the IMF By in GSE coordinates makes a positive or negative IMF Bz offset in GSM coordinate. We discuss whether the thermospheric total mass density from CHAMP changes with the IMF sector polarity.

  7. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  8. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  9. BUGS system clock distributor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Thomas M.

    1991-11-01

    A printed circuit board which will provide external clocks and precisely measure the time at which events take place was designed for the Bristol University Gas Spectrometer (BUGS). The board, which was designed to interface both mechanically and electrically to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) system, has been named the BUGS system clock control. The board's design and use are described.

  10. First nuclear clock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    A nuclear clock that is more precise than any atomic clock available today could soon be a reality after physicists in Germany detected a crucial low-energy transition in the thorium-229 nucleus, which could be used to create a new frequency standard.

  11. Flies, clocks and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, E; Kyriacou, C P

    2001-01-01

    The negative feedback model for gene regulation of the circadian mechanism is described for the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. The conservation of function of clock molecules is illustrated by comparison with the mammalian circadian system, and the apparent swapping of roles between various canonical clock gene components is highlighted. The role of clock gene duplications and divergence of function is introduced via the timeless gene. The impressive similarities in clock gene regulation between flies and mammals could suggest that variation between more closely related species within insects might be minimal. However, this is not borne out because the expression of clock molecules in the brain of the giant silk moth, Antheraea pernyi, is not easy to reconcile with the negative feedback roles of the period and timeless genes. Variation in clock gene sequences between and within fly species is examined and the role of co-evolution between and within clock molecules is described, particularly with reference to adaptive functions of the circadian phenotype. PMID:11710984

  12. Response of the Reverse Convection to Sharp IMF Turnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, S.; Tawara, A.; Hairston, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Le, G.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.

    2014-12-01

    How strongly the dayside high-latitude convection is controlled by the orientation of the IMF for periods of the steady IMF is well established. However, the nature of the transition that the convection makes when the IMF changes sharply is still not fully understood. In the present paper, we report the characteristics of the transient nature of the reverse convection on the basis of observations from multi-spacecraft and ground magnetometer stations. During a period of northward IMF on 22 April 2006 the magnetic field observations from three ST-5 spacecraft identified distribution change in the polar cap field-aligned current which responds to a quick IMF turning from the purely northward orientation to the duskward orientation. At this time ST-5 flew over one of the Greenland magnetometer stations located near 1200 MLT. The analysis of the ground magnetic perturbations shows that the field-aligned current distribution, which is closely related to the reverse convection pattern, was changing gradually during about 10 min before reaching a steady state. When the steady state was going on, the IMF changed sharply from the duskward orientation to the dawnward orientation. Immediately after this IMF turning, three DMSP spacecraft (F13, F15, and F16) traversed the dayside polar cap in the northern hemisphere. The ion drift observation indicates that the polar cap convection changed from the clockwise circulation to the counter-clockwise circulation during about 10 min. The data from the Greenland magnetometer stations show that a transient state, i.e., deformation or reduction of the clockwise circulation started in the near-noon and postnoon sectors almost simultaneously when the ion drift consisting of the clockwise circulation is still seen in the prenoon polar cap by the DMSP spacecraft. We discuss the changing global patterns that occurred over the whole dayside polar cap during the course of the 10-min transient state for both cases.

  13. Optical clocks and relativity.

    PubMed

    Chou, C W; Hume, D B; Rosenband, T; Wineland, D J

    2010-09-24

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth's surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics. PMID:20929843

  14. Circadian Clocks and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Marcheva, Biliana; Ramsey, Kathryn M.; Peek, Clara B.; Affinati, Alison; Maury, Eleonore; Bass, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks maintain periodicity in internal cycles of behavior, physiology, and metabolism, enabling organisms to anticipate the 24-h rotation of the Earth. In mammals, circadian integration of metabolic systems optimizes energy harvesting and utilization across the light/dark cycle. Disruption of clock genes has recently been linked to sleep disorders and to the development of cardiometabolic disease. Conversely, aberrant nutrient signaling affects circadian rhythms of behavior. This chapter reviews the emerging relationship between the molecular clock and metabolic systems and examines evidence that circadian disruption exerts deleterious consequences on human health. PMID:23604478

  15. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  16. Resetting Biological Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  17. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity, respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous - whose rates are related by a non-constant function beta sub a - is demonstrated. The cosmological character of beta sub a is also discussed.

  18. Variation in the statistical properties of IMF direction fluctuations during the 22-year solar magnetic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    The variation in the IMF direction distribution during the 22-year solar magnetic cycle has been studied. Data obtained in near-Earth orbits and measurements in the heliospheric regions located far from the Earth, performed with the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft devices, have been analyzed. It has been found that the correlation between the azimuth and magnetic field fluctuations is statistically significant in the low-latitude heliospheric region at heliocentric distances of 0.3-5.4 AU, and the sign of this correlation reverses at a change in the polar solar magnetic field orientation. In the polar zones of the heliosphere outside the latitudinal extension of the heliospheric current sheet, the angle correlation coefficient rapidly decreases with increasing heliographic latitude. The angle correlation sign reversal during the 22-year cycle is accompanied by a change of the asymmetry sign of the magnetic field inclination distribution.

  19. Temporal Cusp Ion Signatures and Magnetopause Reconnection during Northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, H. K.; Sibeck, D. G.; Raeder, J.; Trattner, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Dispersed ion signatures observed in the magnetospheric cusps have been used to understand the locations and properties of magnetopause reconnection. Whether a cusp structure is spatial or temporal is an important question because these structures reveal the spatial and temporal nature of magnetopause reconnection. We study temporal cusp ion signatures and their relation to the magnetopause processes during northward IMF using the Open Global Geospace Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) and the Liouville Theorem Particle Tracer (LTPT). OpenGGCM produces dayside reconnection within the framework of resistive MHD, while the LTPT calculates cusp ion signatures caused by the simulated reconnection. Our model produces temporal cusp ion dispersions with ion energies that increase with decreasing latitude during northward IMF, although these signatures are commonly associated with subsolar reconnection during southward IMF. We investigate which magnetopause process is responsible for the temporal cusp signatures.

  20. High-Latitude Ionospheric Dynamics During Conditions of Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes operating during conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), in situ measurements from the Dynamics Explorer-2 (low altitude) polar satellite and simultaneous observations from the auroral imager on the Dynamics Explorer-1 (high altitude) satellite were used to investigate the relationships between optical emissions, particle precipitation, and convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere. Field aligned current and convective flow patterns during IMF north include polar cap arcs, the theta aurora or transpolar arc, and the 'horse-collar' aurora. The initial part of the study concentrated on the electrodynamics of auroral features in the horse-collar aurora, a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread to very high latitudes, while the latter part focused on the evolution of one type of IMF north auroral pattern to another, specifically the quiet-time horse-collar pattern to a theta aurora.

  1. The IMF as a function of supersonic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli Motta, C.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Pasquali, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies seem to suggest that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies might be different from a classical Kroupa or Chabrier IMF, i.e. contain a larger fraction of the total mass in low-mass stars. From a theoretical point of view, supersonic turbulence has been the subject of interest in many analytical theories proposing a strong correlation with the characteristic mass of the core mass function (CMF) in star forming regions, and as a consequence with the stellar IMF. Performing two suites of smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with different mass resolutions, we aim at testing the effects of variations in the turbulent properties of a dense, star forming molecular cloud on the shape of the system mass function in different density regimes. While analytical theories predict a shift of the peak of the CMF towards lower masses with increasing velocity dispersion of the cloud, we observe in the low-density regime the opposite trend, with high Mach numbers giving rise to a top-heavy mass distribution. For the high-density regime we do not find any trend correlating the Mach number with the characteristic mass of the resulting IMF, implying that the dynamics of protostellar accretion discs and fragmentation on small scales is not strongly affected by turbulence driven at the scale of the cloud. Furthermore, we suggest that a significant fraction of dense cores are disrupted by turbulence before stars can be formed in their interior through gravitational collapse. Although this particular study has limitations in its numerical resolution, we suggest that our results, along with those from other studies, cast doubt on the turbulent fragmentation models on the IMF that simply map the CMF to the IMF.

  2. The IMF dependence of the local time of transpolar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, R.; Milan, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Transpolar arcs or polar cap arcs are auroral features which are observed within the polar cap. They occur predominantly during intervals of northward IMF (Berkey et al., 1976). There is mixed evidence for IMF BY control of the local time at which the arcs initially form; Gussenhoven (1982) found that polar cap arcs formed preferentially post-midnight when BY < 0 (evaluated over 1 or 2 hours preceding the start of the arc) and pre-midnight when BY > 0, whereas Valladares et al (1991) found no clear dependency. The only previous statistical study of globally-imaged transpolar arcs (Kullen et al., 2002) found differing results for moving and non-moving arcs, concluding that three different models were required to identify (i) moving arcs, (ii) stationary arcs near the dawn/dusk portion of the main oval, and (iii) stationary arcs in the midnight sector. In this presentation, we show the results of a statistical study of 131 transpolar arcs observed by the FUV cameras on the IMAGE satellite between June 2000 and September 2005. We find that arcs tend to form following the same dependency on BY as identified by Gussenhoven (1982), whether moving or not. We find that the correlation between the magnetic local time at which the arc forms and the IMF BY component is relatively weak if the IMF is only averaged over the hour preceding the arc formation, but becomes stronger if the IMF is evaluated between 1 and 4 hours before the arc first forms. This is consistent with the timescale that is expected for newly-opened magnetospheric flux to reach the magnetotail plasma sheet (Dungey, 1961; Milan et al., 2007), and is therefore consistent with the suggestion that transpolar arcs map to the plasma sheet. We suggest that the similar dependence of stationary and moving arcs on the IMF BY component might imply that it is possible to explain both types of arc in terms of a single mechanism.

  3. Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability under southward IMF: THEMIS observations and OpenGGCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosi, S.; Raeder, J.

    2015-12-01

    While Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves for southward IMF were long thought to be non-existent, both the Kavosi and Raeder [2015] study, and two other independent studies [Hwang et al., 2011; Yan et al., 2014] have found southward IMF KH events. It still remains a mystery, though, why KH under southward IMF occurs only at one quarter of the rate compared to northward IMF [Kavosi and Raeder, 2015], and whether or not such waves occur only under specific conditions. The previous study [Hwang et al., 2011] suggested that the irregular and temporally intermittent structure of KH waves due to dynamically active sub solar behavior under southward IMF condition may explain the preferential in situ detection of KH waves under northward IMF. This explanation is also consistent with the KH events under southward IMF in our database. The majority of the events during southward IMF are irregular, short and polychromatic in compare to regular, long lasting and monochromatic waves under northward IMF. To effectively isolate these differences, we have used both our extensive THEMIS KH event database and OpenGGCM simulations. Our simulation results show that the KH waves under southward IMF are irregular, higher frequency, lower amplitude, and polychromatic compared to northward IMF. Additionally, our statistical analysis shows that occurrence rate of KH wave as a function of solar wind plasma parameters is different under southward IMF compared to northward IMF.

  4. All-optical frame clock recovery from even-multiplexed OTDM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lina; Liu, Guoming; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-02-01

    Frame clock is useful for packet processing such as header detection and payload demultiplexing. A novel all-optical frame clock recovery scheme based on "intensity reshaper" and mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser is demonstrated. The "intensity reshaper" including a polarization controller and a polarizer is the key element to realize frame clock recovery from equal-amplitude even-multiplexed OTDM signals. In theory, a mathematical expression is given to analyze the intensity of harmonic of clock-frequency component. The relative intensity of each clock-frequency component will change with the alterative angle caused by adjusting the PC in the "intensity reshaper", so the desirable clock-frequency component can be enhanced, which is helpful for clock recovery. Moreover, the intensity of harmonic of clock-frequency component is also related to the pulse amplitude, width and period in the multiplexed data. In experiment, 2.5GHz frame clock is extracted from even-multiplexed 4x2.5GHz and 8x2.5GHz OTDM signals respectively. At the same time, bit clock is also recovered by using this scheme. The extracted clock pulses have several desirable features such as low timing jitter, broad wavelength tuning range and polarization independence. This scheme simplifies signal generation and propagation in OTDM systems, which can be applied to clock recovery in high-speed OTDM network.

  5. VCSELs for atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Peake, Gregory M.; Geib, Kent M.; Lutwak, Robert; Garvey, R. Michael; Varghese, Mathew; Mescher, Mark

    2006-02-01

    The spectroscopic technique of coherent population trapping (CPT) enables an all-optical interrogation of the groundstate hyperfine splitting of cesium (or rubidium), compared to the optical-microwave double resonance technique conventionally employed in atomic frequency standards. All-optical interrogation enables the reduction of the size and power consumption of an atomic clock by two orders of magnitude, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are preferred optical sources due to their low power consumption and circular output beam. Several research teams are currently using VCSELs for DARPA's chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) program with the goal of producing an atomic clock having a volume < 1 cm^3, a power consumption < 30 mW, and an instability (Allan deviation) < 1x10^-11 during a 1-hour averaging interval. This paper describes the VCSEL requirements for CPT-based atomic clocks, which include single mode operation, single polarization operation, modulation bandwidth > 4 GHz, low power consumption (for the CSAC), narrow linewidth, and low relative intensity noise (RIN). A significant manufacturing challenge is to reproducibly obtain the required wavelength at the specified VCSEL operating temperature and drive current. Data are presented that show the advantage of operating at the D1 (rather than D2) resonance of the alkali atoms. Measurements of VCSEL linewidth will be discussed in particular, since atomic clock performance is especially sensitive to this parameter.

  6. Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 103, transom woodwork and original clock. All clocks are driven by a common signal. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. The Impact of the Integrated Galaxy IMF on Supernovae Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, F.; Weidner, C.; Zoccali, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent research regarding the star formation in star clusters on galaxy wide scales indicates that, in the hypothesis that all stars are born within clusters, the supposedly universal initial stellar mass function (IMF) within young star clusters, does not necessarily yield the same IMF for whole galaxies. As star clusters also follow an embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), the whole integrated galaxy initial stellar mass function (IGIMF) has to be steeper than the individual IMFs of star clusters -- depending on the steepness of the ECMF (Kroupa & Weidner 2003, ApJ, 598, 1076; Weidner & Kroupa 2005, ApJ, 625, 754). This result has found to be able to explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies (Köppen et al. 2007, MNRAS, 375, 673). Investigating the effects of the IGIMF further, this project concentrates on the expected temporal evolution of the supernova rate in comparison with a rate for a single-slope Salpeter-like IMF, for a wide range of galaxies with different masses and star-formation histories. Type II and type Ia supernovae are included at a later stage, as well as the influence of massive starbursts.

  8. Distinct Magnetospheric Responses to Southward IMF in Two Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Richard, R. L.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Sigwarth, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Solar wind plasma parameters and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) observed by the WIND spacecraft upstream of the bow shock were used as input to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of two substorm events. The power deposited into the ionosphere due to electron precipitation was calculated both from VIS observations and from the simulations.

  9. IMF effect on the polar cap contraction and expansion during a period of substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikio, A. T.; Pitkänen, T.; Honkonen, I.; Palmroth, M.; Amm, O.

    2013-06-01

    The polar cap boundary (PCB) location and motion in the nightside ionosphere has been studied by using measurements from the EISCAT radars and the MIRACLE magnetometers during a period of four substorms on 18 February 2004. The OMNI database has been used for observations of the solar wind and the Geotail satellite for magnetospheric measurements. In addition, the event was modelled by the GUMICS-4 MHD simulation. The simulation of the PCB location was in a rather good agreement with the experimental estimates at the EISCAT longitude. During the first three substorm expansion phases, neither the local observations nor the global simulation showed any poleward motions of the PCB, even though the electrojets intensified. Rapid poleward motions of the PCB took place only in the early recovery phases of the substorms. Hence, in these cases the nightside reconnection rate was locally higher in the recovery phase than in the expansion phase. In addition, we suggest that the IMF Bz component correlated with the nightside tail inclination angle and the PCB location with about a 17-min delay from the bow shock. By taking the delay into account, the IMF northward turnings were associated with dipolarizations of the magnetotail and poleward motions of the PCB in the recovery phase. The mechanism behind this effect should be studied further.

  10. Optical atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, N.; Oates, C. W.; Gill, P.; Tino, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femtosecond optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in 1018. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  11. A fault-tolerant clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daley, W. P.; Mckenna, J. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Computers must operate correctly even though one or more of components have failed. Electronic clock has been designed to be insensitive to occurrence of faults; it is substantial advance over any known clock.

  12. Modern yields per stellar generation: the effect of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Belfiore, F.; Maiolino, R.

    2016-02-01

    Gaseous and stellar metallicities in galaxies are nowadays routinely used to constrain the evolutionary processes in galaxies. This requires the knowledge of the average yield per stellar generation, yZ, i.e. the quantity of metals that a stellar population releases into the interstellar medium (ISM), which is generally assumed to be a fixed fiducial value. Deviations of the observed metallicity from the expected value of yZ are used to quantify the effect of outflows or inflows of gas, or even as evidence for biased metallicity calibrations or inaccurate metallicity diagnostics. Here, we show that y_{Z} depends significantly on the initial mass function (IMF), varying by up to a factor larger than three, for the range of IMFs typically adopted in various studies. Varying the upper mass cutoff of the IMF implies a further variation of yZ by an additional factor that can be larger than two. These effects, along with the variation of the gas mass fraction restored into the ISM by supernovae (R, which also depends on the IMF), may yield to deceiving results, if not properly taken into account. In particular, metallicities that are often considered unusually high can actually be explained in terms of yield associated with commonly adopted IMFs such as the Kroupa or Chabrier. We provide our results for two different sets of stellar yields (both affected by specific limitations) finding that the uncertainty introduced by this assumption can be as large as ˜0.2 dex. Finally, we show that yZ is not substantially affected by the initial stellar metallicity as long as Z > 10-3 Z⊙.

  13. Tutorial: Clock and Clock Systems Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.

    1996-01-01

    This tutorial contains basic material - familiar to many. This will be used as a foundation upon which we will build - bringing forth some new material and equations that have been developed especially for this tutorial. These will provide increased understanding toward parameter estimation of clock and clock system's performance. There is a very important International Telecommunications Union (ITU) handbook being prepared at this time which goes much further than this tutorial has time to do. I highly recommend it as an excellent resource document. The final draft is just now being completed, and it should be ready late in 1996. It is an outstanding handbook; Dr. Sydnor proposed to the ITU-R several years ago, and is the editor with my assistance. We have some of the best contributors in the community from around the world who have written the ten chapters in this handbook. The title of the handbook is 'Selection and use of Precise Frequency and Time Systems'. It will be available from the ITU secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, but NAVTEC Seminars also plans to be a distributor.

  14. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  15. Estimating the instability of a composite clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite clock created from a local clock ensemble is known by its time offsets from the ensemble clocks. By a geometrical argument, estimate for the instability of the composite clock are calculated from the instabilities of the ensemble clocks, individually and against the composite clock. The method is illustrated by examples using simulated and real ensembles.

  16. Clock Reaction: Outreach Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Yuen-ying; Phillips, Heather A.; Jakubinek, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry students are often introduced to the concept of reaction rates through demonstrations or laboratory activities involving the well-known iodine clock reaction. For example, a laboratory experiment involving thiosulfate as an iodine scavenger is part of the first-year general chemistry laboratory curriculum at Dalhousie University. With…

  17. Narrative Clock Sculptures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Art teacher Linda Popp and artist H. Ed Smith team up to teach about creating sculptural clocks. This lesson shows how a portrait can be created using various media. Students based projects on someone in their lives they have known for a long time. This sculptural problem was part of a series of portrait and self-portrait lessons with a high…

  18. The Two Sides of the Mental Clock: The Imaginal Hemispatial Effect in the Healthy Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Cinque, Fausta; Trojano, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    When subjects are asked to compare the mental images of two analog clocks telling different times (the mental clock test), they are faster to process angles formed by hands located in the right than in the left half of the dial. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this Imaginal HemiSpatial Effect (IHSE) can be also observed in two modified…

  19. Pulsed Optically Pumped Rb clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micalizio, S.; Levi, F.; Godone, A.; Calosso, C. E.; François, B.; Boudot, R.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Gharavipour, M.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    INRIM demonstrated a Rb vapour cell clock based on pulsed optical pumping (POP) with unprecedented frequency stability performances, both in the short and in the medium-long term period. In the frame of a EMRP project, we are developing a new clock based on the same POP principle but adopting solutions aimed at reducing the noise sources affecting the INRIM clock. At the same time, concerning possible technological applications, particular care are devoted in the project to reduce the size and the weight of the clock, still keeping the excellent stability of the INRIM clock. The paper resumes the main results of this activity.

  20. The Magnetospheric Response to Abrupt Variations in the IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    We run the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic model at NASA/GSFC's CCMCto study the magnetospheric response to abrupt variations in the IMF orientation but constant solar wind plasmaparameters. IMF rotations from southward to duskward orientations diminish reconnection rates and the flow ofplasma to the dayside magnetopause, launch Alfven waves that carry strong duskward magnetic field perturbationsto the cusp ionosphere, introduce a weak duskward magnetic field perturbation to the outer dayside magnetosphere, twistthe magnetotail current sheet counterclockwise when viewed from the Sun, flatten the north/south dimensions of the distant magnetotail, andgenerate a broad slow-mode fan on the magnetotail flanks. Southward IMF turnings strengthen the Region 1 Birkelandcurrents, prominently depressing magnetic field strengths in the inner dayside magnetosphere and to a lesserdegree those in the outer magnetosphere, consistent with inward dayside magnetopause erosion. The daysidemagnetopause becomes blunter. As evidenced by enhanced magnetosheath thermal and magnetosphericmagnetic pressures, the magnetopause therefore becomes subject to a greater fraction of the incident solar winddynamic pressure at locations away from the subsolar point.

  1. ZFIRE Survey: Studying the IMF at z~2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Themiya

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive Near Infra-Red instruments has made it possible to study the galaxy properties at z~2, just 3Gy after the Big Bang. This is expected to be the time period where galaxies are actively star forming and evolving rapidly to form the massive galaxies that are observed in our local neighborhood.As a part of the ZFIRE survey we used the MOSFIRE on Keck to study environment, metallicity and ISM properties of galaxies at these redshifts. This allowed us to spectroscopically confirm the highest redshift cluster found so far.In my talk I will present results of the first ever attempt to constrain the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of galaxies at these redshifts using a cluster and a field sample. We have investigated the degeneracy between the star formation histories and the IMF to make strong constrains on the stellar mass distribution of these galaxies using synthetic stellar spectra. Our results will demonstrate the possibility of the universality of the IMF as a function of time and environment.

  2. Rockets, clocks, and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.

    Uses of atomic clocks, telemetry, and spacecraft to test predictions of the General Theory of Relativity are described. The number of cycles of a signal being generated by an atomic clock on board a satellite and directed toward earth stations allows precise determination of movements away or toward the receiving station, with an accuracy of 1/9,192,631,770 when using the outer shell electron to nucleus magnetic interaction of a cesium 133 isotope. Doppler radar serves the same purpose when reflected off the surface of a spacecraft, and radio transmitters landed on Mars have provided a source of signals which are deflected by the sun when orbital positions of earth and Mars are in favorable positions. Goals of the NASA Starprobe mission to measure the gravitational flattening and time/space warping occurring around the sun are outlined.

  3. Clocks in algae.

    PubMed

    Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-20

    As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods. PMID:25379817

  4. Strong IMF By-Related Plasma Convection in the Ionosphere and Cusp Field-Aligned Currents Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Lu, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper an investigation of IMF-By related plasma convection and cusp field-aligned currents using FAST data and AMIE model during a prolonged interval with large positive IMF By and northward Bz conditions (By/Bz much greater than 1). Using the FAST single trajectory observations to validate the global convection patterns at key times and key locations, we have demonstrated that the AMIE procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during this interval. Our results show that the plasma convection in the ionosphere is consistent with the anti-parallel merging model. When the IMF has a strongly positive By component under northward conditions, we find that the global plasma convection forms two cells oriented nearly along the Sun-earth line in the ionosphere. In the northern hemisphere, the dayside cell has clockwise convection mainly circulating within the polar cap on open field lines. A second cell with counterclockwise convection is located in the nightside circulating across the polar cap boundary, The observed two-cell convection pattern appears to be driven by the reconnection along the anti-parallel merging lines poleward of the cusp extending toward the dusk side when IMF By/Bz much greater than 1. The magnetic tension force on the newly reconnected field lines drives the plasma to move from dusk to dawn in the polar cusp region near the polar cap boundary. The field-aligned currents in the cusp region flow downward into the ionosphere. The return field-aligned currents extend into the polar cap in the center of the dayside convection cell. The field-aligned currents are closed through the Peterson currents in the ionosphere, which flow poleward from the polar cap boundary along the electric field direction.

  5. Statistical study of the effect of ULF fluctuations in the IMF on the cross polar cap potential drop for northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-J.; Lyons, L.; Boudouridis, A.; Pilipenko, V.; Ridley, A. J.; Weygand, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies showed that, regardless of the orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), ULF wave activity in the solar wind can substantially enhance the convection in the high latitude ionosphere, suggesting that ULF fluctuations may also be an important contributor to the coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We conduct a statistical study to understand the effect of ULF power in the IMF on the cross polar cap potential, primarily focusing on northward IMF. We have analyzed the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) calculations of the polar cap potential, a IMF ULF index that is defined as the logarithm of Pc5 ULF power in IMF, and solar wind velocity and dynamic pressure for 249 days in 2003. We find that, separated from the effects of solar wind speed and dynamic pressure, the average cross polar cap potentials show a roughly linear dependence on the ULF index, with a partial correlation coefficient of 0.19. Highly structured convection flow patterns with a number of localized vortices are often observed under fluctuating northward IMF. For such a convection configuration, it is hard to estimate properly the cross polar cap potential drop, as the enhanced flows around the vortices that may be associated with IMF fluctuations do not necessarily yield a large potential drop. Thus, despite the relatively small correlation coefficient, the linear trend we found gives support to the significant role of IMF ULF fluctuations on the coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system.

  6. MHD simulations using average solar wind conditions for substorms observed under northward IMF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. S.; Lee, D.-Y.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Substorms are known to sometimes occur even under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to examine dayside reconnection, tail, and ionospheric signatures for two cases of substorm observations under prolonged northward and dawnward IMF conditions: (1) a strongly northward/dawnward IMF case with BIMF = (0, -20, 20) nT; (2) a weakly northward/dawnward IMF case with BIMF = (0, -2, 2) nT. Throughout the simulations, we used the constant solar wind conditions to reflect the prolonged solar wind conditions around the substorm times. We found that, in both cases, the tail reconnection occurred after the usual high-latitude reconnection on the dayside, providing a possible energy source for later triggered substorm observations under northward IMF conditions. The presence of an equal amount of IMF By allows the high-latitude reconnected magnetic field lines to transport to the tail lobe, eventually leading to the tail reconnection. The simulation results also revealed the following major differences between the two cases: First, the reconnection onset (both on dayside and in the tail) occurs earlier in the strongly northward IMF case than in the weakly northward IMF case. Second, the polar cap size, which is finite in both cases despite the northward IMF conditions and thus supports the lobe energy buildup needed for the substorm occurrences, is larger in the strongly northward IMF case. Accordingly, the polar cap potential is far larger in the strongly northward IMF case (hundreds of kilovolt) than in the weakly northward IMF case (tens of kilovolt). Third, in the strongly northward IMF case, the strong earthward tail plasma flow appears to be caused by the enhanced convection (so enhanced duskward Ey) due to the tail reconnection. In contrast, in the weakly northward IMF case, the earthward tail plasma flow increases gradually in association with a modestly increased

  7. Simulation of the geospace response to a sudden change in IMF orientation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Pham, K. H.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have conducted simulations of the response of the geospace system to a sudden change in the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic code. Specifically, we have explored a sudden change in the IMF orientation from an extended period during which it was steady northward, to a steady southward IMF. The change in the IMF orientation first causes a reversal in the direction of the bow shock current, which launches a fast mode wave that propagates through the system, causing changes in the overall current pattern even before the southward IMF arrives at the dayside magnetopause to initiate low latitude merging. When the southward IMF does arrive at the magnetopause, the preceding northward IMF in the solar wind flow is still driving high latitude merging poleward of the cusp. Even when the two-cell convection pattern in the ionosphere becomes the dominant convection, the LFM results show that there is still some remnant of the high latitude reverse cell convection that is associated with northward IMF that had previously merged with the geomagnetic field and which takes some time to be cleared out of the system. We will present a detailed account of the timescales and changes in the magnetic topologies, current systems, magnetospheric plasma flows, and ionospheric potential patterns associated with the transition from northward to southward IMF. We will also discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the effect of transient changes in IMF orientations.

  8. IMF By-controlled field-aligned currents in the magnetotail during northward interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z. W.; Shi, J. K.; Dunlop, M.; Liu, Z. X.

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component on the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) in the magnetotail during the northward IMF were investigated using the data from Cluster. There are 748 FACs cases selected to do analysis. We present that the IMF By component plays a very important role in controlling the flow direction of the FACs in the PSBL in the magnetotail. In the northern hemisphere, the influence of the positive (negative) IMF By is an earthward (tailward) FACs. To the contrary, in the southern hemisphere, the effect of the positive (negative) IMF By is a tailward (earthward) FACs. There is a clear north-south asymmetry of the polarity of the FACs in the PSBL when IMF By is positive or negative, and this asymmetry of the polarity is more distinct when IMF By is positive. The FAC density is controlled by IMF By only when |IMF By| is large. When |IMF By| is more than 10 nT the absolute FAC density in the PSBL has an obvious positive correlation with the |IMF By|. When |IMF By| is less than 10 nT, there is no correlation between the absolute FAC density and |IMF By|. There is a clear dusk-dawn asymmetry in the current densities for the FACs in the PSBL, with the dawn currents appearing larger than the dusk currents. The FAC with the largest (smallest) density is located in the range of 0100≤MLT<0200 (2100≤MLT<2200).

  9. Circadian Clock, Cancer, and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a global regulatory system that interfaces with most other regulatory systems and pathways in mammalian organisms. Investigations of the circadian clock–DNA damage response connections have revealed that nucleotide excision repair, DNA damage checkpoints, and apoptosis are appreciably influenced by the clock. Although several epidemiological studies in humans and a limited number of genetic studies in mouse model systems have indicated that clock disruption may predispose mammals to cancer, well-controlled genetic studies in mice have not supported the commonly held view that circadian clock disruption is a cancer risk factor. In fact, in the appropriate genetic background, clock disruption may instead aid in cancer regression by promoting intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. Finally, the clock may affect the efficacy of cancer treatment (chronochemotherapy) by modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic drugs as well as the activity of the DNA repair enzymes that repair the DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs. PMID:25302769

  10. Huygens synchronization of two clocks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Henrique M.; Melo, Luís V.

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model. PMID:26204557

  11. A mixed relaxed clock model.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Phillips, Matthew J; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-19

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325829

  12. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    An iodine clock reaction that gives a colorless to black result similar to that of the familiar Landolt iodate-bisulfite clock reaction is described. The vitamin C clock reaction uses chemicals that are readily available on the retail market: vitamin C, tincture of iodine, 3% hydrogen peroxide, and laundry starch. Orange juice may be used as the vitamin C source to give an orange to black reaction.

  13. Huygens synchronization of two clocks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Henrique M; Melo, Luís V

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model. PMID:26204557

  14. Optical atomic clocks and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The atomic clock has long demonstrated the capability to measure time or frequency with very high precision. Consequently, these clocks are used extensively in technological applications such as advanced synchronization or communication and navigation networks. Optical atomic clocks are next- generation timekeepers which reference narrowband optical transitions between suitable atomic states. Many optical time/frequency standards utilize state-of-the-art quantum control and precision measurement. Combined with the ultrahigh quality factors of the atomic resonances at their heart, optical atomic clocks have promised new levels of timekeeping precision, orders of magnitude higher than conventional atomic clocks based on microwave transitions. Such measurement capability enables and/or enhances many of the most exciting applications of these clocks, including the study of fundamental laws of physics through the measurement of time evolution. Here, I will highlight optical atomic clocks and their utility, as well as review recent advances in their development and performance. In particular, I will describe in detail the optical lattice clock and the realization of frequency measurement at the level of one part in 1018. To push the performance of these atomic timekeepers to such a level and beyond, several key advances are being explored worldwide. These will be discussed generally, with particular emphasis on our recent efforts at NIST in developing the optical lattice clock based on atomic ytterbium.

  15. Steady reconnection during intervals of northward IMF: Implications for magnetosheath properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrinec, S. M.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    This study examines the location of the reconnection site on the magnetopause for conditions of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and its implications for properties of the magnetosheath. Ion distribution functions from the Toroidal Imaging Mass Angle Spectrometer (TIMAS) instrument on board the Polar spacecraft during passes through the dayside cusp region when the IMF was steady and northward are used. Cutoff velocities are determined from these distributions and the distance from the Polar spacecraft to the site of reconnection is estimated. A magnetospheric magnetic field model is used to map these determined distances to a location on the magnetopause where reconnection is believed to have occurred. Nearly all of these reconnection sites lie in places where the magnetosheath flow is estimated to be super-Alfvénic (using hydrodynamic theory and an analytic magnetosheath magnetic field model). However, there exist strict constraints on the speed of the ambient magnetosheath flow at the reconnection site, in order for this particular type of particle distribution to have been observed by TIMAS. Different physical models are discussed, including the possibility of nonstationary reconnection sites and the existence of a plasma depletion layer which significantly increases the magnetosheath Alfvén speed close to the magnetopause. From the observations and mapped reconnection locations, we estimate statistically how much the average ion density must decrease (and the magnetic field must increase) in the plasma depletion layer to be consistent with the cusp region observations. The resulting range of values is consistent with the theoretical estimates of Zwan and Wolf [1976] (k >= 2).

  16. X lines in the magnetotail for southward and northward IMF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. Q.; Wang, J. Y.; Baumjohann, W.; Rème, H.; Dai, L.; Dunlop, M. W.; Chen, T.; Huang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Utilizing associated observations of Geotail and ACE satellites from the year of 1998 to 2005, we investigated the X lines in the near-Earth tail under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The X lines are recognized by the tailward fast flows with negative Bz. Statistically, the X lines in the tail can be observed for southward as well as northward IMF, but more frequently observed for southward IMF. A typical case on 26 April 2005 showed clear evidence that the X line can occur for northward IMF while the geomagnetic activity is particularly quiet. Further analysis showed that the X line-related solar wind has stronger Ey and Bz components for southward than northward IMF. In addition, the X line-related geomagnetic activities are stronger for southward than northward IMF.

  17. Master/slave clock arrangement for providing reliable clock signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Duane L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The outputs of two like frequency oscillators are combined to form a single reliable clock signal, with one oscillator functioning as a slave under the control of the other to achieve phase coincidence when the master is operative and in a free-running mode when the master is inoperative so that failure of either oscillator produces no effect on the clock signal.

  18. A Light Clock Satisfying the Clock Hypothesis of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The design of the FMEL, a floor-mirrored Einstein-Langevin "light clock", is introduced. The clock provides a physically intuitive manner to calculate and visualize the time dilation effects for a spatially extended set of observers (an accelerated "frame") undergoing unidirectional acceleration or observers on a rotating cylinder of constant…

  19. Magnetization dynamics, Bennett clocking and associated energy dissipation in multiferroic logic.

    PubMed

    Fashami, Mohammad Salehi; Roy, Kuntal; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2011-04-15

    It has been recently shown that the magnetization of a multiferroic nanomagnet, consisting of a magnetostrictive layer elastically coupled to a piezoelectric layer, can be rotated by a large angle if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied to the piezoelectric layer. The potential generates stress in the magnetostrictive layer and rotates its magnetization by ~90° to implement Bennett clocking in nanomagnetic logic chains. Because of the small voltage needed, this clocking method is far more energy efficient than those that would employ spin transfer torque or magnetic fields to rotate the magnetization. In order to assess if such a clocking scheme can also be reasonably fast, we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a multiferroic logic chain with nearest-neighbor dipole coupling using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We find that clock rates of 2.5 GHz are feasible while still maintaining the exceptionally high energy efficiency. For this clock rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip is ~52,000 kT at room temperature in the clocking circuit for properly designed nanomagnets. Had we used spin transfer torque to clock at the same rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip would have been ~4 x 10⁸ kT, while with current transistor technology we would have expended ~10⁶ kT. For slower clock rates of 1 GHz, stress-based clocking will dissipate only ~200 kT of energy per clock cycle per bit flip, while spin transfer torque would dissipate about 10⁸ kT. This shows that multiferroic nanomagnetic logic, clocked with voltage-generated stress, can emerge as a very attractive technique for computing and signal processing since it can be several orders of magnitude more energy efficient than current technologies. PMID:21389584

  20. Magnetization dynamics, Bennett clocking and associated energy dissipation in multiferroic logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi Fashami, Mohammad; Roy, Kuntal; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2011-04-01

    It has been recently shown that the magnetization of a multiferroic nanomagnet, consisting of a magnetostrictive layer elastically coupled to a piezoelectric layer, can be rotated by a large angle if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied to the piezoelectric layer. The potential generates stress in the magnetostrictive layer and rotates its magnetization by ~ 90° to implement Bennett clocking in nanomagnetic logic chains. Because of the small voltage needed, this clocking method is far more energy efficient than those that would employ spin transfer torque or magnetic fields to rotate the magnetization. In order to assess if such a clocking scheme can also be reasonably fast, we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a multiferroic logic chain with nearest-neighbor dipole coupling using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We find that clock rates of 2.5 GHz are feasible while still maintaining the exceptionally high energy efficiency. For this clock rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip is ~ 52 000 kT at room temperature in the clocking circuit for properly designed nanomagnets. Had we used spin transfer torque to clock at the same rate, the energy dissipated per clock cycle per bit flip would have been ~ 4 × 108 kT, while with current transistor technology we would have expended ~ 106 kT. For slower clock rates of 1 GHz, stress-based clocking will dissipate only ~ 200 kT of energy per clock cycle per bit flip, while spin transfer torque would dissipate about 108 kT. This shows that multiferroic nanomagnetic logic, clocked with voltage-generated stress, can emerge as a very attractive technique for computing and signal processing since it can be several orders of magnitude more energy efficient than current technologies.

  1. The Mechanism of the Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and problems with the formaldehyde clock reaction, including comparisons of experimental clock times reported in the literature and conditions for the reliable use of the formaldehyde clock based on a method discussed. (JN)

  2. Digital processing clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tthe digital processing clock SG 1157/U is described. It is compatible with the PTTI world where it can be driven by an external cesium source. Built-in test equipment shows synchronization with cesium through 1 pulse per second. It is built to be expandable to accommodate future time-keeping needs of the Navy as well as any other time ordered functions. Examples of this expandibility are the inclusion of an unmodulated XR3 time code and the 2137 modulate time code (XR3 with 1 kHz carrier).

  3. Methodologies for steering clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  4. Einstein’s Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-09-09

    One of the most non-intuitive physics theories ever devised is Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity, which claim such crazy-sounding things as two people disagreeing on such familiar concepts as length and time. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln shows that every single day particle physicists prove that moving clocks tick more slowly than stationary ones. He uses an easy to understand example of particles that move for far longer distances than you would expect from combining their velocity and stationary lifetime.

  5. Biological switches and clocks

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Albert, Reka; Goldbeter, Albert; Ruoff, Peter; Sible, Jill

    2008-01-01

    To introduce this special issue on biological switches and clocks, we review the historical development of mathematical models of bistability and oscillations in chemical reaction networks. In the 1960s and 1970s, these models were limited to well-studied biochemical examples, such as glycolytic oscillations and cyclic AMP signalling. After the molecular genetics revolution of the 1980s, the field of molecular cell biology was thrown wide open to mathematical modellers. We review recent advances in modelling the gene–protein interaction networks that control circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression, signal processing and the design of synthetic gene networks. PMID:18522926

  6. A mixed relaxed clock model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  7. Statistical study of influence of the IMF cone angle on foreshock processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbar, Jaroslav; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Prech, Lubomir

    2016-07-01

    The parameters of the solar wind plasma are modified upstream the Earth's bow shock, in the ion foreshock region, which is typically observed at quasi-parallel bow shock. Associated ULF waves are created due to the interaction of the solar wind plasma with the ions reflected at the bow shock where they generate fast magnetosonic waves with an in-phase relationship between the ion flux and magnetic field fluctuations. Using multipoint observations from the THEMIS spacecraft located in the vicinity of the bow shock or in the foreshock, we present statistical maps of a modification of solar wind parameters due to foreshock processes (solar wind heating and deceleration, enhancements of electric and magnetic field fluctuation levels, etc.). At the paper, a special attention is devoted to intervals of the radial interplanetary magnetic field that creates the foreshock upstream of a whole dayside bow shock.

  8. Strong gravitational lensing and the stellar IMF of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leier, Dominik; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit; Charlot, Stéphane; Bruzual, Gustavo; La Barbera, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Systematic variations of the initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies, and their connection with possible drivers such as velocity dispersion or metallicity, have been much debated in recent years. Strong lensing over galaxy scales combined with photometric and spectroscopic data provides a powerful method to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence the functional form of the IMF. We combine photometric and spectroscopic constraints from the latest set of population synthesis models of Charlot & Bruzual, including a varying IMF, with a non-parametric analysis of the lens masses of 18 ETGs from the SLACS survey, with velocity dispersions in the range 200-300 km s-1. We find that very bottom-heavy IMFs are excluded. However, the upper limit to the bimodal IMF slope (μ ≲ 2.2, accounting for a dark matter fraction of 20-30 per cent, where μ = 1.3 corresponds to a Kroupa-like IMF) is compatible at the 1σ level with constraints imposed by gravity-sensitive line strengths. A two-segment power-law parametrization of the IMF (Salpeter-like for high masses) is more constrained (Γ ≲ 1.5, where Γ is the power index at low masses) but requires a dark matter contribution of ≳25 per cent to reconcile the results with a Salpeter IMF. For a standard Milky Way-like IMF to be applicable, a significant dark matter contribution is required within 1Re. Our results reveal a large range of allowed IMF slopes, which, when interpreted as intrinsic scatter in the IMF properties of ETGs, could explain the recent results of Smith et al., who find Milky Way-like IMF normalizations in a few massive lensing ETGs.

  9. Strong Gravitational Lensing and the Stellar IMF of Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leier, Dominik; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit; Charlot, Stéphane; Bruzual, Gustavo; La Barbera, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Systematic variations of the IMF in early-type galaxies, and their connection with possible drivers such as velocity dispersion or metallicity, have been much debated in recent years. Strong lensing over galaxy scales combined with photometric and spectroscopic data provides a powerful method to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence the functional form of the IMF. We combine photometric and spectroscopic constraints from the latest set of population synthesis models of Charlot & Bruzual, including a varying IMF, with a non-parametric analysis of the lens masses of 18 ETGs from the SLACS survey, with velocity dispersions in the range 200-300 km s-1. We find that very bottom-heavy IMFs are excluded. However, the upper limit to the bimodal IMF slope (μ ≲ 2.2, accounting for a dark matter fraction of 20-30%, where μ = 1.3 corresponds to a Kroupa-like IMF) is compatible at the 1 σ level with constraints imposed by gravity-sensitive line strengths. A two-segment power law parameterisation of the IMF (Salpeter-like for high masses) is more constrained (Γ ≲ 1.5, where Γ is the power index at low masses) but requires a dark matter contribution of ≲ 25% to reconcile the results with a Salpeter IMF. For a standard Milky Way-like IMF to be applicable, a significant dark matter contribution is required within 1Re. Our results reveal a large range of allowed IMF slopes, which, when interpreted as intrinsic scatter in the IMF properties of ETGs, could explain the recent results of Smith et al., who find Milky Way-like IMF normalisations in a few massive lensing ETGs.

  10. The story of UGC 11919 - a galaxy which could possess a non-standard stellar IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburova, Anna; Zasov, Anatoly; Uklein, Roman; Katkov, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We performed long-slit observations of a spiral galaxy UGC11919 with the Russian 6-m telescope to study its kinematics and stellar population. The previous studies allowed to suspect that this galaxy possesses a peculiarly low mass-to-light ratio M/L of stellar population. A bottom-light stellar initial mass function (IMF) could explain the low value of M/L. The performed spectral observations and the estimation of stellar mass-to-light ratio for different evolutionary models using both the broad-band magnitudes and the detailed spectral data confirm this peculiarity if to accept the inclination angle i = 30 or higher, as it was obtained earlier from the optical isophotes and HI velocity field based on the WSRT observations. However we show that the HI isophotes are compatible with the lower value of i, hence the question of peculiarly low M/L remains open. The derived stellar kinematic profiles reveal a signature of kinematically decoupled nuclear disk in the galaxy. We show that the disk of UGC11919 is dynamically overheated independently of the adopted inclination angle - probably as the result of the gravitational interaction with companions which were found in the HI line.

  11. The Vitamin C Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an iodine clock reaction that produces an effect similar to the Landolt clock reaction. This reaction uses supermarket chemicals and avoids iodate, bisulfite, and mercury compounds. Ascorbic acid and tincture of iodine are the main reactants with alternate procedures provided for vitamin C tablets and orange juice. (DDR)

  12. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:22877658

  13. The SFR and IMF of the galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    There is a long term dynamical heating of stellar populations with age observed in the age velocity dispersion relation (AVR). This effect allows a determination of the star formation history SFR(t) from local kinematical data of main sequence stars. Using a self-consistent disk model for the vertical structure of the disk, we find from the kinematics of the stars in the solar neighbourhood that the SFR shows a moderate star burst about 10 Gyr ago followed by a continuous decline to the present day value consistent with the observed number of OB stars. The gravitational potential of the gas component and of the Dark Matter Halo is included and the effect of chemical enrichment, finite lifetime of the stars and mass loss of the stellar component are taken into account. The scale heights for main sequence stars together with the SFR is then used to determine constistently the IMF from the observed local luminosity function. The main new result is that the power law break in the present day mass function (PDMF) around 1 M ⊙ is entirely due to evolutionary effects of the disk and does not appear in the IMF.

  14. Dependence of Large-Scale Global Poynting Flux on IMF By Polarity Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the dependence of the global Poynting flux on the IMF By polarity change. The amount of energy that enters the magnetosphere from the solar wind is a function of the solar wind speed and pressure and the IMF orientation and magnitude. All the various published coupling models show that the polarity of the IMF By component does not change the energy input. In contrast the global convection patterns, and thus the ionospheric Pedersen currents, depend on IMF By polarity. This seems to imply that the ionospheric energy deposition is a function of IMF By polarity. Thus, there appear to be a fundamental difference between the input (from the solar wind) and the output (energy dissipating Pedersen currents). We, therefore, ask the question: To what extend is the global Poynting flux dependent on the IMF By polarity? We have performed a statistical study evaluating 59 abrupt transitions in the IMF By component (polarity changes) as measured by the ACE spacecraft. The effect of other solar wind coupling parameters, such as the IMF Bz component, are minimized by selecting events where these are nearly constant. We use electric field distributions from SuperDARN and field-aligned current distributions from AMPERE to calculate the global distribution of the Poynting Flux. To minimize the effect of magnetospheric energy unloading we focus on the 06-18 MLT region. We further investigate the dependence on solar induced conductivity. We find that the Poynting flux is slightly larger for positive IMF By compared to negative By conditions. For a low conductivity (not sunlit) ionosphere the Poynting flux is smaller than in the high conductivity (sunlit) ionosphere and we find a smaller dependence on IMF By polarity. The study emphasizes the global dynamic behavior of the ionosphere in its response to changes in the external driver (IMF).

  15. A Superfluid Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    The performance of clocks is limited by the characteristics of the underlying oscillator. Both the quality factor of the oscillator and the signal-to-noise ratio for the resonator state measurement are important. A superfluid helium Helmholtz resonator operating at approx.100mK temperatures has the potential of maintaining frequency stability of 5x10(exp -15)/t(exp 1/2) on the time scale of a few months. The high dynamic range of lossless SQUID position displacement measurement, and low losses associated with the superfluid flow, combined with high mechanical stability of cryogenic assemblies, contribute to the projected stability. Low overall mass of the assembly allows for multiple stages of vibration isolation.

  16. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health. PMID:22504946

  17. Probabilistic Forecasting Analysis of Geomagnetic Indices for IMF Bs-events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bs) intervals are important to drive disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere. However, high-accuracy forecast of IMF Bz is not available from current heliospheric models. Here we perform a follow-up study of McPherron and Siscoe [2004] to examine the statistical characteristics of interplanetary plasma/magnetic field and probability distribution function of geomagnetic activity indices for strong IMF Bs intervals. It is shown that the occurrence of long-duration, large-amplitude IMF Bs intervals, related with different solar wind transients (such as ICME, SIR), are preceded by and change with a distinctive set of other solar wind/IMF parameters. We find that solar wind speed is positively correlated with geomagnetic indices, and that strong IMF Bs is the key to trigger storm but not necessarily substorm. We also find that solar wind density weakly affects geomagnetic activity, and the response depends on different kinds of solar wind transients that include the strong IMF Bs-events. We also find that magnetospheric ULF waves are induced by both strong southward IMF intervals and solar wind dynamic pressure disturbances.

  18. How chemistry influences cloud structure, star formation, and the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocuk, S.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the earliest phases of star-forming clouds, stable molecular species, such as CO, are important coolants in the gas phase. Depletion of these molecules on dust surfaces affects the thermal balance of molecular clouds and with that their whole evolution. For the first time, we study the effect of grain surface chemistry (GSC) on star formation and its impact on the initial mass function (IMF). We follow a contracting translucent cloud in which we treat the gas-grain chemical interplay in detail, including the process of freeze-out. We perform 3D hydrodynamical simulations under three different conditions, a pure gas-phase model, a freeze-out model, and a complete chemistry model. The models display different thermal evolution during cloud collapse as also indicated in Hocuk, Cazaux & Spaans, but to a lesser degree because of a different dust temperature treatment, which is more accurate for cloud cores. The equation of state (EOS) of the gas becomes softer with CO freeze-out and the results show that at the onset of star formation, the cloud retains its evolution history such that the number of formed stars differ (by 7 per cent) between the three models. While the stellar mass distribution results in a different IMF when we consider pure freeze-out, with the complete treatment of the GSC, the divergence from a pure gas-phase model is minimal. We find that the impact of freeze-out is balanced by the non-thermal processes; chemical and photodesorption. We also find an average filament width of 0.12 pc (±0.03 pc), and speculate that this may be a result from the changes in the EOS caused by the gas-dust thermal coupling. We conclude that GSC plays a big role in the chemical composition of molecular clouds and that surface processes are needed to accurately interpret observations, however, that GSC does not have a significant impact as far as star formation and the IMF is concerned.

  19. Circadian clocks and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Victoria; Williams, Jack L; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, and link this to increased tumour risk in women who work irregular shift patterns. Understanding the influence of circadian rhythms on breast cancer could lead to more efficacious therapies, reformed public health policy and improved patient outcome. PMID:27590298

  20. End-resonance clock and all-photonic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William; Gong, Fei; Braun, Alan; Kwakernaak, Martin

    2008-02-01

    The end-resonance clock uses strong hyperfine end transition to stabilize the frequency of the local oscillator. Comparing to the conventional 0-0 atomic clock, end resonance has very small spin-exchange broadening effect. The spin-exchange rate is proportional to the number density of the alkali-metal atoms. By using the end resonance, we are able to use very high dense vapor to obtain a much better signal to noise ratio. On the other hand, the end resonance suffers from the first-order magnetic field dependence. This problem, however, can be solved by simultaneously using a Zeeman end resonance to stabilize the magnetic field. Here, we report the most recent result of the end-resonance clock. In addition, we report a whole new technique, push-pull laser-atomic oscillator, which can be thought as all-photonic clock. This new clock requires no local oscillator. It acts like a photonic version of maser, which spontaneously generates modulated laser light and modulated voltage signals. The modulation serves as the clock signal, which is automatically locked to the ground-state hyperfine frequency of alkali-metal atoms.

  1. IMF-By effect on the mid-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Jin, Hidekatsu

    The primary factor that controls ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations is solar UV/EUV radiations through the ionization of the thermospheric neutral particles and through the modification of the thermosphere. Changes in temperature and composition of the neutral atmosphere and the atmospheric circulation greatly affect the ionospheric electron density. Because such a relationship between the solar spectral irradiance and the ionospheric TEC is highly complex, we applied an artificial neural network (ANN) technique that has a great capability of function approximation of complex systems to model solar irradiance effects on TEC. Three solar proxies, F_{10.7}, SOHO_SEM_{26-34} EUV emission index, and MgII_c-w-r were chosen as input parameters to the ANN-TEC model. Another channel of energy flow from the sun to the earth’s ionosphere is the solar wind. The am index and several solar wind magnetosphere coupling functions were chosen as additional inputs to the ANN to model the effects of magnetic disturbances. Somewhat minor but interesting effects on TEC variations emerged when the major effects of solar irradiance and magnetic disturbances were removed. We analyzed the time series of the residual error in TEC prediction by using a wavelet transformation, which revealed a periodic increase in error approximately every 27 days in the summer. Possible origins of the error are (1) insufficient modeling of the solar activity effect, (2) lunar tidal forcing, (3) coupling with planetary waves in the lower atmosphere, and (4) solar wind effects. Examinations refused the first three possibilities. We investigated solar wind parameters that are not concerned in geomagnetic disturbances. The 27-day periodic error during the summer disappeared when the IMF-By component and the solar wind velocity were included in the input space of the ANN. Possible explanation of the IMF-By effect is discussed in terms of changes in the thermospheric general circulation pattern.

  2. Response of reverse convection to fast IMF transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, S.; Tawara, A.; Hairston, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Le, G.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.

    2015-05-01

    The nature of the transition that high-latitude reverse convection makes in response to fast interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) changes is investigated using observations from multiple spacecraft and a ground magnetometer array. We focused on two fast IMF-transition events on 22 April 2006. Immediately after the first event, three ST5 spacecraft identified a clear change in the distribution of the polar cap field-aligned current. Coordinate observations with the Greenland magnetometer chain showed that the near-noon Hall current distribution, which is closely related to the polar cap field-aligned current or reverse convection, was in a transition state for about 10 min. For the second event, the Greenland magnetic perturbations also showed that a transition state occurred in the near-noon sector for 10-15 min. Three DMSP spacecraft that traversed the polar cap provided evidence showing that variations of the ground magnetic perturbations were produced by the transition from clockwise plasma circulation to the anticlockwise circulation over the polar cap. A simple calculation based on the Biot-Savart law shows that the near-noon transition state is consistent with the approach of a new convection region to the near-noon sector at the speed of 0.5-1 km s-1, which is coupled with the moving away of the old convection region at a similar speed. For the higher-latitude sunward flow region, it is found that the convection takes a transition state almost simultaneously (within 1 min) with that in the near-noon sector, i.e., quasi-instantaneous response.

  3. Circadian Clocks, Stress, and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dumbell, Rebecca; Matveeva, Olga; Oster, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, molecular circadian clocks are present in most cells of the body, and this circadian network plays an important role in synchronizing physiological processes and behaviors to the appropriate time of day. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal endocrine axis regulates the response to acute and chronic stress, acting through its final effectors – glucocorticoids – released from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid secretion, characterized by its circadian rhythm, has an important role in synchronizing peripheral clocks and rhythms downstream of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Finally, glucocorticoids are powerfully anti-inflammatory, and recent work has implicated the circadian clock in various aspects and cells of the immune system, suggesting a tight interplay of stress and circadian systems in the regulation of immunity. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of the role of the circadian clock network in both the HPA axis and the immune system, and discusses their interactions. PMID:27199894

  4. A transportable optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Al-Masoudi, Ali; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and first results of PTB's transportable 87Sr clock. It consists of a physics package, several compact laser breadboards, and a transportable high finesse cavity for the clock laser. A comparison of the transportable system with our stationary optical lattice clock yields an instability of 2.2 x 10-15 √s/τ for the transportable clock. The current fractional uncertainty of 1 × 10-15 is still limited by the not yet fully evaluated light shift from the free running optical lattice laser operated near the magic wavelength. We are currently improving our transportable system to reach an uncertainty at or below the 10-17 level, which will finaly be limited by the uncertainty in blackbody radiation shift correction.

  5. The Cyanobacterial Clock and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayak, Gopal; Rust, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the simplest known circadian clock, which presents a unique opportunity to study how rhythms are generated and how input signals from the environment reset the clock time. The kaiABC locus forms the core of the oscillator, and the remarkable ability to reconstitute oscillations using purified KaiABC proteins has allowed researchers to study mechanism using the tools of quantitative biochemistry. Autotrophic cyanobacteria experience major shifts in metabolism following a light-dark transition, and recent work suggests that input mechanisms that couple the day-night cycle to the clock involve energy and redox metabolites acting directly on clock proteins. We offer a summary of the current state of knowledge in this system and present a perspective for future lines of investigation. PMID:24667330

  6. Physical Time and Thermal Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    In this paper I discuss the concept of time in physics. I consider the thermal time hypothesis and I claim that thermal clocks and atomic clocks measure different physical times, whereby thermal time and relativistic time are not compatible with each other. This hypothesis opens the possibility of a new foundation of the theory of physical time, and new perspectives in theoretical and philosophical researches.

  7. Stochastic models for atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. A.; Jones, R. H.; Tryon, P. V.; Allan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    For the atomic clocks used in the National Bureau of Standards Time Scales, an adequate model is the superposition of white FM, random walk FM, and linear frequency drift for times longer than about one minute. The model was tested on several clocks using maximum likelihood techniques for parameter estimation and the residuals were acceptably random. Conventional diagnostics indicate that additional model elements contribute no significant improvement to the model even at the expense of the added model complexity.

  8. Gravitational Wave Search with the Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Doppler tracking of distant spacecraft is the only method currently available to search for gravitational waves in the low-frequency (approx. 0.0001-0.1 Hz) band. In this technique the Doppler system measures the relative dimensionless velocity 2(delta)v/c = (delta)f/f(sub o) between the earth and the spacecraft as a function of time, where (delta)f is the frequency perturbation and f(sub o) is the nominal frequency of the radio link. A gravitational wave of amplitude h incident on this system causes small frequency perturbations, of order h in (delta)f/f(sub o), replicated three times in the observed record (Estabrook and Wahlquist 1975). All experiments to date and those planned for the near future involve only 'two-way' Doppler-i.e., uplink signal coherently transponded by the spacecraft with Doppler measured using a frequency standard common to the transmit and receive chains of the ground station. If, as on the proposed Clock Mission, there is an additional frequency standard on the spacecraft and a suitable earth-spacecraft radio system, some noise sources can be isolated and removed from the data (Vessot and Levine 1978). Supposing that the Clock Mission spacecraft is transferred into a suitable interplanetary orbit, I discuss here how the on-board frequency standard could be employed with an all-Ka-band radio system using the very high stability Deep Space Network station DSS 25 being instrumented for Cassini. With this configuration, the Clock Mission could search for gravitational waves at a sensitivity limited by the frequency standards, rather than plasma or tropospheric scintillation effects, whenever the sun-earth-spacecraft angle is greater than 90 degrees.

  9. Common features in diverse insect clocks.

    PubMed

    Numata, Hideharu; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Ikeno, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This review describes common features among diverse biological clocks in insects, including circadian, circatidal, circalunar/circasemilunar, and circannual clocks. These clocks control various behaviors, physiological functions, and developmental events, enabling adaptation to periodic environmental changes. Circadian clocks also function in time-compensation for celestial navigation and in the measurement of day or night length for photoperiodism. Phase response curves for such clocks reported thus far exhibit close similarities; specifically, the circannual clock in Anthrenus verbasci shows striking similarity to circadian clocks in its phase response. It is suggested that diverse biological clocks share physiological properties in their phase responses irrespective of period length. Molecular and physiological mechanisms are best understood for the optic-lobe and mid-brain circadian clocks, although there is no direct evidence that these clocks are involved in rhythmic phenomena other than circadian rhythms in daily events. Circadian clocks have also been localized in peripheral tissues, and research on their role in various rhythmic phenomena has been started. Although clock genes have been identified as controllers of circadian rhythms in daily events, some of these genes have also been shown to be involved in photoperiodism and possibly in time-compensated celestial navigation. In contrast, there is no experimental evidence indicating that any known clock gene is involved in biological clocks other than circadian clocks. PMID:26605055

  10. Gradient in the IMF slope and Sodium abundance of M87 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiniello, C.; Sarzi, M.; Krajnovic, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present evidence for a radial variation of the stellar initial mass function IMF) in the giant elliptical NGC~4486 based on integral-field MUSE data acquired during the first Science Verification run for this instrument. A steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF towards the centre of this galaxy is necessary to explain the increasing strength of several of the optical IMF sensitive features introduced by Spiniello et al., which we observe in high-quality spectra extracted in annular apertures. The need for a varying slope of the IMF emerges when the strength of these IMF-sensitive features, together with that other classical Lick indices mostly sensitive to stellar metallicity and the bundance of α-elements, are fitted with the state-of-the-art stellar population models from Conroy & van Dokkum and Vazdekis et al., which we modified in order to allow variations in IMF slope, metallicity and α-elements abundance. More specifically, adopting 13-Gyr-old, single-age stellar population models and an unimodal IMF we find that the slope of the latter increases from x=1.8 to x=2.6 in the central 25 arcsec of NGC~4486. Varying IMF accompanied by a metallicity gradient, whereas the abundance of α-element appears constant throughout the MUSE field of view. We found metallicity and α-element abundance gradients perfectly consistent with the literature. A sodium over-abundance is necessary (according to CvD12 models) at all the distances (for all the apertures) and a slight gradient of increasing [Na/Fe] ratio towards the center can be inferred. However, in order to completely break the degeneracies between Na-abundance, total metallicity and IMF variation a more detailed investigation that includes the redder NaI line is required.

  11. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  12. Precision measurements with an ultracold molecular clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2014-05-01

    High-precision spectroscopy has been instrumental in the progress of atomic physics. In this talk, we extend precision spectroscopy techniques to ultracold diatomic strontium molecules tightly trapped in an optical lattice, and discuss the results from the point of view of molecular and fundamental science. For weakly bound molecules near the atomic threshold corresponding to the narrow intercombination transition, we observe peculiar and unexpected physics, including multiply forbidden transitions and anomalously large linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts. The Zeeman shifts are highly sensitive to nonadiabatic mixing angles of the molecular wave functions. For the first time, we quantitatively compare the electric- and magnetic-dipole transition strengths for forbidden transitions in molecules, and discuss the dependence on the internuclear separation. In addition, we study ground state molecules, and discuss the present status of the molecular lattice clock and the physics it is able to probe. Magic-wavelength spectroscopy is successfully demonstrated for a range of narrow molecular transitions.

  13. What's Your Angle on Angles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Christine A.; Garza-Kling, Gina; Sundling, Elizabeth Hill

    2007-01-01

    Although the nature of the research varies, as do concepts of angle, research in general supports the supposition that angle is a complex idea, best understood from a variety of perspectives. In fact, the concept of angle tends to be threefold, consisting of: (1) the traditional, static notion of two rays meeting at a common vertex; (2) the idea…

  14. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in the northward IMF plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Newell, P. T.; Meng, C.

    2005-05-01

    During periods of northward IMF, as a result of large influx of the magnetosheath ions, the plasma sheet becomes cold and dense. During these periods, a large number of the plasma sheet ions have two components: hot (magnetospheric origin) and cold (magnetosheath origin). Based on their spectral distributions: one-component Maxwellian, two-component Maxwellian, and kappa (k), the characteristics of the plasma sheet ions were studied with DMSP satellites and a method of inferring plasma sheet ion properties from the ionospheric observations. The cold-component constituent of the two-component ions is hotter in the dawn than the dusk sector, consistent with the in situ studies that suggest that the magnetosheath ion is heated upon its entry along the plasma sheet dawn flank. This temperature asymmetry leads to a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the ion spectral distribution. The cold and hot components are closer together in temperature space, which increases the proportion of ions having (apparent) one-component distribution in the dawn flank while, in the dusk flank, the influx of the magnetosheath ions increase the density of the two-component ions. The dawn-dusk asymmetry in the cold magnetosheath ion profile should help determine the roles of various proposed magnetosheath entry mechanisms.

  15. Circadian clocks and cell division

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has selected a system of two intertwined cell cycles: the cell division cycle (CDC) and the daily (circadian) biological clock. The circadian clock keeps track of solar time and programs biological processes to occur at environmentally appropriate times. One of these processes is the CDC, which is often gated by the circadian clock. The intermeshing of these two cell cycles is probably responsible for the observation that disruption of the circadian system enhances susceptibility to some kinds of cancer. The core mechanism underlying the circadian clockwork has been thought to be a transcription and translation feedback loop (TTFL), but recent evidence from studies with cyanobacteria, synthetic oscillators and immortalized cell lines suggests that the core circadian pacemaking mechanism that gates cell division in mammalian cells could be a post-translational oscillator (PTO). PMID:20890114

  16. Synchronous clock stopper for microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous clock stopper circuit for inhibiting clock pulses to a microprocessor in response to a stop request signal, and for reinstating the clock pulses in response to a start request signal thereby to conserve power consumption of the microprocessor when used in an environment of limited power. The stopping and starting of the microprocessor is synchronized, by a phase tracker, with the occurrences of a predetermined phase in the instruction cycle of the microprocessor in which the I/O data and address lines of the microprocessor are of high impedance so that a shared memory connected to the I/O lines may be accessed by other peripheral devices. The starting and stopping occur when the microprocessor initiates and completes, respectively, an instruction, as well as before and after transferring data with a memory. Also, the phase tracker transmits phase information signals over a bus to other peripheral devices which signals identify the current operational phase of the microprocessor.

  17. Clocks, Metabolism, and the Epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2012-01-01

    Many behaviors and physiological activities in living organisms display circadian rhythms, allowing them to anticipate and prepare for the diurnal changes in the living environment. In this way, metabolic processes are aligned with the periodic environmental changes and behavioral cycles, such as the sleep/wake and fasting/feeding cycles. Disturbances of this alignment significantly increase the risk of metabolic diseases. Meanwhile, the circadian clock receives signals from the environment and feedback from metabolic pathways, and adjusts its activity and function. Growing evidence connects the circadian clock with epigenomic regulators. Here we review the recent advances in understanding the crosstalk between the circadian clock and energy metabolism through epigenomic programming and transcriptional regulation. PMID:22841001

  18. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  19. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  20. Sr+ single-ion clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubé, P.; Madej, A. A.; Jian, B.

    2016-06-01

    The evaluated uncertainty of the 88Sr+ ion optical clock has decreased by several orders of magnitude during the last 15 years, currently reaching a level of 1.2 x 10-17. In this paper, we review the methods developed to control very effectively the largest frequency shifts that once were the main sources of uncertainty for the 88Sr+ single-ion clock. These shifts are the micromotion shifts, the electric quadrupole shift and the blackbody radiation shift. With further improvements to the evaluation of the systematic shifts, especially the blackbody radiation shift, it is expected that the total uncertainty of the single-ion clock transition frequency will reach the low 10-18 level in the near future.

  1. Titan's methane clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of the 12C/13C and D/H isotopic ratios in Titan's methane show intriguing differences from the values recorded in the giant planets. This implies that either (1) the atmosphere was differently endowed with material at the time of formation, or (2) evolutionary processes are at work in the moon's atmosphere - or some combination of the two. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Instrument (GCMS) found 12CH4/13CH4 = 82 +/- 1 (Niemann et al. 2005), some 7% lower than the giant planets' value of 88 +/- 7 (Sada et al. 1996), which closely matches the terrestrial inorganic standard of 89. The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has previously reported 12CH4/13CH4 of 77 +/-3 based on nadir sounding, which we now revise upwards to 80 +/- 4 based on more accurate limb sounding. The CIRS and GCMS results are therefore in agreement about an overall enrichment in 13CH4 of ~10%. The value of D/H in Titan's CH4 has long been controversial: historical measurements have ranged from about 8-15 x 10-5 (e.g. Coustenis et al. 1989, Coustenis et al. 2003). A recent measurement based on CIRS limb data by Bezard et al. (2007) puts the D/H in CH4 at (13 +/- 1) x 10-5, very much greater than in Jupiter and Saturn, ~2 x 10-5 (Mahaffy et al. 1998, Fletcher et al. 2009). To add complexity, the 12C/13C and D/H vary among molecules in Titan atmosphere, typically showing enhancement in D but depletion in 13C in the daughter species (H2, C2H2, C2H6), relative to the photochemical progenitor, methane. Jennings et al. (2009) have sought to interpret the variance in carbon isotopes as a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE), whilst an explanation for the D/H in all molecules remains elusive (Cordier et al. 2008). In this presentation we argue that evolution of isotopic ratios in Titan's methane over time forms a ticking 'clock', somewhat analogous to isotopic ratios in geochronology. Under plausible assumptions about the initial values and subsequent replenishment, various

  2. Convection dynamics and driving mechanism of a small substorm during dominantly IMF By+, Bz+ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Sofko, G. J.; Donovan, E. F.; Watanabe, M.; Greenwald, R. A.

    2004-04-01

    Ground-based optical, magnetic and radar measurements detected a small substorm on October 9, 2000. Solar wind observations on GEOTAIL revealed a prolonged dominant Bz+ and steady By+ interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) prior to the substorm onset, except for a southward excursion at 0645-0655 UT, and a ``square-wave'' IMF Bx-By structure at 0727-0735 UT. We find that the IMF southward excursion led to the dayside convection enhancement and energy transport into the magnetosphere. When the dayside convection decreased, two pseudobreakups occurred as the consequence of the release of magnetospheric energy into the ionosphere. The substorm onset was associated with the IMF Bx-By structure in ``directly driven'' fashion. There was also a Stage-2 expansion which was internally driven within the magnetotail.

  3. Dark matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the dark matter (DM) fraction, fDM, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, δIMF (computed with respect to a Milky Way-like initial mass function), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Both fDM and δIMF are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the initial mass function (IMF) normalization and the DM content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for an Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, the δIMF is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ({δ _IMF}˜ 1), with {f_DM}˜ 0.35. One of the main results of this work is that for at least a few systems the δIMF are heavier than the Milky Way-like value (i.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger δIMF and smaller fDM are derived. Adopting a steeper concentration-mass relation than that from simulations, we find lower δIMF ( ≲ 1) and larger fDM. A constant M/L profile with null fDM gives the heaviest δIMF (˜2). In the MONDian framework, we find consistent results to those for our reference NFW model. If confirmed, the large scatter of δIMF for dEs would provide (further) evidence for a non-universal IMF in early-type systems. On average, our reference fDM estimates are consistent with those found for low-σe (˜ 100 km s^{-1}) early-type galaxies (ETGs). Furthermore, we find fDM consistent with values from the SMAKCED survey, and find a double-value behaviour of fDM with stellar mass, which mirrors the trend of dynamical M/L and global star formation efficiency (from abundance matching estimates) with mass.

  4. Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10{sup -18} fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.

  5. Optimized multiparty quantum clock synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Av, Radel; Exman, Iaakov

    2011-07-15

    A multiparty protocol for distributed quantum clock synchronization has been claimed to provide universal limits on the clock accuracy, viz., that accuracy monotonically decreases with the number n of party members. But this is only true for synchronization when one limits oneself to W states. This work shows that the usage of Z (Symmetric Dicke) states, a generalization of W states, results in improved accuracy, having a maximum when Left-Floor n/2 Right-Floor of its members have their qubits with a |1> eigenstate.

  6. Acting with the Clock: Clocking Practices in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses intra-actions that take place among humans and non-human others--the physical world, the materials--in early childhood education's everyday practices. Her object of study is the clock. Specifically, she provides an example of what it might mean to account for the intra-activity of the material-discursive…

  7. Naming Analog Clocks Conceptually Facilitates Naming Digital Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwissen, Marjolein; Roelofs, Ardi; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how speakers of Dutch compute and produce relative time expressions. Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say ''quarter to three'') requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information for the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition…

  8. Single-transistor-clocked flip-flop

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Peiyi; Darwish, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2005-08-30

    The invention provides a low power, high performance flip-flop. The flip-flop uses only one clocked transistor. The single clocked transistor is shared by the first and second branches of the device. A pulse generator produces a clock pulse to trigger the flip-flop. In one preferred embodiment the device can be made as a static explicit pulsed flip-flop which employs only two clocked transistors.

  9. Detecting the bonding state of explosive welding structures based on EEMD and sensitive IMF time entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Liu, Qiang; Cheng, Wei; Yuan, Feichen

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing application of explosive welding structures in many engineering fields, interface bonding state detection has become more and more significant to avoid catastrophic accidents. However, the complexity of the interface bonding state makes this task challenging. In this paper, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and sensitive intrinsic mode function (IMF) time entropy is proposed for this task. As a self-adaptive non-stationary signal analysis method, EEMD can decompose a complicated signal into a set of IMFs with truly physical meaning, which is beneficial to allocate the structural vibration response signal containing a wealth of bonding state information to certain IMFs. Then, the time entropies of these IMFs are calculated to quantitatively assess the bonding state of the explosive welding structure. However, the IMF time entropies have different sensitivities to the bonding state. Therefore, the most sensitive IMF time entropy is selected based on a distance evaluation technique to detect the bonding state of explosive welding structures. The proposed method is applied to bonding state detection of explosive welding pipes in three cases, and the results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  10. Proton Aurora Dynamics in Response to the IMF and Solar Wind Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Lepping, R. P.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On May 23, 2000, proton auroras observed by IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration) FUV (Far Ultraviolet) on the dayside were very dynamic. Auroral pattern in the cusp is well correlated with Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and solar wind parameters. When IMF were northward, cusp proton aurora appeared at high latitude poleward from the auroral oval. A high-latitude proton aurora brightened after solar wind ion temperature increased and it disappeared after IMF turned southward. Under the southward IMF condition, auroral activity occurred only in the dayside auroral oval. As IMF $B_z$ reverted to northward, cusp proton aurora reappeared at high latitude. The magnetic local time of the cusp proton aurora changes with the IMF $B_y$ polarity, consistent with previous reports. These results suggest an upstream source of the high-latitude cusp proton aurora for this event. One possible explanation is that bow shock energetic ions are transported into the cusp via the high-latitude magnetic merging process to induce optical emissions in the ionosphere.

  11. Spin squeezing in a Rydberg lattice clock.

    PubMed

    Gil, L I R; Mukherjee, R; Bridge, E M; Jones, M P A; Pohl, T

    2014-03-14

    We theoretically demonstrate a viable approach to spin squeezing in optical lattice clocks via optical dressing of one clock state to a highly excited Rydberg state, generating switchable atomic interactions. For realistic experimental parameters, these interactions are shown to generate over 10 dB of squeezing in large ensembles within a few microseconds and without degrading the subsequent clock interrogation. PMID:24679291

  12. Microwave Cavity Clocks On Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. a.; Nissen, J. A.; Wang, S.; Stricker, D. A.; Avaloff, D.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the status of a microwave cavity clock experiment to perform improved tests of Local Position Invariance and Lorentz Invariance on the International Space Station in conjunction with atomic clocks. Significant improvements over present bounds are expected in both cases. The oscillators can also be used to enhance the performance of atomic clocks at short time scales for other experiments.

  13. Quasars as very-accurate clock synchronizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Quasars can be employed to synchronize global data communications, geophysical measurements, and atomic clocks. It is potentially two to three orders of magnitude better than presently-used Moon-bounce system. Comparisons between quasar and clock pulses are used to develop correction or synchronization factors for station clocks.

  14. 47 CFR 80.935 - Station clock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station clock. 80.935 Section 80.935... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.935 Station clock. Each station subject to this subpart must have a working clock or timepiece readily available to...

  15. Clock Drawing in Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Guinevere F.; Wood, Frank B.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 93 children (ages 10-12), 295 with poor reading skills, found many children with dyslexia and some garden-variety poor readers showed significant left neglect on the Clock Drawing Test. In poor readers with dyslexia, spatial construction deficits were observed like those of parents with acquired right-hemisphere lesions.…

  16. A quantum network of clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, Peter; Kessler, Eric; Bishof, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Sorensen, Anders; Ye, Jun; Lukin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Shared timing information constitutes a key resource for positioning and navigation with a direct correspondence between timing accuracy and precision in applications such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). By combining precision metrology and quantum networks, we propose here a quantum, cooperative protocol for the operation of a network consisting of geographically remote optical atomic clocks. Using non-local entangled states, we demonstrate an optimal utilization of the global network resources, and show that such a network can be operated near the fundamental limit set by quantum theory yielding an ultra-precise clock signal. Furthermore, the internal structure of the network, combined with basic techniques from quantum communication, guarantees security both from internal and external threats. Realization of such a global quantum network of clocks may allow construction of a real-time single international time scale (world clock) with unprecedented stability and accuracy. See also: Komar et al. arXiv:1310.6045 (2013) and Kessler et al. arXiv:1310.6043 (2013).

  17. Analysis of a magnetically trapped atom clock

    SciTech Connect

    Kadio, D.; Band, Y. B.

    2006-11-15

    We consider optimization of a rubidium atom clock that uses magnetically trapped Bose condensed atoms in a highly elongated trap, and determine the optimal conditions for minimum Allan variance of the clock using microwave Ramsey fringe spectroscopy. Elimination of magnetic field shifts and collisional shifts are considered. The effects of spin-dipolar relaxation are addressed in the optimization of the clock. We find that for the interstate interaction strength equal to or larger than the intrastate interaction strengths, a modulational instability results in phase separation and symmetry breaking of the two-component condensate composed of the ground and excited hyperfine clock levels, and this mechanism limits the clock accuracy.

  18. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  19. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  20. A tunable artificial circadian clock in clock-defective mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Matthew; Beesley, Stephen; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Chen, Rongmin; Abich, Estela; Cheng, Wayne; Yi, Paul; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Lee, Choogon

    2015-01-01

    Self-sustaining oscillations are essential for diverse physiological functions such as the cell cycle, insulin secretion and circadian rhythms. Synthetic oscillators using biochemical feedback circuits have been generated in cell culture. These synthetic systems provide important insight into design principles for biological oscillators, but have limited similarity to physiological pathways. Here we report the generation of an artificial, mammalian circadian clock in vivo, capable of generating robust, tunable circadian rhythms. In mice deficient in Per1 and Per2 genes (thus lacking circadian rhythms), we artificially generate PER2 rhythms and restore circadian sleep/wake cycles with an inducible Per2 transgene. Our artificial clock is tunable as the period and phase of the rhythms can be modulated predictably. This feature, and other design principles of our work, might enhance the study and treatment of circadian dysfunction and broader aspects of physiology involving biological oscillators. PMID:26617050

  1. Clock Laser System for a Strontium Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legero, T.; Lisdat, Ch.; Vellore Winfred, J. S. R.; Schnatz, H.; Grosche, G.; Riehle, F.; Sterr, U.

    2009-04-01

    We describe the setup and the characterization of a 698 nm master-slave diode laser system to probe the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of strontium atoms confined in a 1D optical lattice. The frequency noise and the linewidth of the laser system have been measured with respect to an ultrastable 657 nm diode laser with 1 Hz linewidth. The large frequency difference of more than 25 THz was bridged using a femtosecond fiber comb as transfer oscillator. In a second step the virtual beat was used to establish a phase lock between the narrow line 657 nm laser and the strontium clock laser. This technique allowed to transfer the stability from the 657 nm to the 698 nm laser.

  2. Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery using an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Zuo, Ming J.

    2009-12-01

    A Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a time-frequency technique and has been widely applied to analyzing vibration signals in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. It analyzes the vibration signals using intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) extracted using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). However, EMD sometimes cannot reveal the signal characteristics accurately because of the problem of mode mixing. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was developed recently to alleviate this problem. The IMFs generated by EEMD have different sensitivity to faults. Some IMFs are sensitive and closely related to the faults but others are irrelevant. To enhance the accuracy of the HHT in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs is proposed in this paper. Simulated signals demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved HHT in diagnosing the faults of rotating machinery. Finally, the improved HHT is applied to diagnosing an early rub-impact fault of a heavy oil catalytic cracking machine set, and the application results prove that the improved HHT is superior to the HHT based on all IMFs of EMD.

  3. Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair Hedges, S.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2003-01-01

    For decades, molecular clocks have helped to illuminate the evolutionary timescale of life, but now genomic data pose a challenge for time estimation methods. It is unclear how to integrate data from many genes, each potentially evolving under a different model of substitution and at a different rate. Current methods can be grouped by the way the data are handled (genes considered separately or combined into a 'supergene') and the way gene-specific rate models are applied (global versus local clock). There are advantages and disadvantages to each of these approaches, and the optimal method has not yet emerged. Fortunately, time estimates inferred using many genes or proteins have greater precision and appear to be robust to different approaches.

  4. Mitigating aliasing in atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Akhalwaya, Ismail; Sastrawan, Jarrah; Biercuk, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Passive atomic clocks periodically calibrate a classical local oscillator against an atomic quantum reference through feedback. The periodic nature of this correction leads to undesirable aliasing noise. The Dick Effect, is a special case of aliasing noise consisting of the down-conversion of clock noise at harmonics of the correction frequency to a frequency of zero. To combat the Dick effect and aliasing noise in general, we suggest an extension to the usual feedback protocol, in which we incorporate information from multiple past measurements into the correction after the most recent measurement, approximating a crude low pass anti-aliasing filter of the noise. An analytical frequency domain analysis of the approach is presented and supported by numerical time domain simulations.

  5. An epigenetic clock controls aging.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Josh

    2016-02-01

    We are accustomed to treating aging as a set of things that go wrong with the body. But for more than twenty years, there has been accumulating evidence that much of the process takes place under genetic control. We have seen that signaling chemistry can make dramatic differences in life span, and that single molecules can significantly affect longevity. We are frequently confronted with puzzling choices the body makes which benefit neither present health nor fertility nor long-term survival. If we permit ourselves a shift of reference frame and regard aging as a programmed biological function like growth and development, then these observations fall into place and make sense. This perspective suggests that aging proceeds under control of a master clock, or several redundant clocks. If this is so, we may learn to reset the clocks with biochemical interventions and make an old body behave like a young body, including repair of many of the modes of damage that we are accustomed to regard as independent symptoms of the senescent phenotype, and for which we have assumed that the body has no remedy. PMID:26608516

  6. Tectonic blocks and molecular clocks.

    PubMed

    De Baets, Kenneth; Antonelli, Alexandre; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2016-07-19

    Evolutionary timescales have mainly used fossils for calibrating molecular clocks, though fossils only really provide minimum clade age constraints. In their place, phylogenetic trees can be calibrated by precisely dated geological events that have shaped biogeography. However, tectonic episodes are protracted, their role in vicariance is rarely justified, the biogeography of living clades and their antecedents may differ, and the impact of such events is contingent on ecology. Biogeographic calibrations are no panacea for the shortcomings of fossil calibrations, but their associated uncertainties can be accommodated. We provide examples of how biogeographic calibrations based on geological data can be established for the fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent: (i) for the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, (ii) the separation of New Zealand from Gondwana, and (iii) for the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Biogeographic and fossil calibrations are complementary, not competing, approaches to constraining molecular clock analyses, providing alternative constraints on the age of clades that are vital to avoiding circularity in investigating the role of biogeographic mechanisms in shaping modern biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325840

  7. Design principles underlying circadian clocks.

    PubMed Central

    Rand, D. A.; Shulgin, B. V.; Salazar, D.; Millar, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental problem for regulatory networks is to understand the relation between form and function: to uncover the underlying design principles of the network. Circadian clocks present a particularly interesting instance, as recent work has shown that they have complex structures involving multiple interconnected feedback loops with both positive and negative feedback. While several authors have speculated on the reasons for this, a convincing explanation is still lacking.We analyse both the flexibility of clock networks and the relationships between various desirable properties such as robust entrainment, temperature compensation, and stability to environmental variations and parameter fluctuations. We use this to argue that the complexity provides the flexibility necessary to simultaneously attain multiple key properties of circadian clocks. As part of our analysis we show how to quantify the key evolutionary aims using infinitesimal response curves, a tool that we believe will be of general utility in the analysis of regulatory networks. Our results suggest that regulatory and signalling networks might be much less flexible and of lower dimension than their apparent complexity would suggest. PMID:16849158

  8. The Sr optical lattice clock at JILA: A new record in atomic clock performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Travis; Bloom, Benjamin; Williams, Jason; Campbell, Sara; Bishof, Michael; Zhang, Xibo; Zhang, Wei; Bromley, Sarah; Hutson, Ross; McNally, Rees; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    The exquisite control exhibited over quantum states of individual particles has revolutionized the field of precision measurement, as exemplified by highly accurate atomic clocks. Optical clocks have been the most accurate frequency standards for the better part of a decade, surpassing even the cesium microwave fountains upon which the SI second is based. Two classes of optical clocks have outperformed cesium: single-ion clocks and optical lattice clocks. Historically ion clocks have always been more accurate, and the precision of ion clocks and lattice clocks has been comparable. For years it has been unclear if lattice clocks can overcome key systematics and become more accurate than ion clocks. In this presentation I report the first lattice clock that has surpassed ion clocks in both precision and accuracy. These measurements represent a tenfold improvement in precision and a factor of 20 improvement in accuracy over the previous best lattice clock results. This work paves the way for a better realization of SI units, the development of more sophisticated quantum sensors, and precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature.

  9. A Variable IMF Slope To Fit The LCDM Picture To Observed High-z Submillimeter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, A. M.; Navarrete, F. P.; Lagos, C. Del P.; Padilla, N. D.; Cora, S. A.; Tecce, T. E.

    2011-10-01

    Using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) allows to describe fairly well a large variety of properties in galaxies. However, some studies have found that it is necessary to change it for a top-heavy IMF in starbursts to give an adequate prediction in the abundance of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at high redshifts. We show preliminary results of an implementation of a star formation intensity dependent IMF slope in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which has been connected with a spectrophotometric code that provides an adequate treatment of reprocessed starlight by dust. We also explore systematic effects on the counts of submm sources coming from the beamsize of the receiver taking into account the spatial correlation of sources and foreground objects. This helps alleviate the discrepancies found between the model and the observations.

  10. Diversity of Human Clock Genotypes and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoying; Ptáček, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The molecular clock consists of a number of genes that form transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops, which function together to generate circadian oscillations that give rise to circadian rhythms of our behavioral and physiological processes. Genetic variations in these clock genes have been shown to be associated with phenotypic effects in a repertoire of biological processes, such as diurnal preference, sleep, metabolism, mood regulation, addiction, and fertility. Consistently, rodent models carrying mutations in clock genes also demonstrate similar phenotypes. Taken together, these studies suggest that human clock-gene variants contribute to the phenotypic differences observed in various behavioral and physiological processes, although to validate this requires further characterization of the molecular consequences of these polymorphisms. Investigating the diversity of human genotypes and the phenotypic effects of these genetic variations shall advance our understanding of the function of the circadian clock and how we can employ the clock to improve our overall health. PMID:23899594

  11. The NIM Sr Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Meng, F.; Lin, B.; Zang, E.; Sun, Z.; Fang, F.; Li, T.; Fang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    A 87Sr optical lattice clock is built at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) of China. The atoms undergo two stages of laser cooling before being loaded into a horizontal optical lattice at the magic wavelength of 813 nm. After being interrogated by a narrow linewidth 698 nm clock laser pulse, the normalized excitation rate is measured to get the frequency error, which is then used to lock the clock laser to the ultra-narrow 1S0-3P0 clock transition. The total systematic uncertainty of the clock is evaluated to be 2.3 × 10-16, and the absolute frequency of the clock is measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.7(1.4) Hz with reference to the NIM5 cesium fountain.

  12. Mechanism of the circadian clock in physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that the circadian clock plays a crucial role in the regulation of almost every physiological process. It also plays a critical role in pathophysiological states including those of obesity and diabetes. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for targeting the circadian clock as a potential drug target. New studies have also demonstrated the existence of “clock-independent effects” of the circadian proteins, leading to exciting new avenues of research in the circadian clock field in physiology. The goal of this review is to provide an introduction to and overview of the circadian clock in physiology, including mechanisms, targets, and role in disease states. The role of the circadian clocks in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, renal function, metabolism, the endocrine system, immune, and reproductive systems will be discussed. PMID:23576606

  13. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  14. Future Laser-Cooled Microwave Clock Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibble, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Limitations to the performance of laser-cooled earth and space-based Cs clocks will be critically discussed. The most significant limitation to the stability and accuracy of laser-cooled atomic clocks is the frequency shift due to cold collisions. Because of it, laser-cooled Cs clocks must be operated at low density and this implies that space based Cs clock performance will not be significantly better than earth based. To regain some of the high accuracy and stability lost to the low density, clocks can be designed to multiply launch (or juggle) atoms. Clocks based on other atoms, in particular Rb-87 or possibly Rb-85, may have much smaller cold collision frequency shifts and therefore be capable of higher stability and accuracy, especially in a space environment.

  15. 29 CFR 785.48 - Use of time clocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of time clocks. 785.48 Section 785.48 Labor Regulations... clocks. (a) Differences between clock records and actual hours worked. Time clocks are not required. In those cases where time clocks are used, employees who voluntarily come in before their regular...

  16. Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bilicki, Sławomir; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Nicolodi, Daniele; Le Coq, Yann; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.

  17. The plant circadian clock looks like a traditional Japanese clock rather than a modern Western clock

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Yamashino, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle adaptation to seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature is a major determinant of the ecological success behind the widespread domestication of flowering plants. The circadian clock plays a role in the underlying mechanism for adaptation through generating endogenous rhythms that allow plants to adapt and adjust to both the 24 h diurnal rotation and 365 d seasonal revolution. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the circadian clock tracks seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature is a longstanding subject in the field. Recently, we have begun to understand the question of how the light and ambient temperature signals feed into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry in day-night cycles in order to track seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature.1-4 Our results collectively indicate that the evening complex (EC) nighttime repressor consisting of LUX-ELF3-ELF4 plays a crucial role in this respect. Here, we discuss about these recent studies to add further implications. PMID:26382718

  18. Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y. B.; Osherov, I.

    2011-07-15

    We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature {sup 87}Sr {sup 1}S{sub 0} (F=9/2) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.

  19. Peripheral circadian clocks--a conserved phenotype?

    PubMed

    Weigl, Yuval; Harbour, Valerie L; Robinson, Barry; Dufresne, Line; Amir, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    The circadian system of mammals regulates the timing of occurrence of behavioral and physiological events, thereby optimizing adaptation to their surroundings. This system is composed of a single master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and a population of peripheral clocks. The SCN integrates time information from exogenous sources and, in turn, synchronizes the downstream peripheral clocks. It is assumed that under normal conditions, the circadian phenotype of different peripheral clocks would be conserved with respect to its period and robustness. To study this idea, we measured the daily wheel-running activity (WRA; a marker of the SCN output) in 84 male inbred LEW/Crl rats housed under a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle. In addition, we assessed the mRNA expression of two clock genes, rPer2 and rBmal1, and one clock-controlled gene, rDbp, in four tissues that have the access to time cues other than those emanating from the SCN: olfactory bulbs (OBs), liver, tail skin, and white blood cells (WBCs). In contrast with the assumption stated above, we found that circadian clocks in peripheral tissues differ in the temporal pattern of the expression of circadian clock genes, in the robustness of the rhythms, and possibly in the number of functional ~24-h-clock cells. Based on the tissue diversity in the robustness of the clock output, the hepatic clock is likely to house the highest number of functional ~24-h-clock cells, and the OBs, the fewest number. Thus, the phenotype of the circadian clock in the periphery is tissue specific and may depend not only on the SCN but also on the sensitivity of the tissue to non-SCN-derived time cues. In the OBs and liver, the circadian clock phenotypes seem to be dominantly shaped by the SCN output. However, in the tail skin and WBC, other time cues participate in the phenotype design. Finally, our study suggests that the basic phenotype of the circadian clock is constructed at the transcript level of the core clock

  20. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  1. Experimental validation of clock synchronization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Graham, R. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Midpoint Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the behavior of the clock system. It is found that a 100 percent penalty is paid to tolerate worst-case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as three clock ticks. Clock skew grows to six clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst-case conditions.

  2. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-07

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on {sup 171}Yb (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4x10{sup -16}, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  3. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  4. The impact of solar wind ULF Bz fluctuations on geomagnetic activity for viscous timescales during strongly northward and southward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmane, A.; Dimmock, A. P.; Naderpour, R.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Nykyri, K.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze more than 17 years of OMNI data to statistically quantify the impact of IMF Bz fluctuations on AL by using higher-order moments in the AL-distribution as a proxy. For strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the AL distribution function is characterized by a decrease of the skewness, a shift of its peak from -30 nT to -200 nT, and a broadening of the distribution core. During northward IMF, the distribution of AL is characterized by a significant reduction of the standard deviation and weight in the tail. Following this characterization of AL for southward and northward IMF, we show that IMF fluctuations enhance the driving on timescales smaller than those of substorms by shifting the peak of the probability distribution function by more than 150 nT during southward IMF, and by narrowing the distribution function by a factor of 2 during northward IMF. For both southward and northward IMF, we demonstrate that high power fluctuations in Bz systematically result in a greater level of activity on timescales consistent with viscous processes. Our results provide additional quantitative evidence of the role of the solar wind fluctuations in geomagnetic activity. The methodology presented also provides a framework to characterize short timescale magnetospheric dynamics taking place on the order of viscous timescales τ ≪ 1 hour.

  5. Circadian molecular clock in lung pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Isaac K; Yao, Hongwei; Sellix, Michael T; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-11-15

    Disrupted daily or circadian rhythms of lung function and inflammatory responses are common features of chronic airway diseases. At the molecular level these circadian rhythms depend on the activity of an autoregulatory feedback loop oscillator of clock gene transcription factors, including the BMAL1:CLOCK activator complex and the repressors PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME. The key nuclear receptors and transcription factors REV-ERBα and RORα regulate Bmal1 expression and provide stability to the oscillator. Circadian clock dysfunction is implicated in both immune and inflammatory responses to environmental, inflammatory, and infectious agents. Molecular clock function is altered by exposomes, tobacco smoke, lipopolysaccharide, hyperoxia, allergens, bleomycin, as well as bacterial and viral infections. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates the timing of the clock through acetylation of BMAL1 and PER2 and controls the clock-dependent functions, which can also be affected by environmental stressors. Environmental agents and redox modulation may alter the levels of REV-ERBα and RORα in lung tissue in association with a heightened DNA damage response, cellular senescence, and inflammation. A reciprocal relationship exists between the molecular clock and immune/inflammatory responses in the lungs. Molecular clock function in lung cells may be used as a biomarker of disease severity and exacerbations or for assessing the efficacy of chronotherapy for disease management. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of clock-controlled cellular and molecular functions in the lungs and highlight the repercussions of clock disruption on the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases and their exacerbations. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for the molecular clock as a novel chronopharmacological target for the management of lung pathophysiology. PMID:26361874

  6. Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhachek, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Clock compensation for Gigabit Ethernet is necessary because the clock recovered from the 1.25 Gb/s serial data stream has the potential to be 200 ppm slower or faster than the system clock. The serial data is converted to 10-bit parallel data at a 125 MHz rate on a clock recovered from the serial data stream. This recovered data needs to be processed by a system clock that is also running at a nominal rate of 125 MHz, but not synchronous to the recovered clock. To cross clock domains, an asynchronous FIFO (first-in-first-out) is used, with the write pointer (wprt) in the recovered clock domain and the read pointer (rptr) in the system clock domain. Because the clocks are generated from separate sources, there is potential for FIFO overflow or underflow. Clock compensation in Gigabit Ethernet is possible by taking advantage of the protocol data stream features. There are two distinct data streams that occur in Gigabit Ethernet where identical data is transmitted for a period of time. The first is configuration, which happens during auto-negotiation. The second is idle, which occurs at the end of auto-negotiation and between every packet. The identical data in the FIFO can be repeated by decrementing the read pointer, thus compensating for a FIFO that is draining too fast. The identical data in the FIFO can also be skipped by incrementing the read pointer, which compensates for a FIFO draining too slowly. The unique and novel features of this FIFO are that it works in both the idle stream and the configuration streams. The increment or decrement of the read pointer is different in the idle and compensation streams to preserve disparity. Another unique feature is that the read pointer to write pointer difference range changes between compensation and idle to minimize FIFO latency during packet transmission.

  7. Deregulation of the circadian clock constitutes a significant factor in tumorigenesis: a clockwork cancer. Part I: clocks and clocking machinery

    PubMed Central

    Uth, Kristin; Sleigh, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological processes occur in a rhythmic fashion, consistent with a 24-h cycle. The central timing of the day/night rhythm is set by a master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (a tiny region in the hypothalamus), but peripheral clocks exist in different tissues, adjustable by cues other than light (temperature, food, hormone stimulation, etc.), functioning autonomously to the master clock. Presence of unrepaired DNA damage may adjust the circadian clock so that the phase in which checking for damage and DNA repair normally occurs is advanced or extended. The expression of many of the genes coding for proteins functioning in DNA damage-associated response pathways and DNA repair is directly or indirectly regulated by the core clock proteins. Setting up the normal rhythm of the circadian cycle also involves oscillating changes in the chromatin structure, allowing differential activation of various chromatin domains within the 24-h cycle. PMID:26019503

  8. The Response of Heavy Planetary Ions at Mars to Reversals of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S.; Dong, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Bougher, S. W.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.

    2014-12-01

    We present a kinetic study to quantify the response of Mars' atmosphere to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) configuration, specifically with respect to the escape rate of the atmosphere. Because Mars lacks a dipole magnetic field, the solar wind directly interacts with the upper neutral atmosphere to create 'pick-up' ions. We will present global maps of escaping O+ pick up ions during different solar cycle phases for multiple IMF conditions using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and test particle simulation. This study also examines the role of the crustal fields for the different IMF configurations; the remanent crustal magnetic fields, especially in extreme conditions, influence the magnetic topology at Mars and subsequently drive changes in heavy ion atmospheric escape. The results indicate that the escape rate from Mars' atmosphere can change over an order of magnitude due to the IMF, solar cycle, and crustal field orientation, directly impacting Mars' climate and our understanding of the processes that influence atmospheric evolution. These results directly support MAVEN, the next Mars Scout, whose primary objective is to understand the evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

  9. MOND and IMF variations in early-type galaxies from ATLAS3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Cardone, V. F.; Napolitano, N. R.; Jetzer, Ph.

    2014-02-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) represents a phenomenological alternative to dark matter (DM) for the missing mass problem in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. We analyse the central regions of a local sample of ˜220 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey, to see if the data can be reproduced without recourse to DM. We estimate dynamical masses in the MOND context through Jeans analysis and compare to ATLAS3D stellar masses from stellar population synthesis. We find that the observed stellar mass-velocity dispersion relation is steeper than expected assuming MOND with a fixed stellar initial mass function (IMF) and a standard value for the acceleration parameter a0. Turning from the space of observables to model space (a) fixing the IMF, a universal value for a0 cannot be fitted, while, (b) fixing a0 and leaving the IMF free to vary, we find that it is `lighter' (Chabrier like) for low-dispersion galaxies and `heavier' (Salpeter like) for high dispersions. This MOND-based trend matches inferences from Newtonian dynamics with DM and from the detailed analysis of spectral absorption lines, adding to the converging lines of evidence for a systematically varying IMF.

  10. Transpolar auroras, their particle precipitation, and IMF B sub y component

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, K. ); Meng, C.I. ); Akasofu, S.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Transpolar auroras, their associated particle precipitation, and their occurrence with respect to the IMF B{sub y} polarity are examined on the basis of DMSP F6 auroral images and the corresponding particle data. It is found that the transpolar arcs are located in the poleward edge of the soft particle precipitation region extending from either the dawn or dusk part of the auroral oval precipitation; they are not embedded in the polar rain region. This finding suggests that the transpolar arcs are located along the poleward boundary of the closed field line region (or the equatorward boundary of the open region) as suggested by Meng. Further, the appearance of the extended precipitation region from the oval depends on the polarity of the IMF B{sub y}, in the northern hemisphere morning sector for IMF B{sub y} < 0 or in the evening sector for IMF B{sub y} > 0. In general, the precipitating particle flux in the extended precipitation region is not high enough to produce appreciable luminosity. Thus only the transpolar arcs (associated with relatively intense precipitation) near the poleward boundary tend to become much more luminous, forming the so-called theta aurora.

  11. Impact of the uncertainties of the ISM when studying the IMF at intermediate masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, R.; Robin, A. C.; Lemasle, B.; Figueras, F.

    We evaluate the impact of the uncertainties in the 3D structure of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) when studying the Initial Mass Function (IMF) at intermediate masses using classical Galactic Cepheids. For that we use the Besan\\c{c}on Galaxy Model (BGM, \\citealt{Robin2003} and \\citealt{Czekaj2014}) and assume different IMFs and different interstellar structure maps to simulate magnitude limited samples of young intermediate mass stars. As our strategy to derive the IMF is based on star counts (in proceedings \\cite{Mor2015} and Mor et al. 2016 in prep.), we quantify the differences in star counts by comparing the whole-sky simulations with Tycho-2 catalogue up to V_T=11 and using Healpix maps. Moreover we compare simulations with different extinction models up to Gaia magnitude G=20. As expected, larger discrepancies between simulations and observations are found in the Galactic Plane, showing that the interstellar extinction in the plane is one of the major source of uncertainty in our study. We show how even with the uncertainties due to the ISM we are able to distinguish between different IMFs.

  12. Appropriate IMFs associated with cepstrum and envelope analysis for ball-bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Wen-Chang; Pan, Min-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The traditional envelope analysis is an effective method for the fault detection of rolling bearings. However, all the resonant frequency bands must be examined during the bearing-fault detection process. To handle the above deficiency, this paper proposes using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to select a proper intrinsic mode function (IMF) for the subsequent detection tools; here both envelope analysis and cepstrum analysis are employed and compared. By virtue of the band-pass filtering nature of EMD, the resonant frequency bands of structure to be measured are captured in the IMFs. As impulses arising from rolling elements striking bearing faults modulate with structure resonance, proper IMFs potentially enable to characterize fault signatures. In the study, faulty ball bearings are used to justify the proposed method, and comparisons with the traditional envelope analysis are made. Post the use of IMFs highlighting faultybearing features, the performance of using envelope analysis and cepstrum analysis to single out bearing faults is objectively compared and addressed; it is noted that generally envelope analysis offers better performance.

  13. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  14. Systematic Effects in Atomic Fountain Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibble, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    We describe recent advances in the accuracies of atomic fountain clocks. New rigorous treatments of the previously large systematic uncertainties, distributed cavity phase, microwave lensing, and background gas collisions, enabled these advances. We also discuss background gas collisions of optical lattice and ion clocks and derive the smooth transition of the microwave lensing frequency shift to photon recoil shifts for large atomic wave packets.

  15. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner

    2016-04-01

    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  16. Eliminating Tracking-System Clock Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Bertiger, William I.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of redundancy and correlation avoided. ORTHO computer program eliminates effect of clock errors in differential solutions for positions of users of Global Positioning System (GPS). Main application, elimination of clock errors in tracking system based on GPS. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  17. "Molecular Clock" Analogs: A Relative Rates Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Although molecular clock theory is a commonly discussed facet of evolutionary biology, undergraduates are rarely presented with the underlying information of how this theory is examined relative to empirical data. Here a simple contextual exercise is presented that not only provides insight into molecular clocks, but is also a useful exercise for…

  18. Fast Clock Recovery for Digital Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tell, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit extracts clock signal from random non-return-to-zero data stream, locking onto clock within one bit period at 1-gigabitper-second data rate. Circuit used for synchronization in opticalfiber communications. Derives speed from very short response time of gallium arsenide metal/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET's).

  19. THE INTRINSIC CIRCADIAN CLOCK WITHIN THE CARDIOMYOCYTE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian clocks are intracellular molecular mechanisms that allow the cell to anticipate the time of day. We have previously reported that the intact rat heart expresses the major components of the circadian clock, of which its rhythmic expression in vivo is consistent with the operation of a fully...

  20. A colorful model of the circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M

    2006-01-27

    The migration of the colorful monarch butterfly provides biologists with a unique model system with which to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying a sophisticated circadian clock. The monarch circadian clock is involved in the induction of the migratory state and navigation over long distances, using the sun as a compass. PMID:16439193

  1. Tectonic blocks and molecular clocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary timescales have mainly used fossils for calibrating molecular clocks, though fossils only really provide minimum clade age constraints. In their place, phylogenetic trees can be calibrated by precisely dated geological events that have shaped biogeography. However, tectonic episodes are protracted, their role in vicariance is rarely justified, the biogeography of living clades and their antecedents may differ, and the impact of such events is contingent on ecology. Biogeographic calibrations are no panacea for the shortcomings of fossil calibrations, but their associated uncertainties can be accommodated. We provide examples of how biogeographic calibrations based on geological data can be established for the fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent: (i) for the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, (ii) the separation of New Zealand from Gondwana, and (iii) for the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Biogeographic and fossil calibrations are complementary, not competing, approaches to constraining molecular clock analyses, providing alternative constraints on the age of clades that are vital to avoiding circularity in investigating the role of biogeographic mechanisms in shaping modern biodiversity. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325840

  2. A blind circadian clock in cavefish reveals that opsins mediate peripheral clock photoreception.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Nicola; Frigato, Elena; Vallone, Daniela; Fröhlich, Nadine; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Foà, Augusto; Berti, Roberto; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2011-09-01

    The circadian clock is synchronized with the day-night cycle primarily by light. Fish represent fascinating models for deciphering the light input pathway to the vertebrate clock since fish cell clocks are regulated by direct light exposure. Here we have performed a comparative, functional analysis of the circadian clock involving the zebrafish that is normally exposed to the day-night cycle and a cavefish species that has evolved in perpetual darkness. Our results reveal that the cavefish retains a food-entrainable clock that oscillates with an infradian period. Importantly, however, this clock is not regulated by light. This comparative study pinpoints the two extra-retinal photoreceptors Melanopsin (Opn4m2) and TMT-opsin as essential upstream elements of the peripheral clock light input pathway. PMID:21909239

  3. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: IMF BY dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.; Sato, N.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Wild, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    We present superposed epoch analyses of the average ionospheric convection response in the northern and southern hemispheres to magnetospheric substorms occurring under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Observations of the ionospheric convection were provided by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. We find that during the substorm growth phase the expected IMF BY-dependent dawn-dusk asymmetry is observed over the entire convection pattern, but that during the expansion phase this asymmetry is retained only in the polar cap and dayside auroral zone. In the nightside auroral zone the convection is reordered according to the local substorm electrodynamics with any remaining dusk-dawn asymmetry being more closely related to the magnetic local time of substorm onset, itself only weakly governed by IMF BY. Owing to the preponderance of substorms occurring just prior to magnetic midnight, the substorm-asymmetry tends to be an azimuthal extension of the dusk convection cell across the midnight sector, a manifestation of the so-called “Harang discontinuity.” This results in the northern (southern) hemisphere nightside auroral convection during substorms generally resembling the expected pattern for negative (positive) IMF BY. When the preexisting convection pattern in the northern (southern) hemisphere is driven by positive (negative) IMF BY, the nightside auroral convection changes markedly over the course of the substorm to establish this same “Harang” configuration.

  4. Asymmetrical response of dayside ion precipitation to a large rotation of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchem, J.; Richard, R. L.; Escoubet, C. P.; Wing, S.; Pitout, F.

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations together with large-scale kinetic simulations to investigate the response of the dayside magnetospheric ion precipitation to a large rotation (135°) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The study uses simplified global MHD model (no dipole tilt and constant ionospheric conductance) and idealized solar wind conditions where the IMF rotates smoothly from a southward toward a northward direction (BX = 0) to clearly identify the effects of the impact of the discontinuity on the magnetopause. Results of the global simulations reveal that a strong north-south asymmetry develops in the pattern of precipitating ions during the interaction of the IMF rotation with the magnetopause. For a counterclockwise IMF rotation from its original southward direction (BY < 0), a spot of high-energy particle injections occurs in the Northern Hemisphere but not in the Southern Hemisphere. The spot moves poleward and dawnward as the interacting field rotates. In that case, reconnection is found close to the poleward edge of the northern cusp, while it occurs farther tailward in the Southern Hemisphere. Tracing magnetic field lines shows an asymmetry in the tilt of the cusps and indicates that the draping and subsequent double reconnection of newly opened field lines from the Southern Hemisphere over the dayside magnetosphere cause the symmetry breaking. The reverse north-south asymmetry is found for a clockwise IMF rotation from its original southward direction (BY > 0). Trends observed in the ion dispersions predicted from the simulations are in good agreement with Cluster observations of the midaltitude northern cusp, which motivated the study.

  5. Double-modulation CPT cesium compact clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Peter; Mejri, Sinda; Tricot, Francois; Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Boudot, Rodolphe; de Clercq, Emeric; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Double-modulation coherent population trapping (CPT) is based on a synchronous modulation of Raman phase and laser polarization, which allows the atomic population to accumulate in a common dark state. The high contrast signal obtained on the clock transition with a relative compact and robust laser system is interesting as basis of a high performance microwave clock. Here we study the parameters of a double-modulation CPT Cs clock working in cw mode. The optimal polarization modulation frequency and cell temperature for maximum contrast of clock transition are investigated. The parameters of the detection are also studied. With the optimal parameters, we observe a CPT signal with contrast of 10% and linewidth of 492 Hz, which is well suited for implementing a cw atomic clock.

  6. A low maintenance Sr optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Hobson, R.; Bowden, W.; Bridge, E. M.; Donnellan, S.; Curtis, E. A.; Gill, P.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the Sr optical lattice clock apparatus at NPL with particular emphasis on techniques used to increase reliability and minimise the human requirement in its operation. Central to this is a clock-referenced transfer cavity scheme for the stabilisation of cooling and trapping lasers. We highlight several measures to increase the reliability of the clock with a view towards the realisation of an optical time-scale. The clock contributed 502 hours of data over a 25 day period (84% uptime) in a recent measurement campaign with several uninterrupted periods of more than 48 hours. An instability of 2 x 10-17 was reached after 105 s of averaging in an interleaved self-comparison of the clock.

  7. Nutrient Sensing and the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Clara B.; Ramsey, Kathryn M.; Marcheva, Biliana; Bass, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system synchronizes behavioral and physiologic processes with daily changes in the external light-dark cycle, optimizing energetic cycles with the rising and setting of the sun. Molecular clocks are organized hierarchically, with neural clocks orchestrating the daily switch between periods of feeding and fasting, and peripheral clocks generating 24hr oscillations of energy storage and utilization. Recent studies indicate that clocks respond to nutrient signals, and that high-fat diet influences the period of locomotor activity under free-running conditions, a core property of the clock. A major goal is to identify the molecular basis for the reciprocal relationship between metabolic and circadian pathways. Here, we highlight the role of peptidergic hormones and macromolecules as nutrient signals integrating circadian and metabolic systems. PMID:22424658

  8. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  9. Structure of the Outer Cusp and Sources of the Cusp Precipitation during Intervals of a Horizontal IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.; Simunek, J.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Stenuit, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly penetrate into the magnetosphere. Since the main transport processes are connected with merging of the interplanetary and magnetospheric field lines, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Orientation plays a decisive role in the formation of the high-altitude cusp. The importance of the sign of the IMF Bz component for this process was suggested about 40 years ago and later it was documented by many experimental investigations. However, situations when IMF Bz is the major IMF component are rather rare. The structure of the cusp during periods of a small IMF BZ is generally unknown, probably due to the fully 3-D nature of the interaction. The present case study reveals the importance of horizontal IMF components on the global magnetospheric configuration as well as on small-scale processes at the cusp-magnetosheath interface. We have used simultaneous measurements of several spacecraft (ISTP program) operating in different regions of interplanetary space and two closely spaced satellites (INTERBALL-1/MAGION- 4) crossing the cusp-magnetosheath boundary to show the connection between the short- and large-scale phenomena. In the northern hemisphere, observations suggest a presence of two spots of cusp-like precipitation supplied by reconnection occurring simultaneously in both hemispheres. A source of this bifurcation is the positive IMF By component further enhanced by the field draping in the magnetosheath. This magnetic field component shifts the entry point far away from the local noon but in opposite sense in either hemisphere.

  10. EVIDENCE FOR A CONSTANT IMF IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BASED ON THEIR X-RAY BINARY POPULATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kundu, A.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Lehmer, B.; Maraston, C.

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having steeper IMFs. These steeper IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars in early type galaxies based on the IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary populations (LMXBs) of nearby early-type galaxies. These binaries are field neutron stars or black holes accreting from a low-mass donor star. We specifically compare the number of field LMXBs per K-band light in a well-studied sample of elliptical galaxies, and use this result to distinguish between an invariant IMF and one that is Kroupa/Chabrier-like at low masses and steeper at high masses. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  11. The dependence of transpolar arc location on IMF By: a comparison of two large transpolar arc datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullen, Anita; Fear, Rob; Milan, Steve

    2014-05-01

    It is well-known that transpolar arc occurrence and motion depends strongly on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn-duskward motion of these arcs is strongly controlled by the IMF By component. Fear and Milan (2012) showed that not only the transpolar arc motion but also the dawn-duskward displacement of the original nightside connection point depends on the direction of IMF By. The best correlations between IMF By and location of transpolar arc nighside connection point was found for a 3-4 hour time delay between these. The results of their study are here reinvestigated using a similar dataset by Kullen et al. (2002) covering another time period. The analysis of the results shows several interesting features. It confirms many of the statistical results in the Fear and Milan (2012) study. However, the best correlation between IMF By and transpolar arc location is found to be with IMF conditions 1-2 hours before the arc occurs. Furthermore, one class of transpolar arcs (bending arcs, splitting from dawn- or dusk oval side around 21 and 3 UT) shows no correlation with IMF By at all. This indicates, bending arcs may form in a different way. A possible connection between bending transpolar arcs and dayside flux transfer events is investigated with help of ionospheric plasma flow patterns using SuperDARN data.

  12. Multi-Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearings under Harsh Working Condition Using IMF-Based Adaptive Envelope Order Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    When operating under harsh condition (e.g., time-varying speed and load, large shocks), the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are always manifested as low signal noise ratio, non-stationary statistical parameters, which cause difficulties for current diagnostic methods. As such, an IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis (IMF-AEOA) is proposed for bearing fault detection under such conditions. This approach is established through combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), envelope order tracking and fault sensitive analysis. In this scheme, EEMD provides an effective way to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into IMFs with different frequency bands. The envelope order tracking is further employed to transform the envelope of each IMF to angular domain to eliminate the spectral smearing induced by speed variation, which makes the bearing characteristic frequencies more clear and discernible in the envelope order spectrum. Finally, a fault sensitive matrix is established to select the optimal IMF containing the richest diagnostic information for final decision making. The effectiveness of IMF-AEOA is validated by simulated signal and experimental data from locomotive bearings. The result shows that IMF-AEOA could accurately identify both single and multiple faults of bearing even under time-varying rotating speed and large extraneous shocks. PMID:25353982

  13. Impact of the IMF rotation on the cusp dynamics on the dayside: Global 3D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    The dynamics of the cusp region is analyzed with a new version of a global three-dimensional full particle simulation with changing the interplanetary magnetic field IMF direction progressively from northward to duskward then duskward to southward With the initial northward IMF bands of weak magnetic field sash form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere and at high altitudes these sashes are located approximately around the pole axis As the IMF rotates duskward these sashes move toward the equator within opposite quadrants Then as the duskward-oriented IMF continue to rotate toward southward these sashes move further and reach the dayside magnetopause at the equator During the progressive rotation of the IMF from northward to duskward i the sash region widens towards lower latitudes banana-shape and with the duskward IMF ii the size of the banana-shape region becomes minimum and its location stops around a maximum deviation of 45degree from the polar axis It should be noted that the sashes are extended from the dayside to the nightside tailward The motion of the sashes is also analyzed during the IMF rotation form duskward to southward

  14. The effect of a brief northward turning in IMF Bz on solar wind-magnetosphere coupling in a global MHD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Kevin H.; Lopez, Ramon E.; Bruntz, Robert

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we examine the response of the magnetosphere-ionopshere (M-I) system to a transient northward excursion in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD simulation. The simulated IMF transitions hold from a steady southward IMF to a steady northward IMF before suddenly transitioning back to southward IMF after 20 min. Once the IMF returns southward, the M-I system is in a state of reduced energy dissipation for approximately an hour as it reconfigures back into a standard southward IMF configuration. We find that the northward IMF excursion affects both the viscous and reconnection interactions with the solar wind. The flow of plasma in the magnetosphere is significantly disrupted by the reconnection cycle under northward IMF. This reduce the transfer of mechanical energy from the solar wind due to the viscous interaction, and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system is in a mixed topological configuration containing elements produced by both of southward IMF reconnection and the Dungey cycle, as well as northward IMF reconnection and the presence of reverse cell convection at high latitudes. The effects of the transient northward IMF must be completely cleared out before the system can return to an optimal state of energy transfer characteristic of steady southward IMF. As a result, a simple 20 min excursion of northward IMF can put the magnetosphere-ionosphere system into a reduced state of coupling to the solar wind for some time following the return to steady southward IMF; for LFM we saw a reduced state lasting an hour

  15. Lutetium +: A better clock candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Kyle; Paez, Eduardo; Haciyev, Elnur; Arifin, Arifin; Cazan, Radu; Barrett, Murray

    2015-05-01

    With the extreme precision now reached by optical clocks it is reasonable to consider redefinition of the frequency standard. In doing so it is important to look beyond the current best-case efforts and have an eye on future possibilities. We will argue that singly ionized Lutetium is a strong candidate for the next generation of optical frequency standards. Lu + has a particularly narrow optical transition in combination with several advantageous properties for managing systematic uncertainties compared to the other atomic species. We summarize these properties and our specific strategies for managing the uncertainties due to external perturbations. Finally, we present the status of our ongoing experiments with trapped Lu +, including the results of precision measurements of its atomic structure.

  16. Highly precise clocks to test fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Wolf, P.

    2012-12-01

    Highly precise atomic clocks and precision oscillators are excellent tools to test founding principles, such as the Equivalence Principle, which are the basis of modern physics. A large variety of tests are possible, including tests of Local Lorentz Invariance, of Local Position Invariance like, for example, tests of the variability of natural constants with time and with gravitation potential, tests of isotropy of space, etc. Over several decades, SYRTE has developed an ensemble of highly accurate atomic clocks and oscillators using a large diversity of atomic species and methods. The SYRTE clock ensemble comprises hydrogen masers, Cs and Rb atomic fountain clocks, Sr and Hg optical lattice clocks, as well as ultra stable oscillators both in the microwave domain (cryogenic sapphire oscillator) and in the optical domain (Fabry-Perot cavity stabilized ultra stable lasers) and means to compare these clocks locally or remotely (fiber links in the RF and the optical domain, femtosecond optical frequency combs, satellite time and frequency transfer methods). In this paper, we list the fundamental physics tests that have been performed over the years with the SYRTE clock ensemble. Several of these tests are done thanks to the collaboration with partner institutes including the University of Western Australia, the Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik in Germany, and others.

  17. Circadian clock system in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Yoshitaka; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-02-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates. In many cases, the pineal gland retains photic input and endocrinal-output pathways both linked tightly to the oscillator. This contrasts well with the mammalian pineal gland equipped only with the output of melatonin production that is subject to neuronal regulation by central circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Molecular studies on animal clock genes were performed first in Drosophila and later developed in rodents. More recently, clock genes such as Per, Cry, Clock, and Bmal have been found in a variety of vertebrate clock structures including the avian pineal gland. The profiles of the temporal change of the clock gene expression in the avian pineal gland are more similar to those in the mammalian SCN rather than to those in the mammalian pineal gland. Avian pineal gland and mammalian SCN seem to share a fundamental molecular framework of the clock oscillator composed of a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop. The circadian time-keeping mechanism also requires several post-translational events, such as protein translocation and degradation processes, in which protein phosphorylation plays a very important role for the stable 24-h cycling of the oscillator and/or the photic-input pathway for entrainment of the clock. PMID:11890455

  18. Time clock requirements for hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Chen; Vilnai-Yavetz, Iris; Rafaeli, Anat; Zemel, Moran

    2016-06-01

    An agreement negotiated following a doctors' strike in 2011 introduced a requirement that physicians in Israel's public hospitals clock in and out when starting and leaving work. The press reported strong negative reactions to this policy and predicted doctors deserting hospitals en masse. This study examines physicians' reactions toward the clock-in/clock-out policy 6 months after its implementation, and assesses the relationship between these reactions and aspects of their employment context. 676 physicians in 42 hospitals responded to a survey assessing doctor's reactions toward the clock, hospital policy makers, and aspects of their work. Reactions to the clock were generally negative. Sense of calling correlated positively with negative reactions to the clock, and the latter correlated positively with quit intentions. However, overall, respondents reported a high sense of calling and low quit intentions. We suggest that sense of calling buffers and protects physicians from quit intentions. Differences in reactions to the clock were associated with different employment characteristics, but sense of calling did not vary by hospital size or type or by physicians' specialty. The findings offer insights into how physicians' working environment affects their reactions to regulatory interventions, and highlight medical professionalism as buffering reactions to unpopular regulatory policies. PMID:27142179

  19. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  20. Atomic Clock Based On Linear Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Dick, G. John

    1992-01-01

    Highly stable atomic clock based on excitation and measurement of hyperfine transition in 199Hg+ ions confined in linear quadrupole trap by radio-frequency and static electric fields. Configuration increases stability of clock by enabling use of enough ions to obtain adequate signal while reducing non-thermal component of motion of ions in trapping field, reducing second-order Doppler shift of hyperfine transition. Features described in NPO-17758 "Linear Ion Trap for Atomic Clock." Frequency standard based on hyperfine transition described in NPO-17456, "Trapped-Mercury-Ion Frequency Standard."

  1. Magic wavelengths for terahertz clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaoji; Xu Xia; Chen Xuzong; Chen Jingbiao

    2010-01-15

    Magic wavelengths for laser trapping of boson isotopes of alkaline-earth metal atoms Sr, Ca, and Mg are investigated while considering terahertz clock transitions between the {sup 3}P{sub 0}, {sup 3}P{sub 1}, and {sup 3}P{sub 2} metastable triplet states. Our calculation shows that magic wavelengths for laser trapping do exist. This result is important because those metastable states have already been used to make accurate clocks in the terahertz frequency domain. Detailed discussions for magic wavelengths for terahertz clock transitions are given in this article.

  2. Model of a mechanical clock escapement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moline, David; Wagner, John; Volk, Eugene

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical tower clock originated in Europe during the 14th century to sound hourly bells and later display hands on a dial. An important innovation was the escapement mechanism, which converts stored energy into oscillatory motion for fixed time intervals through the pendulum swing. Previous work has modeled the escapement mechanism in terms of inelastic and elastic collisions. We derive and experimentally verify a theoretical model in terms of impulsive differential equations for the Graham escapement mechanism in a Seth Thomas tower clock. The model offers insight into the clock's mechanical behavior and the functionality of the deadbeat escapement mechanism.

  3. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks. PMID:24206471

  4. The circadian clock in cancer development and therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most aspects of mammalian function display circadian rhythms driven by an endogenous clock. The circadian clock is operated by genes and comprises a central clock in the brain that responds to environmental cues and controls subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues via circadian output pathways. The...

  5. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies. PMID:25965674

  6. IMF or Abundance Variations? Steep Gradients at the Centers of Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Lu, Jessica R.; Mann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We present high signal-to-noise spectra for six early-type galaxies with Keck/LRIS, covering 350-1050 nm and probing spatial scales from 100 pc to several kpc. Some of our objects exhibit steep absorption-line gradients within the central ~300 pc, indicating a rapid increase in [Na/Fe] and [N/Fe] toward the galaxy center. While stellar population synthesis (SPS) modeling may address whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) varies as a function of radius, we caution that the competing effects of chemical abundance variations and IMF variations demands extreme care in interpreting SPS models of integrated-light spectra. The steep abundance variations themselves may offer insight to star formation and gas retention in progenitors of today's early-type galaxies, including the possible overabundance of stars above ~3 Msun.

  7. Circadian and Circalunar Clock Interactions in a Marine Annelid

    PubMed Central

    Zantke, Juliane; Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Tomoko; Arboleda, Enrique; Lohs, Claudia; Schipany, Katharina; Hallay, Natalia; Straw, Andrew D.; Todo, Takeshi; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Life is controlled by multiple rhythms. Although the interaction of the daily (circadian) clock with environmental stimuli, such as light, is well documented, its relationship to endogenous clocks with other periods is little understood. We establish that the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii possesses endogenous circadian and circalunar (monthly) clocks and characterize their interactions. The RNAs of likely core circadian oscillator genes localize to a distinct nucleus of the worm’s forebrain. The worm’s forebrain also harbors a circalunar clock entrained by nocturnal light. This monthly clock regulates maturation and persists even when circadian clock oscillations are disrupted by the inhibition of casein kinase 1δ/ε. Both circadian and circalunar clocks converge on the regulation of transcript levels. Furthermore, the circalunar clock changes the period and power of circadian behavior, although the period length of the daily transcriptional oscillations remains unaltered. We conclude that a second endogenous noncircadian clock can influence circadian clock function. PMID:24075994

  8. Is coverage a factor in non-Gaussianity of IMF parameters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Fikani, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, Feynman and Ruzmaikin (1994) showed that IMF parameters for the 1973 to 1990 period are not log-normally distributed as previously suggested by Burlaga and King (1979) for the data obtained over a shorter time period (1963-75). They studied the first four moments, namely: mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis. For a Gaussian distribution, moments higher than the variance should vanish. In particular, Feynman and Ruzmaikin obtained very high values of kurtosis during some periods of their analysis. We note that the coverage for IMF parameters is very uneven for the period analyzed by them, ranging from less than 40% to greater than 80%. So a question arises as to whether the amount of coverage is a factor in their analysis. We decided to test this for the B(sub z) component of IMF, since it is an effective geoactive parameter for short term disturbances. Like them, we used 1-hour averaged data available on the Omnitape. We studied the scatter plots of the annual mean values of B(sub z)(nT) and its kurtosis versus the percent coverage for the year. We obtain a correlation coefficient of 0.48 and 0.42 respectively for the 1973-90 period. The probability for a chance occurrence of these correlation coefficients for 18 pair of points is less than 8%. As a rough measure of skewness, we determined the percent asymmetry between the areas of the histograms representing the distributions of the positive and the negative values of B(sub z) and studied its correlation with the coverage for the year. This analysis yields a correlation coefficient of 0.41 When we extended the analysis for the whole period for which IMF data are available (1963-93) the corresponding correlation coefficients are 0.59, 0.14, and 0.42. Our findings will be presented and discussed

  9. Abundance ratios and IMF slopes in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 1396 with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentz, J. J.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Loubser, S. I.; Hilker, M.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Napolitano, N.; Cantiello, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Norris, M.; Paolillo, M.; Smith, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Lyubenova, M.; Munoz, R.; Puzia, T.

    2016-08-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (MV = -16.60, Mass ˜4 × 108 M⊙), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the VLT/ MUSE spectrograph in the wavelength region from 4750 - 9350 Å. In this paper we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galacto-centric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of ˜ 6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]˜ -0.4, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] ˜+0.1, and under-abundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around -0.1, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from ˜+0.1 in the centre to ˜+0.2 dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1396 is consistent with either a Kroupa-like or a top-heavy distribution, while a bottom-heavy IMF is firmly ruled out. An analysis of the abundance ratios, and a comparison with galaxies in the Local Group, shows that the chemical enrichment history of NGC 1396 is similar to the Galactic disc, with an extended star formation history. This would be the case if the galaxy originated from a LMC-sized dwarf galaxy progenitor, which would lose its gas while falling into the Fornax cluster.

  10. The Distant Magnetotail Under Long Duration, Very Northward IMF Conditions: October 22-24, 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, Donald H.; Oieroset, M.; Raeder, J.; Lepping, R. P.; Newell, P. T.; Wind, S.

    2006-01-01

    A unique 32 hour interval of very northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) on October 22-24, 2003 created a exceptionally thick cold dense magnetotail plasma sheet, a small polar cap and accompanying small tail lobe. These features were detected by the Cluster DMSP and FAST spacecraft and modeled by a global simulation as described in papers by Oieroset et al. (2005) and Li et al. (2005). During the same interval the Wind spacecraft was passing through the center of the magnetotail about 130 Re downstream of Earth. Wind results will be described that reveal a very unusual magnetotail characterized by (1) continual tailward flow of 200-400 km/s with densities in the range 0.2-3/cc, both of whch are clearly less than those expected in the magnetosheath, (2) a mostly northward Bz but with a predominant Bx field component with sign reversals indicating crossings between the two hemispheres of the tail, and (3) velocity waves superposed on the downstream flow with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 100 to 200 km/s, periods of 10 to 20 minutes and clockwise polarization. Low altitude DMSP and Fast measurements reveal an auroral oval with enhanced latitudinal thickness and a small polar cap filled with structured precipitzting electrons and few ions. A new global MHD simulation of the event exhibits a highly elliptical tail of diminished cross-section at 130 Re with major axis aligned with the northward IMF. The tail current sheet also tends to be aligned in a north-south direction with the two tail hemispheres to the east and west with their polarities depending on prior history of the IMF. The simulation appears to be consistent with many, but not all, of the observations. High latitude cusp reconnection and subsequent downtail flow of closed field lines may explain the tail structure, but the waves are more likely due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability often thought to occur during northward IMF conditions.

  11. The effects of IMF sector boundary crossings on the induced magnetosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vech, D.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Opitz, A.; Szegő, K.; Zhang, T. L.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The induced planetary magnetosphere is the result of the interaction between the streaming solar wind plasma and an unmagnetized planetary body with an ionosphere acting as an obstacle. The structure of the induced magnetosphere highly depends on the upstream solar wind parameters including the direction and magnitude of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). (e.g. Zhang et al., 2009; Masunaga et al., 2011). Not only the upstream conditions but also temporal variations of the upstream conditions are expected to cause changes in the structure of induced magnetospheres. For example, Niedner and Brandt [1978] reported that the cometary ion tail was lost due to reconnection after an IMF sector boundary crossing. Edberg et al. [2011] studied the effects of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) and Co-rotating Interaction Regions (CIR) at Venus. They suggested that the change in the magnetic field polarity during IMF sector boundary crossings contribute to an increased ion outflow. In addition, they speculated that this might be due to dayside magnetic reconnection. In this study we aim to understand the effects of the varying upstream conditions on the Venusian induced magnetosphere. Using the entire Venus Express/ASPERA-4 and MAG datasets, we first produce the spatial distribution of ions in the plasma environment of Venus during ICME and CIR passages together with that during the average condition. In addition to ICME/CIR passages, we focus on the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) crossings, which can also change the polarity of the induced magnetosphere. By comparing HCS events and ICME/CIR events, we may be able to distinguish the contribution of IMF polarity change on the Venusian induced magnetosphere, because the solar wind is less disturbed during HCS events. We will compare the signatures associated with the sector boundary crossings found at the magnetotail of Venus with that is previously reported from comet studies.

  12. Influence of Geomagnetic and IMF conditions on High Latitude Upper Atmospheric winds and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Conde, M.; Emmert, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the climatological behavior of upper atmospheric winds (horizontal and vertical) and temperatures above Alaska by combining line-of-sight Doppler shifts of 630 nm optical emissions recorded during the 2011 and 2012 winters using a ground based all-sky wavelength scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer (SDI) located at Poker Flat (65.12N, 147.47W). The wide field of view covered a large geographic region above Alaska. This field was divided in software into multiple zones (115 used here), allowing independent spectra to be sampled from many directions simultaneously. As a result, it is capable of recording the wind field's spatial variations over a wide geographic region with high spatial resolution, and to resolve these variations over time. Although such climatological studies have been performed previously using satellites, models, and narrow field Fabry-Perot interferometers, there are no published climatological studies of thermospheric winds and temperatures using either SDI data or any other technique with comparable geographic coverage and resolution. Wind summary dial plots were produced to depict the climatology of the horizontal winds and temperatures for different geomagnetic conditions and orientation of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Results show that horizontal winds and temperatures had a strong dependence on geospace activity and orientation of IMF. The latitudinal shears in horizontal winds were stronger when geomagnetic conditions were active compared to the latitudinal shears for quiet conditions. Also, shears appeared earlier over Poker Flat when geomagnetic conditions were active. The latitudinal shears showed more dependence on IMF when geomagnetic conditions were active than they did during quieter conditions. F-region temperatures were higher under active geomagnetic conditions than during quiet conditions. They were also observed to be higher in pre-magnetic midnight sector (duskside) than they were post

  13. Deep Space Atomic Clock Ticks Toward Success

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Todd Ely, principal investigator for NASA's Deep Space Atomic Clock at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., spotlights the paradigm-busting innovations now in development to revol...

  14. Clock genes, pancreatic function, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elaine; Burris, Thomas P; Quesada, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Circadian physiology is responsible for the temporal regulation of metabolism to optimize energy homeostasis throughout the day. Disturbances in the light/dark cycle, sleep/wake schedule, or feeding/activity behavior can affect the circadian function of the clocks located in the brain and peripheral tissues. These alterations have been associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Animal models with molecular manipulation of clock genes and genetic studies in humans also support these links. It has been demonstrated that the endocrine pancreas has an intrinsic self-sustained clock, and recent studies have revealed an important role of clock genes in pancreatic β cells, glucose homeostasis, and diabetes. PMID:25457619

  15. Method and system for downhole clock synchronization

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-11-28

    A method and system for use in synchronizing at least two clocks in a downhole network are disclosed. The method comprises determining a total signal latency between a controlling processing element and at least one downhole processing element in a downhole network and sending a synchronizing time over the downhole network to the at least one downhole processing element adjusted for the signal latency. Electronic time stamps may be used to measure latency between processing elements. A system for electrically synchronizing at least two clocks connected to a downhole network comprises a controlling processing element connected to a synchronizing clock in communication over a downhole network with at least one downhole processing element comprising at least one downhole clock. Preferably, the downhole network is integrated into a downhole tool string.

  16. Phase measurement system using a dithered clock

    DOEpatents

    Fairley, C.R.; Patterson, S.R.

    1991-05-28

    A phase measurement system is disclosed which measures the phase shift between two signals by dithering a clock signal and averaging a plurality of measurements of the phase differences between the two signals. 8 figures.

  17. Spacetime and Quantum Propagation From Digital Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, Garnet. N.

    2013-09-01

    Minkowski spacetime predates quantum mechanics and is frequently regarded as an extension of the classical paradigm of Newtonian physics, rather than a harbinger of quantum mechanics. By inspecting how discrete clocks operate in a relativistic world we show that this view is misleading. Discrete relativistic clocks implicate classical spacetime provided a continuum limit is taken in such a way that successive ticks of the clock yield a smooth worldline. The classical picture emerges but does so by confining unitary propagation into spacetime regions between ticks that have zero area in the continuum limit. Clocks allowed a continuum limit that does not force inter-event intervals to zero, satisfy the Dirac equation. This strongly suggests that the origin of quantum propagation is to be found in the shift from Newton's absolute time to Minkowski's frame dependent time and is ultimately relativistic in origin.

  18. Biological clocks and the practice of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks enable living species to acquire some independence in relation to time. They improve the efficiency of biological systems, by allowing them to anticipate future constraints on major physyological systems and cell energy metabolism. The temporal organization of a giwen biological function can be impaired in its coordination with astronomical time or with other biological function. There are also external conditions that influence biological clocks. This temporal organization is complex, and it is possible that a series of psychiatric disorders and syndromes involve primary or secondary changes in biological clocks: seasonal and other mood disorders, premenstrual syndromes, social jet lag, free-running rhythms, and several sleep disorders are among them. In this review, we describe the main concepts relevant to chronobiology and explore the relevance of knowledge about biological clocks to the clinical practice of psychiatry PMID:17969862

  19. Circadian clocks, obesity and cardiometabolic function.

    PubMed

    Scott, E M

    2015-09-01

    Life on earth is governed by the continuous 24-h cycle of light and dark. Organisms have adapted to this environment with clear diurnal rhythms in their physiology and metabolism, enabling them to anticipate predictable environmental fluctuations over the day and to optimize the timing of relevant biological processes to this cycle. These rhythms are regulated by molecular circadian clocks, and current evidence suggests that interactions between the central and peripheral molecular clocks are important in metabolic and vascular functions. Disrupting this process through mutations in the core clock genes or by interfering with the environmental zeitgebers that entrain the clock appear to modulate the function of cells and tissues, leading to an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:26332972

  20. Frequency Metrology with Optical Lattice Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng-Lei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2010-08-01

    The precision measurement of time and frequency is of great interest for a wide range of applications, including fundamental science and technologies that support broadband communication networks and the navigation with global positioning systems (GPSs). The development of optical frequency measurement based on frequency combs has revolutionized the field of frequency metrology, especially research on optical frequency standards. The proposal and realization of the optical lattice clock have further stimulated studies in the field of optical frequency metrology. Optical carrier transfer using optical fibers has been used to disseminate optical frequencies or compare two optical clocks without degrading their stability and accuracy. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art development of optical frequency combs, standards, and transfer techniques with emphasis on optical lattice clocks. We address recent results achieved at the University of Tokyo and the National Metrology Institute of Japan in respect of frequency metrology with Sr and Yb optical lattice clocks.

  1. Avian circadian organization: a chorus of clocks.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  2. Simultaneous conjugate observations of dynamic variations in high-latitude dayside convection due to changes in IMF By

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, R. A.; Baker, K. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Dudeney, J. R.; Pinnock, M.; Mattin, N.; Leonard, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Data from two conjugate HF radars currently operating at Goose Bay (Labrador) and the Halley Station (Antarctica), obtained for a single 45-min period about local noon on April 22, 1988, were used to study the near-instantaneous conjugate two-dimensional patterns of plasma convection in the vicinity of the cusp. In particular, the response of these plasma convection patterns to changes in the By component of the IMF was examined. Results indicate that, under quasi-stationary IMF conditions, the conjugate convection patterns are quite similar to the synthesized patterns of Heppner and Maynard (1987) and that the patterns respond rapidly to changes in the IMF By component. Results also show that transitions between convection states begin to occur within minutes of the time that an IMF state change is incident on the magnetospheric boundary, and that the convection reconfigurations expand poleward, completely filling the field of view of an HF radar within 6 min of the time of onset.

  3. Cusp and LLBL as Sources of the Isolated Dayside Auroral Feature During Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Gallagher, D. L.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Mende, S.; Greenwald, R.; Newell, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An intense dayside proton aurora was observed by IMAGE FUV for an extensive period of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on 17 and 18 September, 2000. This aurora partially coincided with the auroral oval and intruded farther poleward into the polar cap, and it showed longitudinal motions in response to IMF $B-y$ variation. Intense magnetosheath-like electron and ion precipitations have been simultaneously detected by DMSP above the poleward portion of the high-latitude dayside aurora. They resemble the typical plasmas observed in the low-altitude cusp. However, less intense electrons and more intense energetic ions were detected over the equatorward part of the aurora. These plasmas are closer to the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) plasmas. Under strongly northward IMF, global ionospheric convection derived from SuperDARN radar measurements showed a 4-cell pattern with sunward convection in the middle of the dayside polar cap and the dayside aurora corresponded to two different convection cells. This result further supports two source regions for the aurora. The cusp proton aurora is on open magnetic field lines convecting sunward whereas the LLBL proton aurora is on closed field lines convecting antisunward. These IMAGE, DMSP and SuperDARN observations reveal the structure and dynamics of the aurora and provide strong evidence for magnetic merging occurring at the high-latitude magnetopause poleward from the cusp. This merging process was very likely quasi-stationary.

  4. On the Effect of IMF Turning on Ion Dynamics at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcourt, D. C.; Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a rotation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) on the transport of magnetospheric ion populations at Mercury. We focus on ions of planetary origin and investigate their large-scale circulation using three-dimensional single-particle simulations. We show that a nonzero Bx component of the IMF leads to a pronounced asymmetry in the overall circulation pattern . In particular, we demonstrate that the centrifugal acceleration due to curvature of the E x B drift paths is more pronounced in one hemisphere than the other, leading to filling of the magnetospheric lobes and plasma sheet with more or less energetic material depending upon the hemisphere of origin. Using a time-varying electric and magnetic field model, we investigate the response of ions to rapid (a few tens of seconds) re-orientation of the IMF. We show that, for ions with gyroperiods comparable to the field variation time scale, the inductive electric field should lead to significant nonadiabatic energization, up to several hundreds of eVs or a few keVs. It thus appears that IMP turning at Mercury should lead to localized loading of the magnetosphere with energetic material of planetary origin (e.g., Na+).

  5. Main results of the development of dispersion type IMF at A.A. Bochvar Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, A. M.; Vatulin, A. V.; Glagovsky, E. M.; Konovalov, I. I.; Morozov, A. V.; Kozlov, A. V.; Ershov, S. A.; Mishunin, V. A.; Kulakov, G. V.; Sorokin, V. I.; Simonov, A. P.; Petrova, Z. N.; Fedotov, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    At A.A. Bochvar Institute a novel conception of IMF to burn civil and weapon's grade Pu is currently accepted. It consists in the fact, that instead of using pelletized IMF, that features low serviceability and dust forming route of fuel element fabrication, the usage is made of dispersion type fuel element with aluminium or zirconium matrices. Dispersion fuels feature a high irradiation resistance and reliability; they can consequently reach high burnups and be serviceable under transient conditions. Three basic fuel element versions are under development in VNIINM for both thermal and fast reactors. The first version is a fuel element with a heterogeneous arrangement of fuel (PuO 2 or YSZ granules) within an Al or Zr matrix. The second version of a fuel element has a heat conducting Al or Zr alloy matrix and an isolated arrangement of PuO 2 in a fuel minielement more fully meets the 'Rock Fuel' requirements. According to the third version a porous meat of zirconium metallurgically bonded to a fuel cladding is formed through which a PuO 2 powder is introduced. All the versions are technologically simple to fabricate and require minimal quantities of process operations related to treating MA and Pu. Preliminary in-pile tests of IMF prototypes are presented.

  6. Cloning and Expression of SFRP5 in Tibetan Chicken and its Relationship with IMF Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Zuo, Lu-Lu; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Ya-Ou; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang; Liao, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sen; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5), an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is relevant to the adipocyte differentiation. In order to clarify its role in regulating intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Tibetan chicken, the full-length sequence of the Tibetan chicken SFRP5 gene was cloned. The relative expression of SFRP5 gene was detected using quantitative RT-PCR in various tissues of 154 days old Tibetan chicken, as well as in breast muscle, thigh muscle, and adipose tissue at different growth stages. The results showed that SFRP5 gene was expressed in all examined tissues but highly enriched in adipose tissue. Temporal expression profile showed that the expression of SFRP5 was gradually decreased in breast muscle, but was fluctuated in thigh muscle and adipose tissue with the growth of Tibetan chicken. Furthermore, correlation analysis demonstrated that the expression of SFRP5 in breast muscle, thigh muscle and adipose tissue was correlated with IMF content at different levels. The results indicated that Tibetan chicken SFRP5 is involved in IMF deposition. PMID:27565866

  7. Observations of magnetospheric substorms occurring with no apparent solar wind/IMF trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1996-05-01

    An outstanding topic in magnetospheric physics is whether substorms are always externally triggered by disturbances in either the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) or solar wind, or whether they can also occur solely as the result of an internal magnetospheric instability. Over the past decade, arguments have been made on the both sides of this issue. Horwitz [1985] and McPherron et al. [1986] have shown examples of substorm onsets which they claimed were not externally triggered. However, as pointed out by Lyons [1995, 1996], there are several problems associated with these studies that make their results somewhat inconclusive. In particular, in the McPherron et al. study, fluctuations in the By component were not considered as possible triggers. Furthermore, Lyons suggests that the sharp decreases in the AL index during intervals of steady IMF/solar wind are not substorms at all but rather that they are just enhancements of the convection driven DP 2 current system that are often observed to occur during steady magnetospheric convection events. In the present study, we utilize a much more comprehensive data set (consisting of particle data from the Los Alamos energetic particle detectors at geosynchronous orbit, IMP 8 magnetometer and plasma data, Viking UV auroral imager data, midlatitude Pi 2 pulsation data, ground magnetometer data, and ISEE 1 magnetic field and energetic particle data) to show as unambiguously as possible that typical substorms can indeed occur in the absence of an identifiable trigger in the solar wind/IMF.

  8. Simulated orbits of heavy planetary ions at Mars for different IMF configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Livi, Roberto; Hara, Takuya; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; McFadden, James; Bougher, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We present simulated detections of O+, O2+ and CO2+ ions at Mars along a virtual orbit in the Mars space environment. Planetary pick-up ions are formed through the direct interaction of the solar wind with the neutral upper atmosphere, causing the newly created ions to be picked up and accelerated by the background convective electric field. Because previous missions such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX) have not been able to measure the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components simultaneously with plasma measurements, the response of heavy planetary pick-up ions to changes in the IMF has not been well characterized. Using a steady-state multi-species MHD model to provide the background electric and magnetic fields, the Mars Test Particle (MTP) simulation can trace each of these particles along field lines in near-Mars space and construct virtual ion detections from a spacecraft orbit. Specifically, we will present energy-time spectrograms and velocity space distributions (VSDs) for a selection of orbits during different IMF configurations and solar cycle conditions. These simulated orbits have broader implications for how to measure ion escape. Using individual particle traces, the origin and trajectories of different ion populations can be analyzed in order to assess how and where they contribute to the total atmospheric escape rate, which is a major objective of the upcoming MAVEN mission.

  9. Acceleration and injection of particles inside the magnetosphere changes during duskward IMF By: statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.

    2005-12-01

    The change of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction from northward to duskward has an important impact on the inner magnetosphere as analyzed in a recent paper [Yan et al, GRL, to appear] . This impact is analyzed with the help of a new parallel version of the global three-dimensional full particle simulation. As the newly duskward-oriented IMF interacts with the magnetosphere, bands of weak magnetic field (sash) move to the equator (within opposite quadrants), reach lower latitude and merge into each other to form characteristic ``Crosstail-S" structures within the neutral sheet of the magnetotail. The analysis of particle fluxes shows that ``sashs" and ``Crosstail-S" act as magnetic groove to facilitate the entry and injection of magnetosheath particles into the inner magnetosphere. Injected particles are accelerated after the IMF changes its direction from northward to duskward. Characteristic times associated to the changes of the particle dynamics are estimated from the simulations. These informations are thought to be helpful as pre-signatures announcing the triggering of magnetic substorms.

  10. Cesium clocks keep the world on time

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwig, H.

    1985-09-01

    The development of timekeeping systems based on the natural resonance of cesium atoms is reviewed. The design of a typical cesium clock using a frequency lock servo is described. Some common applications of cesium beam frequency and time reference systems are discussed, including Navstar GPS navigation referencing; military satellite communications; and measurements of relative gravitational effects. The possibility of increasing timekeeping accuracies using improved cesium clock designs is evaluated.

  11. Reduced Kalman Filters for Clock Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's work ontimescales based on Kalman filters that act upon the clock comparisons. The natural Kalman timescale algorithm tends to optimize long-term timescale stability at the expense of short-term stability. By subjecting each post-measurement error covariance matrix to a non-transparent reduction operation, one obtains corrected clocks with improved short-term stability and little sacrifice of long-term stability.

  12. Tests of Lorentz invariance with atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Lakshmi

    Lorentz invariance has been the cornerstone of special relativity. Recent theories have been proposed which suggest violations of Lorentz invariance. Experiments have been conducted using clocks that place the strictest limits on these theories. The thesis focuses on the Mansouri and Sexl formulation and I calculate using this framework the Doppler effect, Compton effect, Maxwell's equations, Hydrogen energy levels and other effects. I conclude the thesis by suggesting a possible method of testing my results using atomic clocks.

  13. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds. Figure 1 Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler. PMID:22408729

  14. Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun

    2007-08-15

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.

  15. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  16. Coupling governs entrainment range of circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ute; Granada, Adrián E; Westermark, Pål O; Heine, Markus; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Synchronization of these timers to environmental light–dark cycles (‘entrainment') is crucial for an organism's fitness. Little is known about which oscillator qualities determine entrainment, i.e., entrainment range, phase and amplitude. In a systematic theoretical and experimental study, we uncovered these qualities for circadian oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN—the master clock in mammals) and the lung (a peripheral clock): (i) the ratio between stimulus (zeitgeber) strength and oscillator amplitude and (ii) the rigidity of the oscillatory system (relaxation rate upon perturbation) determine entrainment properties. Coupling among oscillators affects both qualities resulting in increased amplitude and rigidity. These principles explain our experimental findings that lung clocks entrain to extreme zeitgeber cycles, whereas SCN clocks do not. We confirmed our theoretical predictions by showing that pharmacological inhibition of coupling in the SCN leads to larger ranges of entrainment. These differences between master and the peripheral clocks suggest that coupling-induced rigidity in the SCN filters environmental noise to create a robust circadian system. PMID:21119632

  17. Towards Self-Clocked Gated OCDMA Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, S.; Osadola, T.; Glesk, I.

    2013-02-01

    A novel incoherent OCDMA receiver with incorporated all-optical clock recovery for self-synchronization of a time gate for the multi access interferences (MAI) suppression and minimizing the effect of data time jitter in incoherent OCDMA system was successfully developed and demonstrated. The solution was implemented and tested in a multiuser environment in an out of the laboratory OCDMA testbed with two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding scheme and OC-48 (2.5 Gbp/s) data rate. The self-clocked all-optical time gate uses SOA-based fibre ring laser optical clock, recovered all-optically from the received OCDMA traffic to control its switching window for cleaning the autocorrelation peak from the surrounding MAI. A wider eye opening was achieved when the all-optically recovered clock from received data was used for synchronization if compared to a static approach with the RF clock being generated by a RF synthesizer. Clean eye diagram was also achieved when recovered clock is used to drive time gating.

  18. The aging biological clock in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Case, Mary E; Griffith, James; Dong, Wubei; Tigner, Ira L; Gaines, Kimberly; Jiang, James C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Arnold, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The biological clock affects aging through ras-1 (bd) and lag-1, and these two longevity genes together affect a clock phenotype and the clock oscillator in Neurospora crassa. Using an automated cell-counting technique for measuring conidial longevity, we show that the clock-associated genes lag-1 and ras-1 (bd) are true chronological longevity genes. For example, wild type (WT) has an estimated median life span of 24 days, while the double mutant lag-1, ras-1 (bd) has an estimated median life span of 120 days for macroconidia. We establish the biochemical function of lag-1 by complementing LAG1 and LAC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lag-1 in N. crassa. Longevity genes can affect the clock as well in that, the double mutant lag-1, ras-1 (bd) can stop the circadian rhythm in asexual reproduction (i.e., banding in race tubes) and lengthen the period of the frequency oscillator to 41 h. In contrast to the ras-1 (bd), lag-1 effects on chronological longevity, we find that this double mutant undergoes replicative senescence (i.e., the loss of replication function with time), unlike WT or the single mutants, lag-1 and ras-1 (bd). These results support the hypothesis that sphingolipid metabolism links aging and the biological clock through a common stress response PMID:25535564

  19. Skeletal muscle functions around the clock.

    PubMed

    Mayeuf-Louchart, A; Staels, B; Duez, H

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, the central clock localized in the central nervous system imposes a circadian rhythmicity to all organs. This is achieved thanks to a well-conserved molecular clockwork, involving interactions between several transcription factors, whose pace is conveyed to peripheral tissues through neuronal and humoral signals. The molecular clock plays a key role in the control of numerous physiological processes and takes part in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance. Skeletal muscle is one of the peripheral organs whose function is under the control of the molecular clock. However, although skeletal muscle metabolism and performances display circadian rhythmicity, the role of the molecular clock in the skeletal muscle has remained unappreciated for years. Peripheral organs such as skeletal muscle, and the liver, among others, can be desynchronized from the central clock by external stimuli, such as feeding or exercise, which impose a new rhythm at the organism level. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the clock in skeletal muscle circadian physiology, focusing on the control of myogenesis and skeletal muscle metabolism. PMID:26332967

  20. N+CPT clock resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, M.; Hohensee, M.

    2008-12-15

    In a typical compact atomic time standard a current modulated semiconductor laser is used to create the optical fields that interrogate the atomic hyperfine transition. A pair of optical sidebands created by modulating the diode laser become the coherent population trapping (CPT) fields. At the same time, other pairs of optical sidebands may contribute to other multiphoton resonances, such as three-photon N-resonance [Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002)]. We analyze the resulting joint CPT and N-resonance (hereafter N+CPT) analytically and numerically. Analytically we solve a four-level quantum optics model for this joint resonance and perturbatively include the leading ac Stark effects from the five largest optical fields in the laser's modulation comb. Numerically we use a truncated Floquet solving routine that first symbolically develops the optical Bloch equations to a prescribed order of perturbation theory before evaluating. This numerical approach has, as input, the complete physical details of the first two excited-state manifolds of {sup 87}Rb. We test these theoretical approaches with experiments by characterizing the optimal clock operating regimes.

  1. Hydrogen Maser Clock (HMC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, Robert F. C.; Mattison, Edward M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hydrogen Maser Clock (HMC) project was originally conceived to fly on a reflight of the European Space Agency (ESA) free flying platform, the European Recoverable Carrier (EURECA) that had been launched into space and recovered by NASA's Space Transportation System (STS). A Phase B study for operation of HMC as one of the twelve EURECA payload components was begun in July 1991, and completed a year later. Phase C/D of HMC began in August 1992 and continued into early 1995. At that time ESA decided not to refly EURECA, leaving HMC without access to space. Approximately 80% of the flight support electronics are presently operating the HMC's physics package in a vacuum tank at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and are now considered to be well-tested flight electronics. The package will continue to be operated until the end of 1997 or until a flight opportunity becomes avaiable. Appendices: letters and trip report; proceedings of the symposium on frequency standards and metrology; milli-celsius-stability thermal control for an orbiting frequency standard.

  2. Photic Resetting and Entrainment in CLOCK-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dallmann, Robert; DeBruyne, Jason P.; Weaver, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking CLOCK protein have a relatively subtle circadian phenotype, including a slightly shorter period in constant darkness, differences in phase resetting after 4-hr light pulses in the early and late night, and a variably advanced phase angle of entrainment in a light-dark (LD) cycle (DeBruyne et al., Neuron 50:465–477, 2006). The present series of experiments was conducted to more fully characterize the circadian phenotype of Clock−/− mice under various lighting conditions. A phase-response curve (PRC) to 4-hour light pulses in free-running mice was conducted; the results confirm that Clock−/− mice exhibit very large phase advances after 4 hrs light pulses in the late subjective night, but have relatively normal responses to light at other phases. The abnormal shape of the PRC to light may explain the tendency of CLOCK-deficient mice to begin activity before lights-out when housed in a 12 hrs light: 12 hrs dark lighting schedule. To assess this relationship further, Clock−/− and wild-type control mice were entrained to skeleton lighting cycles (1L:23D, and 1L:10D:1L:12D). Comparing entrainment under the two types of skeleton photoperiods revealed that exposure to 1 hr light in the morning leads to a phase advance of activity onset (expressed the following afternoon) in Clock−/− mice, but not in the controls. Constant light typically causes an intensity-dependent increase in circadian period in mice, but this did not occur in CLOCK-deficient mice. The failure of Clock−/− mice to respond to the period-lengthening effect of constant light likely results from the increased functional impact of light falling in the phase advance zone of the PRC. Collectively, these experiments reveal that alterations in the response of CLOCK-deficient mice to light in several paradigms are likely due to an imbalance in the shape of the PRC to light. PMID:21921293

  3. The IMF-sensitive 1.14-μm Na I doublet in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Alton, Padraig; Lucey, John R.; Conroy, Charlie; Carter, David

    2015-11-01

    We present J-band spectroscopy of passive galaxies focusing on the Na I doublet at 1.14 μm. Like the Na I 0.82 μm doublet, this feature is strong in low-mass stars and hence may provide a useful probe of the initial mass function (IMF). From high signal-to-noise composite spectra, we find that Na I 1.14 μm increases steeply with increasing velocity dispersion, σ, and for the most massive galaxies (σ ≳ 300 km s-1) is much stronger than predicted from synthetic spectra with Milky Way-like IMFs and solar abundances. Reproducing Na I 1.14 μm at high σ likely requires either a very high [Na/H], or a bottom-heavy IMF, or a combination of both. Using the Na D line to break the degeneracy between IMF and abundance, we infer [Na/H] ≈ +0.5 and a steep IMF (single-slope-equivalent x ≈ 3.2, where x = 2.35 for Salpeter), for the high-σ galaxies. At lower mass (σ = 50-100 km s-1), the line strengths are compatible with Milky Way (MW)-like IMFs and near-solar [Na/H]. We highlight two galaxies in our sample where strong gravitational lensing masses favour MW-like IMFs. Like the high-σ sample on average, these galaxies have strong Na I 1.14 μm; taken in isolation their sodium indices imply bottom-heavy IMFs which are hard to reconcile with the lensing masses. An alternative full-spectrum-fitting approach, applied to the high-σ sample, recovers an IMF less heavy than Salpeter, but under-predicts the Na I 1.14 μm line at the 5σ level. We conclude that current models struggle to reproduce this feature in the most massive galaxies without breaking other constraints, and caution against over-reliance on the sodium lines in spectroscopic IMF studies.

  4. Clocking Surface Reaction by In-Plane Product Rotation.

    PubMed

    Anggara, Kelvin; Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Chatterjee, Avisek; Cheng, Fang; Polanyi, John C

    2016-06-15

    Electron-induced reaction of physisorbed meta-diiodobenzene (mDIB) on Cu(110) at 4.6 K was studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and molecular dynamics theory. Single-electron dissociation of the first C-I bond led to in-plane rotation of an iodophenyl (IPh) intermediate, whose motion could be treated as a "clock" of the reaction dynamics. Alternative reaction mechanisms, successive and concerted, were observed giving different product distributions. In the successive mechanism, two electrons successively broke single C-I bonds; the first C-I bond breaking yielded IPh that rotated directionally by three different angles, with the second C-I bond breaking giving chemisorbed I atoms (#2) at three preferred locations corresponding to the C-I bond alignments in the prior rotated IPh configurations. In the concerted mechanism a single electron broke two C-I bonds, giving two chemisorbed I atoms; significantly these were found at angles corresponding to the C-I bond direction for unrotated mDIB. Molecular dynamics accounted for the difference in reaction outcomes between the successive and the concerted mechanisms in terms of the time required for the IPh to rotate in-plane; in successive reaction the time delay between first and second C-I bond-breaking events allowed the IPh to rotate, whereas in concerted reaction the computed delay between excitation and reaction (∼1 ps) was too short for molecular rotation before the second C-I bond broke. The dependence of the extent of motion at a surface on the delay between first and second bond breaking suggested a novel means to "clock" sub-picosecond dynamics by imaging the products arising from varying time delays between impacting pairs of electrons. PMID:27191189

  5. A high-speed photonic clock and carrier regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.

    1995-01-01

    As data communications rates climb toward 10 Gbits/s, clock recovery and synchronization become more difficult, if not impossible, using conventional electronic circuits. The high-speed photonic clock regenerator described in this article may be more suitable for such use. This photonic regenerator is based on a previously reported photonic oscillator capable of fast acquisition and synchronization. With both electrical and optical clock inputs and outputs, the device is easily interfaced with fiber-optic systems. The recovered electrical clock can be used locally and the optical clock can be used anywhere within a several kilometer radius of the clock/carrier regenerator.

  6. Compact, Highly Stable Ion Atomic Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John

    2008-01-01

    A mercury-ion clock now at the breadboard stage of development (see figure) has a stability comparable to that of a hydrogen-maser clock: In tests, the clock exhibited an Allan deviation of between 2 x 10(exp -13) and 3 x 10(exp -13) at a measurement time of 1 second, averaging to about 10(exp -15) at 1 day. However, the clock occupies a volume of only about 2 liters . about a hundredth of the volume of a hydrogen-maser clock. The ion-handling parts of the apparatus are housed in a sealed vacuum tube, wherein only a getter pump is used to maintain the vacuum. Hence, this apparatus is a prototype of a generation of small, potentially portable high-precision clocks for diverse ground- and space-based navigation and radio science applications. Furthermore, this new ion-clock technology is about 100 times more stable and precise than the rubidium atomic clocks currently in use in the NAV STAR GPS Earth-orbiting satellites. In this clock, mercury ions are shuttled between a quadrupole and a 16-pole linear radio-frequency trap. In the quadrupole trap, the ions are tightly confined and optical state selection from a Hg-202 radio-frequency-discharge ultraviolet lamp is carried out. In the 16-pole trap, the ions are more loosely confined and atomic transitions resonant at frequency of about 40.507 GHz are interrogated by use of a microwave beam at that frequency. The trapping of ions effectively eliminates the frequency pulling caused by wall collisions inherent to gas-cell clocks. The shuttling of the ions between the two traps enables separation of the state-selection process from the clock microwave- resonance process, so that each of these processes can be optimized independently of the other. The basic ion-shuttling, two-trap scheme as described thus far is not new: it has been the basis of designs of prior larger clocks. The novelty of the present development lies in major redesigns of its physics package (the ion traps and the vacuum and optical subsystems) to effect

  7. Structure of the Outer Cusp and Sources of the Cusp Precipitation during Intervals of a Horizontal IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, Jean; Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.; Simunek, J.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Stenuit, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly penetrate into the magnetosphere. Since the main transport processes are connected with merging of the interplanetary and magnetospheric field lines: the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Orientation plays a decisive role in the formation of the high-altitude cusp. The importance of the sign of the IMF B(sub Z) component for this process was suggested about 40 years ago and later it was documented by many experimental investigations. However, situations when IMF Bz is the major IMF component are rather rare. The structure of the cusp during periods of a small IMF B(sub Z) is generally unknown, probably due to the fully 3-D nature of the interaction. The present case study reveals the importance of horizontal IMF components on the global magnetospheric configuration as well as on small-scale processes at the cusp-magnetosheath interface. We have used simultaneous measurements of several spacecraft (ISTP program) operating in different regions of interplanetary space and two closely spaced satellites (INTERBALL-1/MAGION-4) crossing the cusp-magnetosheath boundary to show the connection between the short- and large-scale phenomena. In the northern hemisphere, observations suggest a presence of two spots of cusp-like precipitation supplied by reconnection occurring simultaneously in both hemispheres. A source of this bifurcation is the positive IMF B(sub y) component further enhanced by the field draping in the magnetosheath. This magnetic field component shifts the entry point far away from the local noon but in opposite sense in either hemisphere. The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly

  8. Particle entry through "Sash" groove simulated by Global 3D Electromagnetic Particle code with duskward IMF By

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Cai, D.; Nishikawa, K.; Lembege, B.

    2004-12-01

    We made our efforts to parallelize the global 3D HPF Electromagnetic particle model (EMPM) for several years and have also reported our meaningful simulation results that revealed the essential physics involved in interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere using this EMPM (Nishikawa et al., 1995; Nishikawa, 1997, 1998a, b, 2001, 2002) in our PC cluster and supercomputer(D.S. Cai et al., 2001, 2003). Sash patterns and related phenomena have been observed and reported in some satellite observations (Fujumoto et al. 1997; Maynard, 2001), and have motivated 3D MHD simulations (White and al., 1998). We also investigated it with our global 3D parallelized HPF EMPM with dawnward IMF By (K.-I. Nishikawa, 1998) and recently new simulation with dusk-ward IMF By was accomplished in the new VPP5000 supercomputer. In the new simulations performed on the new VPP5000 supercomputer of Tsukuba University, we used larger domain size, 305×205×205, smaller grid size (Δ ), 0.5R E(the radium of the Earth), more total particle number, 220,000,000 (about 8 pairs per cell). At first, we run this code until we get the so-called quasi-stationary status; After the quasi-stationary status was established, we applied a northward IMF (B z=0.2), and then wait until the IMF arrives around the magnetopuase. After the arrival of IMF, we begin to change the IMF from northward to duskward (IMF B y=-0.2). The results revealed that the groove structure at the day-side magnetopause, that causes particle entry into inner magnetosphere and the cross structure or S-structure at near magneto-tail are formed. Moreover, in contrast with MHD simulations, kinetic characteristic of this event is also analyzed self-consistently with this simulation. The new simulation provides new and more detailed insights for the observed sash event.

  9. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  10. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes.

    PubMed

    Zanquetta, Melissa M; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz; Villares, Sandra Mf

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  11. Circadian Clock Control of Liver Metabolic Functions.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Hans; Asher, Gad

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous biological timekeeping system that synchronizes physiology and behavior to day/night cycles. A wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract and notably the liver appear to be under circadian control. These include various metabolic functions such as nutrient uptake, processing, and detoxification, which align organ function to cycle with nutrient supply and demand. Remarkably, genetic or environmental disruption of the circadian clock can cause metabolic diseases or exacerbate pathological states. In addition, modern lifestyles force more and more people worldwide into asynchrony between the external time and their circadian clock, resulting in a constant state of social jetlag. Recent evidence indicates that interactions between altered energy metabolism and disruptions in the circadian clock create a downward spiral that can lead to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of rhythmic processes in the liver and highlight the functions of circadian clock genes under physiological and pathological conditions; we focus on their roles in regulation of hepatic glucose as well as lipid and bile acid metabolism and detoxification and their potential effects on the development of fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:26657326

  12. [The biological clock in health and illness].

    PubMed

    El-Ad, Baruch

    2006-06-01

    The biological clock in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. The combined output of multiple neuronal cellular oscillators determines the master circadian rhythm, which paces the myriad periodic functions of the organism, including, to a certain degree, the sleep-wake rhythm. The intrinsic master circadian rhythm, which is slightly longer than 24 hours, is synchronized daily to the extrinsic 24-hour day by the entrainment process, governed mainly by exposure to the environmental light at specific times. The pineal hormone melatonin is a specific and sensitive marker of the circadian clock activity, and its secretion is tightly coupled to the output of the biological clock and the circadian phase. Chronobiology is a young scientific discipline which deals with research of the biological clocks and its implication to the clinical medicine. Circadian rhythm disorders are manifest mainly as inappropriate sleep-wake timing, and patients complain about various combinations of insomnia or excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times. Treatment of circadian rhythm disorders by sleeping pills or wake-promoting agents, without taking chronobiological considerations into account, may be futile, or even detrimental to a patient's well-being. The current issue of "Harefuah" includes a review by Doljansky and Dagan, which exemplifies the chronobiological approach to sleep-wake rhythm disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Adoption of this approach to other disorders of the circadian clock may benefit care of patients. PMID:16838899

  13. Dating Phylogenies with Hybrid Local Molecular Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Aris-Brosou, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Background Because rates of evolution and species divergence times cannot be estimated directly from molecular data, all current dating methods require that specific assumptions be made before inferring any divergence time. These assumptions typically bear either on rates of molecular evolution (molecular clock hypothesis, local clocks models) or on both rates and times (penalized likelihood, Bayesian methods). However, most of these assumptions can affect estimated dates, oftentimes because they underestimate large amounts of rate change. Principal Findings A significant modification to a recently proposed ad hoc rate-smoothing algorithm is described, in which local molecular clocks are automatically placed on a phylogeny. This modification makes use of hybrid approaches that borrow from recent theoretical developments in microarray data analysis. An ad hoc integration of phylogenetic uncertainty under these local clock models is also described. The performance and accuracy of the new methods are evaluated by reanalyzing three published data sets. Conclusions It is shown that the new maximum likelihood hybrid methods can perform better than penalized likelihood and almost as well as uncorrelated Bayesian models. However, the new methods still tend to underestimate the actual amount of rate change. This work demonstrates the difficulty of estimating divergence times using local molecular clocks. PMID:17849008

  14. ULF foreshock under radial IMF: THEMIS observations and global kinetic simulation Vlasiator results compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, M.; Archer, M.; Vainio, R.; Hietala, H.; Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Hoilijoki, S.; Hannuksela, O.; Ganse, U.; Sandroos, A.; Alfthan, S. von; Eastwood, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    For decades, monochromatic large-scale ultralow frequency (ULF) waves with a period of about 30 s have been observed upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. These waves typically propagate obliquely with respect to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), while the growth rate for the instability causing the waves is maximized parallel to the magnetic field. It has been suggested that the mechanism for the oblique propagation concerns wave refraction due to the spatial variability of the suprathermal ions, originating from the E × B drift component. We investigate the ULF foreshock under a quasi-radial IMF with Vlasiator, which is a newly developed global hybrid-Vlasov simulation solving the Vlasov equation for protons, while electrons are treated as a charge-neutralizing fluid. We observe the generation of the 30 s ULF waves and compare their properties to previous literature and multipoint Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft observations. We find that Vlasiator reproduces the foreshock ULF waves in all reported observational aspects. We conclude that the variability of the density and velocity of the reflected back streaming ions determines the large-scale structure of the foreshock, which affects the wave frequency, wavelength, and oblique propagation. We conclude that the wave refraction may also be at work for radial IMF conditions, which has earlier been thought of as an exception to the refraction mechanism due to the small E × B drift component. We suggest that additional refraction may be caused by the large-scale spatial variability of the density and velocity of the back streaming ions.

  15. Cusp and LLBL as Sources of the Isolated Dayside Auroral Feature During Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Gallagher, D. L.; Spann, J. F.; Mende, S. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Newell, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An intense dayside proton aurora was observed by Imager for Magnetopause-to- Aurora Global Exploration Far Ultra-Violet imager (IMAGE FUV) for an extensive period of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on 17 and 18 September 2000. This aurora partially coincided with the auroral oval and intruded farther poleward into the polar cap, and it showed longitudinal motions in response to IMF By variation. Intense magnetosheath-like electron and ion precipitations have been simultaneously detected by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) above the poleward portion of the high-latitude dayside aurora. They resemble the typical plasmas observed in the low-altitude cusp. However, less intense electrons and more energetic ions were detected over the equatonvard part of the aurora. These plasmas are closer to the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) plasmas. Under strongly northward IMF, global ionospheric convection derived from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar measurements showed a four-cell pattern with sunward convection in the middle of the dayside polar cap and the dayside aurora corresponded to two different convection cells. This result further supports two source regions for the aurora. The cusp proton aurora is on open magnetic field lines convecting sunward whereas the LLBL proton aurora is on closed field lines convecting antisunward. These IMAGE, DMSP, and SuperDARN observations reveal the structure and dynamics of the aurora and provide strong evidence for magnetic merging occurring at the high-latitude magnetopause poleward from the cusp. This merging process was very likely quasi-stationary.

  16. IMF B/sub y/ dependence of region 1 Birkeland currents near noon

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.; Bythrow, P.F.; Lundin, R.

    1988-09-01

    We have conducted a statistical study of large-scale Birkeland currents, hot plasma, and the B/sub y/ component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Forty-eight Viking orbits from July 19, 1986, to September 2, 1986, were used in the study during a time period when the 3-R/sub E/ geocentric apogee was located near the dayside high-latitude region usually associated with the polar cusp. We first compared the location of magnetosheathlike electrons to the region 1 and ''traditional cusp'' Birkeland current systems near noon. It was found that the region 1 Birkeland current system was colocated with the region of most intense magnetosheathlike electron flux. We therefore infer that the ''tradional cusp'' current system, located poleward of the region 1 system, is associated with field lines that extend to the plasma mantle in the outer magnetosphere. Using this same data base a statistical study between the B/sub y/ component of the IMF and the flow direction of the region 1 Birkeland current system as a function of magnetic local time was performed. We determined that the flow direction of the region 1 current system near noon depends on the B/sub y/ component of IMF. The meridian that separates the dawnside and duskside region 1 Birkeland currents shifted to magnetic local times before noon when B/sub y/ was less than 0 nT, and to the afternoon when B/sub y/ was greater than 0 nT. The extent of the shift away from noon was dependent on the magnitude of the IMF B/sub y/ component. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  17. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  18. Relationship between the IMF magnitude and Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between the IMF magnitude and pulsation frequencies in the Pc 3-4 range simultaneously observed both at synchronous orbit and at low latitudes on the ground are statistically described. A theoretical discussion is given on how these observations can be interpreted in terms of the characteristic frequency of compressional Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere, based on the well-established ion cyclotron resonance mechanism between magnetosonic mode of low-frequency upstream waves and narrowly reflected ion beams in the earth's foreshock.

  19. Biogeographic calibrations for the molecular clock

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Tong, K. Jun; Foster, Charles S. P.; Ritchie, Andrew M.; Lo, Nathan; Crisp, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular estimates of evolutionary timescales have an important role in a range of biological studies. Such estimates can be made using methods based on molecular clocks, including models that are able to account for rate variation across lineages. All clock models share a dependence on calibrations, which enable estimates to be given in absolute time units. There are many available methods for incorporating fossil calibrations, but geological and climatic data can also provide useful calibrations for molecular clocks. However, a number of strong assumptions need to be made when using these biogeographic calibrations, leading to wide variation in their reliability and precision. In this review, we describe the nature of biogeographic calibrations and the assumptions that they involve. We present an overview of the different geological and climatic events that can provide informative calibrations, and explain how such temporal information can be incorporated into dating analyses. PMID:26333662

  20. Quantum clock: A critical discussion on spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burderi, Luciano; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Iaria, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    We critically discuss the measure of very short time intervals. By means of a Gedankenexperiment, we describe an ideal clock based on the occurrence of completely random events. Many previous thought experiments have suggested fundamental Planck-scale limits on measurements of distance and time. Here we present a new type of thought experiment, based on a different type of clock, that provide further support for the existence of such limits. We show that the minimum time interval Δ t that this clock can measure scales as the inverse of its size Δ r . This implies an uncertainty relation between space and time: Δ r Δ t >G ℏ/c4, where G , ℏ, and c are the gravitational constant, the reduced Planck constant, and the speed of light, respectively. We outline and briefly discuss the implications of this uncertainty conjecture.

  1. Reciprocal interactions between circadian clocks and aging.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gareth; Nolan, Patrick M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2016-08-01

    Virtually, all biological processes in the body are modulated by an internal circadian clock which optimizes physiological and behavioral performance according to the changing demands of the external 24-h world. This circadian clock undergoes a number of age-related changes, at both the physiological and molecular levels. While these changes have been considered to be part of the normal aging process, there is increasing evidence that disruptions to the circadian system can substantially impact upon aging and these impacts will have clear health implications. Here we review the current data of how both the physiological and core molecular clocks change with age and how feedback from external cues may modulate the aging of the circadian system. PMID:27137838

  2. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  3. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels. A common molecular mechanism underlies the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator throughout the body, yet this clock system is adapted to different functional contexts. In the central suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a coupled population of neuronal circadian oscillators acts as a master pacemaker for the organism to drive rhythms in activity and rest, feeding, body temperature, and hormones. Coupling within the SCN network confers robustness to the SCN pacemaker, which in turn provides stability to the overall temporal architecture of the organism. Throughout the majority of the cells in the body, cell-autonomous circadian clocks are intimately enmeshed within metabolic pathways. Thus, an emerging view for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks is their fundamental role in orchestrating metabolism. PMID:22483041

  4. Models of the Primordial Standard Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Oscillating massive fields in the primordial universe can be used as Standard Clocks. The ticks of these oscillations induce features in the density perturbations, which directly record the time evolution of the scale factor of the primordial universe, thus if detected, provide a direct evidence for the inflation scenario or the alternatives. In this paper, we construct a full inflationary model of primordial Standard Clock and study its predictions on the density perturbations. This model provides a full realization of several key features proposed previously. We compare the theoretical predictions from inflation and alternative scenarios with the Planck 2013 temperature data on Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and identify a statistically marginal but interesting candidate. We discuss how future CMB temperature and polarization data, non-Gaussianity analysis and Large Scale Structure data may be used to further test or constrain the Standard Clock signals.

  5. Clock shifts in the Unitary Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Richard; Man, Jay; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Clock shifts are interaction-induced changes in the transition frequency between atomic spin states. So-called because of their importance as systematic errors in atomic clocks, they reveal details of both the interaction energy within a gas and the particle correlations. In this work, we employ a RF-injection technique to rapidly project a thermal Bose gas into the unitary regime on a timescale much shorter than three-body losses. Working with a two-state system, one of which exhibits strong intrastate interactions, we carry out Ramsey spectroscopy to extract the variation in the clock shift across a Feshbach resonance. Thanks to the relationship between these shifts and particle correlations, we use our measurements to infer the contact as a function of both interaction strength and degeneracy. This quantity plays a central role in the many-body physics of strongly correlated systems, offering a link between few-body and thermodynamic behaviour.

  6. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  7. A global MHD simulation study of the vortices at the magnetosphere boundary under the southward IMF condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D.; Walker, R. J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    One of the significant problems in magnetospheric physics concerns the nature and properties of the processes which occur at the magnetopause boundary; in particular how energy, momentum, and plasma the magnetosphere receives from the solar wind. Basic processes are magnetic reconnection [Dungey, 1961] and viscouslike interaction, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability [Dungey 1955, Miura, 1984] and pressure-pulse driven [Sibeck et al. 1989]. In generally, magnetic reconnection occurs efficiently when the IMF is southward and the rate is largest where the magnetosheath magnetic field is antiparallel to the geomagnetic field. [Sonnerup, 1974; Crooker, 1979; Luhmann et al., 1984; Park et al., 2006, 2009]. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven by the velocity shear at the boundary, which occur frequently when the IMF is northward. Also variation of the magnetic field and the plasma properties is reported to be quasi-periodic with 2-3min [Otto and Fairfield, 2000] and period of vortex train with 3 to 4 minutes by global MHD simulation [Ogino, 2011]. The pressure-pulse is driven by the solar wind. And the observations of the magnetospheric magnetic field response show quasi-periodic with a period of 8 minutes [Sibeck et al., 1989; Kivelson and Chen, 1995]. There have been few studies of the vortices in the magnetospheric boundary under southward IMF condition. However it is not easy to find the generation mechanism and characteristic for vortices in complicated 3-dimensional space. Thus we have performed global MHD simulation for the steady solar wind and southward IMF conditions. From the simulation results, we find that the vortex occurs at R= 11.7Re (IMF Bz = -2 nT) and R= 10.2Re (IMF Bz = -10 nT) in the dayside magnetopause boundary. Also the vortex rotates counterclockwise in duskside magnetopause (clockwise in dawnside) and propagates tailward. Across the vortex, magnetic field and plasma properties clearly show quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of 8

  8. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR IMF VARIATIONS WITH GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Geha, Marla; Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Simon, Joshua D.; Kirby, Evan N.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Guhathakurta, Puragra E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu

    2013-07-01

    We present constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Hercules and Leo IV, based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. The Hercules and Leo IV galaxies are extremely low luminosity (M{sub V} = -6.2, -5.5), metal-poor (([Fe/H]) = -2.4, -2.5) systems that have old stellar populations (>11 Gyr). Because they have long relaxation times, we can directly measure the low-mass stellar IMF by counting stars below the main-sequence turnoff without correcting for dynamical evolution. Over the stellar mass range probed by our data, 0.52-0.77 M{sub Sun }, the IMF is best fit by a power-law slope of {alpha}= 1.2{sub -0.5}{sup +0.4} for Hercules and {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.8 for Leo IV. For Hercules, the IMF slope is more shallow than a Salpeter ({alpha} = 2.35) IMF at the 5.8{sigma} level, and a Kroupa ({alpha} = 2.3 above 0.5 M{sub Sun }) IMF slope at 5.4{sigma} level. We simultaneously fit for the binary fraction, f{sub binary}, finding f{sub binary}= 0.47{sup +0.16}{sub -0.14} for Hercules, and 0.47{sup +0.37}{sub -0.17} for Leo IV. The UFD binary fractions are consistent with that inferred for Milky Way stars in the same mass range, despite very different metallicities. In contrast, the IMF slopes in the UFDs are shallower than other galactic environments. In the mass range 0.5-0.8 M{sub Sun }, we see a trend across the handful of galaxies with directly measured IMFs such that the power-law slopes become shallower (more bottom-light) with decreasing galactic velocity dispersion and metallicity. This trend is qualitatively consistent with results in elliptical galaxies inferred via indirect methods and is direct evidence for IMF variations with galactic environment.

  9. Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.

  10. Statistical properties and solar wind source of long-duration and amplitude southward IMF intervals and their geomagnetic effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Moldwin, M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that extended periods of large amplitude southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) are geoeffective. This study determines the statistical properties of these intervals and identifies their corresponding solar wind source. We use 1-min WIND magnetometer data from 1995 - 2011. It is noted that IMF Bz changes polarity from north-to-south or south-to-north at high-frequency (every 3-4 mins) by counting. Long intervals of southward IMF are mainly imbedded in MC (> 2 hrs), SMFR (1-2 hrs) or SIR (0.5-1 hr). About 29% of the long duration (> 2 hrs) strong southward IMF (< -5 nT) are associated with these structures. We also examined the statistical properties and geoeffectiveness for the solar wind and IMF conditions with long duration southward Bz not related to any of these structures. We found that these intervals are related to Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) or unidirectional magnetic field or ambiguous variations. Using geomagnetic activity indices obtained from ground magnetometers most of these intervals corresponded to large increases of substorm activity, but not geomagnetic storms. There is a strong solar cycle dependence on the occurrence frequency of strong southward Bz (less than -5 nT).

  11. Oxyntomodulin regulates resetting of the liver circadian clock by food.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; Tsang, Anthony H; Leliavski, Alexei; Koch, Christiane E; Barclay, Johanna L; Drucker, Daniel J; Oster, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Circadian clocks coordinate 24-hr rhythms of behavior and physiology. In mammals, a master clock residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is reset by the light-dark cycle, while timed food intake is a potent synchronizer of peripheral clocks such as the liver. Alterations in food intake rhythms can uncouple peripheral clocks from the SCN, resulting in internal desynchrony, which promotes obesity and metabolic disorders. Pancreas-derived hormones such as insulin and glucagon have been implicated in signaling mealtime to peripheral clocks. In this study, we identify a novel, more direct pathway of food-driven liver clock resetting involving oxyntomodulin (OXM). In mice, food intake stimulates OXM secretion from the gut, which resets liver transcription rhythms via induction of the core clock genes Per1 and 2. Inhibition of OXM signaling blocks food-mediated resetting of hepatocyte clocks. These data reveal a direct link between gastric filling with food and circadian rhythm phasing in metabolic tissues. PMID:25821984

  12. Role of cardiomyocyte circadian clock in myocardial metabolic adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marked circadian rhythmicities in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology exist. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to circadian rhythms in myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function. For instance, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is essential f...

  13. The sympathy of two pendulum clocks: beyond Huygens' observations.

    PubMed

    Peña Ramirez, Jonatan; Olvera, Luis Alberto; Nijmeijer, Henk; Alvarez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a modern version of the classical Huygens' experiment on synchronization of pendulum clocks. The version presented here consists of two monumental pendulum clocks--ad hoc designed and fabricated--which are coupled through a wooden structure. It is demonstrated that the coupled clocks exhibit 'sympathetic' motion, i.e. the pendula of the clocks oscillate in consonance and in the same direction. Interestingly, when the clocks are synchronized, the common oscillation frequency decreases, i.e. the clocks become slow and inaccurate. In order to rigorously explain these findings, a mathematical model for the coupled clocks is obtained by using well-established physical and mechanical laws and likewise, a theoretical analysis is conducted. Ultimately, the sympathy of two monumental pendulum clocks, interacting via a flexible coupling structure, is experimentally, numerically, and analytically demonstrated. PMID:27020903

  14. Real clocks and the Zeno effect

    SciTech Connect

    Egusquiza, Inigo L.; Garay, Luis J.

    2003-08-01

    Real clocks are not perfect. This must have an effect in our predictions for the behavior of a quantum system, an effect for which we present a unified description, encompassing several previous proposals. We study the relevance of clock errors in the Zeno effect and find that generically no Zeno effect can be present (in such a way that there is no contradiction with currently available experimental data). We further observe that, within the class of stochasticities in time addressed here, there is no modification in emission line shapes.

  15. The Large Water-Clock of Amphiaraeion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Mantarakis, P.

    2010-07-01

    A very well preserved ancient water-clock exists at the Amphiaraeion, in Oropos, Greece. The Amphiaraeion, sanctuary of the mythical oracle and deified healer Amphiaraus, was active from the pre-classic period until the 5th Century A.D. In such a place the measurement of time, both day and night, was a necessity. Therefore, time was kept with both a conical sundial and a water-clock in the shape of a fountain, which, according to the archaeologists, dates to the 4th Century B.C.

  16. Quantum Clock Synchronization with a Single Qudit

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Armin; Cabello, Adán; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization for nonfaulty processes in multiprocess networks is indispensable for a variety of technologies. A reliable system must be able to resynchronize the nonfaulty processes upon some components failing causing the distribution of incorrect or conflicting information in the network. The task of synchronizing such networks is related to Byzantine agreement (BA), which can classically be solved using recursive algorithms if and only if less than one-third of the processes are faulty. Here we introduce a nonrecursive quantum algorithm, based on a quantum solution of the detectable BA, which achieves clock synchronization in the presence of arbitrary many faulty processes by using only a single quantum system. PMID:25613754

  17. Caring around the Clock: rounding in practice.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Marie

    A large acute trust in the East Midlands looked to the US to inform its implementation of hourly rounding, otherwise known as intentional rounding. A combination of transformational leadership and meaningful interactions form the basis of a new approach to rounding--Caring around the Clock. The trust piloted the concept on 10 wards with results showing a 32% reduction in call lights. The successful change in practice required an investment in staff education to equip staff with the necessary skills. The trust is currently rolling out Caring around Hourly rounding can reducethe Clock to 79 inpatient wards. PMID:23342834

  18. A relativistic analysis of clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The relativistic conversion between coordinate time and atomic time is reformulated to allow simpler time calculations relating analysis in solar-system barycentric coordinates (using coordinate time) with earth-fixed observations (measuring earth-bound proper time or atomic time.) After an interpretation of terms, this simplified formulation, which has a rate accuracy of about 10 to the minus 15th power, is used to explain the conventions required in the synchronization of a world wide clock network and to analyze two synchronization techniques-portable clocks and radio interferometry. Finally, pertinent experiment tests of relativity are briefly discussed in terms of the reformulated time conversion.

  19. Using GLONASS signal for clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Gevorkyan, Arvid G.; Bogdanov, Pyotr P.; Ovchinnikov, Vitaly V.

    1994-01-01

    Although in accuracy parameters GLONASS is correlated with GPS, using GLONASS signals for high-precision clock synchronization was, up to the recent time, of limited utility due to the lack of specialized time receivers. In order to improve this situation, in late 1992 the Russian Institute of Radionavigation and Time (RMT) began to develop a GLONASS time receiver using as a basis the airborne ASN-16 receiver. This paper presents results of estimating user clock synchronization accuracy via GLONASS signals using ASN-16 receiver in the direct synchronization and common-view modes.

  20. Quantum time-of-flight measurements: Kicked clock versus continuous clock

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Daniel; Sala Mayato, R.; Muga, J.G.

    2003-03-01

    The measurement of time durations or instants of occurrence of events has been frequently modeled 'operationally' by coupling the system of interest to a ''clock.'' According to several of these models, the operational approach is limited at low energies because the perturbation of the clock does not allow to reproduce accurately the corresponding ideal time quantity, defined for the system in isolation. We show that, for a time-of-flight measurement model that can be set to measure dwell or arrival times, these limitations may be overcome by extending the range of energies where the clock works properly using pulsed couplings rather than continuous ones.

  1. Orientation-Dependent Entanglement Lifetime in a Squeezed Atomic Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Leroux, Ian D.; Schleier-Smith, Monika H.; Vuletic, Vladan

    2010-06-25

    We study experimentally the application of a class of entangled states, squeezed spin states, to the improvement of atomic-clock precision. In the presence of anisotropic noise, the entanglement lifetime is strongly dependent on squeezing orientation. We measure the Allan deviation spectrum of a clock operated with a phase-squeezed input state. For averaging times up to 50 s the squeezed clock achieves a given precision 2.8(3) times faster than a clock operating at the standard quantum limit.

  2. Timescale algorithms combining cesium clocks and hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) atomic timescale, formerly based on an ensemble of cesium clocks, is now produced by an ensemble of cesium clocks and hydrogen masers. In order to optimize stability and reliability, equal clock weighting has been replaced by a procedure reflecting the relative, time-varying noise characteristics of the two different types of clocks. Correlation of frequency drift is required, and residual drift is avoided by the eventual complete deweighting of the masers.

  3. Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) clock program: Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) program status are discussed and plans for ensuring the long term continuation of the program are presented. Performance of GPS clocks is presented in terms of on orbit data as portrayed by GPS master control station kalman filter processing. The GPS Clock reliability program is reviewed in depth and future plans fo the overall clock program are published.

  4. 47 CFR 80.865 - Radiotelephone station clock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone station clock. 80.865 Section 80.865 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... W § 80.865 Radiotelephone station clock. A clock having a face of at least 12.7 cm (5 in.)...

  5. Observations of magnetospheric substorms occurring with no apparent solar wind/IMF trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Belian, R.D.; Murphree, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    An outstanding topic in magnetospheric physics is whether substorms are always externally triggered by disturbances in either the interplanetary magnetic field or solar wind, or whether they can also occur solely as the result of an internal magnetospheric instability. Over the past decade, arguments have been made on both sides of this issue. Horwitz and McPherron have shown examples of substorm onsets which they claimed were not externally triggered. However, as pointed out by Lyons, there are several problems associated with these studies that make their results somewhat inconclusive. In particular, in the McPherron et al. study, fluctuations in the B{sub y} component were not considered as possible triggers. Furthermore, Lyons suggests that the sharp decreases in the AL index during intervals of steady IMF/solar wind, are not substorms at all but rather that they are just enhancements of the convection driven DP2 current system that are often observed to occur during steady magnetospheric convection events. In the present study, we utilize a much more comprehensive dataset (consisting of particle data from the Los Alamos energetic particle detectors at geosynchronous orbit, IMP 8 magnetometer and plasma data, Viking UV auroral imager data, mid-latitude Pi2 pulsation data, ground magnetometer data and ISEE1 magnetic field and energetic particle data) to show as unambiguously as possible that typical substorms can indeed occur in the absence of an identifiable trigger in the solar wind/IMF.

  6. Solar Flare and IMF Sector Structure Effects in the Lower Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-01-01

    About 1% of all sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) observed at the Panska Ves Observatory (Czechoslovakia), were found to be not of solar-XUV origin. Among them, the very rare SWF events (observed at L = 2.4) of corpuscular origin are the most interesting. The IMF sector structure effects in the midlatitude lower ionosphere are minor in comparison with effects of solar flares, geomagnetic storms, etc. There are two basic types of effects. The first type is a disturbance, best developed in geomagnetic activity, and observed in the night-time ionosphere. It can be interpreted as a response to sector structure related changes of geomagnetic (= magnetospheric) activity. The other type is best developed in the tropospheric vorticity area index and is also observed in the day-time ionosphere in winter. This effect is quietening in the ionosphere as well as troposphere. While the occurrence of the former type is persistent in time, the latter is severely diminished in some periods. All the stratosphere, the 10-mb level temperature and height above Berlin-Tempelhof do not display any observable IMF section structure effect.

  7. Solar flare and IMF sector structure effects in the lower ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-05-01

    About 1% of all sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) observed at the Panska Ves Observatory (Czechoslovakia), were found to be not of solar-XUV origin. Among them, the very rare SWF events (observed at L 2.4) of corpuscular origin are the most interesting. The IMF sector structure effects in the midlatitude lower ionosphere are minor in comparison with effects of solar flares, geomagnetic storms, etc. There are two basic types of effects. The first type is a disturbance, best developed in geomagnetic activity, and observed in the night-time ionosphere. It can be interpreted as a response to sector structure related changes of geomagnetic (magnetospheric) activity. The other type is best developed in the tropospheric vorticity area index and is also observed in the day-time ionosphere in winter. This effect is quietening in the ionosphere as well as troposphere. While the occurrence of the former type is persistent in time, the latter is severely diminished in some periods. All the stratosphere, the 10-mb level temperature and height above Berlin-Tempelhof do not display any observable IMF section structure effect.

  8. The Turbulent ISM of Galaxies 10 Gyrs ago: Star Formation, Gas Accretion, and IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiran, Loïc; Lehnert, Matthew D.

    2011-12-01

    The utilization of integral-field spectroscopy has led us to a new understanding of the physical conditions in galaxies within the first few billion years after the Big Bang. In this proceedings, we analyze observations of ~50 massive galaxies as seen as they were 10 Gyrs ago using SINFONI from the ESO-VLT. We show that the large line width they exhibit can be explained by the intense mechanical energy output from the young stars. We also study the influence of cold gas accretion upon these galaxies: We show that an unrealistic amount of shocked gas would be needed in order to explain the Hα emission from these galaxies through shocks from gas accretion with velocity about the Hα line widths of these galaxies. We also use DEEP2 photometric measurements for a sub-sample of 10 of these galaxies to evaluate their ratio of Hα to FUV flux as a function of their Hα and R-band luminosity surface brightnesses. Our data suggests that perhaps their initial mass function (IMF) is flatter than Salpeter at the high mass end, as has been suggested recently for some local galaxies. It may be that high turbulence is responsible for skewing the IMF towards more massive stars as suggested by some theories of star-formation. Much work is however needed to accredit this hypothesis.

  9. Observations of IMF and seasonal effects in high-latitude convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and seasonal effects in the convection of nightside ionospheric plasma are described. The findings are based on a statistical analysis of observations made with the Johns Hopkins University/ Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador. For positive sign of the IMF dusk-dawn component, By greater than 0 the dawn cell is more crescent shaped and the dusk cell more round while for BY less than 0 these pairings of size and shape are reversed. The more extreme crescent /round cell dichotomy is obtained for BY greater than 0. The return flows associated with the crescent-shaped cell dominate at midnight MLT (magnetic local time); the reversal in the zonal velocity in the 67 deg-69 deg lambda (magnetic latitude) interval occurs 2.5 hr earlier in summer than in winter. The maximum effects are obtained on the nightside for the pairings By greater than 0, summer and BY less than 0, winter; the first produces the more structured cell in the morning, the second in the evening, and this cell dominates the return flow at midnight. The difference in the zonal flow reversals for these pairings exceeds 4 hr in MLT.

  10. Identification of the IMF sector structure in near-real time by ground magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, A. S.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    A method is proposed to determine in near-real time the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector structure (SS) effect on geomagnetic data from polar cap stations. To separate the SS effect, whose polarity is invariant within an interval from some days to 2 weeks, from the disturbed solar wind effects with periodicity from minutes to hours, the daily median values of geomagnetic H (or D) component are estimated. Then the median values for 9 days preceding the current day are subjected to 3-days running averages and the interpolation procedure is applied to these smoothed averages. Comparisons of the sector structure reconstructed from the ground magnetic data with the actual variations of the GSM IMF By component measured onboard the ACE spacecraft in the summer months of 1990 and 2001 demonstrate their good agreement with coefficient of correlation R=0.96-0.97 for the H-component and R=0.93-0.95 for the D-component. The proposed simple method makes possible identification of the SS effect in the same near real-time regime as the derivation of the quiet daily curve and as level of reference for the polar cap magnetic disturbances in the calculation of the polar cap magnetic activity PC index.

  11. Dulling Occam's Razor: ICM Enrichment, the Elliptical Galaxy IMF, and the Diversity of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Stars born in galaxy cluster potential wells must be responsible for the high level of enrichment measured in the intracluster medium (ICM); however, there is increasing tension between this truism and the parsimonious assumption that the stars in the generally old population studied optically in cluster galaxies emerged from the same formation sites at the same epochs. We construct a phenomenological cluster model to demonstrate that ICM enrichment is underestimated by a factor >2 for standard assumptions, and quantify the adjustments to the star formation efficiency and initial mass function (IMF), and SNIa production efficiency, required to rectify this while being consistent with the observed ICM abundance pattern. Given recent evidence of a steep IMF in elliptical galaxies that conflicts with the nucleosynthetic requirements of the ICM, we are led to conclude that the stellar population responsible for enriching the ICM is currently hidden and offer some suggestions as to where. This study proves that the star formation cannot be invariant in space and time.

  12. Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

  13. Interhemispheric Geomagnetic Field Response to Sudden Change in Solar Wind Pressure and IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Cai, X.; Clauer, C. R.; Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary investigation of geomagnetic field response to sudden change in solar wind pressure and IMF orientation is presented using data from satellite and ground magnetometer array in both northern and southern hemispheres. Some data sets in this study have been provided by AGO (Automatic Geophysical Observatory) and AAL-PIP (Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform) stations deployed in Antarctica along the 40° magnetic meridian. These stations facilitate high-latitude multi-point magnetic conjugate observation pairs to the Greenland West Coast magnetometer chain for interhemispheric investigations, which have been rarely made because of the difficulty in accessing the Antarctic regions. Geomagnetic field perturbations in response to solar wind pressure impulse events, in which the solar wind pressure changes are more than ˜5 nPa in less than ~16 minutes and the pressures are steady for ~1 hour before and ~20 minutes after the pressure changes, have been examined using the data sets obtained from 1998 to 2010 to show global local time distribution of the ground response, timing response between the two hemispheres and its seasonal variation, and the relationship between IMF orientation and the ground response accompanied by the solar wind sudden pressure change.

  14. Faults Diagnostics of Railway Axle Bearings Based on IMF's Confidence Index Algorithm for Ensemble EMD.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cai; Lin, Jianhui; Zhang, Weihua; Ding, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    As train loads and travel speeds have increased over time, railway axle bearings have become critical elements which require more efficient non-destructive inspection and fault diagnostics methods. This paper presents a novel and adaptive procedure based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and Hilbert marginal spectrum for multi-fault diagnostics of axle bearings. EEMD overcomes the limitations that often hypothesize about data and computational efforts that restrict the application of signal processing techniques. The outputs of this adaptive approach are the intrinsic mode functions that are treated with the Hilbert transform in order to obtain the Hilbert instantaneous frequency spectrum and marginal spectrum. Anyhow, not all the IMFs obtained by the decomposition should be considered into Hilbert marginal spectrum. The IMFs' confidence index arithmetic proposed in this paper is fully autonomous, overcoming the major limit of selection by user with experience, and allows the development of on-line tools. The effectiveness of the improvement is proven by the successful diagnosis of an axle bearing with a single fault or multiple composite faults, e.g., outer ring fault, cage fault and pin roller fault. PMID:25970256

  15. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25310406

  16. Blackbody radiation shifts in optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail; Clark, Charles

    2012-03-01

    A review of recent theoretical calculations of blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts in optical atomic clocks is presented. We summarize previous results for monovalent ions that were obtained by a relativistic all-order single-double method, where all single and double excitations of the Dirac- Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory. A recently developed method for accurate calculations of BBR shifts in divalent atoms is then presented. This approach combines the relativistic all-order method and the configuration interaction method, which provides for accurate treatment of correlation corrections in atoms with two valence electrons. Calculations of the BBR shifts in B+, Al+, and In+ have enabled us to reduce the present fractional uncertainties in the frequencies of their clock transitions as measured at room temperature: to 4 × 10-19 for Al+ and 10-18 for B+ and In+. These uncertainties approach recent estimates of the limits of precision of currently proposed optical atomic clocks. We discuss directions of future theoretical developments for reducing clock uncertainties resulting from blackbody radiation shifts. PMID:22481777

  17. Clock Synchronization for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis Robles, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, more so generally than in other types of distributed systems, clock synchronization is crucial since by having this service available, several applications such as media access protocols, object tracking, or data fusion, would improve their performance. In this dissertation, we propose a set of algorithms to achieve…

  18. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  19. Current Status of the Molecular Clock Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Molecular genetics is a rapidly changing field with new developments almost from day to day. One interesting hypothesis that has come from everyone's ability to sequence proteins and/or genes is that of the molecular clock. This hypothesis postulates that homologous sequences of DNA and thus macro molecules evolve at a constant and invariable rate…

  20. European plans for new clocks in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschiutta, Sigfrido M.; Tavella, Patrizia

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the future European space research program where precise clocks are necessary is presented, pointing out how space applications are posing impressive requirements as regards clock mass, power, ruggedness, long life, accuracy and, in some cases, spectral purity. The material presented was gathered in some laboratories; useful information was obtained from the Space Agencies of France (CNES), Germany (DARA) and Italy (ASI), but the bulk is coming from a recent exercise promoted inside ESA (the European Space Agency) and aimed to prefigure space research activities at the beginning of the next millennium. This exercise was called Horizon 2000 plus; the outcomings were summarized in two reports, presented by ESA in may 1994. Precise clocks and time measurements are needed not only for deep-space or out-ward space missions, but are essential tools also for Earth oriented activities. In this latter field, the European views and needs were discussed in October 1994, in a meeting organized by ESA and devoted to Earth Observation problems. By a scrutiny of these reports, an analysis was performed on the missions requiring a precise clock on board and the driving requirements were pointed out, leading to a survey of the necessary PTTI developments that, to some extent, are in the realm of possibility but that pose serious challenges. In this report the use of frequency standards in the satellite navigation systems is not considered.

  1. Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction in which the endpoint is signaled by an abrupt change in the appearance from colorless to blue-black. This activity can be used to explore reaction kinetics and the effect of reactant concentrations on the apparent rate of reaction. (DDR)

  2. Circadian Clock Regulates Bone Resorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Ochi, Hiroki; Fukuda, Toru; Sato, Shingo; Sunamura, Satoko; Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Okawa, Atsushi; Takeda, Shu

    2016-07-01

    The circadian clock controls many behavioral and physiological processes beyond daily rhythms. Circadian dysfunction increases the risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although clinical studies have shown that bone resorption is controlled by circadian rhythm, as indicated by diurnal variations in bone resorption, the molecular mechanism of circadian clock-dependent bone resorption remains unknown. To clarify the role of circadian rhythm in bone resorption, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (Bmal1), a prototype circadian gene, was knocked out specifically in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-specific Bmal1-knockout mice showed a high bone mass phenotype due to reduced osteoclast differentiation. A cell-based assay revealed that BMAL1 upregulated nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (Nfatc1) transcription through its binding to an E-box element located on the Nfatc1 promoter in cooperation with circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a heterodimer partner of BMAL1. Moreover, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family members were shown to interact with and upregulate BMAL1:CLOCK transcriptional activity. Collectively, these data suggest that bone resorption is controlled by osteoclastic BMAL1 through interactions with the SRC family and binding to the Nfatc1 promoter. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26841172

  3. The mammalian retina as a clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2002-01-01

    Many physiological, cellular, and biochemical parameters in the retina of vertebrates show daily rhythms that, in many cases, also persist under constant conditions. This demonstrates that they are driven by a circadian pacemaker. The presence of an autonomous circadian clock in the retina of vertebrates was first demonstrated in Xenopus laevis and then, several years later, in mammals. In X. laevis and in chicken, the retinal circadian pacemaker has been localized in the photoreceptor layer, whereas in mammals, such information is not yet available. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to the identification of a group of genes that are believed to constitute the molecular core of the circadian clock. These genes are expressed in the retina, although with a slightly different 24-h profile from that observed in the central circadian pacemaker. This result suggests that some difference (at the molecular level) may exist between the retinal clock and the clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalamus. The present review will focus on the current knowledge of the retinal rhythmicity and the mechanisms responsible for its control.

  4. The Exxon rechargeable cells. [solar rechargeable clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malachesky, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of ambient temperature secondary cells based on the titanium disulfide cathode are discussed. These limited performance products were developed for microelectronic applications such as solar rechargeable watches and clocks which require low drain rate and do not require many deep cycles.

  5. Compact microwave cavity for hydrogen atomic clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Zhang, Yan; Fu, Yigen; Zhang, Yanjun

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented that introduces the compact microwave cavity used in the hydrogen atomic clock. Special emphasis is placed on derivation of theoretical calculating equations of main parameters of the microwave cavity. A brief description is given of several methods for discriminating the oscillating modes. Experimental data and respective calculated values are also presented.

  6. Biochemical basis for the biological clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Pletcher, Jake; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Lian-Ying; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins are the biochemical ultradian drivers of the cellular biological clock.

  7. Kinoform for VLSI clock distribution calculated by nonparaxial phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Zbigniew

    1990-07-01

    Kinoform for irregular space-variant nonparaxial optical interconnection (01) was calculated by the generalized error-reduction algorithm (ERA). Diffraction limited spots easy to align for detectors of 10 im width and diffraction efficiency r 34 were obtained for the binary kmoform case. This approach is fast takes into account the incident beam intensity distribution and an equalization of the intensity between spots is easy. However the resulted surface relief is complicated. NONPARAXIAL KINOFORM SYNTHESIS Free-space Ols for clock distribution will require a low f-number (F/i) holograms due to expected detector sizes of 10 m x 10 im and typical laser diode (LD) light divergence angles of 30 and iS . Large field angles needed to obtain large fanouts and to deflect beams towards detectors located near the chip boundary also cause that paraxial conditions are not satisfied. Kinoforms which are computer generated phase holograms afford possibilities for Ols with complicated detector patterns and high . Free-space nonparaxial propagation can be described by the operator N FT QFI where Fr U f Uexp(-ikcxx1 ) dx1 U(x1) is the complex amplitude in the kinoform plane Q is the spectrum phase shift operator QFJ'' U exp ( ikz I 1 - 2 ) j''U k 2 vt/A X is the wavelength is the normalized spatial frequency and z is the separation between planes. N is an unitary transform because we may neglect evanescent waves in

  8. s-Wave collisional frequency shift of a fermion clock.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Eric L; Zhang, Yi; Stites, Ronald W; Gibble, Kurt; O'Hara, Kenneth M

    2013-04-19

    We report an s-wave collisional frequency shift of an atomic clock based on fermions. In contrast to bosons, the fermion clock shift is insensitive to the population difference of the clock states, set by the first pulse area in Ramsey spectroscopy, θ(1). The fermion shift instead depends strongly on the second pulse area θ(2). It allows the shift to be canceled, nominally at θ(2)=π/2, but correlations perturb the null to slightly larger θ(2). The frequency shift is relevant for optical lattice clocks and increases with the spatial inhomogeneity of the clock excitation field, naturally larger at optical frequencies. PMID:23679589

  9. Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.

  10. Field operations with cesium clocks in HF navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, E. H.; Clayton, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Networks of HF phase comparison marine navigation stations employing cesium clocks are discussed. The largest permanent network is in the Gulf of Mexico where some fourteen base stations are continuously active and others are activated as needed. These HF phase comparison systems, which operate on a single transmission path, require a clock on the mobile unit as well. Inventory consists of upwards of 70 clocks from two different manufacturers. The maintenance of this network as an operating system requires a coordinated effort involving clock preparation, clock environment control, station performance monitoring and field service.

  11. Cone angle control of the interaction of magnetic clouds with the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, L.; Escoubet, C. P.; Fontaine, D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Enestam, S.

    2016-05-01

    We study the interaction of magnetic clouds (MCs) with the near-Earth environment. Recent works suggest that the bow shock crossing may modify significantly the magnetic structure of an MC, and thus its ability to drive geomagnetic storms. This change is largely controlled by the bow shock configuration, which depends on the upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. From the distribution of the magnetic field orientation in 152 Earth-impacting MCs, we determine for the first time the typical shock configuration during MC events. We find that 56% (6.3%) of the time, the subsolar bow shock configuration is exclusively quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel). The rest of the time, both configurations coexist. Furthermore, using a subset of 63 MCs observed simultaneously in the solar wind and in the dayside magnetosheath, we determine the magnitude of the magnetic field alteration, how it depends on the shock configuration, and how it relates to the IMF cone angle.

  12. Entangling the lattice clock: Towards Heisenberg-limited timekeeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Jonathan D.; Beloy, Kyle; Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present a scheme for entangling the atoms of an optical lattice to reduce the quantum projection noise of a clock measurement. The divalent clock atoms are held in a lattice at a ``magic'' wavelength that does not perturb the clock frequency -- to maintain clock accuracy -- while an open-shell J=1/2 ``head'' atom is coherently transported between lattice sites via the lattice polarization. This polarization- dependent ``Archimedes' screw'' transport at magic wavelength takes advantage of the vanishing vector polarizability of the scalar, J=0, clock states of bosonic isotopes of divalent atoms. The on-site interactions between the clock atoms and the head atom are used to engineer entanglement and for clock readout.

  13. Entangling the lattice clock: Towards Heisenberg-limited timekeeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Jonathan D.; Beloy, Kyle; Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    A scheme is presented for entangling the atoms of an optical lattice to reduce the quantum projection noise of a clock measurement. The divalent clock atoms are held in a lattice at a “magic” wavelength that does not perturb the clock frequency—to maintain clock accuracy—while an open-shell J=1/2 “head” atom is coherently transported between lattice sites via the lattice polarization. This polarization-dependent “Archimedes’ screw” transport at magic wavelength takes advantage of the vanishing vector polarizability of the scalar, J=0, clock states of bosonic isotopes of divalent atoms. The on-site interactions between the clock atoms and the head atom are used to engineer entanglement and for clock readout.

  14. Entangling the lattice clock: Towards Heisenberg-limited timekeeping

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Jonathan D.; Beloy, Kyle; Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-03-15

    A scheme is presented for entangling the atoms of an optical lattice to reduce the quantum projection noise of a clock measurement. The divalent clock atoms are held in a lattice at a 'magic' wavelength that does not perturb the clock frequency - to maintain clock accuracy - while an open-shell J=1/2 'head' atom is coherently transported between lattice sites via the lattice polarization. This polarization-dependent 'Archimedes' screw' transport at magic wavelength takes advantage of the vanishing vector polarizability of the scalar, J=0, clock states of bosonic isotopes of divalent atoms. The on-site interactions between the clock atoms and the head atom are used to engineer entanglement and for clock readout.

  15. The sympathy of two pendulum clocks: beyond Huygens’ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Ramirez, Jonatan; Olvera, Luis Alberto; Nijmeijer, Henk; Alvarez, Joaquin

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a modern version of the classical Huygens’ experiment on synchronization of pendulum clocks. The version presented here consists of two monumental pendulum clocks—ad hoc designed and fabricated—which are coupled through a wooden structure. It is demonstrated that the coupled clocks exhibit ‘sympathetic’ motion, i.e. the pendula of the clocks oscillate in consonance and in the same direction. Interestingly, when the clocks are synchronized, the common oscillation frequency decreases, i.e. the clocks become slow and inaccurate. In order to rigorously explain these findings, a mathematical model for the coupled clocks is obtained by using well-established physical and mechanical laws and likewise, a theoretical analysis is conducted. Ultimately, the sympathy of two monumental pendulum clocks, interacting via a flexible coupling structure, is experimentally, numerically, and analytically demonstrated.

  16. The sympathy of two pendulum clocks: beyond Huygens’ observations

    PubMed Central

    Peña Ramirez, Jonatan; Olvera, Luis Alberto; Nijmeijer, Henk; Alvarez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a modern version of the classical Huygens’ experiment on synchronization of pendulum clocks. The version presented here consists of two monumental pendulum clocks—ad hoc designed and fabricated—which are coupled through a wooden structure. It is demonstrated that the coupled clocks exhibit ‘sympathetic’ motion, i.e. the pendula of the clocks oscillate in consonance and in the same direction. Interestingly, when the clocks are synchronized, the common oscillation frequency decreases, i.e. the clocks become slow and inaccurate. In order to rigorously explain these findings, a mathematical model for the coupled clocks is obtained by using well-established physical and mechanical laws and likewise, a theoretical analysis is conducted. Ultimately, the sympathy of two monumental pendulum clocks, interacting via a flexible coupling structure, is experimentally, numerically, and analytically demonstrated. PMID:27020903

  17. Circadian expression of clock and putative clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    To identify circadian patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle, adult male zebrafish were acclimated for 2 wk to a 12:12-h light-dark photoperiod and then exposed to continuous darkness for 86 h with ad libitum feeding. The increase in gut food content associated with the subjective light period was much diminished by the third cycle, enabling feeding and circadian rhythms to be distinguished. Expression of zebrafish paralogs of mammalian transcriptional activators of the circadian mechanism (bmal1, clock1, and rora) followed a rhythmic pattern with a ∼24-h periodicity. Peak expression of rora paralogs occurred at the beginning of the subjective light period [Zeitgeber time (ZT)07 and ZT02 for roraa and rorab], whereas the highest expression of bmal1 and clock paralogs occurred 12 h later (ZT13-15 and ZT16 for bmal and clock paralogs). Expression of the transcriptional repressors cry1a, per1a/1b, per2, per3, nr1d2a/2b, and nr1d1 also followed a circadian pattern with peak expression at ZT0-02. Expression of the two paralogs of cry2 occurred in phase with clock1a/1b. Duplicated genes had a high correlation of expression except for paralogs of clock1, nr1d2, and per1, with cry1b showing no circadian pattern. The highest expression difference was 9.2-fold for the activator bmal1b and 51.7-fold for the repressor per1a. Out of 32 candidate clock-controlled genes, only myf6, igfbp3, igfbp5b, and hsf2 showed circadian expression patterns. Igfbp3, igfbp5b, and myf6 were expressed in phase with clock1a/1b and had an average of twofold change in expression from peak to trough, whereas hsf2 transcripts were expressed in phase with cry1a and had a 7.2-fold-change in expression. The changes in expression of clock and clock-controlled genes observed during continuous darkness were also observed at similar ZTs in fish exposed to a normal photoperiod in a separate control experiment. The role of circadian clocks in regulating muscle maintenance and growth are discussed

  18. Effects of the Dipole Tilt on Dayside Magnetic Reconnection in the Earth's Magnetosphere for Northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Ogino, T.

    2006-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause are dominantly affected by the relative orientation of the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere, the relative perpendicular velocities of field lines both before and after reconnection, and the location of the minimum geomagnetic field. We have performed a high-resolution and time-dependent three dimensional MHD simulation of interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere when the dipole tilt, and By and Bz components of the IMF are simultaneously included in the whole volume of the simulation box. In the recent study of Park, K.S. et al. (2006) found that for positive dipole tilt (northern hemisphere is summer) and southward IMF (Bz = 5 nT, By = 5nT), the reconnection site shifts sunward and equatorward in the summer hemisphere, and moves tailward and away from equator in the winter hemisphere. The dipole tilt creates asymmetry that strongly affects the direction of the plasma flow due to reconnection. Moreover, the electric field in the northern "reconnection" region (antiparallel region) is 50% larger than that at the magnetic equator and twice that at the subsolar point. In present study, for the case of positive dipole tilt, and during the northward IMF (Bz = 5 nT, By = 5nT), magnetic reconnection occurs at high latitudes in the northern dusk due to antiparallel field condition in the summer hemisphere for By > 0 and creates open field lines. The open field lines which are generated in the dusk sector and their feet are on the northern ionosphere, move from dusk to dawn in the dayside magnetopause and then come back to dusk in the tail. Tail reconnection successively occurs in the slant and elevated plasma sheet. The polar cap potential in dusk cell is larger than that the dawn cell in summer hemisphere. Moreover three-cell pattern appears in the northern ionosphere. On the other hand, the negative potential is comparable to the positive potential in winter hemisphere and the

  19. Structure and properties of the subsolar magnetopause for northward IMF - ISEE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, P.; Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Cattell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the structure and the magnetic-field, electric-field, and plasma properties of the ISEE-1 magnetopause crossing on November 5, 1978, which occurred near the subsolar point when the IMF was strongly northward. It was found that the magnetopause was composed of three layers: (1) a sheath transition layer, in which there is a gradual density decrease without a change in temperature and which occurs totally within the magnetosheath plasma; (2) an outer boundary layer, which is dominated by magnetosheath particles; (3) and an inner boundary layer dominated by magnetospheric particles. No significnt heating or cooling was seen across the magnetopause during this crossing. The plasma within each of the layers was quite uniform, and their boundaries were sharp, suggesting that there was very little diffusion present.

  20. Global Auroral Energy Deposition during Substorm Onset Compared with Local Time and Solar Wind IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M.; Fillingim, M. O.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The global images made by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) aboard the IASTP/Polar Satellite are used to derive the global auroral energy deposited in the ionosphere resulting from electron precipitation. During a substorm onset, the energy deposited and its location in local time are compared to the solar wind IMF conditions. Previously, insitu measurements of low orbiting satellites have made precipitating particle measurements along the spacecraft track and global images of the auroral zone, without the ability to quantify energy parameters, have been available. However, usage of the high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution of consecutive UVI images enables quantitative measurement of the energy deposited in the ionosphere not previously available on a global scale. Data over an extended period beginning in January 1997 will be presented.

  1. Systematic Variation in the Spectral Slope of the IMF at ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David J.

    Inferences on turbulence in interplanetary plasmas commonly depend on the slope of the power spectrum. We have studied the slopes of spectra of the interplanetary magnetic field and charged particles from the HISCALE and EPAM detectors on Ulysses and ACE and find that it is systematically nonstationary. As an example, when the spectra are estimated on time blocks varying between three hours and one day, the average slope on the ACE GSE Y component of the IMF is close to -5/3, but fluctuations about this average are not random. Using 1-minute data, the slopes made from three hour data blocks offset by one hour gives a new time series. Solar rotation and its first harmonic are nearly absent in the spectrum of this series, but there are a series of strong peaks that may be convection or gravity modes.

  2. Atmospheric limitations to clock synchronization at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Clock synchronization schemes utilizing microwave signals that pass through the Earth's atmosphere are ultimately limited by our ability to correct for the variable delay imposed by the atmosphere. The atmosphere is non-dispersive at microwave frequencies and imposes a delay of roughly 8 nanosec times the cosecant of the elevation angle. This delay is composed of two parts, the delay due to water vapor molecules (i.e., the wet delay), and the delay due to all other atmospheric constituents (i.e., the dry delay). Water vapor contributes approximately 5 to 10% of the total atmospheric delay but is highly variable, not well mixed, and difficult to estimate from surface air measurements. However, the techniques of passive remote sensing using microwave radiometry can be used to estimate the line of sight delay due to water vapor with potential accuracies of 10 to 20 picosec. The devices that are used are called water vapor radiometers and simply measure the power emitted by the water vapor molecule at the 22.2 GHz spectral line. An additional power measurement is usually included at 31.4 GHz in order to compensate for the effect of liquid water (e.g., clouds). The dry atmosphere is generally in something close to hydrostatic equilibrium and its delay contribution at zenith can be estimated quite well from a simple barometric measurement. At low elevation angles one must compensate for refractive bending and possible variations in the vertical refractivity profile. With care these effects can be estimated with accuracies on the order of 30 picosec down to elevation angles of 10 degree.

  3. Seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity: Russell-McPherron effect during different IMF polarity and/or extreme solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Zong, Q.-G.

    2012-11-01

    The Russell-McPherron (R-M) effect is one of the most prevailing hypotheses accounting for semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity. To validate the R-M effect and investigate the difference of geomagnetic activity variation under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity and during extreme solar wind conditions (interplanetary shock), we have analyzed 42 years interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic indices data and 1270 SSC (storm sudden commencement) events from the year 1968 to 2010 by defining the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity (IMF away/toward the Sun). The results obtained in this study have shown that the response of geomagnetic activity to the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity are rather profound: the geomagnetic activity is much more intense around fall equinox when the direction of IMF is away the Sun, while much more intense around spring equinox when the direction of IMF is toward the Sun. The seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity after SSCs can be attributed to both R-M effect and the equinoctial hypothesis; the R-M effect explains most part of variance of southward IMF, while the equinoctial hypothesis explains similar variance of ring current injection and geomagnetic indices as the R-M effect. However, the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity explains the difference between SSCs with positive/negative IMF By accurately, while the equinoctial hypothesis cannot explain such difference at the spring and fall equinoxes. Thus, the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity is more reasonable to explain seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity under extreme solar wind conditions.

  4. The IGIMF and other IMFs in dSphs: the case of Sagittarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Recchi, S.; Calura, F.; McWilliam, A.; Lanfranchi, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the effects of various initial mass functions (IMFs) on the chemical evolution of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). In particular, we tested the effects of the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) on various predicted abundance patterns. The IGIMF depends on the star formation rate and metallicity and predicts less massive stars in a regime of low star formation, as it is the case in dwarf spheroidals. We adopted a detailed chemical evolution model following the evolution of α-elements, Fe and Eu, and assuming the currently best set of stellar yields. We also explored different yield prescriptions for the Eu, including production from neutron star mergers. Although the uncertainties still present in the stellar yields and data prevent us from drawing firm conclusions, our results suggest that the IGIMF applied to Sgr predicts lower [α/Fe] ratios than classical IMFs and lower [hydrostatic/explosive] α-element ratios, in qualitative agreement with observations. In our model, the observed high [Eu/O] ratios in Sgr is due to reduced O production, resulting from the IGIMF mass cut-off of the massive oxygen-producing stars, as well as to the Eu yield produced in neutron star mergers, a more promising site than core-collapse supernovae, although many uncertainties are still present in the Eu nucleosynthesis. We find that a model, similar to our previous calculations, based on the late addition of iron from the Type Ia supernova time-delay (necessary to reproduce the shape of [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] relations) but also including the reduction of massive stars due to the IGIMF, better reproduces the observed abundance ratios in Sgr than models without the IGIMF.

  5. Observations of IMF and seasonal effects in high-latitude convection

    SciTech Connect

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and seasonal effects in the convection of nightside ionospheric plasma. The findings are based on a statistical analysis of observations made with the JHU/APL HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador. For positive sign of the IMF dawn-dusk component, i.e., B{sub y}>0, the dawn cell is more crescent-shaped and the dusk cell more round while for B{sub y}<0 these pairings of size and shape are reversed. The more extreme crescent/round cell dichotomy is obtained for B{sub y}>0. The return flows associated with the crescent-shaped cell dominate at midnight MLT (Magnetic Local Time); the reversal in the zonal velocity in the 67{degrees}-69{degrees}{Lambda} (magnetic latitude) interval occurs 2 1/2 hr earlier for B{sub y}>0. The seasonal dependence of nightside convection resembles in important respects the B{sub y} dependence. Greater latitudinal velocity shears occur in the morning/afternoon sector for summer/winter and the return flow of this sector dominates at midnight. The zonal flow reversal occurs 2 1/2 hr earlier in summer than in winter. The maximum effects are obtained on the nightside for the pairings [B{sub y}>0, summer] and [B{sub y}<0, winter]; the first produces the more structured cell in the morning, the second in the evening, and this cell dominates the return flow at midnight. The difference in the zonal flow reversals for these pairings exceeds 4 hr in MLT. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Case Study of Solar Wind and IMF Influence on Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We examine ionospheric outflows in the high attitude magnetospheric polar cap during the POLAR satellite's apogee on 04/19/96 using the TIDE instrument. The pass has a fairly constant flux of H+ which is similar to many other passes, but there is a large amount of O+ present. The elevated levels of O+ may be due both to the geophysical conditions during the apogee pass (Kp=5) and prior to the pass. When the outflows for many high altitude polar cap passes are analyzed the O+ density correlates well with the dynamic pressure. There are several aspects of this pass which are interesting besides the abundance of O+ relative to H+. In this pass both the H+ and O+ outflow velocity correlate with both the solar wind speed and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Bx. The geophysical conditions are such that the solar wind speed and IMF Bx are highly correlated with each other. For this case the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is fairly constant and has an average value of about 2.5 nPa which is typical for the solar wind, but the average solar wind speed is about 695 km/s which is greater than 450 km/s which is typical for the solar wind at I AU. The ion outflow measurements themselves are interrelated. The H+ density and parallel speed are anticorrelated which results in the constant flux. The 0+ density does not have as large of a anticorrelation with its parallel speed as H+ does with its parallel speed.

  7. Particle entry into the inner magnetosphere during duskward IMF By: Global three-dimensional electromagnetic full particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D.; Yan, X. Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Lembege, B.

    2006-06-01

    The change of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction from northward to duskward has an important impact on the inner magnetosphere. This impact is analyzed with the help of a new parallel version of the global three-dimensional full particle simulation code. For northward IMF, bands of weak magnetic field (sash) form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere. These sashes move to the equator (within opposite quadrants) as the IMF rotates duskward and merge into one another to form the characteristic ``Crosstail-S'' within the neutral sheet of the magnetotail. These macroscopic magnetic patterns (sashes and Crosstail-S) evidenced herein are in a good agreement with results of previous 3D MHD simulations and experimental observations. Moreover, the analysis of particle fluxes shows that ``sashes'' and ``Crosstail-S'' act as magnetic groove to facilitate the entry and injection of magnetosheath particles into the inner magnetosphere. Injected particles are accelerated after the IMF changes its direction from northward to duskward.

  8. Impact of the IMF rotation on the cusp dynamics on the dayside: Global 3D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Cai, D.; Lembege, B.; Nishikawa, K.

    2005-12-01

    The dynamics of the cusp region as the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) progressively changes its direction from northward to duskward is analysed with a new version of a global three-dimensional full particle simulation. For northward IMF, bands of weak magnetic field (sash) form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere (and at high altitudes); these sashs are centered approximately around the pole axis. However, as the newly duskward-oriented IMF approaches and interacts with the magnetosphere, these sashs move to the equator (within opposite quadrants). During the progressive rotation of the IMF, this motion is decomposed in the plane perpendicular to the solar wind as follows: (i) the "sash" region widens towards lower latitudes ("banana-shape"), and (ii) the size of the "banana-shape" region strongly shrinks and its location stabilizes around a maximum deviation of 45?. In addition, this motion is observed both on the day and the night sides where sashs are simultaneously observed. Characteristic time and space scales of the cusp motion are indicated, in order to be compare with results deduced from previous MHD simulations. Changes of local reconnection in the cusp region are analysed.

  9. Developmental alcohol and circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Earnest, D J; Chen, W J; West, J R

    2001-01-01

    Studies in rats found that alcohol exposure during the early postnatal period, particularly during the brain-growth-spurt period, can result in cell loss in various brain regions and persistent behavioral impairments. Some investigators have speculated that the body's internal clock, which is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the brain, may also be affected by developmental alcohol exposure. For example, alcohol-induced damage to the SCN cells and their function could result in disturbances of the circadian timekeeping function, and these disturbances might contribute to the behavioral impairments and affective disorders observed in people prenatally exposed to alcohol. Preliminary findings of studies conducted in rats suggest that developmental alcohol exposure may indeed interfere with circadian clock function as evidenced by a shortened circadian sleep-wake cycle and changes in the release of certain brain chemicals (i.e., neuropeptides) by SCN cells. PMID:11584552

  10. Sagnac Interferometry with a Single Atomic Clock.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R; Hush, M R; Bishop, T; Lesanovsky, I; Fernholz, T

    2015-10-16

    The Sagnac effect enables interferometric measurements of rotation with high precision. Using matter waves instead of light promises resolution enhancement by orders of magnitude that scales with particle mass. So far, the paradigm for matter wave Sagnac interferometry relies on de Broglie waves and thus on free propagation of atoms either in free fall or within waveguides. However, the Sagnac effect can be expressed as a proper time difference experienced by two observers moving in opposite directions along closed paths and has indeed been measured with atomic clocks flown around Earth. Inspired by this, we investigate an interferometer comprised of a single atomic clock. The Sagnac effect manifests as a phase shift between trapped atoms in different internal states after transportation along closed paths in opposite directions, without any free propagation. With analytic models, we quantify limitations of the scheme arising from atomic dynamics and finite temperature. Furthermore, we suggest an implementation with previously demonstrated technology. PMID:26550871

  11. Sagnac Interferometry with a Single Atomic Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, R.; Hush, M. R.; Bishop, T.; Lesanovsky, I.; Fernholz, T.

    2015-10-01

    The Sagnac effect enables interferometric measurements of rotation with high precision. Using matter waves instead of light promises resolution enhancement by orders of magnitude that scales with particle mass. So far, the paradigm for matter wave Sagnac interferometry relies on de Broglie waves and thus on free propagation of atoms either in free fall or within waveguides. However, the Sagnac effect can be expressed as a proper time difference experienced by two observers moving in opposite directions along closed paths and has indeed been measured with atomic clocks flown around Earth. Inspired by this, we investigate an interferometer comprised of a single atomic clock. The Sagnac effect manifests as a phase shift between trapped atoms in different internal states after transportation along closed paths in opposite directions, without any free propagation. With analytic models, we quantify limitations of the scheme arising from atomic dynamics and finite temperature. Furthermore, we suggest an implementation with previously demonstrated technology.

  12. Optimal Implementations for Reliable Circadian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival through synchronizing with the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. We find by using a phase model with multiple inputs that achieving the maximal limit of regularity and entrainability entails many inherent features of the circadian mechanism. At the molecular level, we demonstrate the role sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. At the behavioral level, the optimal phase-response curve inevitably contains a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. We reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments entrained by two types of periodic light pulses. Our results indicate that circadian clocks are designed optimally for reliable clockwork through evolution.

  13. Population clocks: motor timing with neural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buonomano, Dean V.; Laje, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of sensory and motor processing will require elucidation of the mechanisms by which the brain tells time. Open questions relate to whether timing relies on dedicated or intrinsic mechanisms and whether distinct mechanisms underlie timing across scales and modalities. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the notion that neural circuits are intrinsically capable of sensory timing on short scales, few general models of motor timing have been proposed. For one class of models, population clocks, it is proposed that time is encoded in the time-varying patterns of activity of a population of neurons. We argue that population clocks emerge from the internal dynamics of recurrently connected networks, are biologically realistic and account for many aspects of motor timing. PMID:20889368

  14. Supporting Family Awareness with the Whereabouts Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellen, Abigail; Taylor, Alex S.; Kaye, Joseph ‘Jofish'; Brown, Barry; Izadi, Shahram

    We report the results of a field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displays the location of family members using cellphone data as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories ( HOME, WORK, SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE). The results show that awareness of others through the Clock supports not only family communication and coordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. We discuss how the term “awareness” means many things in practice and highlight the importance of designing not just for family activities, but in order to support the emotional, social and even moral aspects of family life.

  15. Circadian clocks, feeding time, and metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Georgios K.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic processes exhibit diurnal variation from cyanobacteria to humans. The circadian clock is thought to have evolved as a time keeping system for the cell to optimize the timing of metabolic events according to physiological needs and environmental conditions. Circadian rhythms temporally separate incompatible cellular processes and optimize cellular and organismal fitness. A modern 24 h lifestyle can run at odds with the circadian rhythm dictated by our molecular clocks and create desynchrony between internal and external timing. It has been suggested that this desynchrony compromises metabolic homeostasis and may promote the development of obesity (Morris et al., 2012). Here we review the evidence supporting the association between circadian misalignment and metabolic homeostasis and discuss the role of feeding time. PMID:26082718

  16. Millisecond pulsars - Nature's most stable clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph H., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    The author describes the role pulsars might play in time and frequency technology. Millisecond pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars: spherical flywheels some 20 km in diameter, 1.4 times as massive as the Sun, and spinning as fast as several thousand radians per second. Radio noise generated in a pulsar's magnetosphere by a highly beamed process is detectable over interstellar distances, as a periodic sequence of pulses similar to the ticks of an excellent clock. High-precision comparisons between pulsar time and terrestrial atomic time show that over intervals of several years, some millisecond pulsars have fractional stabilities comparable to those of the best atomic clocks. The author briefly reviews the physics of pulsars, discusses the techniques of pulsar timing measurements, and summarizes the results of careful studies of pulsar stabilities.

  17. Metabolism and the Circadian Clock Converge

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms occur in almost all species and control vital aspects of our physiology, from sleeping and waking to neurotransmitter secretion and cellular metabolism. Epidemiological studies from recent decades have supported a unique role for circadian rhythm in metabolism. As evidenced by individuals working night or rotating shifts, but also by rodent models of circadian arrhythmia, disruption of the circadian cycle is strongly associated with metabolic imbalance. Some genetically engineered mouse models of circadian rhythmicity are obese and show hallmark signs of the metabolic syndrome. Whether these phenotypes are due to the loss of distinct circadian clock genes within a specific tissue versus the disruption of rhythmic physiological activities (such as eating and sleeping) remains a cynosure within the fields of chronobiology and metabolism. Becoming more apparent is that from metabolites to transcription factors, the circadian clock interfaces with metabolism in numerous ways that are essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23303907

  18. Metabolic and Nontranscriptional Circadian Clocks: Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Akhilesh B.; Rey, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cellular timekeeping mechanisms that coordinate behavior and physiology around the 24-h day in most living organisms. Misalignment of an organism’s clock with its environment is associated with long-term adverse fitness consequences, as exemplified by the link between circadian disruption and various age-related diseases in humans. Current eukaryotic models of the circadian oscillator rely on transcription/translation feedback loop mechanisms, supplemented with accessory cytosolic loops that connect them to cellular physiology. However, there is mounting evidence questioning the absolute necessity of transcription-based oscillators for circadian rhythmicity, supported by the recent discovery of oxidation-reduction cycles of peroxiredoxin proteins, which persist even in the absence of transcription. A more fundamental mechanism based on metabolic cycles could thus underlie circadian transcriptional and cytosolic rhythms, thereby promoting circadian oscillations to integral properties of cellular metabolism. PMID:24606143

  19. The Large Built Water Clock Of Amphiaraeion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Katsiotis, M.; Manimanis, V. N.; Mantarakis, P.

    A very well preserved ancient water clock was discovered during excavations at the Amphiaraeion, in Oropos, Greece. The Amphiaraeion, a famous religious and oracle center of the deified healer Amphiaraus, was active from the pre-classic period until the replacement of the ancient religion by Christianity in the 5th Century A.D.. The foretelling was supposedly done through dreams sent by the god to the believers sleeping in a special gallery. In these dreams the god suggesting to them the therapy for their illness or the solution to their problems. The patients, then threw coins into a spring of the sanctuary. In such a place, the measurement of time was a necessity. Therefore, time was kept with both a conical sundial and a water clock in the form of a fountain. According to archeologists, the large built structure that measured the time for the sanctuary dates from the 4th Century B.C.

  20. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  1. Perception of Perspective Angles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  2. The Circadian Clock, Reward, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Urs

    2011-01-01

    During our daily activities, we experience variations in our cognitive performance, which is often accompanied by cravings for small rewards, such as consuming coffee or chocolate. This indicates that the time of day, cognitive performance, and reward may be related to one another. This review will summarize data that describe the influence of the circadian clock on addiction and mood-related behavior and put the data into perspective in relation to memory processes. PMID:22084628

  3. Optimal Prediction of Clocks from Finite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    This talk is about optimal linear prediction of processes with stationary dth increments, which serve as a class of models for random clock disturbances. The predictor is obtained by orthogonal projection on the affine space of estimators whose errors are invariant to additive polynomials of degree < d. The projection conditions give a system of linear equations thatcan be solved straightforwardly for the regression coefficients. If the data are equally spaced, then the predictor can be obtained by an extension of Levinson's algorithm.

  4. Tissue-specific clocks in Arabidopsis show asymmetric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motomu; Shimizu, Hanako; Nohales, Maria A.; Araki, Takashi; Kay, Steve A.

    2014-01-01

    Many organisms rely on a circadian clock system to adapt to daily and seasonal environmental changes. The mammalian circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that is tightly coupled and synchronizes other clocks in peripheral tissues1, 2. Plants also have a circadian clock, but plant circadian clock function has long been assumed to be uncoupled3. Only a few studies have been able to show a weak, local coupling among cells4, 5, 6, 7. Here, by implementing two novel techniques, we have performed a comprehensive tissue-specific analysis of leaf tissues, and we have discovered that the vasculature and mesophyll clocks asymmetrically regulate each other in Arabidopsis. The circadian clock in the vasculature has characteristics distinct from other tissues, cycles robustly without environmental cues, and affects circadian clock regulation in other tissues. Furthermore, we found that vasculature-enriched genes that are rhythmic are preferentially expressed in the evening, whereas rhythmic mesophyll-enriched genes tend to be expressed in the morning. Our results set the stage for a deeper understanding of how the vasculature circadian clock in plants regulates key physiological responses such as flowering time. PMID:25363766

  5. A Compact Model for the Complex Plant Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    De Caluwé, Joëlle; Xiao, Qiying; Hermans, Christian; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Leloup, Jean-Christophe; Gonze, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous timekeeper that allows organisms to anticipate and adapt to the daily variations of their environment. The plant clock is an intricate network of interlocked feedback loops, in which transcription factors regulate each other to generate oscillations with expression peaks at specific times of the day. Over the last decade, mathematical modeling approaches have been used to understand the inner workings of the clock in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Those efforts have produced a number of models of ever increasing complexity. Here, we present an alternative model that combines a low number of equations and parameters, similar to the very earliest models, with the complex network structure found in more recent ones. This simple model describes the temporal evolution of the abundance of eight clock gene mRNA/protein and captures key features of the clock on a qualitative level, namely the entrained and free-running behaviors of the wild type clock, as well as the defects found in knockout mutants (such as altered free-running periods, lack of entrainment, or changes in the expression of other clock genes). Additionally, our model produces complex responses to various light cues, such as extreme photoperiods and non-24 h environmental cycles, and can describe the control of hypocotyl growth by the clock. Our model constitutes a useful tool to probe dynamical properties of the core clock as well as clock-dependent processes. PMID:26904049

  6. The regulation of central and peripheral circadian clocks in humans.

    PubMed

    Cermakian, N; Boivin, D B

    2009-11-01

    Many circadian rhythms are controlled by the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, as well as clocks located in other brain regions and most peripheral tissues. These central and peripheral clocks are based on clock genes and their protein products. In recent years, the expression of clock genes has started to be investigated in human samples, primarily white blood cells, but also skin, oral mucosa, colon cells, adipose tissue as well as post-mortem brain tissue. The expression of clock genes in those peripheral tissues offers a way to monitor human peripheral clocks and to compare their function and regulation with those of the central clock, which is followed by markers such as melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature. We have recently used such an approach to compare central and peripheral rhythms in subjects under different lighting conditions. In particular, we have monitored the entrainment of the clock of blood cells in subjects undergoing a simulated night shift protocol with bright light treatment, known to efficiently reset the central clock. This line of research will be helpful for learning more about the human circadian system and to find ways to alleviate health problems of shift workers, and other populations experiencing altered circadian rhythms. PMID:19849799

  7. Deterministic and Stochastic Receiver Clock Modeling in Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orliac, E.; Dach, R.; Wang, K.; Rothacher, M.; Voithenleitner, D.; Hugentobler, U.; Heinze, M.; Svehla, D.

    2012-04-01

    The traditional GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) data analysis assumes an independent set of clock corrections for each epoch. This introduces a huge number of parameters that are highly correlated with station height and troposphere parameters. If the number of clock parameters can be reduced, the GNSS processing procedure may be stabilized. Experiments with kinematic solutions for stations equipped with H-Maser clocks have confirmed this. On the other hand, static coordinates do not significantly benefit from changing the strategy in handling the clock parameter. In the current GNSS constellation only GIOVE-B and the GPS Block IIF satellite clocks seem to be good enough to be modeled instead of freely estimated for each epoch without losing accuracy at the level of phase measurements. With the Galileo constellation this will change in future. In this context, ESA (European Space Agency) funded a project on "Satellite and Station Clock Modelling for GNSS". In the frame of this project, various deterministic and stochastic clock models have been evaluated, implemented and assessed for both, station and satellite clocks. In this paper we focus on the impact of modeling the receiver clock in the processing of GNSS data in static and kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) modes. Initial results show that for stations connected to an H-Maser clock the stability of the vertical position for kinematic PPP could be improved by up to 60%. The impact of clock modeling on the estimation of troposphere parameters is also investigated, along with the role of the tropospheric modeling itself, by testing various sampling rates and relative constraints for the troposphere parameters. Finally, we investigate the convergence time of PPP when deterministic or stochastic clock modeling is applied to the receiver clock.

  8. Genetic analysis of ectopic circadian clock induction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kilman, Valerie L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-10-01

    Cell-autonomous feedback loops underlie the molecular oscillations that define circadian clocks. In Drosophila the transcription factor Clk activates multiple clock components of feedback loops many of which feed back and regulate Clk expression or activity. Previously the authors evoked similar molecular oscillations in putatively naïve neurons in Drosophila by ectopic expression of a single gene, Clk, suggesting a master regulator function. Using molecular oscillations of the core clock component PERIOD (PER), the authors observed dramatic and widespread molecular oscillations throughout the brain in flies expressing ectopic Clk. Consistent with the master regulator hypothesis, they found that Clk is uniquely capable of inducing ectopic clocks as ectopic induction of other clock components fails to induce circadian rhythms. Clk also induces oscillations even when expression is adult restricted, suggesting that ectopic clocks can even be induced in differentiated cells. However, if transgene expression is discontinued, PER expression disappears, indicating that Clk must be continually active to sustain ectopic clock function. In some cases Clk-mediated PER induction was observed without apparent synchronous cycling, perhaps due to desynchronization of rhythms between clocks or truly cell autonomous arrhythmic PER expression, indicating that additional factors may be necessary for coherent rhythms in cells ectopically expressing Clk. To determine minimal requirements for circadian clock induction by Clk, the authors determined the genetic requirements of ectopic clocks. No ectopic clocks are induced in mutants of Clk's heterodimeric partner cyc. In addition, noncycling PER is observed when ectopic Clk is induced in a cryb mutant background. While other factors may contribute, these results indicate that persistent Clock induction is uniquely capable of broadly inducing ectopic rhythms even in adults, consistent with a special role at the top of a clock gene

  9. Global MHD modeling of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents associated with IMF By triggered theta auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masakazu; Sakito, Shintaro; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Murata, Ken T.

    2014-08-01

    Using numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the evolution of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents (FACs) when θ auroras are formed in response to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By transitions. When the polarity of IMF By switches abruptly during northward IMF periods, the crossbar of the θ aurora is isolated from the flankside auroral oval and drifts into the polar cap. This drift motion is involved in a large round cell associated with new IMF By, with sunward convection residing only on the dayside tip of the crossbar. There exists an IMF By-controlled large-scale FAC system on the crossbar. When the θ aurora is drifting duskward (dawnward), the FACs are located on the dawnside (duskside) boundary of the crossbar adjacent to the "new" lobe. In contrast, the magnetospheric source region of the crossbar FAC system is located on the duskside (dawnside) boundary of the protruded plasma sheet adjacent to the "old" lobe. In the source region, plasma thermal pressure feeds the electromagnetic energy of FACs, and these processes can be interpreted as coupling of slow mode and Alfvén mode disturbances. In the ionosphere, the crossbar-associated FACs close with part of the region 1 currents associated with the new crescent cell. The magnetospheric source of that part of the region 1 FACs is located on the plasma sheet boundary and the magnetopause both adjacent to the new lobe. Dynamo processes in the old-lobe side and the new-lobe side work together to drive the ionospheric drift motion of the crossbar.

  10. The prolonged southward IMF-Bz event of 2-4 May 1998: Solar, interplanetary causes and geomagnetic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Chakrabarty, D.; Janardhan, P.; Rastogi, R. G.; Yoshikawa, A.; Fujiki, K.; Tokumaru, M.; Yan, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A detailed investigation is carried out to understand the prolonged (˜44 h) weakly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz) condition during 2-4 May 1998. In situ observations, during the period, show the passage of an expanding magnetic cloud embedded in an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME), followed up by a shock and an interplanetary discontinuity driven by another ICME. It is the arrival of the ICMEs and the upfront shocks that caused the prolonged southward IMF-Bz condition. The magnetic configuration of the source regions of the IMF associated with the ICME interval was also examined, which showed open magnetic field structures, emanating from a small active region on the north of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The structures remained constantly to the north of the HCS, both on 29 April and 1 May, suggesting no change in their polarity. The draping of these outward directed radial field lines around the propagating CMEs in the shocked plasma explains the observed polarity changes of the IMF-Bz at 1 AU. In addition, multiple enhancements were also detected in the geomagnetic field variations, which showed a distinct one-to-one correspondence with the density pulses observed at 1 AU, during 0700-1700 UT on 3 May. The spectral analyses of both the variations showed the same discrete frequencies of 0.48, 0.65, and 0.75 mHz, demonstrating that the solar wind density enhancements can cause detectable global geomagnetic disturbances. The observations, thus, provide a deeper insight into the possible causes and geomagnetic consequences of a prolonged weakly southward IMF-Bz condition.

  11. Radial Trends in IMF-sensitive Absorption Features in Two Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Abundance-driven Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Lu, Jessica R.; Mann, Andrew W.

    2016-04-01

    Samples of early-type galaxies show a correlation between stellar velocity dispersion and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as inferred from gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the galaxies’ central regions. To search for spatial variations in the IMF, we have observed two early-type galaxies with Keck/LRIS and measured radial gradients in the strengths of absorption features from 4000–5500 Å and 8000–10000 Å. We present spatially resolved measurements of the dwarf-sensitive spectral indices {Na} {{I}} (8190 Å) and Wing-Ford {{FeH}} (9915 Å), as well as indices for species of H, C2, CN, Mg, Ca, {{TiO}}, and Fe. Our measurements show a metallicity gradient in both objects, and Mg/Fe consistent with a shallow gradient in α-enhancement, matching widely observed trends for massive early-type galaxies. The {Na} {{I}} index and the CN1 index at 4160 Å exhibit significantly steeper gradients, with a break at r∼ 0.1 {r}{{eff}} (r∼ 300 pc). Inside this radius, {Na} {{I}} strength increases sharply toward the galaxy center, consistent with a rapid central rise in [Na/Fe]. In contrast, the ratio of the {{FeH}} to Fe index strength decreases toward the galaxy center. This behavior cannot be reproduced by a steepening IMF inside of 0.1 {r}{{eff}} if the IMF is a single power law. While gradients in the mass function above ∼ 0.4 {M}ȯ may occur, exceptional care is required to disentangle these IMF variations from the extreme variations in individual element abundances near the galaxies’ centers.

  12. Clock drawing performance in cognitively normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Emily J; Santini, Veronica; Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Volkers, Karin M; Barrup, Melissa S; Byerly, Laura; Chaisson, Christine; Jefferson, Angela L; Kaplan, Edith; Green, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2008-05-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a common neuropsychological measure sensitive to cognitive changes and functional skills (e.g., driving test performance) among older adults. However, normative data have not been adequately developed. We report the distribution of CDT scores using three common scoring systems [Mendez, M. F., Ala, T., & Underwood, K. L. (1992). Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1095-1099; Cahn, D. A., Salmon, D. P., Monsch, A. U., Butters, N., Wiederholt, W. C., & Corey-Bloom, J. (1996). Screening for dementia of the Alzheimer type in the community: The utility of the Clock Drawing Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(6), 529-539], among 207 cognitively normal elderly. The systems were well correlated, took little time to use, and had high inter-rater reliability. We found statistically significant differences in CDT scores based on age and WRAT-3 Reading score, a marker of education quality. We present means, standard deviations, and t- and z-scores based on these subgroups. We found that "normal" CDT performance includes a wider distribution of scores than previously reported. Our results may serve as useful comparisons for clinicians wishing to know whether their patients perform in the general range of cognitively normal elderly. PMID:18243644

  13. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Robert H.; Loomis, Jr., Herschel H.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse "overtaking" a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component V'.sub.01 (t); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means No. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal V.sub.1 (t) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal V.sub.n (t) and producing a modified change-of-state signal V'.sub.n (t) (n=1, . . . , N) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to V'.sub.01 (t-.theta..sub.n (t) with a cumulative phase shift .theta..sub.n (t) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1.ltoreq.n

  14. Tuning Genetic Clocks Employing DNA Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Shridhar; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2012-01-01

    Periodic oscillations play a key role in cell physiology from the cell cycle to circadian clocks. The interplay of positive and negative feedback loops among genes and proteins is ubiquitous in these networks. Often, delays in a negative feedback loop and/or degradation rates are a crucial mechanism to obtain sustained oscillations. How does nature control delays and kinetic rates in feedback networks? Known mechanisms include proper selection of the number of steps composing a feedback loop and alteration of protease activity, respectively. Here, we show that a remarkably simple means to control both delays and effective kinetic rates is the employment of DNA binding sites. We illustrate this design principle on a widely studied activator-repressor clock motif, which is ubiquitous in natural systems. By suitably employing DNA target sites for the activator and/or the repressor, one can switch the clock “on” and “off” and precisely tune its period to a desired value. Our study reveals a design principle to engineer dynamic behavior in biomolecular networks, which may be largely exploited by natural systems and employed for the rational design of synthetic circuits. PMID:22859962

  15. Circuitry for Angle Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Kissel, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Angle resolver pulsed and read under microprocessor control. Pulse generator excites resolver windings with dual slope pulse. System sequentially reads sine and cosine windings. Microprocessor determines angle through which resolver shaft turned from reference angle. Suitable applications include rate tables, antenna direction controllers, and machine tools.

  16. ORTHO- ELIMINATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM CLOCK ERRORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ORTHO is part of the Global Positioning System (GPS) being developed by the U.S. Air Force, a navigational system that will use 18 NAVSTAR satellites to broadcast navigation messages and achieve worldwide coverage. The normal positioning technique uses one receiver which receives signals from at least four GPS satellites. For higher accuracy work it is often necessary to use a differential technique in which more than one receiver is used. The geodetic measurement has all receivers on the ground and allows the determination of the relative locations of the ground sites. The main application of the ORTHO program is in the elimination of clock errors in a GPS based tracking system. The measured distance (pseudo-range) from a GPS receiver contains errors due to differences in the receiver and satellite clocks. The conventional way of eliminating clock errors is to difference pseudo-ranges between different GPS satellites and receivers. The Householder transformation used in this program performs a function similar to the conventional single differencing or double differencing. This method avoids the problem of redundancy and correlation encountered in a differencing scheme. It is able to keep all information contained in the measurements within the scope of a least square estimation. For multiple transmitter and receiver GPS tracking network, this method is in general more accurate than the differencing technique. This program assumes that the non-clock measurement partial derivatives for the particular application are computed earlier by another program. With the partial derivatives and information to identify the transmitters and receivers as the input, the program performs the Householder transformation on the partial derivatives. The transformed partials are output by the program and may be used as an input to the filter program in the subsequent estimation process. Clock partial derivatives are generated internally and are not part of the input to the program

  17. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael L; Koller, Andrew P; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-22

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s-wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p- and s-wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures. PMID:26849600

  18. The Effects of Clock Drift on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    All clocks drift by some amount, and the mission clock on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is no exception. The mission clock on both MER rovers drifted significantly since the rovers were launched, and it is still drifting on the Opportunity rover. The drift rate is temperature dependent. Clock drift causes problems for onboard behaviors and spacecraft operations, such as attitude estimation, driving, operation of the robotic arm, pointing for imaging, power analysis, and telecom analysis. The MER operations team has techniques to deal with some of these problems. There are a few techniques for reducing and eliminating the clock drift, but each has drawbacks. This paper presents an explanation of what is meant by clock drift on the rovers, its relationship to temperature, how we measure it, what problems it causes, how we deal with those problems, and techniques for reducing the drift.

  19. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  20. Micromagic Clock: Microwave Clock Based on Atoms in an Engineered Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2009-03-27

    We propose a new class of atomic microwave clocks based on the hyperfine transitions in the ground state of aluminum or gallium atoms trapped in optical lattices. For such elements magic wavelengths exist at which both levels of the hyperfine doublet are shifted at the same rate by the lattice laser field, canceling its effect on the clock transition. A similar mechanism for the magic wavelengths may work in microwave hyperfine transitions in other atoms which have the fine-structure multiplets in the ground state.

  1. A Clock Synchronization Strategy for Minimizing Clock Variance at Runtime in High-end Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Koenig, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new software-based clock synchronization scheme designed to provide high precision time agreement among distributed memory nodes. The technique is designed to minimize variance from a reference chimer during runtime and with minimal time-request latency. Our scheme permits initial unbounded variations in time and corrects both slow and fast chimers (clock skew). An implementation developed within the context of the MPI message passing interface is described and time coordination measurements are presented. Among our results, the mean time variance among a set of nodes improved from 20.0 milliseconds under standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) to 2.29 secs under our scheme.

  2. Clock Synchronization in High-end Computing Environments: A Strategy for Minimizing Clock Variance at Runtime

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Koenig, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    We present a new software-based clock synchronization scheme that provides high precision time agreement among distributed memory nodes. The technique is designed to minimize variance from a reference chimer during runtime and with minimal time-request latency. Our scheme permits initial unbounded variations in time and corrects both slow and fast chimers (clock skew). An implementation developed within the context of the MPI message passing interface is described, and time coordination measurements are presented. Among our results, the mean time variance for a set of nodes improved from 20.0 milliseconds under standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) down to 2.29 secs under our scheme.

  3. Higher Pole Linear Traps for Atomic Clock Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically higher pole linear ion traps for frequency standard use. We have built a 12-pole trap and have successfully loaded ions into it from a linear quadrupole trap. By solving the Boltzmann equation describing large ion clouds where space charge interactions are important, we show that clock frequency changes due to ion number fluctuations are much smaller in ion clocks based multipole traps than comparable clocks based on quadrupole linear traps.

  4. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    DOEpatents

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  5. Ground control system for the midcourse space experiment UTC clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard

    1994-01-01

    One goal of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft Operations Planning Center is to maintain the onboard satellite UTC clock (UTC(MSX)) to within 1 millisecond of UTC(APL) (the program requirement is 10 msec). The UTC(MSX) clock employs as its time base an APL built 5 MHz quartz oscillator, which is expected to have frequency instabilities (aging rate + drift rate + frequency offset) that will cause the clock to drift approximately two to ten milliseconds per day. The UTC(MSX) clock can be advanced or retarded by the APL MSX satellite ground control center by integer multiples of 1 millisecond. The MSX Operations Planning Center is developing software which records the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) and which schedules the time of day and magnitude of UTC(MSX) clock updates up to 48 hours in advance. Because of the manner in which MSX spacecraft activities are scheduled, MSX clock updates are planned 24 to 48 hours in advance, and stored in the satellite's computer controller for later execution. Data will be collected on the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) over a three to five day period. Approximately six times per day, the time offset between UTC(MSX) and UTC(APL) will be measured by APL with a resolution of less than 100 microseconds. From this data a second order analytical model of the clock's drift will be derived. This model will be used to extrapolate the offset of the MSX clock in time from the present to 48 hours in the future. MSX clock updates will be placed on the spacecraft's daily schedule whenever the predicted clock offset exceeds 0.5 milliseconds. The paper includes a discussion of how the empirical model of the MSX clock is derived from satellite telemetry data, as well as the algorithm used to schedule MSX clock updates based on the model.

  6. Relativity Theory and Time Perception: Single or Multiple Clocks?

    PubMed Central

    Buhusi, Catalin V.; Meck, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the “short” duration, stopped the “medium” duration clock, and continued to run the “long” duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the “short”, then the “medium”, and finally the “long” clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context. PMID:19623247

  7. A Novel Photonic Clock and Carrier Recovery Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve; Lutes, George; Maleki, Lute

    1996-01-01

    As data communication rates climb toward ten Gb/s, clock recovery and synchronization become more difficult, if not impossible, using conventional electronic circuits. We present in this article experimental results of a high speed clock and carrier recovery using a novel device called a photonic oscillator that we recently developed in our laboratory. This device is capable of recovering clock signals up to 70 GHz. To recover the clock, the incoming data is injected into the photonic oscillator either through the optical injection port or the electrical injection port. The free running photonic oscillator is tuned to oscillate at a nominal frequency equal to the clock frequency of the incoming data. With the injection of the data, the photonic oscillator will be quickly locked to clock frequency of the data stream while rejecting other frequency components associated with the data. Consequently, the output of the locked photonic oscillator is a continuous periodical wave synchronized with the incoming data or simply the recovered clock. We have demonstrated a clock to spur ratio of more than 60 dB of the recovered clock using this technique. Similar to the clock recovery, the photonic oscillator can be used to recover a high frequency carrier degraded by noise and an improvement of about 50 dB in signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated. The photonic oscillator has both electrical and optical inputs and outputs and can be directly interfaced with a photonic system without signal conversion. In addition to clock and carrier recovery, the photonic oscillator can also be used for (1) stable high frequency clock signal generation, (2) frequency multiplication, (3) square wave and comb frequency generation, and (4) photonic phase locked loop.

  8. Laser light routing in an elongated micromachined vapor cell with diffraction gratings for atomic clock applications

    PubMed Central

    Chutani, Ravinder; Maurice, Vincent; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Abbé, Philippe; Galliou, Serge; Rauch, Jean-Yves; de Clercq, Emeric

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an original architecture of microfabricated alkali vapor cell designed for miniature atomic clocks. The cell combines diffraction gratings with anisotropically etched single-crystalline silicon sidewalls to route a normally-incident beam in a cavity oriented along the substrate plane. Gratings have been specifically designed to diffract circularly polarized light in the first order, the latter having an angle of diffraction matching the (111) sidewalls orientation. Then, the length of the cavity where light interacts with alkali atoms can be extended. We demonstrate that a longer cell allows to reduce the beam diameter, while preserving the clock performances. As the cavity depth and the beam diameter are reduced, collimation can be performed in a tighter space. This solution relaxes the constraints on the device packaging and is suitable for wafer-level assembly. Several cells have been fabricated and characterized in a clock setup using coherent population trapping spectroscopy. The measured signals exhibit null power linewidths down to 2.23 kHz and high transmission contrasts up to 17%. A high contrast-to-linewidth ratio is found at a linewidth of 4.17 kHz and a contrast of 5.2% in a 7-mm-long cell despite a beam diameter reduced to 600 μm. PMID:26365754

  9. Laser light routing in an elongated micromachined vapor cell with diffraction gratings for atomic clock applications.

    PubMed

    Chutani, Ravinder; Maurice, Vincent; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Abbé, Philippe; Galliou, Serge; Rauch, Jean-Yves; de Clercq, Emeric

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an original architecture of microfabricated alkali vapor cell designed for miniature atomic clocks. The cell combines diffraction gratings with anisotropically etched single-crystalline silicon sidewalls to route a normally-incident beam in a cavity oriented along the substrate plane. Gratings have been specifically designed to diffract circularly polarized light in the first order, the latter having an angle of diffraction matching the (111) sidewalls orientation. Then, the length of the cavity where light interacts with alkali atoms can be extended. We demonstrate that a longer cell allows to reduce the beam diameter, while preserving the clock performances. As the cavity depth and the beam diameter are reduced, collimation can be performed in a tighter space. This solution relaxes the constraints on the device packaging and is suitable for wafer-level assembly. Several cells have been fabricated and characterized in a clock setup using coherent population trapping spectroscopy. The measured signals exhibit null power linewidths down to 2.23 kHz and high transmission contrasts up to 17%. A high contrast-to-linewidth ratio is found at a linewidth of 4.17 kHz and a contrast of 5.2% in a 7-mm-long cell despite a beam diameter reduced to 600 μm. PMID:26365754

  10. Laser light routing in an elongated micromachined vapor cell with diffraction gratings for atomic clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutani, Ravinder; Maurice, Vincent; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Abbé, Philippe; Galliou, Serge; Rauch, Jean-Yves; de Clercq, Emeric

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on an original architecture of microfabricated alkali vapor cell designed for miniature atomic clocks. The cell combines diffraction gratings with anisotropically etched single-crystalline silicon sidewalls to route a normally-incident beam in a cavity oriented along the substrate plane. Gratings have been specifically designed to diffract circularly polarized light in the first order, the latter having an angle of diffraction matching the (111) sidewalls orientation. Then, the length of the cavity where light interacts with alkali atoms can be extended. We demonstrate that a longer cell allows to reduce the beam diameter, while preserving the clock performances. As the cavity depth and the beam diameter are reduced, collimation can be performed in a tighter space. This solution relaxes the constraints on the device packaging and is suitable for wafer-level assembly. Several cells have been fabricated and characterized in a clock setup using coherent population trapping spectroscopy. The measured signals exhibit null power linewidths down to 2.23 kHz and high transmission contrasts up to 17%. A high contrast-to-linewidth ratio is found at a linewidth of 4.17 kHz and a contrast of 5.2% in a 7-mm-long cell despite a beam diameter reduced to 600 μm.

  11. The role of the mechanical clock in medieval science.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Víctor Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The invention and spread of the mechanical clock is a complex and multifaceted historical phenomenon. Some of these facets, such as its social impact, have been widely studied, but their scientific dimensions have often been dismissed. The mechanical clock was probably born as a scientific instrument for driving a model of the universe, and not only natural philosophers but also kings, nobles and other members of the social elites showed an interest in clocks as scientific instruments. Public clocks later spread a new way of telling time based on equal hours, laying the foundations for changes in time consciousness that would accelerate scientific thinking. PMID:25802023

  12. Continuous Nondemolition Measurement of the Cs Clock Transition Pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhury, Souma; Smith, Greg A.; Schulz, Kevin; Jessen, Poul S.

    2006-02-03

    We demonstrate a weak continuous measurement of the pseudospin associated with the clock transition in a sample of Cs atoms. Our scheme uses an optical probe tuned near the D{sub 1} transition to measure the sample birefringence, which depends on the z component of the collective pseudospin. At certain probe frequencies the differential light shift of the clock states vanishes, and the measurement is nonperturbing. In dense samples the measurement can be used to squeeze the collective clock pseudospin and has the potential to improve the performance of atomic clocks and interferometers.

  13. Prospects for Optical Clocks with a Blue-Detuned Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Marmo, S. I.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.

    2009-02-13

    We investigated the properties of optical lattice clocks operated with a repulsive light-shift potential. The magic wavelength, where light-shift perturbation for the clock transition cancels, was experimentally determined to be 389.889(9) nm for {sup 87}Sr. The hyperpolarizability effects on the clock transition were investigated theoretically. With minimal trapping field perturbation provided by the blue-detuned lattice, the fractional uncertainty due to the hyperpolarizability effects was found to be 2x10{sup -19} in the relevant clock transition.

  14. Power and Skew Aware Point Diffusion Clock Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Gunok; Kim, Chunghee; Chae, Kyoungkuk; Park, Giho; Park, Sung Bae

    This letter presents point diffusion clock network (PDCN) with local clock tree synthesis (CTS) scheme. The clock network is implemented with ten times wider metal line space than typical mesh networks for low power and utilized to nine times smaller area CTS execution for minimized clock skew amount. The measurement results show that skew amount of PDCN with local CTS is reduced to 36% and latency is shrunk to 45% of the amount in a 4.81mm2 CortexA-8 core with 65nm Samsung process.

  15. Derivation and experimental verification of clock synchronization theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Mid-Point Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the clock system's behavior. It is found that a 100% penalty is paid to tolerate worst case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as 3 clock ticks. Clock skew grows to 6 clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst case conditions. conditions.

  16. Derivation and experimental verification of clock synchronization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this work is to validate mathematically derived clock synchronization theories and their associated algorithms through experiment. Two theories are considered, the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm and the Mid-Point Algorithm. Special clock circuitry was designed and built so that several operating conditions and failure modes (including malicious failures) could be tested. Both theories are shown to predict conservative upper bounds (i.e., measured values of clock skew were always less than the theory prediction). Insight gained during experimentation led to alternative derivations of the theories. These new theories accurately predict the clock system's behavior. It is found that a 100% penalty is paid to tolerate worst case failures. It is also shown that under optimal conditions (with minimum error and no failures) the clock skew can be as much as 3 clock ticks. Clock skew grows to 6 clock ticks when failures are present. Finally, it is concluded that one cannot rely solely on test procedures or theoretical analysis to predict worst case conditions. conditions.

  17. 36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Application of small angle X-ray scattering synchrotron technology for measuring ovine meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hoban, J M; Hopkins, D L; Kirby, N; Collins, D; Dunshea, F R; Kerr, M G; Bailes, K; Cottrell, J J; Holman, B W B; Brown, W; Ponnampalam, E N

    2016-07-01

    A small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) synchrotron was used to evaluate 100 ovine m. longissimus lumborum, representing lamb (n=50) and sheep (n=50). The diffraction of X-rays gives information on muscle myofibril structure and fat content. The linear relationships between SAXS measures with measures such as, shear force, intramuscular fat content (IMF) and collagen content/solubility, were investigated. A relationship was found between the d-spacing of the actin/myosin fibril spacing (SAX1 and SAX2) and the cross sectional area of the rhombohedral unit cell (Cell area) and shear force after 1 and 5day ageing. There was a positive relationship between IMF and a SAXS Fat area measure. There was a muscle site effect on SAX1, SAX2 and Cell area, with the cranial site having a larger distance between myofibrils. The potential of SAXS as a powerful research tool to determine not only the structural components of ovine tenderness, but also the fat content related to IMF is evident. PMID:26971308

  19. Clocking and synchronization circuits in multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Deog-Kyoon.

    1989-01-01

    Microprocessors based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) concepts have demonstrated an ability to provide more computing power at a given level of integration than conventional microprocessors. The next step is multiprocessors composed of RISC processing elements. Communication bandwidth among such microprocessors is critical in achieving efficient hardware utilization. This thesis focuses on the communication capability of VLSI circuits and presents new circuit techniques as a guide to build an interconnection network of VLSI microprocessors. Two of the most prominent problems in a synchronous system, which most of the current computer systems are based on, have been clock skew and synchronization failure. A new concept called self-timed systems solves such problems but has not been accepted in microprocessor implementations yet because of its complex design procedure and increased overhead. With this in mind, this thesis concentrates on a system in which individual synchronous subsystems are connected asynchronously. Synchronous subsystems operate with a better control over clock skew using a phase locked loop (PLL) technique. Communication among subsystems is done asynchronously with a controlled synchronization failure rate. One advantage is that conventional VLSI design methodologies which are more efficient can still be applied. Circuit techniques for PLL-based clock generation are described along with stability criteria. The main objective of the circuit is to realize a zero delay buffer. Experimental results show the feasibility of such circuits in VLSI. Synchronizer circuit configurations in both bipolar and MOS technology that best utilize each device, or overcome the technology limit using a bandwidth doubling technique are shown. Interface techniques including handshake mechanisms in such a system are also described.

  20. Code-Phase Clock Bias and Frequency Offset in PPP Clock Solutions.

    PubMed

    Defraigne, Pascale; Sleewaegen, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) is a zero-difference single-station technique that has proved to be very effective for time and frequency transfer, enabling the comparison of atomic clocks with a precision of a hundred picoseconds and a one-day stability below the 1e-15 level. It was, however, noted that for some receivers, a frequency difference is observed between the clock solution based on the code measurements and the clock solution based on the carrier-phase measurements. These observations reveal some inconsistency either between the code and carrier phases measured by the receiver or between the data analysis strategy of codes and carrier phases. One explanation for this discrepancy is the time offset that can exist for some receivers between the code and the carrier-phase latching. This paper explains how a code-phase bias in the receiver hardware can induce a frequency difference between the code and the carrier-phase clock solutions. The impact on PPP is then quantified. Finally, the possibility to determine this code-phase bias in the PPP modeling is investigated, and the first results are shown to be inappropriate due to the high level of code noise. PMID:26595916

  1. Intense, Narrow Atomic-Clock Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Post, A. B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Braun, A. M.; Romalis, M. V.; Happer, W.

    2004-03-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results showing that magnetic resonance transitions from the “end” sublevels of maximum or minimum spin in alkali-metal vapors are a promising alternative to the conventional 0-0 transition for small-size gas-cell atomic clocks. For these “end resonances,” collisional spin-exchange broadening, which often dominates the linewidth of the 0-0 resonance, decreases with increasing spin polarization and vanishes for 100% polarization. The end resonances also have much stronger signals than the 0-0 resonance, and are readily detectable in cells with high buffer-gas pressure.

  2. Entanglement of trapped-ion clock states

    SciTech Connect

    Haljan, P. C.; Lee, P. J.; Brickman, K-A.; Acton, M.; Deslauriers, L.; Monroe, C.

    2005-12-15

    A Moelmer-Soerensen entangling gate is realized for pairs of trapped {sup 111}Cd{sup +} ions using magnetic-field insensitive 'clock' states and an implementation offering reduced sensitivity to optical phase drifts. The gate is used to generate the complete set of four entangled states, which are reconstructed and evaluated with quantum-state tomography. An average target-state fidelity of 0.79 is achieved, limited by available laser power and technical noise. The tomographic reconstruction of entangled states demonstrates universal quantum control of two ion qubits, which through multiplexing can provide a route to scalable architectures for trapped-ion quantum computing.

  3. A rubidium clock for SEEK-TALK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a tactical rubidium frequency standard (TRFS) for the SEEK-TALK program is discussed. This effort, which is entering the prototype stage, is directed toward the establishment of a production capability for miniature rubidium clocks of medium stability capable of fast warmup and extreme ruggedness for military avionics applications. The overall unit consists of an ultraminiature physics package and four plug-in circuit boards inside a 2 1/2-inch square by 4-inch box. This size is achieved without the extensive use of hybrid microcircuitry, yet is believed to be the smallest atomic frequency standard yet developed.

  4. Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. J.; Kohel, J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Seidel, D. J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of the Glovebox Laser-cooled Atomic Clock Experiment (GLACE) are: (1) first utilization of tunable, frequency-stabilized lasers in space, (2) demonstrate laser cooling and trapping in microgravity, (3) demonstrate longest 'perturbation-free' interaction time for a precision measurement on neutral atoms, (4) Resolve Ramsey fringes 2-10 times narrower than achievable on Earth. The approach taken is: the use of COTS components, and the utilization of prototype hardware from LCAP flight definition experiments. The launch date is scheduled for Oct. 2002. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) specifications are reviewed, and a picture of the MSG is shown.

  5. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  6. Heme-based Sensing by the Mammalian Circadian Protein, CLOCK

    PubMed Central

    Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Correia, Cristina; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Mer, Georges; Rodgers, Kenton R.

    2010-01-01

    Heme is emerging as a key player in the synchrony of circadian-coupled transcriptional regulation. Current evidence suggests that levels of circadian-linked transcription are regulated in response to both the availability of intracellular heme and by heme-based sensing of carbon monoxide and possibly nitric oxide. The protein CLOCK is central to the regulation and maintenance of circadian rhythms in mammals. CLOCK comprises two PAS domains, each with a heme binding site. Our studies focus on the functionality of the Murine CLOCK PAS–A domain (residues 103-265). We show that CLOCK PAS–A binds Fe(III) protoporhyrin IX to form a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry. Optical absorbance and resonance Raman studies reveal that the heme of ferric CLOCK PAS–A is a six-coordinate, low spin complex whose resonance Raman signature is insensitive to pH over the range of protein stability. Ferrous CLOCK PAS–A is a mixture of five-coordinate, high spin and six-coordinate, low spin complexes. Ferrous CLOCK PAS–A forms complexes with CO and NO. Ferric CLOCK PAS–A undergoes reductive nitrosylation in the presence of NO to generate a CLOCK PAS–A–NO, which is a pentacoordinate {FeNO}7 complex. Formation of the highly stable {FeNO}7 heme complex from either ferrous or ferric heme makes possible the binding of NO at very low concentration, a characteristic of NO sensors. Comparison of the spectroscopic properties and CO binding kinetics of CLOCK PAS–A with other CO sensor proteins reveals that CLOCK PAS–A exhibits chemical properties consistent with a heme-based gas sensor protein. PMID:20666392

  7. A precise clock distribution network for MRPC-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Cao, P.; Shang, L.; An, Q.

    2016-06-01

    In high energy physics experiments, the MRPC (Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors are widely used recently which can provide higher-resolution measurement for particle identification. However, the application of MRPC detectors leads to a series of challenges in electronics design with large number of front-end electronic channels, especially for distributing clock precisely. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a universal scheme of clock transmission network for MRPC-based experiments with advantages of both precise clock distribution and global command synchronization. For precise clock distributing, the clock network is designed into a tree architecture with two stages: the first one has a point-to-multipoint long range bidirectional distribution with optical channels and the second one has a fan-out structure with copper link inside readout crates. To guarantee the precision of clock frequency or phase, the r-PTP (reduced Precision Time Protocol) and the DDMTD (digital Dual Mixer Time Difference) methods are used for frequency synthesis, phase measurement and adjustment, which is implemented by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in real-time. In addition, to synchronize global command execution, based upon this clock distribution network, synchronous signals are coded with clock for transmission. With technique of encoding/decoding and clock data recovery, signals such as global triggers or system control commands, can be distributed to all front-end channels synchronously, which greatly simplifies the system design. The experimental results show that both the clock jitter (RMS) and the clock skew can be less than 100 ps.

  8. IMF By-dependent plasma flow and Birkeland currents in the dayside magnetosphere. I - Dynamics Explorer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Reiff, P. H.; Menietti, J. D.; Winningham, J. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.; Shawhan, S. D.; Shelley, E. G.; Sugiura, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma, magnetic-field, and dc electric-field observations from Dynamics Explorers 1 and 2 are used to investigate the morphology of solar-wind ion injection, Birkeland currents, and plasma convection in the morning sector for both positive and negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By components. The results of the study are used to construct a By-dependent global convection model for southward IMF. A significant element of the model is the coexistence of three types of convection cells ('merging cells', 'viscous cells', and 'lobe cells'). This model can account for observations of a nearly stationary (in local time) convection 'throat', a sunward-antisunward convection reversal zone at the polar-cap boundary in both the morning and afternoon quadrants, the morphology of solar-wind ion injection and transport in the mid-altitude polar cusp, and the By-dependent dawn-dusk asymmetry of polar-cap electron fluxes.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gamma Vel cluster membership and IMF (Prisinzano+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofre, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-04-01

    We derived a list as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster Gamma Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, based on spectra acquired with FLAMES a the VLT using the GIRAFFE intermediate-resolution spectrograph. In addition, we used literature photometry and X-ray data. For each membership criterion, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Halpha lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Table 5 lists the fundamental parameters of the confirmed and possible members in Gamma Velorum, i.e. photometry, radial velocities, equivalent widths of the lithium line, the Halpha activity index, the X-ray flag, the gravity gamma index and the stellar masses. Finally the binarity and membership flags are given. (1 data file).

  10. The Turbulent ISM of Galaxies about 10 Gyrs Ago: An Impact on their IMF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiran, L.; Lehnert, M. D.

    2011-06-01

    The utilization of integral-field spectroscopy has led us to a new understanding of the physical conditions in galaxies within the first few billion years after the Big Bang. The combination of the kinematics and emission line diagnostics is a powerful technique to discern the physical processes that are at work in distant galaxies. In these proceedings, we present observations of 10 massive galaxies as seen as they were 9 Gyrs ago using SINFONI from the ESO-VLT, combined with photometry from the DEEP2 Survey. We first portray a brief picture of the physical conditions in the warm ionized medium of these galaxies; they exhibit complex morphologies, high star formation and are so pressure dominated they are likely to drive winds and high turbulence. Moreover, their ratio of Hα to FUV flux to their R-band luminosity surface brightnesses indicates that perhaps their initial mass function is flatter than Salpeter at the high mass end, as has been suggested recently for some local galaxies. It may be that high turbulence is responsible for skewing the IMF towards more massive stars as suggested by some theories of star-formation.

  11. Solar Wind and IMF Control of Large-Scale Ionospheric Currents and Their Time Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, L.; Kauristie, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Partamies, N.; Viljanen, A.; Andréeová, K.; van de Kamp, M.; Vanhamäki, H.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.; Grocott, A.; Imber, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of high-latitude ionospheric currents are a manifestation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Rapid variations of the currents are associated with geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological conductor systems and displays of bright, diverse auroras. One advantage of a ground-based magnetometer network over a low-orbit satellite is the possibility to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations in the data. Although ground magnetic field data can only yield distributions of ionospheric equivalent currents instead of the full horizontal and field-aligned current density, estimates for these can be obtained, under certain assumptions. We use data (1994-2013) from the ground-based IMAGE magnetometer network to derive statistical distributions of the large-scale ionospheric equivalent current density and its time-derivative as well as estimates for the field-aligned current density. These are compared with and validated against horizontal and field-aligned current density distributions obtained from low-orbit CHAMP satellite magnetic field data (2000-2010) and convection maps obtained from SuperDARN radar data (2000-2010). The ground-based distributions reveal a strong dependence of the dayside variations on radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and solar wind speed. The spatial distribution of enhanced nightside activity agrees with that of the average substorm bulge and depends on solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. The most intense time variation events are related to substorm activity and occur on the nightside.

  12. Large-Scale Structures in Earth Foreshock Waves during Radial IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganse, Urs; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Palmroth, Minna; Vainio, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Wave instabilities in the foreshock region of Earth's bow shock lead to formation of magnetic field and density fluctuations, commonly observed by spacecraft as 30-second waves. These waves are oblique to the interplanetary magnetic field, with the mechanism leading to oblique propagation still under discussion. Using the VLASIATOR (http://vlasiator.fmi.fi) global hybrid-Vlasov simulation code, we performed runs of radial and near-radial IMF conditions and were able to reproduce the development of these oblique foreshock wave instabilities, revealing a peculiar global structure, in which waves with different wave-vector directions are arranged around central spines, which are spatially offset from the bow shock's nose. We present analysis of the waves' growth behaviour and combine them with artificial observations, comparing to in-situ spacecraft data. Furthermore, we employed a test particle approach to investigate the formation mechanism of the instabilities' large-scale structure, and found that a coupling between the microphysics of wave-particle interaction and global-scale shock and foreshock geometry is essential to explain them.

  13. Observations of a transient event in the subsolar magnetosheath during strongly northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias Silveira, M. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Koga, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present multipoint THEMIS observation of a transient event in the subsolar magnetosheath on July 10, 2007. The event exhibits some features of a flux transfer event, such as a bipolar variation in the magnetic field component normal to the nominal magnetopause centered on a peak in the total magnetic field strength. Four THEMIS spacecraft were in the magnetosheath and one in the magnetosphere. Timing analysis and the absence of flow perturbation suggest that the event is a small scale structure (~0.12 Re in the direction of the flow) moving with the background magnetosheath flow. Despite the inferred small size of the event, THC and THD both observed large amplitude (~40 nT) bipolar magnetic field signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause. Nearby spacecraft THE (only 0.2 Re further outward in the Xgsm direction) observed no significant magnetic field perturbation. Neither did THB or THA, located further away in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere, respectively. During the event, the IMF was strongly northward (approximately 20nT), which does not favor subsolar magnetic reconnection. Inside the structure, the magnetic field briefly rotates 90° away from northward to dawnward. Ions stream antiparallel to the magnetic field in the magnetosheath, parallel to the magnetic field in the event.

  14. Scaling of electric field fluctuations associated with the aurora during northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Golovchanskaya, I. V.

    2006-10-01

    We present a statistical study of scaling features of the electric field fluctuations measured by the DE2 satellite in the polar region during positive Bz IMF when the theta-aurora was observed by the DE1 satellite. It is demonstrated that the power spectra of the fluctuations have a power-law form at spatial scales from ~0.5 km (the limit of resolution) to several thousands of kilometers, with a break near 100 km. The scaling properties of the field are studied by examining the generalized structure functions (GSFs) and probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations. The observed PDFs have a non-Gaussian shape with heavy tails. We also demonstrate a collapse of the re-scaled PDFs onto a single curve. A relation of PDF shape to solar wind conditions is revealed. The same analysis is performed on the TV observations of the theta-aurora. The scaling characteristics of the field and auroral fluctuations are compared.

  15. The relationship between the IMF B(y) and the distant tail (150-238 Re) lobe and plasmasheet B(y) fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Jones, D. E.; Lepping, R. P.; Sibeck, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between the Solar Magnetospheric (SM) y-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the lobe and plasmasheet magnetic fields have been studied for the two ISEE-3 deep tail passes. It is found that for positive sector IMFs, 13 percent of the interplanetary magnetic field penetrates into the aberrated north-dawn and south-dusk lobe quadrants, and about the same amount in the north-dusk and south-dawn lobe quadrants for negative sector IMFs. For the above cases, field penetration is significantly less for opposite polarity IMFs. The former results are generally consistent with open magnetospheric models, but the latter (the lack of response in certain quadrants) are unexplained by theory at this time. If the magnitude of the plasmasheet B(y) fields are related to plasma pressure anisotropies, very small anisotropies of about 1.01 are expected.

  16. Observations of Magnetic Reconnection From Multiple Merging Sites Along the Same Field Lines Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Chandler, M. O.; Pollock, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Several researchers have shown that when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is northward, magnetic reconnection occurs at the Earth's high latitude magnetopause in regions poleward of the magnetospheric cusps for both the northern and southern hemispheres. With a non-zero By component there is also the possibility for reconnection to occur equatorward of the cusp [e.g., Moore et al., 2002; Chandler et al., 2008]. This paper reexamines the observations of Chandler et al., 2008 in the context of several newly identified, similar events from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) onboard the Polar spacecraft. The observations consist of distinct, overlapping populations of velocity-dispersed magnetosheath ion distributions and outflowing ionospheric ions and occur under a variety of northward IMF conditions. In each case, evidence will be presented to show that the observations are consistent with interactions with separate reconnection sites and plausible scenarios are explored for the location of the sites. The objective is to show that the Chandler et al., 2008 observation is not unique and that the interpretation of these events can be reconciled with those of other investigators studying the dayside magnetic topology for northward IMF.

  17. Magnetopause surface waves triggered by a rotating IMF with the global MHD SWMF/BAT-S-RUS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyas, T.; Spencer, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The solar wind driving of magnetopause surface waves is only partly understood. In particular we do not have a picture of the magnetopause surface wave properties and behavior when a magnetic cloud event, which sometimes involves a rotating IMF, impinges on the magnetosphere. Here we investigate the effect of a twisting or rotational IMF under moderate solar wind velocity (about 500 km/s) upon the magnetosphere with the Global MHD BATS-R-US code. Synthetic solar wind data is constructed to simulate the most important features of a magnetic cloud event, but without including shock features. A sinusoidally varying By component accompanied by a cosinusoidally varying Bz component of the IMF is input into the model with magnitude 10-20 nT. The synthetic data is representative of the magnetic cloud event that occurred on October 3-7 2000. We use the results of the simulation to infer the modes, properties, and particularly the phase speed and wavelength of the surface wave structures.

  18. Relationship between the observed and modeled modulation of the dayside ionospheric convection by the IMF B{sub y} component

    SciTech Connect

    Papitashvili, V.O.; Clauer, C.R.; Levitin, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) electrodynamic model (IZMEM) provides global patterns of polar ionospheric potential and is parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Given IMF conditions measured by an upstream satellite, the model yields a good global approximation to the polar ionospheric convection patterns assuming the proper time delay. While the model assumes static patterns and is based upon statistical regression analysis of high-latitude magnetometer data, it can furnish an appropriate global context within which to examine time-varying phenomena. The authors use the IZMEM model to further develop their understanding of the coordinated analysis of Greenland radar, riometer, and magnetometer data on August 2, 1991, which is one of the geospace environment modeling program intervals. The event is characterized by geomagnetic pulsations observed near local magnetic noon, having a 25-min period and poleward phase propagation. A modulation of the intensity and orientation of the convection electric field is observed by the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar. Modeled global convection patterns show striking agreement with observations in the area covered by the radar field of view. The authors interpret observed phenomena as a direct ground-based evidence of the IMF B{sub y} component reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Role of imf orientation in the precipitation of solar wind ions into the upper atmosphere of venus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talha, Madeeha; Stenberg, Gabriella

    2016-07-01

    Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-4) is used to study the precipitation of solar wind ions (H+ and He2+) into the upper atmosphere of Venus for the period of April 2006 to December 2007 as representative of solar minimum. Precipitation cases are selected and analyzed for the orbits having extreme Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) orientations: IMF perpendicular to the solar wind direction (IMFperp) and IMF aligned with the solar wind direction (IMFpll ). Large number of precipitation behind terminator (nightside) is observed for IMFpll as compared to IMFperp while the reverse trend is noted for the precipitation into the dayside. This is turn favour the presence and absence of magnetic barrier (MB) for IMFperp and IMFpll respectively, as less transport to the nightside and more ions escape from dayside ionosphere during IMFperp contribute for the formation of MB. Contribution in the proton flux by both orientations in the ionosphere and in the transition region is same i.e., 104cm

  20. The XLENS Project: Do More Massive Early-Type Galaxies Have More Dark Matter or Different Stellar IMFs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiniello, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    The X-shooter Lens Survey (XLENS) aims to study the interplay of dark matter (DM) and stellar content in the inner regions of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) by combining strong gravitational lensing, dynamical models, and spectroscopic stellar population analysis. XLENS targets a sample of ETGs from the SLACS survey (The Sloan Lens ACS Survey, e.g. Bolton et al. 2006) with velocity dispersions >=250 kms-1 using the X-Shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope. Recent observations indicate that the internal dark-matter fraction of ETGs increases rapidly with galaxy mass, although some hints for a varying initial mass function (IMF) have also been suggested, where the low-mass end of the stellar IMF steepens with galaxy mass. XLENS first results unambiguously confirm that DM plays an important role already within one effective radius for very massive systems (Spiniello et al. 2011). Moreover, studying equivalent widths of certain red spectral features which are indicators of low-mass stars in massive ETGs (e.g. NaI and TiO2) as a function of age and metallicity (i.e. Mgb, Fe, Hβ), and as function of stellar velocity dispersion, has shown that the IMF slope is varying mildly with galaxy mass (Spiniello et al. 2012).

  1. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  2. Mammalian retinal Müller cells have circadian clock function

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lili; Ruan, Guoxiang; Dai, Heng; Liu, Andrew C.; Penn, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test whether Müller glia of the mammalian retina have circadian rhythms. Methods We used Müller glia cultures isolated from mouse lines or from humans and bioluminescent reporters of circadian clock genes to monitor molecular circadian rhythms. The clock gene dependence of the Müller cell rhythms was tested using clock gene knockout mouse lines or with siRNA for specific clock genes. Results We demonstrated that retinal Müller glia express canonical circadian clock genes, are capable of sustained circadian oscillations in isolation from other cell types, and exhibit unique features of their molecular circadian clock compared to the retina as a whole. Mouse and human Müller cells demonstrated circadian clock function; however, they exhibited species-specific differences in the gene dependence of their clocks. Conclusions Müller cells are the first mammalian retinal cell type in which sustained circadian rhythms have been demonstrated in isolation from other retinal cells. PMID:27081298

  3. Stable Kalman filters for processing clock measurement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Gibbs, B. P.; Vandergraft, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Kalman filters have been used for some time to process clock measurement data. Due to instabilities in the standard Kalman filter algorithms, the results have been unreliable and difficult to obtain. During the past several years, stable forms of the Kalman filter have been developed, implemented, and used in many diverse applications. These algorithms, while algebraically equivalent to the standard Kalman filter, exhibit excellent numerical properties. Two of these stable algorithms, the Upper triangular-Diagonal (UD) filter and the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF), have been implemented to replace the standard Kalman filter used to process data from the Deep Space Network (DSN) hydrogen maser clocks. The data are time offsets between the clocks in the DSN, the timescale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and two geographically intermediate clocks. The measurements are made by using the GPS navigation satellites in mutual view between clocks. The filter programs allow the user to easily modify the clock models, the GPS satellite dependent biases, and the random noise levels in order to compare different modeling assumptions. The results of this study show the usefulness of such software for processing clock data. The UD filter is indeed a stable, efficient, and flexible method for obtaining optimal estimates of clock offsets, offset rates, and drift rates. A brief overview of the UD filter is also given.

  4. Costs of Clock-Environment Misalignment in Individual Cyanobacterial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Guillaume; Chew, Justin; Rust, Michael J

    2016-08-23

    Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated daily oscillations in physiology that are found in all kingdoms of life. Experimental studies have shown that the fitness of Synechococcus elongatus, a photosynthetic microorganism, is severely affected in non-24-h environments. However, it has been difficult to study the effects of clock-environment mismatch on cellular physiology because such measurements require a precise determination of both clock state and growth rate in the same cell. Here, we designed a microscopy platform that allows us to expose cyanobacterial cells to pulses of light and dark while quantitatively measuring their growth, division rate, and circadian clock state over many days. Our measurements reveal that decreased fitness can result from a catastrophic growth arrest caused by unexpected darkness in a small subset of cells with incorrect clock times corresponding to the subjective morning. We find that the clock generates rhythms in the instantaneous growth rate of the cell, and that the time of darkness vulnerability coincides with the time of most rapid growth. Thus, the clock mediates a fundamental trade-off between growth and starvation tolerance in cycling environments. By measuring the response of the circadian rhythm to dark pulses of varying lengths, we constrain a mathematical model of a population's fitness under arbitrary light/dark schedules. This model predicts that the circadian clock is only advantageous in highly regular cycling environments with frequencies sufficiently close to the natural frequency of the clock. PMID:27558731

  5. ac Stark shift of the Cs microwave atomic clock transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbusch, P.; Ghezali, S.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the ac Stark shift of the Cs microwave atomic clock transition theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical and experimental data are in good agreement with each other. Results indicate the absence of a magic wavelength at which there would be no differential shift of the clock states having zero projections of the total angular momentum.

  6. Clock synchronisation experiment in India using symphonie satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somayajulu, Y. V.; Mathur, B. S.; Banerjee, P.; Garg, S. C.; Singh, L.; Sood, P. C.; Tyagi, T. R.; Jain, C. L.; Kumar, K.

    1979-01-01

    A recent clock synchronization experiment between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi and Space Applications Center (SAC), Ahemedabad, in India via geostationary satellite symphonie 2, stationed at 49 E longitude, is reported. A two-way transmission using a microwave transponder considered to provide the greatest precision in synchronization of two remote clocks is described.

  7. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  8. Circadian clock genes universally control key agricultural traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian clocks are endogenous timers that enable plants to synchronize biological processes with daily and seasonal environmental conditions in order to allocate resources during the most beneficial times of day and year. The circadian clock regulates a number of central plant activities, includin...

  9. The Circadian Clock-Controlled Transcriptome of Developing Soybean Seeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of metabolic and physiological processes in plants are controlled by the circadian clock, which enables the plant to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Microarray expression profiling was used to identify circadian clock controlled genes expressed in developing soybean seeds. 1.8...

  10. A Novel Method of Clock Synchronization in Distributed System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Niu, M. J.; Cai, Y. S.; Chen, X.; Ren, Y. Q.

    2016-03-01

    Time synchronization plays an important role in application of aircraft flying formation and constellation autonomous navigation, etc. In application of clock synchronization in the network system, it is not always true that each observed node may be interconnected, therefore, it is difficult to achieve time synchronization of network system with high precision in the condition that a certain node can only obtain the measurement information of clock from one of its corresponding neighbors, and cannot obtain from other nodes. According to this special problem, a novel method of high precision time synchronization of network system has been proposed. In this paper, we regard each clock as a node in the network system, and based on different distributed topology definition, the following three control algorithms of time synchronization under three circumstances have been designed: without a master clock (reference clock), with a master clock (reference clock), and with a fixed communication delay in the network system. The validity of the designed clock synchronization protocol has been proved both theoretically and through numerical simulation.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance implementation of a quantum clock synchronization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Long, G.C; Liu Wenzhang; Deng Zhiwei; Lu Zhiheng

    2004-12-01

    The quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm proposed by Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2006 (2000)] has been implemented in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system. The time difference between two separated clocks can be determined by measuring the output states. The experimental realization of the QCS algorithm also demonstrates an application of the quantum phase estimation.

  12. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation. PMID:27385482

  13. Clocking in the face of unpredictability beyond quantum uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2015-05-01

    In earlier papers we showed unpredictability beyond quantum uncertainty in atomic clocks, ensuing from a proven gap between given evidence and explanations of that evidence. Here we reconceive a clock, not as an isolated entity, but as enmeshed in a self-adjusting communications network adapted to one or another particular investigation, in contact with an unpredictable environment. From the practical uses of clocks, we abstract a clock enlivened with the computational capacity of a Turing machine, modified to transmit and to receive numerical communications. Such "live clocks" phase the steps of their computations to mesh with the arrival of transmitted numbers. We lift this phasing, known in digital communications, to a principle of logical synchronization, distinct from the synchronization defined by Einstein in special relativity. Logical synchronization elevates digital communication to a topic in physics, including applications to biology. One explores how feedback loops in clocking affect numerical signaling among entities functioning in the face of unpredictable influences, making the influences themselves into subjects of investigation. The formulation of communications networks in terms of live clocks extends information theory by expressing the need to actively maintain communications channels, and potentially, to create or drop them. We show how networks of live clocks are presupposed by the concept of coordinates in a spacetime. A network serves as an organizing principle, even when the concept of the rigid body that anchors a special-relativistic coordinate system is inapplicable, as is the case, for example, in a generic curved spacetime.

  14. Velocity response curves demonstrate the complexity of modeling entrainable clocks.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie R; Cheever, Allyson; Harmon, Sarah M

    2014-12-21

    Circadian clocks are biological oscillators that regulate daily behaviors in organisms across the kingdoms of life. Their rhythms are generated by complex systems, generally involving interlocked regulatory feedback loops. These rhythms are entrained by the daily light/dark cycle, ensuring that the internal clock time is coordinated with the environment. Mathematical models play an important role in understanding how the components work together to function as a clock which can be entrained by light. For a clock to entrain, it must be possible for it to be sped up or slowed down at appropriate times. To understand how biophysical processes affect the speed of the clock, one can compute velocity response curves (VRCs). Here, in a case study involving the fruit fly clock, we demonstrate that VRC analysis provides insight into a clock׳s response to light. We also show that biochemical mechanisms and parameters together determine a model׳s ability to respond realistically to light. The implication is that, if one is developing a model and its current form has an unrealistic response to light, then one must reexamine one׳s model structure, because searching for better parameter values is unlikely to lead to a realistic response to light. PMID:25193284

  15. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y.J.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow. PMID:22699207

  16. The circadian clock in oral health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Papagerakis, S; Zheng, L; Schnell, S; Sartor, M A; Somers, E; Marder, W; McAlpin, B; Kim, D; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, P

    2014-01-01

    Most physiological processes in mammals display circadian rhythms that are driven by the endogenous circadian clock. This clock is comprised of a central component located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues. Circadian rhythms sustain 24-hour oscillations of a large number of master genes controlling the correct timing and synchronization of diverse physiological and metabolic processes within our bodies. This complex regulatory network provides an important communication link between our brain and several peripheral organs and tissues. At the molecular level, circadian oscillations of gene expression are regulated by a family of transcription factors called "clock genes". Dysregulation of clock gene expression results in diverse human pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock affects tooth development, salivary gland and oral epithelium homeostasis, and saliva production. This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of clock genes in the formation and maintenance of oral tissues, and discusses potential links between "oral clocks" and diseases such as head and neck cancer and Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:24065634

  17. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function.

    PubMed

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation. PMID:27385482

  18. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  19. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system i...

  20. Epidemiology of the human circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Roenneberg, Till; Kuehnle, Tim; Juda, Myriam; Kantermann, Thomas; Allebrandt, Karla; Gordijn, Marijke; Merrow, Martha

    2007-12-01

    Humans show large inter-individual differences in organising their behaviour within the 24-h day-this is most obvious in their preferred timing of sleep and wakefulness. Sleep and wake times show a near-Gaussian distribution in a given population, with extreme early types waking up when extreme late types fall asleep. This distribution is predominantly based on differences in an individuals' circadian clock. The relationship between the circadian system and different "chronotypes" is formally and genetically well established in experimental studies in organisms ranging from unicells to mammals. To investigate the epidemiology of the human circadian clock, we developed a simple questionnaire (Munich ChronoType Questionnaire, MCTQ) to assess chronotype. So far, more than 55,000 people have completed the MCTQ, which has been validated with respect to the Horne-Østberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), objective measures of activity and rest (sleep-logs and actimetry), and physiological parameters. As a result of this large survey, we established an algorithm which optimises chronotype assessment by incorporating the information on timing of sleep and wakefulness for both work and free days. The timing and duration of sleep are generally independent. However, when the two are analysed separately for work and free days, sleep duration strongly depends on chronotype. In addition, chronotype is both age- and sex-dependent. PMID:17936039

  1. The Circadian Clock and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2016-05-23

    Epidemiological studies provided the first evidence suggesting a connection between the circadian clock and human health. Mutant mice convincingly demonstrate the principle that dysregulation of the circadian system leads to a multitude of pathologies. Chrono-medicine is one of the most important upcoming themes in the field of circadian biology. Although treatments counteracting circadian dysregulation are already being applied (e.g., prescribing strong and regular zeitgebers), we need to comprehend entrainment throughout the body's entire circadian network before understanding the mechanisms that tie circadian dysregulation to pathology. Here, we attempt to provide a systematic approach to understanding the connection between the circadian clock and health. This taxonomy of (mis)alignments on one hand exposes how little we know about entrainment within any organism and which 'eigen-zeitgeber' signals are used for entrainment by the different cells and tissues. On the other hand, it provides focus for experimental approaches and tools that will logically map out how circadian systems contribute to disease as well as how we can treat and prevent them. PMID:27218855

  2. Cryptographic Combinatorial Clock-Proxy Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, David C.; Rabin, Michael O.; Thorpe, Christopher

    We present a cryptographic protocol for conducting efficient, provably correct and secrecy-preserving combinatorial clock-proxy auctions. The “clock phase” functions as a trusted auction despite price discovery: bidders submit encrypted bids, and prove for themselves that they meet activity rules, and can compute total demand and thus verify price increases without revealing any information about individual demands. In the sealed-bid “proxy phase”, all bids are revealed the auctioneer via time-lapse cryptography and a branch-and-bound algorithm is used to solve the winner-determination problem. Homomorphic encryption is used to prove the correctness of the solution, and establishes the correctness of the solution to any interested party. Still an NP-hard optimization problem, the use of homomorphic encryption imposes additional computational time on winner-determination that is linear in the size of the branch-and-bound search tree, and thus roughly linear in the original (search-based) computational time. The result is a solution that avoids, in the usual case, the exponential complexity of previous cryptographically-secure combinatorial auctions.

  3. Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Secilla, Jose María; Palomares, Jose Manuel; Olivares, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT) and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T). These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS) and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS)). PMID:23966192

  4. Animal clocks: when science meets nature.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Bloch, Guy; Schwartz, William J

    2013-08-22

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'), with the alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizing (entraining) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle. Our knowledge of the circadian system of animals at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organismal levels is remarkable, and we are beginning to understand how each of these levels contributes to the emergent properties and increased complexity of the system as a whole. For the most part, these analyses have been carried out using model organisms in standard laboratory housing, but to begin to understand the adaptive significance of the clock, we must expand our scope to study diverse animal species from different taxonomic groups, showing diverse activity patterns, in their natural environments. The seven papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B take on this challenge, reviewing the influences of moonlight, latitudinal clines, evolutionary history, social interactions, specialized temporal niches, annual variation and recently appreciated post-transcriptional molecular mechanisms. The papers emphasize that the complexity and diversity of the natural world represent a powerful experimental resource. PMID:23825215

  5. How to fix a broken clock

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Analyne M.; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Fortunate are those who rise out of bed to greet the morning light well rested with the energy and enthusiasm to drive a productive day. Others however, depend on hypnotics for sleep and require stimulants to awaken lethargic bodies. Sleep/wake disruption is a common occurrence in healthy individuals throughout their lifespan and is also a comorbid condition to many diseases (neurodegenerative) and psychiatric disorders (depression and bipolar). There is growing concern that chronic disruption of the sleep/wake cycle contributes to more serious conditions including diabetes (type 2), cardiovascular disease and cancer. A poorly functioning circadian system resulting in misalignments in the timing of clocks throughout the body may be at the root of the problem for many people. In this article, we discuss environmental (light therapy) and lifestyle changes (scheduled meals, exercise and sleep) as interventions to help fix a broken clock. We also discuss the challenges and potential for future development of pharmacological treatments to manipulate this key biological system. PMID:24120229

  6. Circadian Clock Control of Endocrine Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Karen L.; Berry, Ryan; Frank, Stuart J.; Young, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms experience dramatic fluctuations in demands/stresses over the course of the day. In order to maintain biological processes within physiologic boundaries, it is imperative that mechanisms have evolved for anticipation of, and adaptation to, these daily fluctuations. Endocrine factors undoubtedly play an integral role in homeostasis. Not only do circulating levels of various endocrine factors oscillate over the 24 period, but so too does responsiveness of target tissues to these signals/stimuli. Emerging evidence suggests that these daily oscillations do not occur solely in response to behavioral fluctuations associated with sleep/wake and feeding/fasting cycles, but are orchestrated in part by an intrinsic timekeeping mechanism known as the circadian clock. Disruption of circadian clocks, through genetic and/or environmental means, appears to precipitate numerous common disorders, including cardiometabolic diseases and cancer. Collectively, these observations, which are reviewed within the current article, have led to suggestion that strategies designed to realign normal circadian rhythmicities hold a therapeutic potential for the treatment of various endocrine-related disorders. PMID:24863387

  7. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-04-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patterns or solar metallicity, too restrictive if one aims to disentangle elemental enhancements, metallicity changes, and IMF variations in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) with star formation histories different from those in the solar neighborhood. We define response functions (to metallicity and α-abundance) to extend the parameter space for each set of models. We compare these extended models with a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ETG spectra with varying velocity dispersions. We measure equivalent widths of optical IMF-sensitive stellar features to examine the effect of the underlying model assumptions and ingredients, such as stellar libraries or isochrones, on the inference of the IMF slope down to ∼0.1 M⊙. We demonstrate that the steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF based on a non-degenerate set of spectroscopic optical indicators is robust against the choice of the stellar population model. Although the models agree in a relative sense (i.e., both imply more bottom-heavy IMFs for more massive systems), we find non-negligible differences in the absolute values of the IMF slope inferred at each velocity dispersion by using the two different models. In particular, we find large inconsistencies in the quantitative predictions of the IMF slope variations and abundance patterns when sodium lines are used. We investigate the possible reasons for these inconsistencies.

  8. Calcium and SOL Protease Mediate Temperature Resetting of Circadian Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Tataroglu, Ozgur; Zhao, Xiaohu; Busza, Ania; Ling, Jinli; O’Neill, John S.; Emery, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks integrate light and temperature input to remain synchronized with the day/night cycle. Although light input to the clock is well studied, the molecular mechanisms by which circadian clocks respond to temperature remain poorly understood. We found that temperature phase shifts Drosophila circadian clocks through degradation of the pacemaker protein TIM. This degradation is mechanistically distinct from photic CRY-dependent TIM degradation. Thermal TIM degradation is triggered by cytosolic calcium increase and CALMODULIN binding to TIM and is mediated by the atypical calpain protease SOL. This thermal input pathway and CRY-dependent light input thus converge on TIM, providing a molecular mechanism for the integration of circadian light and temperature inputs. Mammals use body temperature cycles to keep peripheral clocks synchronized with their brain pacemaker. Interestingly, downregulating the mammalian SOL homolog SOLH blocks thermal mPER2 degradation and phase shifts. Thus, we propose that circadian thermosensation in insects and mammals share common principles. PMID:26590423

  9. A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-11

    In Einstein's general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global-all clocks "tick" uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets "tick" at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields "which path" information, degrading the pattern's visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield "which path" information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world. PMID:26249229

  10. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.

    2010-09-15

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  11. Parcs:. a Laser-Cooled Atomic Clock in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavner, T. P.; Hollberg, L. W.; Jefferts, S. R.; Robinson, H. G.; Sullivan, D. B.; Walls, F. L.; Ashby, N.; Klipstein, W. M.; Maleki, L.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Wu, S.; Young, L.; Mattison, E. M.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Demarchi, A.

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes progress toward the development of a Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) and reviews the scientific and technical objectives of the PARCS mission. PARCS is a collaborative effort involving the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the University of Colorado, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (SAO) and the Politecnico di Torino. Space systems for this experiment include a laser-cooled cesium atomic clock and a GPS frequency-comparison and orbit determination system, along with a hydrogen maser that serves as both a local oscillator for the cesium clock and a reference against which certain tests of gravitational theory can be made. In the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS), cesium atoms can be launched more slowly through the clock's microwave cavity, thus significantly reducing a number of troubling effects (including several critical systematic effects), so clock performance can be substantially improved beyond that achieved on earth.

  12. Similarities in the circadian clock and photoperiodism in plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Plants utilize circadian clocks to synchronize their physiological and developmental events with daily and yearly changes in the environment. Recent advances in Arabidopsis research have provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock and photoperiodism. One of the most important questions is whether the mechanisms studied in Arabidopsis are conserved in other plants. Homologs of many Arabidopsis clock genes have been identified in various plants and some gene functions have been characterized. It seems that the circadian clocks in plants are similar. Recent success in molecular genetics has also revealed the mechanisms of photoperiodic flowering in cereals. The day-length sensing mechanisms appear to have diverged more between long-day plants and short-day plants than the circadian clock. PMID:20620097

  13. The circadian clock and cell cycle: Interconnected biological circuits

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Cervantes, Marlene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock governs biological timekeeping on a systemic level, helping to regulate and maintain physiological processes, including endocrine and metabolic pathways with a periodicity of 24-hours. Disruption within the circadian clock machinery has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, including cancer, suggesting that clock-dependent regulation of the cell cycle is an essential control mechanism. This review will highlight recent advances on the ‘gating’ controls of the circadian clock at various checkpoints of the cell cycle and also how the cell cycle can influence biological rhythms. The reciprocal influence that the circadian clock and cell cycle exert on each other suggests that these intertwined biological circuits are essential and multiple regulatory/control steps have been instated to ensure proper timekeeping. PMID:23969329

  14. Quantum Algorithmic Readout in Multi-Ion Clocks.

    PubMed

    Schulte, M; Lörch, N; Leroux, I D; Schmidt, P O; Hammerer, K

    2016-01-01

    Optical clocks based on ensembles of trapped ions promise record frequency accuracy with good short-term stability. Most suitable ion species lack closed transitions, so the clock signal must be read out indirectly by transferring the quantum state of the clock ions to cotrapped logic ions of a different species. Existing methods of quantum logic readout require a linear overhead in either time or the number of logic ions. Here we describe a quantum algorithmic readout whose overhead scales logarithmically with the number of clock ions in both of these respects. The scheme allows a quantum nondemolition readout of the number of excited clock ions using a single multispecies gate operation which can also be used in other areas of ion trap technology such as quantum information processing, quantum simulations, metrology, and precision spectroscopy. PMID:26799016

  15. Calibration of a Larmor clock for tunneling time experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Jesus; Potnis, Shreyas; Spierings, David; Ebadi, Sapehr; Steinberg, Aephraim

    2016-05-01

    How much time does it take for a particle to tunnel? This has been a controversial question since the early times of quantum mechanics. The debate stems mainly from the inability to measure time directly. One proposal to measure the tunnelling time is the Larmor clock, in which the spin degree of freedom of the tunneling particle is used as a clock. This clock only ``ticks'' inside the forbidden region due to the precession of the spin about a magnetic field localized within the barrier. Here, we report the calibration of a Larmor clock to measure tunneling times of a 87 Rb Bose Einstein condensate. We use the Zeeman sublevels of the ground-state F = 2 manifold and Raman beams for the implementation of a Larmor clock. Experimental progress towards measuring the tunneling time and the challenges involved in this measurement will also be discussed.

  16. A mechanosensory pathway to the Drosophila circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Alekos; Wolfgang, Werner; Topping, Matthew P; Kavlie, Ryan G; Stanewsky, Ralf; Albert, Joerg T

    2014-01-31

    Circadian clocks attune the physiology of virtually all living organisms to the diurnal cycles of their environments. In metazoan animals, multiple sensory input pathways have been linked to clock synchronization with the environmental cycle (entrainment). Extrinsic entrainment cues include light and temperature. We show that (12-hour:12-hour) cycles of vibration and silence (VS) are sufficient to synchronize the daily locomotor activity of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Behavioral synchronization to VS cycles required a functional clock and functional chordotonal organs and was accompanied by phase-shifts of the daily oscillations of PERIOD protein concentrations in brain clock neurons. The feedback from mechanosensory-and particularly, proprioceptive-organs may help an animal to keep its circadian clock in sync with its own, stimulus-induced activities. PMID:24482478

  17. A New Trapped Ion Clock Based on Hg-201(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Burt, E. A.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    There are two stable odd isotopes of mercury with singly ionized hyperfine structure suitable for a microwave clock: Hg-199(+) and Hg-201(+). Virtually all trapped mercury ion clocks to date have used the 199 isotope. We have begun to investigate the viability of a trapped ion clock based on Hg-201(+). We have measured the unperturbed frequency of the (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 1, m(sub F) = 0 to (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 2, m(sub F) = 0 clock transition to be 29.9543658211(2) GHz. In this paper we describe initial measurements with Hg-201(+) and new applications to clocks and fundamental physics.

  18. Synchronization of Cellular Clocks in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Shun; Isejima, Hiromi; Matsuo, Takuya; Okura, Ryusuke; Yagita, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    Individual cellular clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the circadian center, are integrated into a stable and robust pacemaker with a period length of about 24 hours. We used real-time analysis of gene expression to show synchronized rhythms of clock gene transcription across hundreds of neurons within the mammalian SCN in organotypic slice culture. Differentially phased neuronal clocks are topographically arranged across the SCN. A protein synthesis inhibitor set all cell clocks to the same initial phase and, after withdrawal, intrinsic interactions among cell clocks reestablished the stable program of gene expression across the assemblage. Na+-dependent action potentials contributed to establishing cellular synchrony and maintaining spontaneous oscillation across the SCN.

  19. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ill-Keun; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Jangsub; Serpedin, Erchin; Wu, Yik-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The development of tiny, low-cost, low-power and multifunctional sensor nodes equipped with sensing, data processing, and communicating components, have been made possible by the recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) assume a collection of such tiny sensing devices connected wirelessly and which are used to observe and monitor a variety of phenomena in the real physical world. Many applications based on these WSNs assume local clocks at each sensor node that need to be synchronized to a common notion of time. This paper reviews the existing clock synchronization protocols for WSNs and the methods of estimating clock offset and clock skew in the most representative clock synchronization protocols for WSNs. PMID:22389588

  20. Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, A.; Pospelov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The cosmological applications of atomic clocks so far have been limited to searches for the uniform-in-time drift of fundamental constants. We point out that a transient-in-time change of fundamental constants can be induced by dark-matter objects that have large spatial extent, such as stable topological defects built from light non-Standard Model fields. Networks of correlated atomic clocks, some of them already in existence, such as the Global Positioning System, can be used as a powerful tool to search for topological defect dark matter, thus providing another important fundamental physics application for the ever-improving accuracy of atomic clocks. During the encounter with an extended dark-matter object, as it sweeps through the network, initially synchronized clocks will become desynchronized. Time discrepancies between spatially separated clocks are expected to exhibit a distinct signature, encoding the defect's space structure and its interaction strength with atoms.

  1. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Thomsen, Jan W.; Martin, Michael J.; de Miranda, Marcio H. G.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Boyd, Martin M.; Ye, Jun; Diddams, Scott A.; Heavner, Thomas P.; Parker, Thomas E.; Jefferts, Steven R.

    2008-10-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a detailed study of systematic effects, which reduced the total systematic uncertainty of the Sr lattice clock to 1.5 × 10-16, the clock frequency is measured against a hydrogen maser which is simultaneously calibrated to the US primary frequency standard, the NIST Cs fountain clock, NIST-F1. The comparison is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals.

  2. Optical clocks and their contribution to gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi, Mohammad; Mohamadhosseini, Babak; Hatami, Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    Optical clocks, as one of the latest achievements in atomic and molecular physics, have applications more than timing, due to their accuracy and stability. In general relativity, gravitational potential differences in space and time, cause frequency difference in optical clocks. Hence, ultra precise optical clocks can be used as a tool to observe potential differences and consequently as a new gravimetry technique. In this contribution, we investigate the latest optical clocks based on atomic transition in Al+ and derive a simple equation for frequency change related to geo-potential differences. Moreover, we consider the capability of optical clocks for gravity modeling in combination with other gravity observations. Finally, the possibility to detect potential changes in geo-dynamically active zones, such as East-Asia and the requirements for such studies are discussed.

  3. Solar angle reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sibson, R.

    1983-01-01

    The introduction is the only text in the volume; the rest of the book contains easy-to-use graphical methods for building design and construction using solar energy. Isogonic charts and solar angle diagrams are included. Isogonic charts. Solar angle diagrams.

  4. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  5. Peripheral circadian clocks are diversely affected by adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Soták, M; Bryndová, J; Ergang, P; Vagnerová, K; Kvapilová, P; Vodička, M; Pácha, J; Sumová, A

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are considered to synchronize the rhythmicity of clock genes in peripheral tissues; however, the role of circadian variations of endogenous glucocorticoids is not well defined. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral circadian clocks were impaired by adrenalectomy. To achieve this, we tested the circadian rhythmicity of core clock genes (Bmal1, Per1-3, Cry1, RevErbα, Rora), clock-output genes (Dbp, E4bp4) and a glucocorticoid- and clock-controlled gene (Gilz) in liver, jejunum, kidney cortex, splenocytes and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Adrenalectomy did not affect the phase of clock gene rhythms but distinctly modulated clock gene mRNA levels, and this effect was partially tissue-dependent. Adrenalectomy had a significant inhibitory effect on the level of Per1 mRNA in VAT, liver and jejunum, but not in kidney and splenocytes. Similarly, adrenalectomy down-regulated mRNA levels of Per2 in splenocytes and VAT, Per3 in jejunum, RevErbα in VAT and Dbp in VAT, kidney and splenocytes, whereas the mRNA amounts of Per1 and Per2 in kidney and Per3 in VAT and splenocytes were up-regulated. On the other hand, adrenalectomy had minimal effects on Rora and E4bp4 mRNAs. Adrenalectomy also resulted in decreased level of Gilz mRNA but did not alter the phase of its diurnal rhythm. Collectively, these findings suggest that adrenalectomy alters the mRNA levels of core clock genes and clock-output genes in peripheral organs and may cause tissue-specific modulations of their circadian profiles, which are reflected in changes of the amplitudes but not phases. Thus, the circulating corticosteroids are necessary for maintaining the high-amplitude rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:27031999

  6. The Retina and Other Light-sensitive Ocular Clocks.

    PubMed

    Besharse, Joseph C; McMahon, Douglas G

    2016-06-01

    Ocular clocks, first identified in the retina, are also found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), cornea, and ciliary body. The retina is a complex tissue of many cell types and considerable effort has gone into determining which cell types exhibit clock properties. Current data suggest that photoreceptors as well as inner retinal neurons exhibit clock properties with photoreceptors dominating in nonmammalian vertebrates and inner retinal neurons dominating in mice. However, these differences may in part reflect the choice of circadian output, and it is likely that clock properties are widely dispersed among many retinal cell types. The phase of the retinal clock can be set directly by light. In nonmammalian vertebrates, direct light sensitivity is commonplace among body clocks, but in mice only the retina and cornea retain direct light-dependent phase regulation. This distinguishes the retina and possibly other ocular clocks from peripheral oscillators whose phase depends on the pace-making properties of the hypothalamic central brain clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). However, in mice, retinal circadian oscillations dampen quickly in isolation due to weak coupling of its individual cell-autonomous oscillators, and there is no evidence that retinal clocks are directly controlled through input from other oscillators. Retinal circadian regulation in both mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates uses melatonin and dopamine as dark- and light-adaptive neuromodulators, respectively, and light can regulate circadian phase indirectly through dopamine signaling. The melatonin/dopamine system appears to have evolved among nonmammalian vertebrates and retained with modification in mammals. Circadian clocks in the eye are critical for optimum visual function where they play a role fine tuning visual sensitivity, and their disruption can affect diseases such as glaucoma or retinal degeneration syndromes. PMID:27095816

  7. Universal IMF versus dark halo response in early-type galaxies: breaking the degeneracy with the Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2013-07-01

    We use the relations between aperture stellar velocity dispersion (σap), stellar mass (MSPS) and galaxy size (Re) for a sample of ˜150 000 early-type galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey/DR7 to place constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and dark halo response to galaxy formation. We build λ cold dark matter-based mass models that reproduce, by construction, the relations between galaxy size, light concentration and stellar mass, and use the spherical Jeans equations to predict σap. Given our model assumptions (including those in the stellar population synthesis models), we find that reproducing the median σap versus MSPS relation is not possible with both a universal IMF and a universal dark halo response. Significant departures from a universal IMF and/or dark halo response are required, but there is a degeneracy between these two solutions. We show that this degeneracy can be broken using the strength of the correlation between residuals of the velocity-mass (Δlog σap) and size-mass (Δlog Re) relations. The slope of this correlation, ∂VR ≡ Δlog σap/Δlog Re, varies systematically with galaxy mass from ∂VR ≃ -0.45 at MSPS ˜ 1010 M⊙ to ∂VR ≃ -0.15 at MSPS ˜ 1011.6 M⊙. The virial Fundamental Plane (FP) has ∂VR = -1/2, and thus we find that the tilt of the observed FP is mass dependent. Reproducing this tilt requires both a non-universal IMF and a non-universal halo response. Our best model has mass-follows-light at low masses (MSPS ≲ 1011.2 M⊙) and unmodified Navarro, Frenk and White haloes at MSPS ˜ 1011.5 M⊙. The stellar masses imply a mass-dependent IMF which is `lighter' than Salpeter at low masses and `heavier' than Salpeter at high masses.

  8. Disruption of the circadian clock due to the Clock mutation has discrete effects on aging and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Antoch, Marina P.; Gorbacheva, Victoria Y.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Toshkov, Illia A.; Kondratov, Roman V.; Kondratova, Anna A.; Lee, Choogon; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system has been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes including those involved in genotoxic stress responses and tumor suppression. Here we report that mice with the functional deficiency in circadian transcription factor CLOCK (Clock/Clock mutant mice) do not display predisposition to tumor formation both during their normal lifespan or when challenged by γ-radiation. This phenotype is consistent with high apoptotic and low proliferation rate in lymphoid tissues of Clock mutant mice and is supported by the gene expression profiling of a number of apoptosis and cell cycle-related genes, as well as by growth inhibition of cells with CLOCK downregulation. At the same time, Clock mutant mice respond to low-dose irradiation by accelerating their aging program, and develop phenotypes that are reminiscent of those in Bmal1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the dichotomy in biological consequences of the disruption of the circadian clock with respect to ageing and cancer. They also highlight the existence of a complex interconnection between ageing, carcinogenesis and individual components of the circadian clock machinery. PMID:18418054

  9. The eCDR-PLL, a radiation-tolerant ASIC for clock and data recovery and deterministic phase clock synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, P.; Francisco, R.; Llopart, X.; Tavernier, F.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Moreira, P.

    2015-03-01

    A radiation-tolerant CDR/PLL ASIC has been developed for the upcoming LHC upgrades, featuring clock Frequency Multiplication (FM) and Clock and Data Recovery (CDR), showing deterministic phase and low jitter. Two FM modes have been implemented: either generating 40, 60, 120 and 240 MHz clock outputs for GBT-FPGA applications or providing 40, 80, 160 and 320 MHz clocks for TTC and e-link applications. The CDR operates with 40, 80, 160 or 320 Mbit/s data rates while always generating clocks at 40, 80, 160 and 320 MHz, regardless of the data rate. All the outputs are phase programmable with a resolution of 195 ps or 260 ps, depending on the selected mode. The ASIC has been designed using radiation-tolerant techniques in a 130 nm CMOS technology and operates at a 1.2 V supply voltage.

  10. From nearby low-mass protostars to high redshift starbursts: protostellar outflows tracing the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin

    2015-08-01

    Embedded low-mass protostars are notoriously difficult to observe even in the nearest Galactic high-mass clusters where they outnumber the high-mass protostars by orders of magnitude. Thus, without a good tracer of the low-mass population, we do not have a good handle on the shape of the initial (core) mass function, leaving little hope for extrapolating to extragalactic regions where we will never have neither the sensitivity nor the resolution to directly observe this population. A good tracer of the low-mass population is needed.One such physical tracer is outflows. Outflow emission is directly proportional to envelope mass, and outflows are predominantly active during the deeply embedded phases of star formation. What is required for this method to work is species and transitions tracing outflows uniquely such that any signal is not diluted by the surrounding cloud, such as certain methanol transitions, water, high-J CO (J > 10).I will present a statistical model of a forming high-mass cluster. The model includes what we currently know about Galactic high-mass clusters and incorporates outflow emission from low-mass protostars. The latter component is obtained from observations of tens of nearby embedded low-mass protostellar outflows in the above-mentioned tracers. The model is benchmarked against ALMA and Herschel-HIFI observations of Galactic clusters proving the concept, and preliminary extrapolations to the extragalactic regime are presented. With this new probe, and traditional probes of the distant star formation which predominantly trace high mass stars, we will be able to explore the IMF in starburst galaxies from low to high redshift.

  11. Photoelectric angle converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  12. On-Line Schemes For Computing Rotation Angles For SVDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercegovac, Milos D.; Lang, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    Two floating-point radix-2 schemes using on-line arithmetic for implementing the direct two-angle method for SVDs are presented. The first scheme is an on-line variant of the cosine/sine approach and is the fastest of the schemes considered: it performs the 2x2 SVD step in about 2n clock cycles. However, it requires a relatively large number of modules; this number is reduced when some modules are reused, resulting in a time of 3n clock cycles. The number of modules of this on-line version is still larger than that of the conventional one, but this is compensated by the smaller number of bit-slices per module and by the digit-serial communication among modules. The corresponding speed-up ratios are of 5 and 3 with respect to a conventional arithmetic implementation. The second scheme uses an on-line CORDIC approach and performs the 2x2 SVD in about 7n clock cycles and is advantageous because it is more time-area efficient. It results in a speed-up of about 2.5 with respect to the conventional CORDIC implementation.

  13. Dynamics and performance of clock pendulums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyng, Peter

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a driven, damped pendulum as used in mechanical clocks. We derive equations for the amplitude and phase of the oscillation, on time scales longer than the pendulum period. The equations are first order ODEs and permit fast simulations of the joint effects of circular and escapement errors, friction, and other disturbances for long times. The equations contain two averages of the driving torque over a period, so that the results are not very sensitive to the "fine structure" of the driving. We adopt a constant-torque escapement and study the stationary pendulum rate as a function of driving torque and friction. We also study the reaction of the pendulum to a sudden change in the driving torque, and to stationary noisy driving. The equations for the amplitude and phase are shown to describe the pendulum dynamics quite well on time scales of one period and longer. Our emphasis is on a clear exposition of the physics.

  14. Evolutionary plasticity of segmentation clock networks.

    PubMed

    Krol, Aurélie J; Roellig, Daniela; Dequéant, Mary-Lee; Tassy, Olivier; Glynn, Earl; Hattem, Gaye; Mushegian, Arcady; Oates, Andrew C; Pourquié, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    The vertebral column is a conserved anatomical structure that defines the vertebrate phylum. The periodic or segmental pattern of the vertebral column is established early in development when the vertebral precursors, the somites, are rhythmically produced from presomitic mesoderm (PSM). This rhythmic activity is controlled by a segmentation clock that is associated with the periodic transcription of cyclic genes in the PSM. Comparison of the mouse, chicken and zebrafish PSM oscillatory transcriptomes revealed networks of 40 to 100 cyclic genes mostly involved in Notch, Wnt and FGF signaling pathways. However, despite this conserved signaling oscillation, the identity of individual cyclic genes mostly differed between the three species, indicating a surprising evolutionary plasticity of the segmentation networks. PMID:21652651

  15. Clocking and synchronization circuits in multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Microprocessors based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) concepts have demonstrated an ability to provide more computing power at a given level of integration than conventional microprocessors. The next step is multiprocessors composed of RISC processing elements. Communication bandwidth among such microprocessors is critical in achieving efficient hardware utilization. This thesis focuses on the communication capability of VLSI circuits and presents new circuit techniques as a guide to build an interconnection network of VLSI microprocessors. Circuit techniques for PLL-based clock generation are described along with stability criteria. The main objective of the circuit is to realize a zero delay buffer. Experimental results show the feasibility of such circuits in VLSI. Synchronizer circuit configurations in both bipolar and MOS technology that best utilize each device, or overcome the technology limit using a bandwidth doubling technique are shown. Interface techniques including handshake mechanisms in such a system are also described.

  16. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  17. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-11-15

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  18. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of theArabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control ofPRRsremains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation ofPRR5by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state ofPRR5in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream ofPRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressedPRR5promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in thePRR5promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seqrevealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhydouble mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression ofPRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includesPRR5. PMID:26941090

  19. Formal development of a clock synchronization circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    This talk presents the latest stage in formal development of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit. The development spans from a high level specification of the required properties to a circuit realizing the core function of the system. An abstract description of an algorithm has been verified to satisfy the high-level properties using the mechanical verification system EHDM. This abstract description is recast as a behavioral specification input to the Digital Design Derivation system (DDD) developed at Indiana University. DDD provides a formal design algebra for developing correct digital hardware. Using DDD as the principle design environment, a core circuit implementing the clock synchronization algorithm was developed. The design process consisted of standard DDD transformations augmented with an ad hoc refinement justified using the Prototype Verification System (PVS) from SRI International. Subsequent to the above development, Wilfredo Torres-Pomales discovered an area-efficient realization of the same function. Establishing correctness of this optimization requires reasoning in arithmetic, so a general verification is outside the domain of both DDD transformations and model-checking techniques. DDD represents digital hardware by systems of mutually recursive stream equations. A collection of PVS theories was developed to aid in reasoning about DDD-style streams. These theories include a combinator for defining streams that satisfy stream equations, and a means for proving stream equivalence by exhibiting a stream bisimulation. DDD was used to isolate the sub-system involved in Torres-Pomales' optimization. The equivalence between the original design and the optimized verified was verified in PVS by exhibiting a suitable bisimulation. The verification depended upon type constraints on the input streams and made extensive use of the PVS type system. The dependent types in PVS provided a useful mechanism for defining an appropriate bisimulation.

  20. Recent Developments in Microwave Ion Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    We review the development of microwave-frequency standards based on trapped ions. Following two distinct paths, microwave ion clocks have evolved greatly in the last twenty years since the earliest Paul-trap-based units. Laser-cooled ion frequency standards reduce the second-order Doppler shift from ion micromotion and thermal secular motion achieving good signal-to-noise ratios via cycling transitions where as many as ~10^8 photons per second per ion may be scattered. Today, laser-cooled ion standards are based on linear Paul traps which hold ions near the node line of the trapping electric field, minimizing micromotion at the trapping-field frequency and the consequent second-order Doppler frequency shift. These quadrupole (radial) field traps tightly confine tens of ions to a crystalline single-line structure. As more ions are trapped, space charge forces some ions away from the node-line axis and the second-order Doppler effect grows larger, even at negligibly small secular temperatures. Buffer-gas-cooled clocks rely on large numbers of ions, typically ~10^7, optically pumped by a discharge lamp at a scattering rate of a few photons per second per ion. To reduce the second-order Doppler shift from space charge repulsion of ions from the trap node line, novel multipole ion traps are now being developed where ions are weakly bound with confining fields that are effectively zero through the trap interior and grow rapidly near the trap electrode ``walls''.

  1. Use of Very Stable Clocks in Satellite Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugentobler, Urs; Romanyuk, Tetyana

    2016-07-01

    Time and frequency play an essential role in satellite geodesy and navigation. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) rely on precise measurements of signal travel times. The satellite and receiver clocks involved in measuring this time interval need to be synchronized at the picosecond level. The concept of GNSS allows for an epoch-wise synchronization of space and ground clocks, a feature which is consequently used in satellite geodesy by estimating epoch-wise clock corrections for all clocks in the system, either explicitly or implicitly by forming double differences. Ultra-stable clocks allow to estimate only few parameters for each clock, e.g., offset and drift. The much reduced number of parameters should stabilize GNSS solutions, e.g., tracking network station coordinates. On the other hand systematic errors, e.g., from troposphere or orbit modeling deficiencies or temperature induced hardware delay variations may systematically affect the solutions. The presentation shows trade-offs of modelling higly stable clocks and negative impact of error sources based on simulations.

  2. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E.; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism’s metabolic activities1–3. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated4–7. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant’s redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid (SA) does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism. PMID:26098366

  3. Automatic minimisation of micromotion in a 88Sr+ optical clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwood, G. P.; Huang, G.; Klein, H. A.; Gill, P.

    2015-07-01

    Optical clocks based on narrow linewidth transitions in single cold ions confined in RF traps are being developed at a number of laboratories worldwide. For these ion clock systems, excess micromotion can cause both Stark and Doppler frequency shifts and also a degradation of frequency stability as a result of a reduced excitation rate to the clock transition. At NPL, we detect micromotion in our 88Sr+ optical clocks by observing the correlation between photon arrival times and the zero crossing of the RF trap drive signal. Recently, two nominally identical 88Sr+ optical clocks have been operated over several days and their frequencies compared against one another. During this time the dc voltages on the endcap and compensation voltage electrodes required to minimise the micromotion can change significantly, particularly following the loading of an ion. This paper describes an automatic method to monitor and minimise micromotion applicable to single ion clocks and which we demonstrate using our two NPL 88Sr+ ion clocks.

  4. The Circadian Clock in Cancer Development and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Loning; Kettner, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Most aspects of mammalian function display circadian rhythms driven by an endogenous clock. The circadian clock is operated by genes and comprises a central clock in the brain that responds to environmental cues and controls subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues via circadian output pathways. The central and peripheral clocks coordinately generate rhythmic gene expression in a tissue-specific manner in vivo to couple diverse physiological and behavioral processes to periodic changes in the environment. However, as the world industrialized, activities that disrupt endogenous homeostasis with external circadian cues have increased. This change in lifestyle has been linked to increased risk of diseases in all aspects of human health, including cancer. Studies in humans and animal models have revealed that cancer development in vivo is closely associated with the loss of circadian homeostasis in energy balance, immune function and aging that are supported by cellular functions important for tumor suppression including cell proliferation, senescence, metabolism and DNA damage response. The clock controls these cellular functions both locally in cells of peripheral tissues and at the organismal level via extracellular signaling. Thus, the hierarchical mammalian circadian clock provides a unique system to study carcinogenesis as a deregulated physiological process in vivo. The asynchrony between host and malignant tissues in cell proliferation and metabolism also provides new and exciting options for novel anti-cancer therapies. PMID:23899600

  5. Circadian Clocks in Fuel Harvesting and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    RAMSEY, K.M.; BASS, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian systems have evolved in plants, eubacteria, neurospora, and the metazoa as a mechanism to optimize energy acquisition and storage in synchrony with the rotation of the Earth on its axis. In plants, circadian clocks drive the expression of genes involved in oxygenic photosynthesis during the light and nitrogen fixation during the dark, repeating this cycle each day. In mammals, the core clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions to entrain extra-SCN and peripheral clocks to the light cycle, including regions central to energy homeostasis and sleep, as well as peripheral tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Tissue-specific gene targeting has shown a primary role of clock genes in endocrine pancreas insulin secretion, indicating that local clocks play a cell-autonomous role in organismal homeostasis. A present focus is to dissect the consequences of clock disruption on modulation of nuclear hormone receptor signaling and on posttranscriptional regulation of intermediary metabolism. Experimental genetic studies have pointed toward extensive interplay between circadian and metabolic systems and offer a means to dissect the impact of local tissue molecular clocks on fuel utilization across the sleep–wake cycle. PMID:21890641

  6. Mania-like behavior induced by disruption of CLOCK

    PubMed Central

    Roybal, Kole; Theobold, David; Graham, Ami; DiNieri, Jennifer A.; Russo, Scott J.; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Chakravarty, Sumana; Peevey, Joseph; Oehrlein, Nathan; Birnbaum, Shari; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Orsulak, Paul; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Nestler, Eric J.; Carlezon, William A.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Circadian rhythms and the genes that make up the molecular clock have long been implicated in bipolar disorder. Genetic evidence in bipolar patients suggests that the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, CLOCK, may be particularly important. However, the exact role of this gene in the development of this disorder remains unclear. Here we show that mice carrying a mutation in the Clock gene display an overall behavioral profile that is strikingly similar to human mania, including hyperactivity, decreased sleep, lowered depression-like behavior, lower anxiety, and an increase in the reward value for cocaine, sucrose, and medial forebrain bundle stimulation. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizer lithium returns many of these behavioral responses to wild-type levels. In addition, the Clock mutant mice have an increase in dopaminergic activity in the ventral tegmental area, and their behavioral abnormalities are rescued by expressing a functional CLOCK protein via viral-mediated gene transfer specifically in the ventral tegmental area. These findings establish the Clock mutant mice as a previously unrecognized model of human mania and reveal an important role for CLOCK in the dopaminergic system in regulating behavior and mood. PMID:17379666

  7. The Circadian Clock in Oral Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, S.; Zheng, L.; Schnell, S.; Sartor, M.A.; Somers, E.; Marder, W.; McAlpin, B.; Kim, D.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Most physiological processes in mammals display circadian rhythms that are driven by the endogenous circadian clock. This clock is comprised of a central component located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues. Circadian rhythms sustain 24-hour oscillations of a large number of master genes controlling the correct timing and synchronization of diverse physiological and metabolic processes within our bodies. This complex regulatory network provides an important communication link between our brain and several peripheral organs and tissues. At the molecular level, circadian oscillations of gene expression are regulated by a family of transcription factors called “clock genes”. Dysregulation of clock gene expression results in diverse human pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock affects tooth development, salivary gland and oral epithelium homeostasis, and saliva production. This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of clock genes in the formation and maintenance of oral tissues, and discusses potential links between “oral clocks” and diseases such as head and neck cancer and Sjögren’s syndrome. PMID:24065634

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans opens up new insights into circadian clock mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Saigusa, Tetsu; Tamai, Yoichi

    2005-01-01

    The roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is known to carry homologues of clock genes such as per (=period) and tim (=timeless), which constitute the core of the circadian clock in Drosophila and mammals: lin-42 and tim-1. Analyses using WormBase (C. elegans gene database) have identified with relatively high identity analogous of the clock genes recognized in Drosophila and mammals, with the notable exception of cry (=cryptochrome), which is lacking in C. elegans. All of these C. elegans cognates of the clock genes appear to belong to members of the PAS-superfamily and to participate in development or responsiveness to the environment but apparently are not involved in the C. elegans circadian clock. Nevertheless, C. elegans exhibits convincing circadian rhythms in locomotor behavior in the adult stage and in resistance to hyperosmotic stress in starved larvae (L1) after hatching, indicating that it has a circadian clock with a core design entirely different from that of Drosophila and mammals. Here two possibilities are considered. First, the core of the C. elegans circadian clock includes transcriptional/translational feedback loops between genes and their protein products that are entirely different from those of Drosophila and mammals. Second, a more basic principle such as homeostasis governs the circadian cellular physiology, and was established primarily to minimize the accumulation of DNA damage in response to an environment cycling at 24 h intervals. PMID:15865318

  9. Circadian clock and the onset of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Norihiko; Maemura, Koji

    2016-06-01

    The onset of cardiovascular diseases often shows time-of-day variation. Acute myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia occurs mainly in the early morning. Multiple biochemical and physiological parameters show circadian rhythm, which may account for the diurnal variation of cardiovascular events. These include the variations in blood pressure, activity of the autonomic nervous system and renin-angiotensin axis, coagulation cascade, vascular tone and the intracellular metabolism of cardiomyocytes. Importantly, the molecular clock system seems to underlie the circadian variation of these parameters. The center of the biological clock, also known as the central clock, exists in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In contrast, the molecular clock system is also activated in each cell of the peripheral organs and constitute the peripheral clock. The biological clock system is currently considered to have a beneficial role in maintaining the homeostasis of each organ. Discoordination, however, between the peripheral clock and external environment could potentially underlie the development of cardiovascular events. Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular pathways by which cardiovascular events occur in a diurnal oscillatory pattern will help the establishment of a novel therapeutic approach to the management of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26888119

  10. Using a transportable optical clock for chronometric levelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Stefan; Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Häfner, Sebastian; Herbers, Sofia; Al-Masoudi, Ali; Grosche, Gesine; Denker, Heiner; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian

    2016-04-01

    With their supreme accuracy and precision, optical clocks and new methods of long distance frequency transfer can be used to determine height differences by measuring the gravitational red shift between two clocks. We are developing transportable optical clocks and optical fibre-based means for clock comparisons that can bridge distances of hundredths of kilometres without accumulation of measurement errors. In this talk, we will focus on the transportable strontium lattice clock we are developing and its first evaluation. Presently, we achieve a fractional frequency instability of 3 × 10‑17 after 1000 s averaging time, which is equivalent to a height resolution of 30 cm. The first uncertainty evaluation of the system yielded 9 × 10‑17. We expect rapid improvements to an uncertainty of few parts in 10‑17. This clock will be connected via stabilized optical fibre links with other, stationary frequency standards. The measured red shifts will be compared with the ones calculated from potential differences derived with state of the art geodetic data and models. We will discuss the status of measurements of geodetic relevance with optical clocks and give an outlook on our next steps. This work is supported by QUEST, DFG (RTG 1729, CRC 1128), EU-FP7 (FACT) and EMRP (ITOC). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  11. Spin-orbit Larmor clock for ionization times in one-photon and strong-field regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Jivesh; Morales, Felipe; Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Photoionization is a process where absorption of one or several photons liberates an electron and creates a hole in a quantum system, such as an atom or a molecule. Is it faster to remove an electron using one or many photons, and how to define this time? Here we introduce a clock that allows us to define ionization time for both one-photon and many-photon ionization regimes. The clock uses the interaction of the electron or hole spin with the magnetic field created by their orbital motion, known as the spin-orbit interaction. The angle of spin precession in the magnetic field records time. We use the combination of analytical theory and ab initio calculations to show how ionization delay depends on the number of absorbed photons, how it appears in the experiment and what electron dynamics it signifies. In particular, we apply our method to calculate the derived time delays in tunneling regime of strong-field ionization.

  12. Spin-orbit Larmor clock for ionization times in one-photon and strong-field regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Jivesh; Morales, Felipe; Torlina, Lisa; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-12-01

    Photoionization is a process where absorption of one or several photons liberates an electron and creates a hole in a quantum system, such as an atom or a molecule. Is it faster to remove an electron using one or many photons, and how to define this time? Here we introduce a clock that allows us to define ionization time for both one-photon and many-photon ionization regimes. The clock uses the interaction of the electron or hole spin with the magnetic field created by their orbital motion, known as the spin-orbit interaction. The angle of spin precession in the magnetic field records time. We use the combination of analytical theory and ab initio calculations to show how ionization delay depends on the number of absorbed photons, how it appears in the experiment and what electron dynamics it signifies. In particular, we apply our method to calculate the derived time delays in tunneling regime of strong-field ionization.

  13. Reading Angles in Maps

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15–53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare 2D to 3D angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to 2D and 3D displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223

  14. Reading angles in maps.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare two-dimensional to three-dimensional angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223

  15. Using a transportable optical clock for chronometric levelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Koller, Silvio; Grotti, Jacopo; Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Herbers, Sofia; Al-Masoudi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    With their supreme accuracy and precision, optical clocks in combination with new methods of long-distance frequency transfer can be used to determine height differences by measuring the gravitational red shift between two clocks without accumulation of measurement errors, as in classical levelling. We are developing transportable optical clocks for this purpose that will also serve for the technology development regarding optical clocks in Space and for international comparisons between optical clocks that cannot be linked with sufficient accuracy otherwise. In this talk we will focus on the transportable strontium lattice clock that we are developing and its first evaluation. Presently, we achieve a fractional frequency instability of 3 × 10^{-17} after 1000 s averaging time, which is equivalent to a height resolution of 30 cm. The first uncertainty evaluation of the system yielded 7 × 10^{-17}. We expect rapid improvements to an uncertainty of a few parts in 10^{17}. The clock is now located within a car trailer, which requires compact and rugged lasers systems and physics package. Special care has been taken in the design of the ultra-frequency stable interrogation laser that has to achieve fractional frequency instabilities of considerably below 10^{-15}. Typical laboratory constructions of the reference resonator system used to pre-stabilize the laser frequency are not compatible with the requirement of transportability. In an actual levelling campaign, this clock will be connected via a stabilized optical fibre link with another, stationary frequency standard. The measured gravitational red shift will be compared with the ones calculated from potential differences derived with state of the art geodetic data and models. We will discuss the status of measurements of geodetic relevance with optical clocks and give an outlook on our next steps. This work is supported by QUEST, DFG (RTG 1729, CRC 1128), EU-FP7 (FACT) and EMRP (ITOC). The EMRP is jointly funded

  16. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1−/− and ClockΔ19 mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle. PMID:21621073

  17. Machine Learning Helps Identify CHRONO as a Circadian Clock Component

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anand; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Kavakli, Ibrahim H.; Hughes, Michael E.; Baggs, Julie E.; Growe, Jacqueline; Liu, Andrew C.; Kim, Junhyong; Hogenesch, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of “clock genes” that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders. Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock components, employing higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques. In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components. We used a simple form of probabilistic machine learning to integrate biologically relevant, genome-scale data and ranked genes on their similarity to known clock components. We then used a secondary experimental screen to characterize the top candidates. We found that several physically interact with known clock components in a mammalian two-hybrid screen and modulate in vitro cellular rhythms in an immortalized mouse fibroblast line (NIH 3T3). One candidate, Gene Model 129, interacts with BMAL1 and functionally represses the key driver of molecular rhythms, the BMAL1/CLOCK transcriptional complex. Given these results, we have renamed the gene CHRONO (computationally highlighted repressor of the network oscillator). Bi-molecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation demonstrate that CHRONO represses by abrogating the binding of BMAL1 to its transcriptional co-activator CBP. Most importantly, CHRONO knockout mice display a prolonged free-running circadian period similar to, or more drastic than, six other clock components. We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics. PMID:24737000

  18. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. Results This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. Conclusions A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal. PMID:24884665

  19. Machine learning helps identify CHRONO as a circadian clock component.

    PubMed

    Anafi, Ron C; Lee, Yool; Sato, Trey K; Venkataraman, Anand; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Kavakli, Ibrahim H; Hughes, Michael E; Baggs, Julie E; Growe, Jacqueline; Liu, Andrew C; Kim, Junhyong; Hogenesch, John B

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decades, researchers have characterized a set of "clock genes" that drive daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. This arduous work has yielded results with far-reaching consequences in metabolic, psychiatric, and neoplastic disorders. Recent attempts to expand our understanding of circadian regulation have moved beyond the mutagenesis screens that identified the first clock components, employing higher throughput genomic and proteomic techniques. In order to further accelerate clock gene discovery, we utilized a computer-assisted approach to identify and prioritize candidate clock components. We used a simple form of probabilistic machine learning to integrate biologically relevant, genome-scale data and ranked genes on their similarity to known clock components. We then used a secondary experimental screen to characterize the top candidates. We found that several physically interact with known clock components in a mammalian two-hybrid screen and modulate in vitro cellular rhythms in an immortalized mouse fibroblast line (NIH 3T3). One candidate, Gene Model 129, interacts with BMAL1 and functionally represses the key driver of molecular rhythms, the BMAL1/CLOCK transcriptional complex. Given these results, we have renamed the gene CHRONO (computationally highlighted repressor of the network oscillator). Bi-molecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation demonstrate that CHRONO represses by abrogating the binding of BMAL1 to its transcriptional co-activator CBP. Most importantly, CHRONO knockout mice display a prolonged free-running circadian period similar to, or more drastic than, six other clock components. We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics. PMID:24737000

  20. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.