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Sample records for immature mouse uterotrophic

  1. Positive control study for the intact immature Swiss-Webster mouse uterotrophic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisjahbana, Arlisa; Yusuf, Ayda T.

    2014-03-01

    significantly from controls. Based on the results, the immature mouse uterotrophic assay can be used as a test for estrogenicity except for the cell number parameter.

  2. Uterotrophic activity of bisphenol A in the immature rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H

    1998-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in the gavage studies. These results are consistent with those of Dodds and Lawson [Nature 137:96 (1936)] who found that BPA induces persistent vaginal cornification in ovariectomized rats exposed to three twice-daily injections of 85 mg/kg BPA (total daily dose 170 mg/kg), but they conflict with the reported inactivity of BPA in the immature mouse uterotrophic assay. The uterotrophic activity of diethylstilbestrol in the rat is also established (0.04 mg/kg/day for three days). PMID:9799186

  3. Testing the Uterotrophic Activity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in the Immature CD-1 Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uterotrophic assay is an in vivo screening tool used to determine the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic potential of an exogenously administered compound. Recent studies reported that PFOA increased activity of estrogen-responsive genes in fish, some in association with liver tum...

  4. The estrogenic effects of benzylparaben at low doses based on uterotrophic assay in immature SD rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Qingchun; Jiao, Jian; Li, Jun; Qi, Mingwen

    2013-03-01

    Benzylparaben (BzP), a type of parabens being used as a preservative agent in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products, may be ingested by humans. In this study, we performed an immature uterotrophic assay using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration to determine the estrogenic effects of BzP and found significant increases in uterine weight with doses of 0.16 mg/kg body weight and higher (P<0.05). The in vivo estrogenicity of BzP was supported by in vitro results from the human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in silico molecular docking analysis performed in this study. The in vitro estrogenic activity of BzP can be observed at concentrations of 1.0×10(-8) M and higher. Molecular docking analysis showed that BzP fits well into the agonist pocket of hERα. The lowest observed effect dose (LOED) (0.16 mg/kg/day) of BzP is much lower than the documented LOEDs of other parabens. Actual risk may exist for people who consume a diet high in BzP or use BzP-laden cosmetics. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of Wistar rats to 17β-estradiol by immature uterotrophic assay, and no obvious uterotrophic response was observed in the rats given doses up to 100 μg/kg body weight. PMID:23220609

  5. The mouse uterotrophic assay: a reevaluation of its validity in assessing the estrogenicity of bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, C M; Michaelson, C L; Veson, E C; Sonnenschein, C; Soto, A M

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of synthetic chemicals in our environment that are capable of mimicking the female hormone estrogen is a growing concern. One such chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to leach from a variety of resin-based and plastic products, including dental sealants and food and beverage containers, in concentrations that are sufficient to induce cell proliferation in vitro. The response to BPA in vivo has been varied; thus the aims of this study were to investigate a) whether BPA has an estrogenic effect in CD-1 mice, a strain that is useful for developmental studies; and b) whether the uterotrophic assay is a valid means of determining the estrogenicity of BPA by comparing it with other end points measured in the uterus. Immature female CD-1 mice were exposed to BPA in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. Results showed that BPA induced a significant increase in the height of luminal epithelial cells within the uterus at concentrations of 5, 75, and 100 mg/kg and that BPA induced lactoferrin at concentrations of 75 and 100 mg/kg. A uterotrophic response (increase in uterine wet weight) was induced by 100 mg/kg BPA only. Further, the proportion of mice showing vaginal opening was greater after exposure to 0.1 and 100 mg/kg BPA, relative to the control animals and those receiving intermediate doses of BPA. These results demonstrate that BPA induces changes in the mouse uterus that differ depending on the exposure dose and the end point measured, and reveal that certain tissue effects show a nonmonotonic relationship with dose. These data also demonstrate that BPA induces estrogenic changes in the uterus of the CD-1 mouse, and highlight the need to reevaluate the validity of the mouse uterotrophic assay as an end point for determining the estrogenicity of suspected environmental estrogens. PMID:11171525

  6. A Curated Database of Rodent Uterotrophic Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C.; Ceger, Patricia C.; Allen, David G.; Strickland, Judy; Chang, Xiaoqing; Hamm, Jonathan T.; Casey, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Novel in vitro methods are being developed to identify chemicals that may interfere with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, but the results are difficult to put into biological context because of reliance on reference chemicals established using results from other in vitro assays and because of the lack of high-quality in vivo reference data. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-validated rodent uterotrophic bioassay is considered the “gold standard” for identifying potential ER agonists. Objectives: We performed a comprehensive literature review to identify and evaluate data from uterotrophic studies and to analyze study variability. Methods: We reviewed 670 articles with results from 2,615 uterotrophic bioassays using 235 unique chemicals. Study descriptors, such as species/strain, route of administration, dosing regimen, lowest effect level, and test outcome, were captured in a database of uterotrophic results. Studies were assessed for adherence to six criteria that were based on uterotrophic regulatory test guidelines. Studies meeting all six criteria (458 bioassays on 118 unique chemicals) were considered guideline-like (GL) and were subsequently analyzed. Results: The immature rat model was used for 76% of the GL studies. Active outcomes were more prevalent across rat models (74% active) than across mouse models (36% active). Of the 70 chemicals with at least two GL studies, 18 (26%) had discordant outcomes and were classified as both active and inactive. Many discordant results were attributable to differences in study design (e.g., injection vs. oral dosing). Conclusions: This uterotrophic database provides a valuable resource for understanding in vivo outcome variability and for evaluating the performance of in vitro assays that measure estrogenic activity. Citation: Kleinstreuer NC, Ceger PC, Allen DG, Strickland J, Chang X, Hamm JT, Casey WM. 2016. A curated database of rodent uterotrophic bioactivity. Environ

  7. Lack of binding to isolated estrogen or androgen receptors, and inactivity in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, of the ultraviolet sunscreen filters Tinosorb M-active and Tinosorb S.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H; Plautz, J; Twomey, K; Lefevre, P A

    2001-12-01

    The presence of structurally diverse chemicals as contaminants in the environment has led to concerns regarding their possible endocrine disturbing effects. Recently, some ultraviolet absorbing components of sunscreen preparations have given positive responses in assays monitoring estrogen-like activity both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, two recently developed sunscreen components, Tinosorb M-active and Tinosorb S, were evaluated using the in vitro estrogen and androgen receptor competitive binding assays. Neither compound gave a positive response in either of the assays, consistent with the large molecular dimensions of each chemical disfavoring binding to the hormone receptors. Both of the chemicals were inactive in immature rat uterotrophic assays conducted using the subcutaneous route of administration. It is concluded that neither of these agents possess intrinsic estrogenic/antiestrogenic or androgenic/antiandrogenic activity. The several positive control chemicals evaluated gave the expected positive responses in the assays used. PMID:11754532

  8. Immature mouse unilateral carotid ligation model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Comi, Anne M; Johnston, Michael V; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2005-12-01

    Cerebral palsy in humans results from a diverse group of disorders that produce nonprogressive motor impairments in the developing brain. Stroke is an important cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy in neonates and young children. We recently developed a new immature mouse model of stroke that demonstrates seizures, the severity of which correlates with brain injury. This model has strengths compared with other immature rodent models of ischemic injury, such as relative technical ease and the presence of seizures, as is seen in humans. This model also has relative weaknesses, such as the inability to titrate the severity of the injury with different periods of hypoxia. In addition, more work is needed to delineate the long-term consequences of the insult in this new model. PMID:16417846

  9. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay. Phase 2: dietary phytoestrogen analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Owens, William; Ashby, John; Odum, Jenny; Onyon, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial laboratory diets have detectable levels of isoflavones (e.g., phytoestrogens such as genistein [GN]) that have weak estrogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. During validation studies of the uterotrophic bioassay, diet samples from 20 participating laboratories were collected and analyzed for three major phytoestrogens: GN, daidzein (DN), and coumestrol (CM). Soy phytoestrogens GN and DN were found at total phytoestrogen levels from 100 to 540 microg/g laboratory diet; a forage phytoestrogen, CM, ranged from nondetectable to 4 microg/g laboratory diet. The phytoestrogen levels were compared with both baseline uterine weights of the control groups and with the relative uterine weight increase of groups administered two weak estrogen agonists: bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP). The comparison uses a working assumption of additivity among the phytoestrogens, despite several significant qualifications to this assumption, to estimate total genistein equivalents (TGE). Some evidence was found that phytoestrogen levels in the diet > 325-350 microg/g TGE could diminish the responsiveness of the uterotrophic bioassay to weak agonists. This was especially true for the case of the intact, immature female version of the uterotrophic bioassay, where higher food consumption relative to body weight leads to higher intakes of dietary phytoestrogens versus ovariectomized adults. This dietary level is sufficient in the immature female to approach a biological lowest observable effect level for GN of 40-50 mg/kg/day. These same data, however, show that low to moderate levels of dietary phytoestrogens do not substantially affect the responsiveness of the assay with weak estrogen receptor agonists such as NP and BPA. Therefore, laboratories conducting the uterotrophic bioassay for either research or regulatory purposes may routinely use diets containing levels of phytoestrogens < 325-350 microg/g TGE without impairing the responsiveness of the bioassay. PMID

  10. Germ cell differentiation in cryopreserved, immature, Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) testes xenografted onto mice.

    PubMed

    Pothana, Lavanya; Makala, Himesh; Devi, Lalitha; Varma, Vivek Phani; Goel, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Death of immature animals is one of the reasons for the loss of genetic diversity of rare and endangered species. Because sperm cannot be collected from immature males, cryobanking of testicular tissue combined with testis xenografting is a potential option for conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the establishment of spermatogenesis in cryopreserved immature testicular tissues from Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) after ectopic xenografting onto immunodeficient nude mice. Results showed that testis tissues that were frozen in cryomedia containing either 10% DMSO with 80% fetal bovine serum (D10S80) or 20% DMSO with 20% fetal bovine serum (D20S20) had significantly more (P < 0.01) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeled positive interstitial cells when compared with fresh testis tissues (46.3 ± 3.4 and 51.9 ± 4.0 vs. 22.8 ± 2.0). Xenografted testicular tissues showed degenerated seminiferous tubules 24 weeks after grafting in testes that had been cryopreserved in D20S20; alternatively, pachytene spermatocytes were the most advanced germ cells in testes that were cryopreserved in D10S80. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining confirmed the proliferative status of spermatocytes, and the increases in tubular and lumen diameters indicated testicular maturation in xenografts. However, persistent anti-Müllerian hormone staining in Sertoli cells of xenografts revealed incomplete testicular maturation. This study reports that cryopreserved testis tissue that had been xenografted from endangered animals onto mice resulted in the establishment of spermatogenesis with initiation of meiosis. These findings are encouraging for cryobanking of testicular tissues from immature endangered animals to conserve their germplasm. PMID:25467768

  11. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane. PMID:2657842

  12. Immature myeloid progenitors promote disease progression in a mouse model of Barrett's-like metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jianping; Sai, Hong; Crissey, Mary Ann S.; Jhala, Nirag; Falk, Gary W.; Ginsberg, Gregory G.; Abrams, Julian A.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth; Rustgi, Anil K.; Wang, Timothy C.; Lynch, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Cdx2, an intestine specific transcription factor, is expressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE). We sought to determine if esophageal Cdx2 expression would accelerate the onset of metaplasia in the L2-IL-1β transgenic mouse model for Barrett's-like metaplasia. The K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β double transgenic mice had half as many metaplastic nodules as control L2-IL-1β mice. This effect was not due to a reduction in esophageal IL-1β mRNA levels nor diminished systemic inflammation. The diminished metaplasia was due to an increase in apoptosis in the K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of immune cells infiltrating the metaplasia identified a population of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells that are significantly reduced in K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice. These cells have features of immature granulocytes and have immune-suppressing capacity. We demonstrate that the apoptosis in K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β mice is CD8+ T cell dependent, which CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are known to inhibit. Lastly, we show that key regulators of CD11b+Gr-1+ cell development, IL-17 and S100A9, are significantly diminished in the esophagus of K14-Cdx2::L2-IL-1β double transgenic mice. We conclude that metaplasia development in this mouse model for Barrett's-like metaplasia requires suppression of CD8+ cell dependent apoptosis, likely mediated by immune-suppressing CD11b+Gr-1+ immature myeloid cells. PMID:26460825

  13. Key Learnings from the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 Rodent Uterotrophic and Hershberger Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marty, M Sue; O'Connor, John C

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, companies began screening compounds using the US Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). EDSP has two tiers: Tier 1 includes 11 assays to identify compounds with potential endocrine activity. This article describes two laboratories' experiences conducting Tier 1 uterotrophic and Hershberger assays. The uterotrophic assay detects estrogen receptor agonists through increases in uterine weight. The advantages of the uterotrophic rat models (immature vs. adult ovariectomized) and exposure routes are discussed. Across 29 studies, relative differences in uterine weights in the vehicle control group and 17α-ethynylestradiol–positive control group were reasonably reproducible. The Hershberger assay detects androgen receptor (AR) agonists, antagonists, and 5α-reductase inhibitors through changes in accessory sex tissue (AST) weights. Across 23 studies, AST weights were relatively reproducible for the vehicle groups (baseline), testosterone propionate (TP) groups (androgenic response), and flutamide + TP groups (antiandrogenic response). In one laboratory, one and four compounds were positive in the androgenic and antiandrogenic portions of the assay, respectively. Each compound was also positive for AR binding. In the other laboratory, three compounds showed potential antiandrogenic activity, but each compound was negative for AR binding and did not fit the profile for 5α-reductase inhibition. These compounds induced hepatic enzymes that enhanced testosterone metabolism/clearance, resulting in lower testosterone and decreased capacity to maintain AST weights. The Hershberger androgenic and antiandrogenic performance criteria were generally attainable. Overall, the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays were easily adopted and function as described for EDSP screening, although the mode of action for positive results may not be easily determined. PMID:24515841

  14. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay. Phase 2: dose-response studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Jun; Onyon, Lesley; Peddada, Shyamal; Ashby, John; Jacob, Elard; Owens, William

    2003-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed phase 2 of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. The purpose of the validation program was to demonstrate the performance of two versions of the uterotrophic bioassay, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat, in four standardized protocols. This article reports the dose-response studies of the validation program; the coded single-dose studies are reported in an accompanying paper. The dose-response study design used five selected weak estrogen agonists, bisphenol A, genistein, methoxychlor, nonylphenol, and o,p -DDT. These weak agonists were administered in a prescribed series of doses to measure the performance and reproducibility of the protocols among the participating laboratories. All protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights when the weak agonists were administered. Within each protocol, there was good agreement and reproducibility of the dose response among laboratories with each substance. Substance-specific variations were observed in the influence of the route of administration on the uterine response, the potency as related to the dose producing the first statistically significant increase in uterine weights, and the maximum increase in uterine weight. Substantive performance differences were not observed between the uterotrophic bioassay versions or among the standardized protocols, and these were judged to be qualitatively equivalent. It is noteworthy that these results were reproducible under a variety of different experimental conditions (e.g., animal strain, diet, housing, bedding, vehicle, animal age), indicating that the bioassay's performance as a screen is robust. In conclusion, both the intact, immature, and adult OVX versions, and all protocols appear to be reproducible and transferable across laboratories and are able to detect weak estrogen agonists. PMID:12948896

  15. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals. PMID:23631495

  16. Detection of alpha-L fucose containing carbohydrates in mouse immature olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ducray, A; Propper, A; Kastner, A

    1999-10-15

    The cellular location of alpha-L fucose was studied in mice olfactory epithelium (OE) using the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureas agglutinin (TPA). In adult mice, UEA-I and TPA revealed a layer of cells that mostly correspond to immature olfactory neurons. Moreover, autoradiographic studies after 3H-T incorporation showed that UEA-I cell labelling occurred during the week following the division of neural cell precursors. In newborn animals, active neurogenesis process is associated with a higher number of UEA-I labelled cells. Olfactory neurogenesis may thus involve a transient event of protein fucosylation, preceding axonal growth. PMID:10530509

  17. Characterization and isolation of immature neurons of the adult mouse piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubio, A; Belles, M; Belenguer, G; Vidueira, S; Fariñas, I; Nacher, J

    2016-07-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the piriform or primary olfactory cortex of adult mammals exhibits a high degree of synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, a subpopulation of cells in the layer II of the adult piriform cortex expresses neurodevelopmental markers, such as the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) or doublecortin (DCX). This study analyzes the nature, origin, and potential function of these poorly understood cells in mice. As previously described in rats, most of the PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II could be morphologically classified as tangled cells and only a small proportion of larger cells could be considered semilunar-pyramidal transitional neurons. Most were also immunoreactive for DCX, confirming their immature nature. In agreement with this, detection of PSA-NCAM combined with that of different cell lineage-specific antigens revealed that most PSA-NCAM positive cells did not co-express markers of glial cells or mature neurons. Their time of origin was evaluated by birthdating experiments with halogenated nucleosides performed at different developmental stages and in adulthood. We found that virtually all cells in this paleocortical region, including PSA-NCAM-positive cells, are born during fetal development. In addition, proliferation analyses in adult mice revealed that very few cells were cycling in layer II of the piriform cortex and that none of them was PSA-NCAM-positive. Moreover, we have established conditions to isolate and culture these immature neurons in the adult piriform cortex layer II. We find that although they can survive under certain conditions, they do not proliferate in vitro either. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 748-763, 2016. PMID:26487449

  18. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    PubMed

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. PMID:23862761

  19. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1's effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  20. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  1. A new genus and species of demodecid mites from the tongue of a house mouse Mus musculus: description of adult and immature stages with data on parasitism.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, J N; Rolbiecki, L

    2016-06-01

    The study of the parasitofauna of the house mouse Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) Linnaeus is particularly important owing to its multiple relationships with humans - as a cosmopolitan, synanthropic rodent, bred for pets, food for other animals or laboratory animal. This article proposes and describes a new genus and species of the parasitic mite based on adult and immature stages from the house mouse. Glossicodex musculi gen. n., sp. n. is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages on average 199 µm in length) found in mouse tissue of the tongue. It is characterized by two large, hooked claws on each tarsus of the legs; the legs are relatively massive, consisting of large, non-overlapping segments. The palps consist of three slender, clearly separated, relatively narrow segments, wherein their coxal segments are also quite narrow and spaced. Also, segments of the palps of larva and nymphs are clearly isolated, and on the terminal segment, trident claws that resemble legs' claws can be found. On the ventral side, in immature stages, triangular scuta, topped with sclerotized spur, can be also observed. Glossicodex musculi was noted in 10.8% of mice with a mean infection intensity of 2.2 parasites per host. PMID:26991770

  2. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo estrogenic responses: phase 1.

    PubMed

    Kanno, J; Onyon, L; Haseman, J; Fenner-Crisp, P; Ashby, J; Owens, W

    2001-08-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help prioritize positive compounds for further testing. Using draft protocols, we tested and compared two model systems, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat. Data from 19 participating laboratories using a high-potency reference agonist, ethinyl estradiol (EE), and an antagonist, ZM 189,154, indicate no substantive performance differences between models. All laboratories and all protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights using EE in phase 1. These significant uterine weight increases were achieved under a variety of experimental conditions (e.g., strain, diet, housing protocol, bedding, vehicle). For each protocol, there was generally good agreement among laboratories with regard to the actual EE doses both in producing the first significant increase in uterine weights and achieving the maximum uterine response. Furthermore, the Hill equation appears to model the dose response satisfactorily and indicates general agreement based on calculated effective dose (ED)(10) and ED(50) within and among laboratories. The feasibility of an antagonist assay was also successfully demonstrated. Therefore, both models appear robust, reproducible, and transferable across laboratories for high-potency estrogen agonists such as EE. For the next phase of the OECD validation program, both models will be tested against a battery of weak, partial estrogen agonists. PMID:11564613

  3. Leptin inhibits basal but not gonadotrophin-stimulated testosterone production in the immature mouse and sheep testis.

    PubMed

    Herrid, Muren; Xia, Yin; O'Shea, Tim; McFarlane, James R

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby leptin regulates testosterone secretion are complex and are likely to involve actions at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. In the present study, the effect of leptin on testicular steroidogenesis at different developmental stages in mice and sheep was investigated. Testosterone data from testicular slice and Leydig cells of immature and adult mice testes demonstrated that the action of leptin in the regulation of steroidogenesis appears to be dependent on the developmental stage of the testis. Leptin biphasically modulates basal testosterone production in immature testicular slice cultures: at relatively low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ng mL(-1)) leptin exerts a significant inhibitory effect, but has less of an effect at very low (1.25 ng mL(-1)) or high concentrations (25 ng mL(-1)). However, leptin failed to modulate basal testosterone levels in Leydig cell preparations. In contrast with immature testes, leptin was unable to regulate either basal or human chorionic gonadotrophin (10 IU mL(-1))-stimulated testosterone production in adult testicular slices or Leydig cell cultures. The age- and concentration-dependent regulation pattern was confirmed using sheep testicular slice culture. Leptin (1.56-25 ng mL(-1)) significantly inhibited basal testosterone production in the testis from birth to Day 21, but had no effect on Day 27 or older testes. However, the plasma and testicular concentrations of leptin and testosterone data in the ram indicate that such a regulatory effect of leptin on testis steroidogenesis in vitro is unable to efficiently influence testosterone concentrations in vivo. This does not exclude the possibility of a non-competitive mechanism of interaction between leptin and luteinising hormone to regulate testosterone production. Thus, we hypothesise that leptin is not an important independent regulator of testosterone concentration in the normal physiological state. The physiological significance and

  4. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sigoillot, Séverine M; Bourgeois, Francine; Karmouch, Jennifer; Molgó, Jordi; Dobbertin, Alexandre; Chevalier, Catherine; Houlgatte, Rémi; Léger, Jean; Legay, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The collagen ColQ anchors acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It also binds MuSK and perlecan/dystroglycan, 2 signaling platforms of the postsynaptic domain. Mutations in ColQ cause a congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with AChE deficiency. Because the absence of AChE does not fully explain the complexity of the syndrome and there is no curative treatment for the disease, we explored additional potential targets of ColQ by conducting a large genetic screening of ColQ-deficient mice, a model for CMS with AChE deficiency, and analyzed their NMJ and muscle phenotypes. We demonstrated that ColQ controls the development and the maturation of the postsynaptic domain by regulating synaptic gene expression. Notably, ColQ deficiency leads to an up-regulation of the 5 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR), leading to mixed mature and immature AChRs at the NMJ of adult mice. ColQ also regulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, whereas the ECM mRNAs were down-regulated in vitro, compensation seemed to occur in vivo to maintain normal levels of these mRNAs. Finally, ColQ deficiency leads to a general atrophic phenotype and hypoplasia that affect fast muscles. This study points to new specific hallmarks for this CMS.-Sigoillot, S. M., Bourgeois, F., Karmouch, J., Molgó, J., Dobbertin, A., Chevalier, C., Houlgatte, R., Léger, J., Legay, C. Neuromuscular junction immaturity and muscle atrophy are hallmarks of the ColQ-deficient mouse, a model of congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency. PMID:26993635

  5. Early Gelatinase Activity Is Not a Determinant of Long-Term Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Gooyit, Major; Tercovich, Kayleen G.; Peng, Zhihong; Nguyen, Trung T.; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Suckow, Mark A.; Chang, Mayland; Raber, Jacob; Trivedi, Alpa

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, are thought to be key mediators of secondary damage in adult animal models of brain injury. Moreover, an acute increase in these proteases in plasma and brain extracellular fluid of adult patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and mortality. Nonetheless, their involvement after TBI in the pediatric brain remains understudied. Using a murine model of TBI at postnatal day 21 (p21), approximating a toddler-aged child, we saw upregulation of active and pro-MMP-9 and MMP-2 by gelatin zymography at 48 h post-injury. We therefore investigated the role of gelatinases on long-term structural and behavioral outcomes after injury after acute inhibition with a selective gelatinase inhibitor, p-OH SB-3CT. After systemic administration, p-OH SB-3CT crossed the blood-brain barrier at therapeutically-relevant concentrations. TBI at p21 induced hyperactivity, deficits in spatial learning and memory, and reduced sociability when mice were assessed at adulthood, alongside pronounced tissue loss in key neuroanatomical regions. Acute and short-term post-injury treatment with p-OH SB-3CT did not ameliorate these long-term behavioral, cognitive, or neuropathological deficits as compared to vehicle-treated controls, suggesting that these deficits were independent of MMP-9 and MMP-2 upregulation. These findings emphasize the vulnerability of the immature brain to the consequences of traumatic injuries. However, early upregulation of gelatinases do not appear to be key determinants of long-term recovery after an early-life injury. PMID:26588471

  6. Lack of estrogenic or (anti-)androgenic effects of d-phenothrin in the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ueda, Shinji; Yoshioka, Kaoru; Kawamura, Satoshi; Seki, Takaki; Okuno, Yasuyoshi; Mikami, Nobuyoshi

    2003-04-22

    Synthetic pyrethroids are among the most common insecticides and pesticides currently in use worldwide. Recently, d-phenothrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is suspected to have endocrine activities through the estrogen and androgen receptors. However, no study has been conducted to evaluate its potential for hormonal activity using an in vivo test specifically focused on estrogenic and androgenic activities. In this study, we evaluated the interaction of d-phenothrin (0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg per day, p.o.) with estrogen- or androgen-mediated mechanisms using in vivo short-term assays. While internationally standardized protocols for the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays have not yet been fully developed, both are widely used and are being considered by the OECD as short-term screening assays for hormonal activity. The highest dose level tested for d-phenothrin was a limit dose (1000 mg/kg per day) designated in the current draft protocol by the OECD, and in fact there was no excessive systemic toxicity in both assays; slightly increased liver weight but no change of serum androgen levels in accessing anti-androgenicity. Potential estrogenic effect of d-phenothrin was evaluated by means of 3-day uterotrophic assay using immature Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (20 days of age). No increase in uterine weight (wet or blotted) was observed following oral exposure to d-phenothrin. Reference control ethynyl estradiol (0.001 mg/kg per day) showed a significant effect in this assay protocol. A 10-day Hershberger assay using castrated peripubertal male rats measures the androgenic or anti-androgenic effects of the test chemicals on several accessory glands/tissues (the ventral prostate, dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, glans penis and Cowper's glands). d-Phenothrin was administered by oral gavage for 10 days to castrated male Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (7 weeks of age, rats were castrated at 6 weeks of age) with or

  7. Comparative uterotrophic effects of endoxifen and tamoxifen in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Schweikart, Karen M; Eldridge, Sandy R; Safgren, Stephanie L; Parman, Toufan; Reid, Joel M; Ames, Matthew M; Goetz, Matthew P; Davis, Myrtle A

    2014-12-01

    Endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen), one of the major active metabolites of tamoxifen, has substantially greater estrogen antagonist properties and antiproliferative effects in breast tumor cells than tamoxifen, a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist. An associated risk of endometrial cancer and hyperplasia has been linked to the estrogen agonist properties of tamoxifen. We evaluated endoxifen using a classic uterotrophic effects method. Rats were given endoxifen or tamoxifen orally for 3 days. Estradiol was the positive control. Endoxifen and tamoxifen plasma levels exceeded those previously observed clinically. Uterine weight was 3-fold higher in the estradiol group than in the tamoxifen or endoxifen groups, which did not differ from vehicle controls. Tamoxifen and endoxifen caused a greater increase in luminal epithelial cell height than estradiol. Both tamoxifen and endoxifen produced an increase in the stromal BrdU labeling index (LI) that was ≤ estradiol and inversely related to dose, but did not affect luminal epithelial cell BrdU LI. As expected, estradiol increased luminal epithelial cell proliferation. These results indicate that endoxifen induces uterotrophic effects, but is less potent than estradiol in eliciting these effects. Given prior preclinical observations that endoxifen has superior antitumor activity than tamoxifen, the observations of similar uterine effects suggest that the endoxifen risk/benefit ratio may be superior to tamoxifen. PMID:24670817

  8. D-003 does not possess oestrogenic potential in-vivo: findings of the uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Mas, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Valle, Maikel; Pardo, Balia; Gutiérrez, Ariadne; Mendoza, Nilda

    2007-10-01

    D-003 is a mixture of long-chain fatty acids purified from sugarcane wax that inhibits both cholesterol synthesis prior to mevalonate formation, and lipid peroxidation. D-003 has been shown to prevent bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, and significantly improves bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. As hormone-replacement therapy, D-003 displays cholesterol-lowering and anti-resorptive effects. We have studied its potential oestrogenic activity in-vivo using the uterotrophic assay. Rats were randomly distributed into five groups: a sham-operated group and four groups of ovariectomized rats, one treated with vehicle, one with D-003 (50 mg kg(-1)), one with oestradiol benzoate (30 microg kg(-1)) and one with D-003 (50 mg kg(-1)) plus oestradiol benzoate (30 microg kg(-1)). Treatments were administered for 14 days. Ovariectomy decreased the values of relative uterus weight, epithelium cell height and endometrial thickness compared with sham-operated rats, and these effects were all significantly reduced with oestradiol benzoate, but not with D-003. Concurrent administration of D-003 and oestradiol benzoate had statistically similar effects on all variables as oestradiol benzoate alone. In conclusions, D-003 orally given at 50 mg kg(-1), a dose that prevents bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, did not display oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic activity in-vivo, as assessed in the uterotrophic assay. PMID:17910820

  9. Increasing the sensitivity of the rodent uterotrophic assay to estrogens, with particular reference to bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J

    2001-01-01

    The gravimetric uterotrophic assay is currently the most well-established, short-term rodent estrogenicity assay. Increasing attention is being paid to the extent to which use of morphometric or molecular changes in the uterus could act as surrogates for the gravimetric end point of the assay, thereby perhaps increasing the sensitivity of the assay. In this paper I discuss the available data, paying particular attention to studies on bisphenol A (BPA) because it offers the largest database for consideration. I conclude that the case has yet to be made for augmenting the gravimetric end point of the uterotrophic assay. To resolve this important question, it will be necessary to conduct detailed dose-response studies where the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for the proposed surrogate end points are compared with the NOEL for the gravimetric end point. Currently, few such studies exist, and among those that do no clear message emerges. The general trend to increasing use of molecular assays in toxicology (multigene microarrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction) emphasizes the need for clear criteria for comparing the performance of individual markers of toxicity. PMID:11712991

  10. Comparative Uterotrophic Effects of Endoxifen and Tamoxifen in Ovariectomized Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schweikart, Karen M.; Eldridge, Sandy R.; Safgren, Stephanie L.; Parman, Toufan; Reid, Joel M.; Ames, Matthew M.; Goetz, Matthew P.; Davis, Myrtle A.

    2014-01-01

    Endoxifen (4-hydroxyl-N-desmethyl tamoxifen), one of the major active metabolites of tamoxifen, has substantially greater estrogen antagonist properties and antiproliferative effects in breast tumor cells than tamoxifen, a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist. An associated risk of endometrial cancer and hyperplasia has been linked to the estrogen agonist properties of tamoxifen. We evaluated endoxifen using a classic uterotrophic effects method. Rats were given endoxifen or tamoxifen orally for three days. Estradiol was the positive control. Endoxifen and tamoxifen plasma levels exceeded those previously observed clinically. Uterine weight was three-fold higher in the estradiol group than in the tamoxifen or endoxifen groups, which did not differ from vehicle controls. Tamoxifen and endoxifen caused a greater increase in luminal epithelial cell height than estradiol. Both tamoxifen and endoxifen produced an increase in the stromal BrdU labeling index (LI) that was ≤ estradiol and inversely related to dose, but did not affect luminal epithelial cell BrdU LI. As expected, estradiol increased luminal epithelial cell proliferation. These results indicate that endoxifen induces uterotrophic effects, but is less potent than estradiol in eliciting these effects. Given prior preclinical observations that endoxifen has superior antitumor activity than tamoxifen, the observations of similar uterine effects suggest that the endoxifen risk/benefit ratio may be superior to tamoxifen. PMID:24670817

  11. Direction of estradiol metabolism as a control of its hormonal action--uterotrophic activity of estradiol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Martucci, C; Fishman, J

    1977-12-01

    The uterotrophic activities of the catechol metabolites of estradiol 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-methoxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestradiol were measured under conditions of continuous administration of sc implanted paraffin pellets. The activity of these estrogens was compared to that of estradiol-17beta and its other principal metabolites estrone, estriol and 15alpha-hydroxyestriol (estetrol). The major catechol estrogens, 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-methoxyestrone, and the pregnancy metabolite, 15alpha-hydroxyestriol, exhibited no uterotrophic activity. The minor catecholestrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol, showed some activity whose character was different from that exhibited by implants of estradiol, estrone and estriol all of which were equipotent uterotrophic agents. Implants of 2-hydroxyestrone in the presence of estradiol or estriol pellets did not diminish the response to the latter indicating that the 2-hydroxyestrone is not antiestrogenic under these conditions. It is concluded that the direction of estradiol metabolism can have a profound influence on the expression of peripheral hormonal activity with hydroxylation at C-2 terminating and hydroxylation at C-16 extending it. PMID:590186

  12. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1−/− mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0–P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner’s membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1−/− mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss. PMID:26084842

  13. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1(-/-) mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0-P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner's membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1(-/-) mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss. PMID:26084842

  14. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the rat uterotrophic assay.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies in the juvenile rat indicated that the biocide triclosan may alter steroid hormone levels. Here, we hypothesize that triclosan possesses estrogenic activity. In the first study, we evaluated the potential estrogenicity of triclosan using the immature rat uter...

  15. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  16. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  17. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  18. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Cristina V; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B; Kuo, Chay T; Wadiche, Jacques I; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  19. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine. PMID:26614455

  20. Lack of (anti-) androgenic or estrogenic effects of three pyrethroids (esfenvalerate, fenvalerate, and permethrin) in the Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

    PubMed

    Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Yamada, Tomoya; Ose, Keiko; Sunami, Osamu; Kamita, Yusuke; Okuno, Yasuyoshi; Seki, Takaki; Nakatsuka, Iwao

    2002-04-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are among the most common pesticides and insecticides currently in use worldwide. Recently, chemicals classified as synthetic pyrethroids are suspected as being endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, no study has been conducted to assess their potential hormonal activities using in vivo test specifically focused on endocrine disruption. In the present study, we evaluated the interaction of three pyrethroids (esfenvalerate, fenvalerate, and permethrin) with androgen receptor (AR)- and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated mechanisms using in vivo short-term assays. While internationally standardized protocols for the Hershberger and uterotrophic assays have not yet been fully developed, both are widely used and are being considered by OECD as short-term screening assays for hormonal activity. A 5-day Hershberger assay using castrated male rats measures agonistic and androgenic ability of the test chemicals to AR of several accessory glands/tissues (the ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, seminal vesicles with coagulating glands, and levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles). Esfenvalerate (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day), fenvalerate (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day), or permethrin (25, 50, or 75 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for 5 days to castrated male Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (1 week after the castration, 11 weeks of age) with or without coadministration of 0.25 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (subcutaneous injection on the dorsal surface). The highest dose levels tested for each chemical were considered the maximum level that could be used without causing excessive systemic toxicity. None of esfenvalerate, fenvalerate, and permethrin showed any androgenic or antiandrogenic effects. Reference control of p,p'-DDE and methyltestosterone (100 mg/kg/day) provided significant effects in this assay protocol. Potential effects of these pyrethroids mediated through the ER were evaluated by means of 3-day uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized Crj

  1. Tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the presence of immature dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Fainaru, Ofer; Almog, Nava; Yung, Chong Wing; Nakai, Kei; Montoya-Zavala, Martin; Abdollahi, Amir; D'Amato, Robert; Ingber, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs)—immunomodulatory cells that initiate adaptive immune responses—have recently been shown to exert proangiogenic effects when infiltrating the tumor microenvironment. As tumors that escape immune surveillance inhibit DC maturation, we explored whether maturation status determines their ability to promote angiogenesis and whether angiogenesis depends on the presence of DCs. Using mouse xenograft models of human tumors, we show that fast-growing “angiogenic” tumors are infiltrated by a more immature DC population than respective dormant avascular tumors. Accordingly, supplementation of immature DCs, but not mature DCs, enhanced tumor growth. When DCs were mixed with Matrigel and injected subcutaneously into mice, only immature DCs promoted the ingrowth of patent blood vessels. Notably, depletion of DCs in a transgenic mouse model that allows for their conditional ablation completely abrogated basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs, and significantly inhibited tumor growth in these mice. Because immature DCs actively promote angiogenesis and tumor growth, whereas DC maturation or ablation suppresses this response, we conclude that angiogenesis is dependent on the presence of immature DCs. Thus, cancer immunotherapies that promote DC maturation may act by both augmenting the host immune response to the tumor and by suppressing tumor angiogenesis.—Fainaru, O., Almog, N., Yung, C. W., Nakai, K., Montoya-Zavala, M., Abollahi, A., D’Amato, R., Ingber, D. E. Tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the presence of immature dendritic cells. PMID:20008545

  2. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  3. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  4. Human iPSC-derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by increased TIMP-1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Pleasure, David E.; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes, or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less well understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrate that immature astrocytes - as opposed to mature - promoted oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promote myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1 dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia, with important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID:27134175

  5. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Na; Jeong, Si-Yeon; Bae, Gyu-Un; Chang, Minsun; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Xiyuan; Pei, Yihua; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Yun Seon

    2014-01-01

    Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for hERα and hERβ with IC50 values of 1.20 ×10−7 g/ml and 1.00×10−7 g/ml, respectively. LNE induced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on hER α and β than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for hERβ than hERα, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause. PMID:25143815

  6. No androgenic/anti-androgenic effects of bisphenol-A in Hershberger assay using immature castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sik; Han, Soon Young; Kim, Tae Sung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Kim, In Young; Seok, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Byung Mu; Yoo, Sun Dong; Park, Kui Lea

    2002-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that bisphenol A (BPA) exhibited weak estrogenic activity in the 3-day uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized (OVX) and immature rats (Toxicol. Lett. 115 (2000) 231; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 32 (2000) 118; J. Toxicol. Sci. 26 (2001) 111) and BPA also possessed anti-androgenic activity in in vitro yeast based assays (J. Endocrinol. 158 (1998) 327). To investigate anti-androgenic effects of BPA. a rodent Hershberger assay was carried out using immature Sprague-Dawley male rats. An androgen agonist, testosterone (0.4 mg/kg per day), was administered for 7 consecutive days by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection as a positive control. Additionally, a pure androgen antagonist, flutamide (1, 5. 10 mg/kg per day. oral) was co-administered with testosterone (0.4 mg/kg per day s.c.). BPA was also administered orally with or without testosterone (0.4 mg/kg per day, s.c.) for 7 consecutive days. In the testosterone treated groups, glans penis, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, and levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC) weights were significantly increased compared with control. However. flulamide dose-dependently inhibited the testosterone-induced re-growth of seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, and LABC, with a significant decrease at flutamide 1.0 mg/kg and above (P<0.05). Serum LH levels were also significantly increased (5 mg/kg and above, P<0.05), but no changes in serum testosterone levels. In contrast, BPA had no effects on the re-growth of seminal vesicles, ventral prostate and LABC induced by testosterone, and no significant differences were observed in serum LH and testosterone levels. In summary, the Hershberger assay could be a sensitive method for detecting androgenic or anti-androgenic chemicals, but BPA did not exhibit any androgenic or anti-androgenic activities in Hershberger assay. PMID:12243870

  7. Morphology of Immatures of Acanthoderini (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Casari, Sônia A

    2016-01-01

    Morphological descriptions and comparisons of immatures of five species of Acanthoderini are presented. Larvae and pupae of Psapharochrus cylindricus (Bates, 1861) and P. vetustus (Bates, 1880), larva of P. jaspideus (Germar, 1824), and pupae of Oreodera glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) and Steirastoma stellio Pascoe, 1866, from Brazil, are described; larvae of the two latter species are redescribed. Until now, immatures of 20 species of this tribe were known. Remarks on characters in Acanthoderini and genera with known immatures are also included. PMID:27470784

  8. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  9. Validation of the intact rat weanling uterotrophic assay with notes on the formulation and analysis of the positive control chemical in vehicle.

    PubMed

    Tyl, Rochelle W; Marr, Melissa C; Brown, Sherri S; Dolbow, Emily A; Myers, Christina B

    2010-10-01

    The intact female weanling version in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) uterotrophic assay Test Guideline (TG) 440 is proposed as an alternative to the adult ovariectomized female version, because it does not involve surgical intervention (vs the ovariectomized version) and detects direct/indirect-acting estrogenic/anti-estrogenic substances (vs the ovariectomized version which detects only direct-acting estrogenic/anti-estrogenic substances binding to the estrogen receptor). This validation study followed OECD TG 440, with six female weanling rats (postnatal day 21) per dose group and six treatment groups. Females were weighed and dosed once daily by oral gavage for three consecutive days, with one of six doses of 17α-ethinyl estradiol in corn oil at 5 ml kg⁻¹ at 0 and 0.1-10 µg kg⁻¹ per day. On postnatal day 24, the juvenile females were euthanized by CO₂ asphyxiation, weighed, livers weighed and uteri weighed wet and blotted. The presence or absence of vaginal patency was recorded. Absolute and relative (to terminal body weight) uterine wet and blotted weights and uterine luminal fluid weights were significantly increased at 3.0 and 10.0 (both P < 0.01) µg kg⁻¹ per day, and increased to ~140% of control values at 1.0 µg kg⁻¹ per day (not statistically significantly). In vivo body weights, weight changes, feed consumption, liver weights and terminal body weights were unaffected. Vaginal patency was not acquired in any female at any dose, although vaginal puckering was observed in one female at 10.0 µg kg⁻¹ per day. Therefore, this intact weanling uterotrophic assay is validated in our laboratory for use under US and European endocrine toxicity testing programs/legislation. PMID:20981862

  10. Chronic asthma results in cognitive dysfunction in immature mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruo-Bing; Sun, Pei-Li; Zhao, An-Peng; Gu, Jun; Ding, Xu; Qi, Jun; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness today. However, little attention is paid for the impacts of chronic asthma-induced hypoxia on cognitive function in children. The present study used immature mice to establish ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma model, and found that chronic asthma impaired learning and memory ability in Morris Water Maze test. Further study revealed that chronic asthma destroyed synaptic structure, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) maintaining in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices. We found that intermittent hypoxia during chronic asthma resulted in down-regulation of c-fos, Arc and neurogenesis, which was responsible for the impairment of learning and memory in immature mice. Moreover, our results showed that budesonide treatment alone was inadequate for attenuating chronic asthma-induced cognitive impairment. Therefore, our findings indicate that chronic asthma might result in cognitive dysfunction in children, and more attention should be paid for chronic asthma-induced brain damage in the clinical therapy. PMID:23639832

  11. Detoxification and function of immature tomato.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Onoda, Eri

    2016-10-15

    α-Tomatine and chlorophyll (a and b) decreased, and β-carotene and lycopene increased with ripening of tomatoes. α-Tomatine was localised in peel of immature green tomatoes. The dose-response curve of α-tomatine determined by WST-1 (water soluble tetrazolium) assay was the same as that by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assay, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of α-tomatine depends on the destruction of plasma membrane. Immature green tomatoes had little cytotoxic effect after one month-incubation with 25% ethanol or 4.5% acetate at 7°C, and α-tomatine was decomposed by crude enzymes extracted from immature green tomatoes. Immature green tomatoes incubated with 4.5% acetic acid inhibited the accumulation of lipid in adipocytes. From the above facts the detoxification and the anti-obesity effect of immature green tomatoes are expected to be controlled by the removal of peel, the enzymatic decomposition or the incubation with 4.5% acetate or 25% ethanol. PMID:27173549

  12. Does Male Care, Provided to Immature Individuals, Influence Immature Fitness in Rhesus Macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Among many mammals, maternal care strongly impacts infant survival; however, less is known about whether adult males also affect infant fitness. Paternal care is expected when providing care enhances offspring survival and reproduction, which likewise increases fathers’ fitness. Males might also care for unrelated immature individuals to increase their mating probability with the immature individuals’ mothers. Studies in multimale primate groups showed that sires enhance food access for offspring and provide protection in conflicts. Furthermore, fathers’ presence during infancy has been suggested to accelerate offspring sexual maturation. However, no study has yet directly linked the degree of father-offspring bonds to offspring fitness in primates. We previously reported father-offspring affiliation in rhesus macaques, pronounced during early infancy and independent of mothers’ presence. The present study aims at investigating whether affiliation with fathers or other males affects proxies of immature fitness (body mass gain, body fat and testis size). First, we combined behavioral, genetic and morphometric data from 55 subjects of one group. Second, using demographic and genetic data, we investigated for 92 individuals of the population whether mother- and father-offspring co-residence during immaturity influenced offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Our results show that focal rank and higher amounts of affiliation with high-ranking males during infancy tend to positively impact body mass gain of female, but not male focal animals. In contrast, body mass gain of male focal individuals, but not females’, appeared to be higher when affiliation of male immature individuals was evenly distributed across their adult male partners. Moreover, we found mothers’, but not fathers’, presence during immaturity to predict offspring LRS. Our results suggest that male-immature affiliation, but not father-offspring co-residence, potentially impacts

  13. “All in the mind”? Brain-targeting chemical delivery system of 17β-estradiol (Estredox) produces significant uterotrophic side effect

    PubMed Central

    Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Szarka, Szabolcs; Nguyen, Vien; Sahyouni, Fatima; Walker, Cary; White, Shastazia; Talamantes, Tatjana; Prokai, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Here we revisit the peculiarly named redox chemical delivery system concept. This unique prodrug approach has long been claimed to be capable of targeting 17β-estradiol (E2), which has numerous beneficial central effects, into the brain without detrimental peripheral hormonal exposure. Using a well-established protocol to monitor E2’s antidepressant–like effect, we show that the administration of this chemical delivery system incorporated into hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (i.e., Estredox), indeed, triggers a transient antidepressant-like behavior in ovariectomized mice. At the same time, even an acute dose of the carefully purified chemical delivery system produces significant circulating E2 levels and uterotrophic side effects for several days after drug administration. For the first time, we also unequivocally show by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry that the uterus of the Estredox-treated animals contains a large quantity of E2 compared to that of the control group. These thus far unexposed yet consequential peripheral side effects brought about by Estredox call for a thorough and unbiased reassessment of the extent of brain-targeting of the hormone via the chemical delivery system approach. PMID:24380028

  14. Cryopreservation of immature embryos of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Pence, V C

    1991-06-01

    Immature, white zygotic embryos of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) retained the ability to produce callus and to undergo somatic embryogenesis after slow hydrated freezing and desiccated fast freezing in liquid nitrogen. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis occurred in embryos which were precultured on a medium containing 3% sucrose, frozen slowly with cryoprotectants before exposure to liquid nitrogen, and recovered on a medium containing 3 mg/liter NAA. Embryos precultured on media containing sucrose increasing to 21% had a higher rate of survival but were less embryogenic after freezing. These results suggest that immature embryos might be used for long-term germplasm storage of T. cacao germplasm. PMID:24221494

  15. Simethicone retinopathy in an immature infant.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie; Tsai, Tony; O'Brien, Joan; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe retinal findings in an immature infant consuming simethicone, a common over-the-counter drug used in the treatment of colic. The lesions are most consistent with an embolic phenomenon possibly from systemic absorption of a medication such as simethicone. PMID:21053868

  16. Human iPSC-Derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by Increasing TIMP-1 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Pleasure, David E; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-10

    Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrated that immature astrocytes, as opposed to mature ones, promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promoted myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia and have important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID:27134175

  17. Immature Dengue Virus Is Infectious in Human Immature Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Receptor Molecule DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Torres Pedraza, Silvia; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. Important target cells during DENV infection are macrophages, monocytes, and immature dendritic cells (imDCs). DENV-infected cells are known to secrete a large number of partially immature and fully immature particles alongside mature virions. Fully immature DENV particles are considered non-infectious, but antibodies have been shown to rescue their infectious properties. This suggests that immature DENV particles only contribute to the viral load observed in patients with a heterologous DENV re-infection. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we re-evaluated the infectious properties of fully immature particles in absence and presence of anti-DENV human serum. We show that immature DENV is infectious in cells expressing DC-SIGN. Furthermore, we demonstrate that immature dendritic cells, in contrast to macrophage-like cells, do not support antibody-dependent enhancement of immature DENV. Conclusions/Significance Our data shows that immature DENV can infect imDCs through interaction with DC-SIGN, suggesting that immature and partially immature DENV particles may contribute to dengue pathogenesis during primary infection. Furthermore, since antibodies do not further stimulate DENV infectivity on imDCs we propose that macrophages/monocytes rather than imDCs contribute to the increased viral load observed during severe heterotypic DENV re-infections. PMID:24886790

  18. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  19. Immature mediastinal teratoma with unusual histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Osama M.; Mohammed, Shamayel F.; Aljubran, Ali; Saleh, Waleed N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a well-recognized group of heterogeneous neoplasms with diverse clinical, histopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic characteristics. We present a rare case of a locally aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant immature mediastinal teratoma with a peculiar histological finding of a multilineage somatic-type malignant degeneration. A 21-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of persistent, blood-tinged productive cough and shortness of breath. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a heterogeneous mass occupying the right hemithorax and abutting on adjacent structures. CT-guided biopsy was consistent with immature teratoma. Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was initiated, albeit without success; the mass showed interval progression in size, and surgical resection through clamshell incision was performed. Histological assessment of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma and revealed an extensive multilineage malignant differentiation into sarcomatous, carcinomatous, and melanomatous components. The patient underwent an uneventful recovery but presented 2 months later with extensive liver and bone melanomatous metastases. In this report, relevant findings from the literature are also highlighted. Despite being exceptionally rare, such tumors carry poor prognosis. Understanding the clinicopathological characteristics and biological behavior of such tumors may provide an insight into interventions tailored to improve the otherwise dismal disease outlook. PMID:27367976

  20. Deep pulmonary lymphatics in immature lungs.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Renée; Cormack, Meredith; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Tsuda, Akira

    2009-09-01

    Recently, we found that the translocation of inhaled nanoparticles from the air space to secondary organs is age dependent and substantially greater in neonates than in adults (J Respir Crit Care Med 177: A48, 2008). One reason for this difference might be age-dependent differences in alveolar barrier integrity. Because the neonate lung is undergoing morphogenetic and fluid balance changes, we hypothesize that the alveolar barrier of developing lungs is more easily compromised and susceptible to foreign material influx than that of adult lungs. On the basis of these hypotheses, we predict that the postnatally developing lung is also more likely to allow the translocation of some materials from the air space to the lymphatic lumens. To test this idea, we intratracheally instilled methyl methacrylate into immature and adult lungs and compared lymphatic filling between these two age groups. Scanning electron microscopy of the resultant corrosion casts revealed peribronchial saccular and conduit lymphatic architecture. Deep pulmonary lymphatic casts were present on the majority (58.5%) of airways in immature lungs, but lymphatic casting in adult lungs, as anticipated, was much more infrequent (21.6%). Thus the neonate lung appears to be more susceptible than the adult lung to the passage of instilled methyl methacrylate from the air space into the lymphatics. We speculate that this could imply greater probability of translocation of other materials, such as nanoparticles, from the immature lung as well. PMID:19556455

  1. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  2. Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes.

    PubMed

    Taira, N; Yoshifuji, H; Boray, J C

    1997-07-01

    Mice were successfully infected with metacercariae of the Japanese Fasciola sp., resulting in the recovery of a mean number of 110 live immature flukes per mouse 4-5 days after inoculation. Twenty-four mice were then inoculated orally, each with a mean number of 68 freshly recovered immature flukes. The livers of 7 of the 24 recipient mice showed migratory lesions of capsular and subcapsular granulomatous infiltration and 2 of those mice also had haemorrhagic lesions. The lesions were typical of those caused by active migration of early immature flukes. However, no flukes were found in the livers of the recipient mice at necropsy when the flukes were aged 14 weeks. In another experiment, 10 piglets were given fresh livers of mice harbouring approximately 2000 live immature flukes aged 3-7 days. Two additional piglets were inoculated with 2000 metacercariae of Fasciola. All pigs were killed when the flukes were 14 days old. Granulomatous lesions were present in all pigs, except in those that were given livers containing flukes aged 7 days. The lesions were localized, forming well-defined foci, different from the typical migratory lesions normally observed in mouse or sheep liver at the early stage of fluke migration. From the 10 pigs given livers, 65 live flukes were recovered at necropsy, 0.29% of the estimated number of immature flukes given. From the 2 pigs which received 2000 metacercariae each, a total of 198 flukes were recovered (5%). The results of the experiments suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh livers infected with immature Fasciola spp. could become infected with liver fluke. PMID:9279579

  3. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  4. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S.; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26752847

  5. Congenital immature teratoma of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Rickert, C H; Probst-Cousin, S; Louwen, F; Feldt, B; Gullotta, F

    1997-10-01

    Congenital intracranial tumors are very rare and only account for 0.5-1.5% of all childhood brain tumors. Even rarer are those with prenatal manifestation. The most common of these present at birth are teratomas, which show divergent differentiation with 90% of them containing tissues from all three germ layers. We report a rare case of an intrauterine congenital immature teratoma in a female fetus at 23 weeks of gestation, which was sonographically diagnosed in vivo by detection of the tumor and associated craniomegaly. Because of the poor prognosis, termination of the pregnancy was induced by Rivanol instillation. The cerebral tumor was confirmed at autopsy and was not associated with any other malformations. Histological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are presented. PMID:9403206

  6. Interspecific differences between small mammals as hosts of immature Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and a model for detection of high risk areas of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M

    1996-10-01

    Fourteen species of small mammals were captured from July 1990 through August 1991 in Tennessee, from which 1,217 immature Dermacentor variabilis and 1 Ixodes dentatus were collected. Mammal species were given scores of importance (TS) as hosts to immature D. variabilis based on mean intensity and prevalence. The rice rat ranked the highest, with a TS = 5, followed by the golden mouse TS = 4, white-footed mouse TS = 3, pine vole TS = 2, cotton rat TS = 1, with the Norway rat, house mouse, and short-tailed shrew all having a TS = 0. Assigning a TS allows a quantitative method for differentiating and ranking small mammals as hosts for immature D. variabilis. Relative abundance of a species can also be important in determining D. variabilis populations, even with a low TS. The potential of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSFP) to occur in an area was estimated using the total score of small mammal hosts in an area and multiplying the relative abundance of important host species. The RMSFP of a site, based only upon small mammal species composition and relative abundance of important host species, was an accurate estimate of adult D. variabilis infesting raccoons and opossums at that trap site (P < or = 0.001). A RMSFP of 1.61 is needed to produce an estimated 252 adults per ha (RMSF threshold) at 98% survival of engorged immature ticks (P < 0.001). PMID:8885876

  7. WNK1-regulated inhibitory phosphorylation of the KCC2 cotransporter maintains the depolarizing action of GABA in immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Perrine; Kahle, Kristopher T; Zhang, Jinwei; Hertz, Nicholas; Pisella, Lucie I; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Schaller, Fabienne; Duan, JingJing; Khanna, Arjun R; Bishop, Paul N; Shokat, Kevan M; Medina, Igor

    2015-06-30

    Activation of Cl(-)-permeable γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors elicits synaptic inhibition in mature neurons but excitation in immature neurons. This developmental "switch" in the GABA function depends on a postnatal decrease in intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration mediated by KCC2, a Cl(-)-extruding K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter. We showed that the serine-threonine kinase WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] forms a physical complex with KCC2 in the developing mouse brain. Dominant-negative mutation, genetic depletion, or chemical inhibition of WNK1 in immature neurons triggered a hyperpolarizing shift in GABA activity by enhancing KCC2-mediated Cl(-) extrusion. This increase in KCC2 activity resulted from reduced inhibitory phosphorylation of KCC2 at two C-terminal threonines, Thr(906) and Thr(1007). Phosphorylation of both Thr(906) and Thr(1007) was increased in immature versus mature neurons. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanism regulating Cl(-) homeostasis in immature neurons, and suggest that WNK1-regulated changes in KCC2 phosphorylation contribute to the developmental excitatory-to-inhibitory GABA sequence. PMID:26126716

  8. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides I.; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, J. Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. Purpose: To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Results: Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm2; P < .001), femoral tunnel angles (32.1° vs 72.8°; P < .001), and medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 vs 36.1 mm from lateral cortex; P = .001), respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of distal femoral physeal disruption (r = –0.8255, P = .003). Conclusion: Femoral tunnels created with an independent tunnel drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. Clinical Relevance: As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel

  9. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  10. Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

  11. “Young at heart”: Regenerative potential linked to immature cardiac phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Renata S.M.; Skroblin, Philipp; Munster, Alex B.; Tomlins, Hannah; Langley, Sarah R.; Zampetaki, Anna; Yin, Xiaoke; Wardle, Fiona C.; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The adult human myocardium is incapable of regeneration; yet, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can regenerate damaged myocardium. Similar to the zebrafish heart, hearts of neonatal, but not adult mice are capable of myocardial regeneration. We performed a proteomics analysis of adult zebrafish hearts and compared their protein expression profile to hearts from neonatal and adult mice. Using difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), there was little overlap between the proteome from adult mouse (> 8 weeks old) and adult zebrafish (18 months old) hearts. Similarly, there was a significant degree of mismatch between the protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse hearts. Enrichment analysis of the selected proteins revealed over-expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins in the cardiac proteome of the adult zebrafish heart similar to neonatal and 4 days old mice, whereas in hearts of adult mice there was a mitochondria-related predominance in protein expression. Importantly, we noted pronounced differences in the myofilament composition: the adult zebrafish heart lacks many of the myofilament proteins of differentiated adult cardiomyocytes such as the ventricular isoforms of myosin light chains and nebulette. Instead, troponin I and myozenin 1 were expressed as skeletal isoforms rather than cardiac isoforms. The relative immaturity of the adult zebrafish heart was further supported by cardiac microRNA data. Our assessment of zebrafish and mammalian hearts challenges the assertions on the translational potential of cardiac regeneration in the zebrafish model. The immature myofilament composition of the fish heart may explain why adult mouse and human cardiomyocytes lack this endogenous repair mechanism. PMID:26827899

  12. Immature Stages of the Neotropical Cracker Butterfly, Hamadryas epinome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Carneiro, Eduardo; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The external morphology of the immature stages of Hamadryas epinome (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae : Biblidinae) is described, including drawings, photos and scanning electron micrographs. PMID:23414072

  13. Mallard survival from local to immature stage in southwestern Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Dzubin, A.; Gollop, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    We used 3,670 reciveries from 32,647 bandings of mallards in southwestern Saskatchewan during 1956-59 to estimate the probability of surviving from the local, flightless stage to the flighted, immature stage. The probability of surviving from the local to the immature stage was 0.84 +/- 0.05 (SE) for males and females. The geographic distribution of direct recoveries was similar for the birds banded as local and immature. Probabilities of surivival for banded mallards can only be estimated from late summer to late summer. The estimate of survival from local to immature stage fills a gap in our knowledge of mallard mortality from female-brood breakup to the time of banding in late summer.

  14. [Immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) (Nymphalidae: Morphinae: Brassolini)].

    PubMed

    Specht, Maria J S; Paluch, Márlon

    2009-01-01

    The biology and external morphology of the immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) are described from ovipositions collected on leaves of Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae) in the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco state, Brazil. PMID:20098927

  15. Immature Gastric Teratoma in a Newborn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Hemant; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Srivastava, Divya; Chandana, Abha; Prakash, Sant

    2016-01-01

    A case of immature gastric teratoma in a neonate is being reported here. The neonate was presented with abdominal mass and distension and managed with excision of mass; the patient is doing fine postoperatively. PMID:27123405

  16. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S.; Costa, Magdaline; Ghahremani, Morvarid Farhang; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J. Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S.; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P.; Lock, Richard B.; Curtis, David J.; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J.

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  17. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S; Costa, Magdaline; Farhang Ghahremani, Morvarid; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P; Lock, Richard B; Curtis, David J; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P P; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  18. Functional consequences of perturbed CXCL12 signal processing: analyses of immature hematopoiesis in GRK6-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chudziak, Doreen; Spohn, Gabriele; Karpova, Darja; Dauber, Katrin; Wiercinska, Eliza; Miettinen, Johanna A; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Bönig, Halvard

    2015-03-15

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in bone marrow (BM) in an environment rich in CXCL12, the ligand for CXCR4, which is constitutively expressed on all immature hematopoietic cells in BM. This ligand-receptor pair critically controls HSPC retention and (relative) quiescence in BM. Interestingly, in a chemokine-abundant environment, CXCR4 surface expression and CXCL12 sensitivity of BM-residing HSPCs are continuously maintained. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar pattern of G-protein signal integration by BM-HSPCs are unknown. G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) control receptor function by phosphorylating the intracellular domains upon ligand-induced activation, which results in receptor internalization and transient refractoriness. Using, therefore, a GRK6-deficient (GRK6(-/-)) mouse, we sought to address how perturbed ligand-induced CXCR4 (in)activation affects HSPC behavior in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, GRK6(-/-) HSPCs were characterized by hyper-responsiveness to CXCL12, as expected. In vivo, GRK6(-/-) immature hematopoiesis was characterized by a marked expansion of immature hematopoiesis in spleens and a modest repopulation defect in serial competitive transplantation. Enforced mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and AMD3100 was normal, as was hematopoietic regeneration after noncompetitive transplantation or pharmacological myelosuppression. These observations illustrate that GRK-mediated restriction of CXCR4 signal input after ligand engagement is largely dispensable for BM-resident HSPCs, which may explain how continuous CXCL12 responsiveness of BM-HSPCs can be maintained. PMID:25316534

  19. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  20. The morphology of the immature HIV-1 virion.

    PubMed

    Ohagen, A; Luftig, R B; Reicin, A S; Yin, L; Ikuta, K; Kimura, T; Goff, S P; Höglund, S

    1997-02-01

    Newly released HIV-1 particles exhibit an immature morphology, previously reported to be characterized by a doughnut/ring-shaped structure. In this study we showed that among immature extracellular virus particles not only were particles with doughnut-shaped morphology present, but particles with a crescent morphology were also observed. These particles occurred with different frequencies, depending on whether they were in the cell or in cell-free fractions. The crescent-shaped particles were more abundant in the cell-free fractions, whereas the particles in the cell fraction mainly exhibited doughnut-shaped morphology. The crescent-shaped structure may represent an assembly intermediate. PMID:9024816

  1. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    the end of their evolution. However, Chandra data along with theoretical work suggest this may not be the case. When single and double stars interact in the crowded centers of globular clusters, double stars can form that transfer mass and give off X-rays. Since such double stars are expected to mostly be formed in the middle of a globular cluster’s evolution and then lost in old age, the relative number of X-ray sources gives clues about the stage of evolution the cluster is in. A new study by Fregeau of 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way shows that three of them have unusually large number of X-ray sources, or X- ray binaries, suggesting the clusters are middle-aged. Previously, these globular clusters had been classified as being in old age because they had very tight concentrations of stars in their centers, another litmus test of age used by astronomers. The implication is that most globular clusters, including the other ten studied by Fregeau, are not in the middle age of their evolution, as previously thought, but are actually in adolescence. "It’s remarkable that these objects, which are thought to be some of the oldest in the Universe, may really be very immature in their development," said Fregeau whose paper appears in The Astrophysical Journal. "This would represent a major change in thinking about the current evolutionary status of globular clusters." If confirmed, this result would help reconcile other observations with recent theoretical work that suggest the tightness of the central concentration of stars in the most evolved globular clusters is consistent with them being in a middle, rather than an advanced phase of evolution. Other theoretical studies have suggested it can take longer than the current age of the Universe for globular clusters to reach old age. Besides improving the understanding of the basic evolution of globular clusters, this result has implications for understanding stellar interactions in dense environments. It also

  2. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    the end of their evolution. However, Chandra data along with theoretical work suggest this may not be the case. When single and double stars interact in the crowded centers of globular clusters, double stars can form that transfer mass and give off X-rays. Since such double stars are expected to mostly be formed in the middle of a globular cluster’s evolution and then lost in old age, the relative number of X-ray sources gives clues about the stage of evolution the cluster is in. A new study by Fregeau of 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way shows that three of them have unusually large number of X-ray sources, or X- ray binaries, suggesting the clusters are middle-aged. Previously, these globular clusters had been classified as being in old age because they had very tight concentrations of stars in their centers, another litmus test of age used by astronomers. The implication is that most globular clusters, including the other ten studied by Fregeau, are not in the middle age of their evolution, as previously thought, but are actually in adolescence. "It’s remarkable that these objects, which are thought to be some of the oldest in the Universe, may really be very immature in their development," said Fregeau whose paper appears in The Astrophysical Journal. "This would represent a major change in thinking about the current evolutionary status of globular clusters." If confirmed, this result would help reconcile other observations with recent theoretical work that suggest the tightness of the central concentration of stars in the most evolved globular clusters is consistent with them being in a middle, rather than an advanced phase of evolution. Other theoretical studies have suggested it can take longer than the current age of the Universe for globular clusters to reach old age. Besides improving the understanding of the basic evolution of globular clusters, this result has implications for understanding stellar interactions in dense environments. It also

  3. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  4. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  5. Multiscale Computer Simulation of the Immature HIV-1 Virion

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale computer simulations, employing a combination of experimental data and coarse-graining methods, are used to explore the structure of the immature HIV-1 virion. A coarse-grained (CG) representation is developed for the virion membrane shell and Gag polypeptides using molecular level information. Building on the results from electron cryotomography experiments, the simulations under certain conditions reveal the existence of an incomplete p6 hexameric lattice formed from hexameric bundles of the Gag CA domains. In particular, the formation and stability of the immature Gag lattice at the CG level requires enhanced interfacial interactions of the CA protein C-terminal domains (CTDs). An exact mapping of the CG representation back to the molecular level then allows for detailed atomistic molecular dynamics studies to confirm the existence of these enhanced CACTD interactions and to probe their possible origin. The multiscale simulations further provide insight into potential CACTD mutations that may disrupt or modify the Gag immature lattice assembly process in the immature HIV-1 virion. PMID:21044572

  6. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. PMID:26219350

  7. ASB2α regulates migration of immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lamsoul, Isabelle; Métais, Arnaud; Gouot, Emmanuelle; Heuzé, Mélina L; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Lutz, Pierre G

    2013-07-25

    The actin-binding protein filamins (FLNs) are major organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. They control the elasticity and stiffness of the actin network and provide connections with the extracellular microenvironment by anchoring transmembrane receptors to the actin filaments. Although numerous studies have revealed the importance of FLN levels, relatively little is known about the regulation of its stability in physiological relevant settings. Here, we show that the ASB2α cullin 5-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase is highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) and is down-regulated after DC maturation. We further demonstrate that FLNs are substrates of ASB2α in immature DCs and therefore are not stably expressed in these cells, whereas they exhibit high levels of expression in mature DCs. Using ASB2 conditional knockout mice, we show that ASB2α is a critical regulator of cell spreading and podosome rosette formation in immature DCs. Furthermore, we show that ASB2(-/-) immature DCs exhibit reduced matrix-degrading function leading to defective migration. Altogether, our results point to ASB2α and FLNs as newcomers in DC biology. PMID:23632887

  8. Assessing estrogenic activity and reproductive toxicity of organic extracts in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Cao, Jun; Xing, Chuanhong; Wang, Zhijin; Cui, Liuxin

    2015-03-01

    Trace level organic contaminants might not be completely removed from the municipal wastewater and the safety incurred by them had become a concern. These organic pollutants were extracted from water samples and detected by GC-MS. The estrogenic activity of the organic was tested using Yeast Estrogen Screen to detect the transcriptional activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and immature mouse uterotrophic bioassays to study reproductive toxicity. The results of GC-MS demonstrated the organic extracts in the municipal wastewater and the WWTP effluents Included two major categories, benzenes and Phthalates. The estrogenic activity of organic extracts from the secondary effluent (SE) and tertiary effluent (TE) was below that of the raw wastewater (RW). Results of uterotrophic bioassay demonstrated that SE would bring some potential hazards on animals while TE was relatively safe. PMID:25818108

  9. Description of immatures of the South American dictyopharid Taosa (C) longula (Hemiptera Fulgoroidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immature stages of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Dictyopharidae) are described and a key for their differentiation is provided. The descriptions and biological observations of immature stages were made on specimens collected on Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) ...

  10. Comparison of Blastocyst and Sage Media for In Vitro Maturation of Human Immature Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pongsuthirak, Pallop; Songveeratham, Sorramon

    2015-01-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an attractive alternative to conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, as it involves no or minimal ovarian stimulation. Currently, commercialized media specifically designed for IVM are often used. These media are expensive, have limited shelf life, and must be ordered in advance. If standard culture media can be used in place of the specialized IVM media, it would simplify management and make IVM more feasible and more widely employed in ART centers around the world, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. This study was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that blastocyst medium was as good as commercial IVM medium to support maturation and developmental competence of human immature oocytes as previously shown in the mouse system. Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 89 pregnant women during cesarean deliveries between April 2012 and February 2013. Sibling oocytes were allocated to Sage IVM media (512 oocytes) or blastocyst medium (520 oocytes) and assessed for maturation 36 hours later. Mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured up to 144 hours. There was no difference in maturation rate (65.0% vs 68.7%; P = .218) or fertilization rate (66.9% vs 66.4%; P = .872) of oocytes matured in vitro in both media. There was also no difference in the formation of good-quality blastocysts (46.6% vs 45.9%; P = .889) in the 2 groups. Further study should be done to ascertain implantation and pregnancy potential of these embryos. PMID:25015901

  11. Alpha-CaMKII deficiency causes immature dentate gyrus, a novel candidate endophenotype of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Maekawa, Motoko; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Kajii, Yasushi; Maeda, Jun; Soma, Miho; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Ohira, Koji; Toyama, Keiko; Kanzaki, Kouji; Fukunaga, Kohji; Sudo, Yusuke; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Suzuki, Hidenori; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yuasa, Shigeki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one solution, but represents a considerable challenge in human subjects. Here we report that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII+/-) have profoundly dysregulated behaviours and impaired neuronal development in the dentate gyrus (DG). The behavioral abnormalities include a severe working memory deficit and an exaggerated infradian rhythm, which are similar to symptoms seen in schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric disorders. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus of these mutants revealed that the expression levels of more than 2000 genes were significantly changed. Strikingly, among the 20 most downregulated genes, 5 had highly selective expression in the DG. Whereas BrdU incorporated cells in the mutant mouse DG was increased by more than 50 percent, the number of mature neurons in the DG was dramatically decreased. Morphological and physiological features of the DG neurons in the mutants were strikingly similar to those of immature DG neurons in normal rodents. Moreover, c-Fos expression in the DG after electric footshock was almost completely and selectively abolished in the mutants. Statistical clustering of human post-mortem brains using 10 genes differentially-expressed in the mutant mice were used to classify individuals into two clusters, one of which contained 16 of 18 schizophrenic patients. Nearly half of the differentially-expressed probes in the schizophrenia-enriched cluster encoded genes that are involved in neurogenesis or in neuronal migration/maturation, including calbindin, a marker for mature DG neurons. Based on these results, we propose that an "immature DG" in adulthood might induce alterations in behavior and serve as a promising

  12. Association of acute myeloid leukemia's most immature phenotype with risk groups and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jonathan M; Zeidner, Joshua F; Morse, Sarah; Blackford, Amanda L; Perkins, Brandy; Yanagisawa, Breann; Zhang, Hao; Morsberger, Laura; Karp, Judith; Ning, Yi; Gocke, Christopher D; Rosner, Gary L; Smith, B Douglas; Jones, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    The precise phenotype and biology of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells remain controversial, in part because the "gold standard" immunodeficient mouse engraftment assay fails in a significant fraction of patients and identifies multiple cell-types in others. We sought to analyze the clinical utility of a novel assay for putative leukemia stem cells in a large prospective cohort. The leukemic clone's most primitive hematopoietic cellular phenotype was prospectively identified in 109 newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients, and analyzed against clinical risk groups and outcomes. Most (80/109) patients harbored CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells. The CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells in 47 of the 80 patients displayed intermediate aldehyde dehydrogenase expression, while normal CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells expressed high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase. In the other 33/80 patients, the CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells exhibited high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and most (28/33, 85%) harbored poor-risk cytogenetics or FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem translocations. No CD34(+) leukemia cells could be detected in 28/109 patients, including 14/21 patients with nucleophosmin-1 mutations and 6/7 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. The patients with CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity manifested a significantly lower complete remission rate, as well as poorer event-free and overall survivals. The leukemic clone's most immature phenotype was heterogeneous with respect to CD34, CD38, and ALDH expression, but correlated with acute myeloid leukemia risk groups and outcomes. The strong clinical correlations suggest that the most immature phenotype detectable in the leukemia might serve as a biomarker for "clinically-relevant" leukemia stem cells. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01349972. PMID:26819054

  13. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  14. Immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, André V L

    2006-01-01

    The immature stages of Adelpha malea goyama Schaus are described from the Estação Ecol6gica do Caiuá, Paraná State, Brazil. The species uses the native liana Arrabidaea mutabilis Bur. & K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) as larval hostplant in the study site. Isolated eggs are laid on leaf tips, and are similar in shape to those described for other species of Adelpha Hübner. Larvae pass through five stadia during 21 days, and first to third instars construct frass chains. Later instars rest on the upper leaf surface, and their body is covered by rigid branched scoli. The general profile of the pupa is elongated, with short head horns projecting laterally and with segment A2 projecting and curved anteriorly. Comparisons with closely related species of Adelpha are not conclusive, and more species in the genus need to be reared before a clear pattern of the variation in immature morphology becomes evident. PMID:17144133

  15. Immature Stages of Development in the Parasitoid Wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Leonela Zusel Carabajal; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Cladera, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    The morphological changes experienced during the immature stages of the solitary parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) were studied. This natural enemy of several species of tephritid fruit flies is widely used in biological control strategies. Immature stages are poorly understood in endoparasitoids because they exist within the host. In the present work, developmental processes are described for this species, reared in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. At 25° C, 85% RH, and with an 18:6 L:D photoperiod, preimaginal development takes about 16 days. Five preimaginal stages can be described: egg, three larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and pharate adult. Superparasitism was found in 20% of the host pupae, and the number of oviposition scars was positively correlated with the number of parasitoid larvae per host puparium. The results are compared and discussed with previous studies on related species. PMID:20569133

  16. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  17. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates. PMID:24158401

  18. Salvage of Immature Arteriovenous Fistulas with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo Choo, Sung Wook; Lieu, Wei Chiang; Choo, In-Wook

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the salvage of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that fail to mature. From November 1998 to February 2003, 19 patients who were treated with PTA due to immature forearm AVFs were selected. Fistulography and PTA were performed via a retrograde transvenous approach after direct puncture of the fistular vein. Technical success was defined as less than a 30% residual stenosis, whereas clinical success was defined as the ability to perform at least one session of normal hemodialysis after PTA. Findings of fistulograms, success rates of PTA, and patency rates were evaluated. On initial fistulograms, stenoses were observed in all cases and 68% (13/19) of the stenoses were located in the perianastomotic area of these immature AVFs. The initial technical success rate was 84% (16/19). Technical failures comprised two patients with diffuse narrowing and segmental thrombosis of the cephalic veins and one case of elastic recoil of the anastomotic site stenosis after PTA. Two patients were immediately lost on follow-up. The remaining 14 cases underwent successful hemodialysis 0 to 33 (mean = 15) days after PTA, showing 74% (14/19) clinical success. Although accessory branch veins were noted in most cases (74%, 14/19), leaving them alone did not affect the maturation of AVFs following PTA. There was no significant procedural or late complication. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 61 and 82%, respectively. For those AVFs that failed to mature, there were stenoses along their vascular courses as underlying causes. For the percutaneous procedure, the retrograde transvenous approach was a reasonable one. As PTA is effective and quick for the salvation of immature AVFs, it can be considered a primary method for salvaging these immature AVFs.

  19. Isolated Diaphyseal Fractures of the Radius in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Van Dijk, Niek C.; Raaymakers, Ernst L.

    2009-01-01

    Diaphyseal radius fractures without associated ulna fracture or radioulnar dislocation (isolated fracture of the radius) are recognized in adults but are rarely described in skeletally immature patients. A search of our database (1974–2002) identified 17 pediatric patients that had an isolated fracture of the radius. Among the 13 patients with at least 1 year follow-up, ten were treated with manipulative reduction and immobilization in an above elbow cast and three had initial operative treatment with plate and screw fixation. These 13 patients were evaluated for an average of 18 months (range, 12 to 45 months) after injury using the system of Price and colleagues. The incidence of isolated diaphyseal radius fractures in skeletally immature patients was 0.56 per year in our database and represented 27% of the 63 patients with a diaphyseal forearm fracture. All 13 patients, with at least 1 year follow-up, regained full elbow flexion and extension and full forearm rotation. According to the classification system of Price, all 13 patients (100%) had an excellent result. As in adults, isolated radius fractures seem to occur in children more frequently than previously appreciated. Treatment of isolated radius fractures in skeletally immature patients has a low complication rate, and excellent functional outcomes are the rule. PMID:19859772

  20. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  1. Strain differences in the response of the mouse to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Greenman, D L; Dooley, K; Breeden, C R

    1977-10-01

    BALB/c StCrlfC3Hf/Nctr, C57BL/6/, C57BL/6 X BALB/c F1 hybrid (B6CF1), and monohybrid-cross offspring from the breeding of B6CF1 mice were examined with respect to uterine, vaginal, and thymus responses to diethylstilbestrol (DES). About 400 mice of each genetic population were used. Weanling mice were fed DES at dietary concentrations of 2.5 to 1,000 ppb (microgram/kg feed) for 6 days and were killed by cervical dislocation about 20 hr after removal of the feed. C57BL/6, B6CF1, and the monohybrid-cross offspring did not differ in the uterine-weight response to DES, but the slope of the dose-response line was shallower for the BALB/c than for the other strains. Dietary DES concentrations of 250 ppb or more inhibited the uterotrophic response in all populations. Vaginal cornification occurred at lower concentrations of DES in the C57BL/6 strain than in the B6CF1 animals. BALB/c and monohybrid-cross offspring were indistinguishable from each other in their vaginal response to Des and were less sensitive to DES than the other mouse populations. The use of ethanol or corn oil as the solvent for mixing DES into the diet had no apparent effect on the uterine weight or vaginal response in any of the mice. DES depressed thymus weight in a dose-related fashion at dietary concentrations of 100 ppb and above in all genetic populations. PMID:926210

  2. Establishment of culturing system for ex-vivo expansion of angiogenic immature erythroid cells, and its application for treatment of patients with chronic severe lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masato; Toba, Ken; Ozawa, Takuya; Kato, Kiminori; Yanagawa, Takao; Ikarashi, Noboru; Takayama, Tsugumi; Suzuki, Tomoyasu; Hanawa, Haruo; Fuse, Ichiro; Nakata, Kou; Narita, Miwako; Takahashi, Masuhiro; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2010-09-01

    Angiogenesis therapy by bone marrow-mononuclear cell implantation (BMI) has been utilized. We found that erythroid cells played an essential role in angiogenesis by BMI. We then tried to establish a novel cell therapy by implantation of ex vivo expanded immature erythroblasts cultured from hematopoietic stem/precursor cells. Immature to mature erythroblasts were purified from human bone marrow, and mRNA expression were analyzed. Strongly expressed VEGF and PLGF in immature erythroid cells decreased according to erythroid maturation. To expand very immature erythroid cells, we established a two-step culturing system, i.e., bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of Flt-3L, SCF and TPO for 7 days, and the cells were further cultured in the presence of SCF, IGF-I and EPO for an additional 7 days. The in vivo angiogenic effects of implantation of the ex vivo expanded cells were stronger than that of BMI in mouse limb ischemia model. Three patients with severe chronic lower limb ischemia accompanied by Burger's disease or collagen arteritis were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial of the novel cell therapy by transplantation of ex-vivo expanded immature erythroid cells. In the clinical trial, most clinical symptoms such as rest pain and skin ulcers improved in 4 weeks, and did not recur in the one-year follow-up. No adverse events were observed in any of the patients. Moreover this novel cell therapy required only a small amount of bone marrow collection. Further enrollment of patients with chronic severe lower limb ischemia is necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of this novel cell therapy, and to estimate the necessary amount of bone marrow aspirate. PMID:20382155

  3. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP

  4. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide (SVHRP) Enhances Neurogenesis and Neurite Outgrowth of Immature Neurons in Adult Mice by Up-Regulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2’-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU- positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of

  5. Cell-SELEX-based selection and characterization of a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer against mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, M; Sankian, M; Abnous, K; Varasteh, A; Taghdisi, S M; Mahmoudi, M; Ramezani, M; Gholizadeh, Z; Ganji, A

    2016-07-01

    Targeting of dendritic cells (DCs) by aptamers increases antigen capture and presentation to the immune system. Our aim was to produce aptamers against DC molecules using the cell-SELEX procedure. For this purpose, 18 rounds of cell-SELEX were performed on mouse macrophage J774A.1 and CT26 as target and control cells, respectively. The selected aptamers were truncated and their binding to mouse macrophages, and immature and mature DCs analyzed. Two macrophage-specific aptamers, Seq6 and Seq7, were identified. A truncated form of Seq7, Seq7-4, 33 nucleotides in length and containing the G-quadruplex, bound macrophages and immature DCs with KD values in the nanomolar range. We anticipate that Seq7-4 has potential as a therapeutic tool in targeting of mouse macrophages and immature DCs to efficiently improve different immunotherapy approaches. PMID:27232653

  6. Functional Consequences of Perturbed CXCL12 Signal Processing: Analyses of Immature Hematopoiesis in GRK6-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chudziak, Doreen; Spohn, Gabriele; Karpova, Darja; Dauber, Katrin; Wiercinska, Eliza; Miettinen, Johanna A.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in bone marrow (BM) in an environment rich in CXCL12, the ligand for CXCR4, which is constitutively expressed on all immature hematopoietic cells in BM. This ligand-receptor pair critically controls HSPC retention and (relative) quiescence in BM. Interestingly, in a chemokine-abundant environment, CXCR4 surface expression and CXCL12 sensitivity of BM-residing HSPCs are continuously maintained. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar pattern of G-protein signal integration by BM-HSPCs are unknown. G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) control receptor function by phosphorylating the intracellular domains upon ligand-induced activation, which results in receptor internalization and transient refractoriness. Using, therefore, a GRK6-deficient (GRK6−/−) mouse, we sought to address how perturbed ligand-induced CXCR4 (in)activation affects HSPC behavior in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, GRK6−/− HSPCs were characterized by hyper-responsiveness to CXCL12, as expected. In vivo, GRK6−/− immature hematopoiesis was characterized by a marked expansion of immature hematopoiesis in spleens and a modest repopulation defect in serial competitive transplantation. Enforced mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and AMD3100 was normal, as was hematopoietic regeneration after noncompetitive transplantation or pharmacological myelosuppression. These observations illustrate that GRK-mediated restriction of CXCR4 signal input after ligand engagement is largely dispensable for BM-resident HSPCs, which may explain how continuous CXCL12 responsiveness of BM-HSPCs can be maintained. PMID:25316534

  7. Epigenetic regulation of alternative promoters and enhancers in progenitor, immature, and mature gonadotrope cell lines.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, Jean-Noël; L'Hôte, David; Tabouy, Laure; Schang, Anne-Laure; Quérat, Bruno; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle

    2016-10-15

    Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated. Regulatory regions were found hypermethylated in progenitor αT1-1 cells and hypomethylated in differentiated LβT2 cells. Abundance of RNA polymerase II together with active histone modifications including H3K4me1, H3K4me3, and H3K27ac were strictly correlated with DNA hypomethylation. Analyses of epigenomic modifications and chromatin accessibility were further extended to Isl1, Lhx3, Gata2, and Pitx2, highlighting alternative usages of specific regulatory gene domains in progenitor αT1-1, immature αT3-1, and mature LβT2 gonadotrope cells. PMID:27402603

  8. Immature and Mature Megakaryocytes Enhance Osteoblast Proliferation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ciovacco, Wendy A.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data suggests that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC proliferation, that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. PMID:20052670

  9. Host preferences of immature Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in a forest habitat in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Miriam; Littwin, Nina; Petney, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is widespread throughout Europe and is expanding its range in several European countries. It is associated with a number of different pathogens. Its role in the transmission of disease to humans is currently small; however, it might play an important role in the maintenance of pathogens in enzootic cycles. The ecology of D. reticulatus, especially of the immatures, is not well known. In this study, ticks from small mammals, caught in a capture-mark-release study between May 2012 and October 2014 in a unique woodland area close to Karlsruhe, Germany, were collected. The main host species trapped were the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Small mammal populations showed high variability in their density between the study years, which is probably due to harsh winter conditions in 2012/2013 and missing mast leading to high winter mortality. Larvae and nymphs of D. reticulatus were predominantly found in July and August, respectively, and the infestation rates among the different small mammal species suggest a host preference of D. reticulatus for M. glareolus. PMID:25983104

  10. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  11. Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F; Muegge, Brian D; Barratt, Michael J; VanArendonk, Laura G; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A; Petri, William A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-19

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S ribosomal RNA data sets generated from monthly faecal samples obtained from birth onwards in a cohort of children living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a 'relative microbiota maturity index' and 'microbiota-for-age Z-score' that compare postnatal assembly (defined here as maturation) of a child's faecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors, including diarrhoea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical

  12. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Bogdan A.; Chen, Rongqing; Sun, Haiyan; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (postnatal days 2–4). In 46% of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 μM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) by 744.3 ± 93.8% (n = 120 cells). This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1 μM strychnine or 3 μM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (±) R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials (APs) in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate APs in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors. PMID:24550782

  13. Pulp revascularization of a severely malformed immature maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Chang; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul; Nam, Ok Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly exhibiting complex anatomical forms. Because of this anatomical complexity, immature DI teeth with necrotic pulp are difficult to treat via apexification. We used revascularization as an alternative treatment for a patient with DI. An 11-year-old boy visited our clinic with chief complaints of gingival swelling and pain in the left maxillary canine. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of type III DI. Revascularization therapy was performed, and a 24-month follow-up examination confirmed healing of the periapical radiolucency and physiological root formation. (J Oral Sci 58, 295-298, 2016). PMID:27349553

  14. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  15. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a /sup 14/C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism.

  16. Disinfection of immature teeth with a triple antibiotic paste.

    PubMed

    Windley, William; Teixeira, Fabricio; Levin, Linda; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Trope, Martin

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a triple antibiotic paste in the disinfection of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis. The canals were sampled before (S1) and after (S2) irrigation with 1.25% NaOCL and after dressing with a triple antibiotic paste (S3), consisting of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline. At S1, 100% of the samples cultured positive for bacteria with a mean CFU count of 1.7 x 10. At S2, 10% of the samples cultured bacteria-free with a mean CFU count of 1.4 x 10. At S3, 70% of the samples cultured bacteria-free with a mean CFU count of only 26. Reductions in mean CFU counts between S1 and S2 (p < 0.0001) as well as between S2 and S3 (p < 0.0001) were statistically significant. These results indicate the effectiveness of a triple antibiotic paste in the disinfection of immature teeth with apical periodontitis. PMID:15917683

  17. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yercan, Hüseyin Serhat; Kale, Gürler; Erkan, Serkan; Özalp, Taçkın; Okcu, Güvenir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients. Methods: Study participants were 8 patients ( median age, 10 years; range, 5-14 and one male , others female) who had suffered from persistent patellofemoral instability. Our technique preserves femoral and patellar insertion anatomy of MPFL using a free semitendinosus autograft, together with tenodesis to the adductor magnus tendon thus sparing the open physis of distal femur and the patellar attachment of MPFL. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and the final follow-up period using the Kujala patellofemoral score. Patellar shift, tilt and height were measured preoperatively and on the latest follow-up on plain radiographs. Results: At average 42 months follow-up ( range, 16 to 56), %80 of patients were satisfied with the treatment. Redislocation or instability symptoms occurred in two patients. No apprehension signs or redislocations were seen in the remanining six patients. A significant improvement (p‹0.05) in Kujala score (from 36 to 77) was found. Patellar shift & tilt decreased to anatomic values in six patients but patella alta persisted. Conclusion: The result of this study show that MPFL reconstruction with our technique seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent and habitual patellofemoral dislocation in skeletally immature patients; leading to significant increases in stability and functionality.

  18. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support. PMID:21726179

  19. Immature recent thymic emigrants are eliminated by complement1

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Michael J.; Chen, Meibo W.; McWilliams, Douglas C.; Seaburg, Lauren M.; Tangen, Sarah N.; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) must undergo phenotypic and functional maturation to become long-lived mature naïve T cells. In CD4-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice, NKAP-deficient RTEs fail to complete T cell maturation. Here, we demonstrate that NKAP-deficient immature RTEs do not undergo apoptosis, but are eliminated by complement. C3, C4 and C1q are bound to NKAP-deficient peripheral T cells, demonstrating activation of the classical arm of the complement pathway. As thymocytes mature and exit to the periphery, they increase sialic acid incorporation into cell surface glycans. This is essential to peripheral lymphocyte survival, as stripping sialic acid with neuraminidase leads to the binding of natural IgM and complement fixation. NKAP-deficient T cells have a defect in sialylation on cell surface glycans, leading to IgM recruitment. We demonstrate that the defect in sialylation is due to aberrant α2,8-linked sialylation, and the expression of three genes (ST8sia1, ST8sia4 and ST8sia6) that mediate α2,8 sialylation are down regulated in NKAP-defcient RTEs. The maturation of peripheral NKAP-deficient T cells is partially rescued in a C3-deficient environment. Thus, sialylation during T cell maturation is critical to protect immature RTEs from complement in the periphery. PMID:25367120

  20. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth. PMID:25587383

  1. Physeal Disruption During ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides Ignacio; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, John Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling techniques following ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. Methods: A retrospective, matched comparative cohort study was performed of skeletally immature patients who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011. All skeletally immature patients between ten and fifteen years old who underwent independent femoral tunnel drilling and had adequate baseline and post-operative radiographs were analyzed. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Demographic characteristics and peri-operative metrics were collected. Radiographic measurements were recorded from pre-operative MRI and post-operative plain radiographs. Results: Twenty patients were analyzed. Between groups, there were significant differences between independent tunnel drilling and transtibial tunnel drilling in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 cm2 vs. 0.74 cm2, P<0.001), femoral (32.1º vs. 72.8º, P<0.001) and tibial (50.1º vs. 60.5º, P=0.003) tunnel angles, medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 mm vs. 36.1 mm from lateral cortex, P=0.001), and distance from the lateral aspect of the distal femoral physis and the femoral tunnel exit (4.7 mm vs. 26.7 mm from the perichondrial ring, P<0.001), respectively. All patients who underwent femoral tunnel drilling at an angle of less than 25º from the transverse axis experienced a greater than 6% disruption of physeal area. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of femoral physeal involvement (r=-0.8255, P=0.003). Conclusion: With femoral tunnel drilling techniques that create more oblique tunnels, the area of distal femoral physeal damage is larger, more eccentric and closer to the perichondrial ring. Since most

  2. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    PubMed Central

    Fudulu, Daniel; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients. PMID:27123154

  3. Overuse and throwing injuries in the skeletally immature athlete.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    Over 25 million children participate in school-sponsored sports, and an additional 20 million participate in extracurricular organized sports. Over the past decade, increased intensity of training, more pressure for success, new opportunities for structured play, and more organized advanced leagues and traveling teams have led to a corresponding increase in overuse injuries in the skeletally immature athlete. Perhaps the classic sports model for overuse injuries of the upper extremity is baseball. Throwing sports contribute to an increased incidence of elbow and shoulder injuries that might be related to intensity of training, throwing mechanics, and poor conditioning, including core strength. Specific areas of concern regarding overuse injuries in young athletes include such diagnoses as little leaguer's shoulder, little leaguer's elbow, osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow, tennis elbow, and distal radial epiphysitis. Ultimately, overuse injuries, and particularly physeal injuries, should be suspected in any young athlete who has pain in the upper extremity. Comparative bilateral radiographs are the rule in workup. PMID:12690838

  4. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL. PMID:25110196

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds. PMID:24243211

  6. Immature Development of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Fronza, E; Barros, N M; Specht, A

    2016-02-01

    We provide detailed temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) larvae fed on artificial diet under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14 h photophase). The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.5%, 97.0%, 93.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 5.0, 23.4, 3.2, and 21.5 days, respectively. Females took longer at the larval stage than males, with 10.5% of them having seven instars. The growth rate of female larvae that developed through six and seven instars was 1.72 and 1.54, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. PMID:26429580

  7. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  8. Redescription of Amblyomma integrum adults and immature stages.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, D A; Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, M A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-09-01

    Amblyomma integrum Karsch, 1879 (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of four Amblyomma Koch, 1844 species with eyes found in southern India and Sri Lanka. The immature stages of this species were poorly described. Therefore, accurate identification is difficult. Here we re-describe the male, female, nymph and larva of A. integrum and illustrate all the stages in greater detail for the first time. A set of diagnostic morphological characters is defined to distinguish this species from other sympatric species of eyed Amblyomma in any parasitic stage of development. Adults of A. integrum parasitize mostly various larger mammals whereas nymphs and larvae use mostly larger and medium mammals. Amblyomma integrum is recorded from India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Orissa and Tamil Nadu States) and throughout Sri Lanka. PMID:27335249

  9. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot. PMID:23211919

  10. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  11. Radiation combined with thermal injury induces immature myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, April Elizabeth; Neely, Crystal Judith; Charles, Anthony G; Kartchner, Laurel Briane; Brickey, Willie June; Khoury, Amal Lina; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ting, Jenny P Y; Cairns, Bruce A; Maile, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The continued development of nuclear weapons and the potential for thermonuclear injury necessitates the further understanding of the immune consequences after radiation combined with injury (RCI). We hypothesized that sublethal ionization radiation exposure combined with a full-thickness thermal injury would result in the production of immature myeloid cells. Mice underwent either a full-thickness contact burn of 20% total body surface area or sham procedure followed by a single whole-body dose of 5-Gy radiation. Serum, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes were harvested at 3 and 14 days after injury. Flow cytometry was performed to identify and characterize adaptive and innate cell compartments. Elevated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and profound leukopenia were observed after RCI. A population of cells with dual expression of the cell surface markers Gr-1 and CD11b were identified in all experimental groups, but were significantly elevated after burn alone and RCI at 14 days after injury. In contrast to the T-cell-suppressive nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells found after trauma and sepsis, myeloid cells after RCI augmented T-cell proliferation and were associated with a weak but significant increase in interferon γ and a decrease in interleukin 10. This is consistent with previous work in burn injury indicating that a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like population increases innate immunity. Radiation combined injury results in the increase in distinct populations of Gr-1CD11b cells within the secondary lymphoid organs, and we propose these immature inflammatory myeloid cells provide innate immunity to the severely injured and immunocompromised host. PMID:23042190

  12. Radiation Combined with Thermal Injury Induces Immature Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, April Elizabeth; Neely, Crystal Judith; Charles, Anthony G.; Kartchner, Laurel Briane; Brickey, Willie June; Khoury, Amal Lina; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Ting, Jenny P.Y.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Maile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The continued development of nuclear weapons and the potential for thermonuclear injury necessitates the further understanding of the immune consequences after radiation combined with injury (RCI). We hypothesized that sub-lethal ionization radiation exposure combined with a full thickness thermal injury would result in the production of immature myeloid cells. Mice underwent either a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness contact burn or sham procedure followed by a single whole body dose of 5-Gy radiation. Serum, spleen and peripheral lymph nodes were harvested at 3 and 14 days post-injury. Flow cytometry was performed to identify and characterize adaptive and innate cell compartments. Elevated pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and profound leukopenia were observed after RCI. A population of cells with dual expression of the cell surface markers Gr-1 and CD11b were identified in all experimental groups, but was significantly elevated after burn alone and RCI at 14 days post-injury. In contrast to the T-cell suppressive nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) found after trauma and sepsis, myeloid cells after RCI augmented T-cell proliferation and were associated with a weak but significant increase in IFN-γ and a decrease in IL-10. This is consistent with previous work in burn injury indicating that a MDSC-like population increases innate immunity. RCI results in the increase of distinct populations of Gr-1+ CD11b+cells within the secondary lymphoid organs, and we propose these immature inflammatory myeloid cells provide innate immunity to the severely injured and immunocompromised host. PMID:23042190

  13. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory life history studies of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, were conducted at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Duration of immature stages was generally longest at 18, declining significantly at 22 and shortest at 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Total immature development time from eggs to pupae was about...

  14. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  15. Expression of the B-Cell Receptor Component CD79a on Immature Myeloid Cells Contributes to Their Tumor Promoting Effects

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Dror; Yang, Yu-an; Raviv, Asaf; Weinberg, Douglas; Banerjee, Subhadra; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane; Yang, Li; Wakefield, Lalage M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in promoting tumorigenesis is well-established, and significant effort is being made to further characterize surface markers on MDSCs both for better diagnosis and as potential targets for therapy. Here we show that the B cell receptor adaptor molecule CD79a is unexpectedly expressed on immature bone marrow myeloid cells, and is upregulated on MDSCs generated in multiple different mouse models of metastatic but not non-metastatic cancer. CD79a on MDSCs is upregulated and activated in response to soluble factors secreted by tumor cells. Activation of CD79a on mouse MDSCs, by crosslinking with a specific antibody, maintained their immature phenotype (CD11b+Gr1+), enhanced their migration, increased their suppressive effect on T cell proliferation, and increased secretion of pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as IL-6 and CCL22. Furthermore, crosslinking CD79a on myeloid cells activated signaling through Syk, BLNK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. In vivo, CD79+ myeloid cells showed enhanced ability to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. Finally we demonstrate that CD79a is upregulated on circulating myeloid cells from lung cancer patients, and that CD79a+ myeloid cells infiltrate human breast tumors. We propose that CD79a plays a functional role in the tumor promoting effects of myeloid cells, and may represent a novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:24146823

  16. SDF-1/CXCL12 modulates mitochondrial respiration of immature blood cells in a bi-phasic manner.

    PubMed

    Messina-Graham, Steven; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2016-05-01

    SDF-1/CXCL12 is a potent chemokine required for the homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Previous data from our group has shown that in an SDF-1/CXCL12 transgenic mouse model, lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) (LSK) bone marrow cells have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential versus wild-type. These results suggested that SDF-1/CXCL12 may function to keep mitochondrial respiration low in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Low mitochondrial metabolism helps to maintain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can influence differentiation. To test whether SDF-1/CXCL12 regulates mitochondrial metabolism, we employed the human leukemia cell line HL-60, that expresses high levels of the SDF-1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, as a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We treated HL-60 cells with SDF-1/CXCL12 for 2 and 24h. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR), mitochondrial-associated ATP production, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential of HL-60 cells were significantly reduced at 2h and increased at 24h as compared to untreated control cells. These biphasic effects of SDF-1/CXCL12 were reproduced with lineage negative primary mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting a novel function of SDF-1/CXCL12 in modulating mitochondrial respiration by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production and mitochondrial content. PMID:27067482

  17. Effects of neuromedin-U on immature rat adrenocortical cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Macchi, Carlo; Trejter, Marcin; Rucinski, Marcin; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-03-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a brain-gut peptide, that in the peripheral organs and tissues acts via a G protein-coupled receptor, called NMUR1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of NMUR1 mRNA in either cortex and medulla or dispersed zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata-reticularis cells of the immature rat adrenals. Accordingly, immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of NMUR1-like immunoreactivity in the cortex and medulla of immature adrenals. NMU8 administration to immature rats was found to raise aldosterone, but not corticosterone, plasma concentration, without altering adrenal growth. Conversely, the exposure to NMU8 markedly enhanced the proliferative activity of immature rat inner adrenocortical cells in primary in vitro culture, without significantly affecting their corticosterone secretion. Collectively, our findings suggest that adrenals of immature rats may be a target for circulating NMU. However, the physiological significance and relevance of the adrenal effects of NMU remain to be ascertained. PMID:18288377

  18. Systematic Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs in Immature and Mature Porcine Testes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Maoliang; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi; Wu, Maisheng; Liu, Xiaochun; He, Changqing; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mouse, rat, and human testes, some of which play important roles in testis development and spermatogenesis. However, systematic analysis of lncRNAs expressed in postnatal pig testes has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we present the expression and characterization of lncRNAs in immature (30-day-old [D30]) and mature (180-day-old [D180]) pig testes. A total of 90 440 168 (85.75%) and 97 001 700 (95.35%) 150-base-pair paired-end clean reads were generated in D30 and D180 cDNA libraries, respectively, using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform; 36 727 transcripts were assembled in those two libraries, 777 lncRNA transcripts from 752 lncRNA gene loci were identified using the highly stringent pipeline, and 101 of those lncRNA transcripts were significantly differentially expressed. Those lncRNAs shared some characteristics with other mammals, including fewer exons, shorter length and exon length, and lower expression level compared with those of protein-coding genes; 402 protein-coding genes (<10 kb) were found as nearest neighbors of 294 out of 752 lncRNA genes, and gene ontology enrichment showed that they were enriched in transcription- and development-related processes. Fifteen differentially expressed and 10 novel lncRNAs were randomly selected and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. In addition, one of the 10 novel lncRNAs was further confirmed using RACE clone technology. This study provides a catalog of porcine testes lncRNAs for further understanding their regulation roles in pig testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26935596

  19. In vivo gene targeting of IL-3 into immature hematopoietic cells through CD117 receptor mediated antibody gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Alain; Deas, Olivier; Bensidhoum, Morad; François, Sabine; Mouiseddine, Moubarak; Poncet, Pascal; Dürrbach, Antoine; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Gorin, Norbert C; Hirsch, François; Thierry, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Background Targeted gene transfection remains a crucial issue to permit the real development of genetic therapy. As such, in vivo targeted transfection of specific subsets of hematopoietic stem cells might help to sustain hematopoietic recovery from bone marrow aplasia by providing local production of growth factors. Methods Balb/C mice were injected intravenously, with an anti-mouse c-kit (CD117) monoclonal antibody chemically coupled to a human IL-3 gene-containing plasmid DNA. Mice were sacrificed for tissue analyses at various days after injection of the conjugates. Results By ELISA, the production of human IL-3 was evidenced in the sera of animals 5 days after treatment. Cytofluorometric analysis after in vivo transfection of a reporter gene eGFP demonstrated transfection of CD117+/Sca1+ hematopoietic immature cells. By PCR analysis of genomic DNA and RNA using primer specific pIL3 sequences, presence and expression of the human IL-3-transgene were detected in the bone marrow up to 10 days in transfected mice but not in control animals. Conclusions These data clearly indicate that antibody-mediated endocytosis gene transfer allows the expression of the IL-3 transgene into hematopoietic immature cells, in vivo. While availability of marketed recombinant growth factors is restricted, this targeting strategy should permit delivery of therapeutic genes to tissues of interest through systemic delivery. In particular, the ability to specifically target growth factor expression into repopulating hematopoietic stem cells may create new opportunities for the treatment of primary or radiation-induced marrow failures. PMID:15509303

  20. Recognition of Immaturity and Emotional Expressions in Blended Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of facial immaturity and emotional expression by children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and non-disabled controls was studied in two experiments. Children identified immaturity and expression in upright and inverted faces. The autism group identified fewer immature faces and expressions than control (Exp. 1 &…

  1. Growth of immature Chironomus calligraphus in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Canteiro, Rita de Cássia S A; Albertoni, Edélti F

    2011-12-01

    Chironomidae larvae are important macroinvertebrates in limnic environments, but little knowledge exists about their biometrics development characteristics. This study aims to describe the immature Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1905 under laboratory conditions by the accomplishment of thirteen egg masses from eggs eclosion to adults emergency, at controlled room temperature (25ºC) and photoperiod (12-12h). Larvae were feed ad libitum with "Alcon Basic - MEP 200 Complex" fish food and commercial dehydrated Spirulina. The postures had a mean length of 9 ± 1 mm (n = 13) and 348 ± 66 eggs. The brownish colored eggs with elliptical shape had length of 160.3 ± 17.7 µm (n = 130), being arranged as an organized string in a pseudo spiral form. The time duration from the first to the four instars were three, four, four and eight days, and the average length of a cephalic capsule to each one of the instars (66.3 ± 12.3 µm, 102.9 ± 22.1 µm, 159 ± 24.6 µm, 249.2 ± 29.7 µm, n = 456) were significantly different (ANOVA, p < 0.001). The Dyar’s Rule showed a constant growth rate, r = 1.5. Our results demonstrated that C. calligraphus is a species with short life cycle, low mortality rate, food adaptability, fast larval growth and easily maintained at laboratory, factors that allowed the use of this native species as a tool for ecotoxicological tests. PMID:21971596

  2. Improved collection and developmental competence of immature macaque oocytes.

    PubMed

    VandeVoort, C A; Leibo, S P; Tarantal, A F

    2003-02-01

    Methods previously described to aspirate immature oocytes from ovaries of macaques result in approximately half the oocytes being stripped of cumulus cells. Here, we describe modifications of the needle aspiration assembly that yield much higher percentages of cumulus-intact oocytes when used with an ultrasound-guided method for oocyte recovery in monkeys. Sealing of the needle assembly appears to stabilize vacuum pressure at the needle tip and prevents air from entering the tubing. Reduction of the vacuum pressure from -100 to -20 kPa resulted in a significant decrease of denuded oocytes from over 50% to fewer than 10%. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of oocytes that developed into blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Reduction of the aspiration pressure below -20 kPa significantly reduced the total number of oocytes recovered. We concluded that these modifications represent the best compromise to collect the largest number of cumulus-intact oocyte complexes from macaques. PMID:12517374

  3. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  4. Extracellular potassium concentration regulates proliferation of immature cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Borodinsky, L N; Fiszman, M L

    1998-04-17

    The present study examines the effect of depolarizing potassium concentrations on the proliferation of immature rat cerebellar neurons. Cells inoculated in serum free medium and 5 mM KCl (5 K) showed a high degree of 3H-thymidine incorporation that decreased 24-48 h after plating as differentiation began. During the first 24 h after inoculation, cells grown in high potassium (25 K), showed a 34 +/- 3% increase (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 12) in 3H-thymidine incorporation as compared with the values observed in 5 K. After 24 h in vitro, cells grown in 25 K showed 23 +/- 3% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) less DNA synthesis than those inoculated in 5 K. The increase in DNA synthesis due to 25 K was blocked by MgCl2 and nifedipine, but not by omega-conotoxin GVIA, suggesting that it is mediated by a Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) of the L-subtype. High potassium-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) inhibitor (PD98059, 75 microM). The number of neurons counted after 48 h in vitro in 25 K was 35-100% above of the number obtained with 5 K and this increase also was blocked by MgCl2 and nifedipine. These data support the hypothesis that depolarizing activity during neurogenesis plays a role in the modulation of cerebellar granule cells proliferation. PMID:9602050

  5. Adverse effects of drugs on the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Guignard, J P; Gouyon, J B

    1988-01-01

    The immature kidney may be adversely affected by a variety of vasoactive or diuretic drugs, either administered to the mother during pregnancy, or to the neonate. Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme administered to the hypertensive pregnant woman can severely and sometimes definitely impair renal function in the fetus, leading to postnatal anuria. Pathogenesis involves interference with the renin-angiotensin system and the prostaglandins. Beta-adrenergic agents administered during labor depress glomerular filtration rate transiently. Tolazoline, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent useful in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate induces intense renal vasoconstriction with consequent hypoperfusion. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor used for the pharmacological closure of a patent ductus arteriosus, also increases renal vascular resistance, and decreases urine output. Furosemide, the drug most often used in oliguric neonates, may also adversely affect the newborn infant. Its use has been associated with an increase in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations demonstrate that the proper use of drugs requires that the therapeutic endpoint be clearly defined and the predictable side effects be anticipated. PMID:2901276

  6. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, J A; Urech, R; Green, P E; Skerman, A; Elson-Harris, M M; Bright, R L; Brown, G W

    2012-03-01

    Species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern Queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. Similar data were collected on feedlots in central New South Wales and central Queensland. The fly species recovered in the highest numbers were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and Physiphora clausa Macquart (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. Houseflies preferred the warmer months from October to June, but stable flies preferred the cooler months and peaked in spring (September-November) and autumn (March-May). Larval abundance ratings recorded in the feedlot and numbers of larvae extracted in the laboratory from corresponding samples followed similar trends. Larvae of M. domestica were most abundant in the hospital and induction area and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of M. domestica were abundant in the hospital and induction area and drains, but least abundant in horse stables and yards. Larvae of S. calcitrans were most abundant in drains and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of S. calcitrans were most numerous in drains and least numerous in old cattle pens. Feedlot design and management had little effect on fly reduction. PMID:22035065

  7. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Lewandowski, Albert H; Skowronek, Anthony J

    2007-03-01

    An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure-like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft tissue tumor of humans, and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals. PMID:17469286

  8. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Aphelosigara) tucma.

    PubMed

    Konopko, S A

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of the last three nymphal instars of the water boatman Sigara (Aphelosigara) tucma Bachmann (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) are provided, for the first time, for specimens collected in northern Argentina; the egg is redescribed. Adults and nymphs were collected in the field. The eggs were obtained by dissection from females. The immature stages were fixed for microscopic examination and illustration and were described with an emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy of selected structures. The last three nymphal instars of S. tucma can be easily recognized by the body and head lengths and widths; the number of transverse sulcations of the rostrum; the chaetotaxy of trochanters, protibiotarsus, midlegs, metatibia, and metatarsus; and the grade of development of the wing pads. The eggs of the genus Sigara can be distinguished by the size and the chorionic surface. The chaetotaxy of the mesonotum, metafemur, and metatibia distinguish groups of species belonging to the last nymphal instar of the genus Sigara. A key to the last three nymphal instars of the species of Sigara from Argentina is provided. PMID:25480972

  9. Removal of PAHs from water using an immature coal (leonardite).

    PubMed

    Zeledón-Toruño, Zoraida C; Lao-Luque, Conxita; de Las Heras, F Xavier C; Sole-Sardans, Montserrat

    2007-03-01

    It has been studied an immature coal (leonardite) as an adsorbent for removing PAHs [fluorene, pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene] from water. To determine the efficiency of leonardite as an adsorbent of PAHs, factors such as pH, contact time and equilibrium sorption were evaluated in a series of batch experiments. There were no significant differences in the removal percentages for the various pH values studied, except for fluorene. The adsorption of fluorene was higher at lower pH values. The equilibrium time was reached at 24h. At this time, more than 82% of the pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene had been removed. During the first 2h, the adsorption rate increased rapidly. After that time, however, there was a minor decrease. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-leonardite partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the removal process. The polarity of the humic substances in leonardite may also have influenced the adsorption capacity. PMID:17109923

  10. An uncommon recurrence of an immature teratoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LI, XUELU; ZHU, DANDAN; LV, LI; YU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old female who was previously diagnosed with an immature, right ovarian teratoma was referred to The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University (Dalian, China) due to abdominal pain. The patient had previously undergone a laparotomy and right ovarian oophorectomy. Despite this, at 10 years post-surgery, the patient developed extensive abdominal metastases, in conjunction with elevated serum cancer antigen (CA)-125 and CA19-9 levels. The patient had a high risk of recurrence, and the liver and spleen metastases were subsequently diagnosed as mature teratomas. In order to prevent the possibility of disease recurrence, frequent post-surgical follow-up, consisting of imaging analysis and the testing of serum markers, is required. Regarding the published literature, there have been no other patients presenting with a giant teratoma with associated metastasis. Due to the lack of regular follow-up appointments in China, the tumor in the present study was not recognized until too late. Therefore, to increase the successful detection of recurrent teratomas, a longer follow-up period is necessary for patients who present with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:27073497

  11. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in immature teeth: Long-term case report

    PubMed Central

    Subay, Rustem Kemal; Ilhan, Banu; Ulukapi, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    This case report aimed to present the long-term clinical performance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomies in immature permanent teeth. Four patients with complicated crown fractures of five maxillary immature central incisor teeth were treated with pulpotomy using gray MTA. An immature mandibular first molar showing signs of reversible pulpitis that was exposed mechanically during cavity preparation was also treated with MTA pulpotomy. Four of the 6 immature teeth were diagnosed vitally with complete root maturation and with the presence of dentin bridges after 55 months (mean time of follow-ups). MTA pulpotomy was assessed unsuccessfully in two fractured central incisors. Severe discoloration in the crowns was present in all 6 cases. MTA may induce pulp healing with dentin bridge formation and prevent necrosis at long-term periods in most of the pulpotomy cases. However, discoloration following MTA pulpotomy is a significant clinical complication. PMID:23408174

  12. Male Courtship in Drosophila: The Conditioned Response to Immature Males and Its Genetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Donald A.; Jackson, F. Rob; Siegel, Richard W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimentally naive male Drosophila melanogaster respond to sexually immature males with intense courtship. However, this response decreases markedly in a short period of time, and "experienced" males then avoid further courtship with immature males for 4 hr. This subsequent inhibition of the courtship response is specific to immature males; the response to virgin females remains intact. This experience-dependent modification in courtship behavior is designated as "conditioned courtship." Seven mutant strains isolated for their inability to express avoidance conditioning (on criteria independent of courtship) were all found to be mutant with respect to expression of conditioned courtship. The potential application of this phenomenon to mosaic analysis of these mutations is posed. Other results indicate that immature males constitutively release a chemical signal that is sufficient for the expression of conditioned courtship. The interpretation of conditioned courtship as a component of fitness is discussed. PMID:17246097

  13. Competence of Immature Maize Embryos for Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Schlappi, M; Hohn, B

    1992-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of viral sequences to plant cells (agroinfection) was applied to study the susceptibility of immature maize embryos to the pathogen. The shoot apical meristem of immature embryos 10 to 20 days after pollination from four different maize genotypes was investigated for competence for agroinfection. There was a direct correlation between different morphological stages of the unwounded immature embryos and their competence for agroinfection. Agroinfection frequency was highest in the embryogenic line A188. All developmental stages tested showed Agrobacterium virulence gene-inducing activity, whereas bacteriocidal substances were produced at stages of the immature embryos competent for agroinfection. The results suggested that Agrobacterium may require differentiated tissue in the maize shoot apical meristem before wounding for successful T-DNA transfer. This requirement for the young maize embryo has implications for the possible use of Agrobacterium for maize transformation. PMID:12297627

  14. Prolific shoot regeneration from immature embryo explants of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.).

    PubMed

    Ozcan, S; Sevimay, C S; Yildiz, M; Sancak, C; Ozgen, M

    1996-12-01

    Immature cotyledons and embryo axes of sainfoin were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration occurred following an initial callus growth on a MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP and 2 mg/l NAA. Immature embryo axes showed higher regeneration capacity than immature cotyledons, however, shoot elongation was best achieved on immature cotyledons. Regenerated shoots were excised and rooted in half strength MS medium with 1 mg/l indole-butyric acid (IBA) or 1 mg/l NAA. The rooted plantlets were finally transferred to compost. PMID:24177552

  15. Susceptibility of immature stages of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to selected insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated...

  16. Unusual forms of immature sporulating Coccidioides immitis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yong; Smith, Corey W; Salaru, Gratian; Joho, Kim L; Deen, Malik F

    2006-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection acquired by inhalation of the spores (arthroconidia) of the thermally dimorphic fungus, Coccidioides immitis. The arthroconidia transform into spherical cells called mature spherules in the lung. Immature spherules and other atypical forms of immature C immitis have rarely been found in vivo. We report on a case that presented unusual forms of immature sporulating C immitis in a fine-needle aspiration specimen. A 36-year-old Chinese woman, living in New Jersey for the past 10 years, presented with fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, and an abnormal chest radiograph approximately 9 months after a brief vacation trip to the Grand Canyon in Arizona. She was treated with antibiotics for 4 weeks without improvement. Subsequent chest computed tomography showed a 3-cm cavitary lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed diverse morphologic forms of a fungus that was confirmed by culture as immature sporulating C immitis. PMID:16390247

  17. Are mature female voles more susceptible than immature ones to avian predation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivunen, Vesa; Korpimäki, Erkki; Hakkarainen, Harri

    1998-08-01

    It is well known that a number of activities related to reproduction can increase the predation risk for individuals. Both in the aviary and in the field, we studied whether maturity of female field voles ( Microtus agrestis) affected their behaviour and consequently their risk of predation by Tengmalm's owls ( Aegolius funereus). In an aviary, we recorded the behaviour of mature and immature voles in control (owl absent) and predator (owl present) treatments, but did not find obvious differences in behaviour or vulnerability between mature and immature female voles. In the field, we compared maturity status of female field voles snap-trapped in owl territories with those caught by breeding owls in 1992 and 1994. In accordance with the results from an aviary experiment, there were no obvious differences in vulnerability to Tengmalm's owls between mature and immature individuals. This suggests that mature and immature female field voles are equally exposed to avian predation.

  18. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  19. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Michael S; Bertolino, Lígia T; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C; DePaoli, Henrique C; Goldman, Gustavo H; Teixeira, Simone P; Goldman, Maria H S

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  20. Selective Calcium Sensitivity in Immature Glioma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Segerman, Anna; Schmidt, Linnéa; Hermansson, Annika; Dirks, Peter; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Westermark, Bengt; Uhrbom, Lene; Linnarsson, Sten; Nelander, Sven; Andäng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells. PMID:25531110

  1. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  2. Glucose metabolism in isolated uteri of immature rats. Influence of prostaglandins and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Finkelberg, Ana Beatriz; Linares, Jorge; Goldraij, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    We studied the contractile activity and glucose metabolism, in terms of production of 14CO2 from [14C] glucose, in isolated uteri of immature rats. Immaturity was due to age or exposure to a restricted diet. The contractile activity in both prepubertal groups persisted for a period of 60 minutes and fell when indomethacin was added to the KRB medium. The production of 14CO2 was greater than for adult rats and fell as a result of the addition of indomethacin. The metabolism of [14C] arachidonic acid showed that the percentage of eicosanoids released in age related immature uteri was greater than that in restricted diet related immature uteri. In animals that are immature as a result of exposure to a restricted diet, 14CO2 fell due to the effect of NAME. Sodium nitroprusside and L-arginine increased the production of 14CO2. This effect was reverted by NAME and indomethacin. Conversely, the uteri of age related prepubertal rats were not affected. The level of activity of nitric oxide synthase was higher in restricted diet related immature animals and fell following the addition of NS-398. We may conclude that in rats exposed to a restricted diet, NO and COX-2 participate in glucose metabolism whereas they would not be involved in age related prepubertal animals. PMID:16438910

  3. MOUSE VERSUS RAT: PROFOUND DIFFERENCES IN MEIOTIC REGULATION AT THE LEVEL OF THE ISOLATED OOCYTE

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO), denuded oocytes (DO) or dissected follicles were obtained 44–48 h after priming immature mice (20–23-days-old) with 5 IU or immature rats (25–27-days-old) with 12.5 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and exposed to a variety of culture conditions. Mouse oocytes were more effectively maintained in meiotic arrest by hypoxanthine, dbcAMP, IBMX, milrinone, and 8-Br-cGMP. The guanylate cyclase activator, atrial natriuretic peptide, suppressed maturation in CEO from both species, but mycophenolic acid reversed IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in mouse CEO with little activity in rat CEO. IBMX-arrested mouse, but not rat, CEO were induced to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and amphiregulin, while human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was ineffective in both species. Nevertheless, FSH and amphiregulin stimulated cumulus expansion in both species. FSH and hCG were both effective inducers of GVB in cultured mouse and rat follicles while amphiregulin was stimulatory only in mouse follicles. Changing the culture medium or altering macromolecular supplementation had no effect on FSH-induced maturation in rat CEO. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, AICAR, was a potent stimulator of maturation in mouse CEO and DO, but only marginally stimulatory in rat CEO and ineffective in rat DO. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked meiotic induction more effectively in hCG-treated mouse follicles and heat-treated mouse CEO. Both agents produced contrasting results on polar body formation in cultured CEO in the two species. Active AMPK was detected in germinal vesicles of immature mouse, but not rat, oocytes prior to hCG-induced maturation in vivo; it colocalized with chromatin after GVB in rat and mouse oocytes, but did not appear at the spindle poles in rat oocytes as it did in mouse oocytes. Finally, cultured mouse and rat CEO displayed disparate maturation responses to energy substrate

  4. Pure Immature Teratoma of the Ovary in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alwazzan, Ahmad Bakr; Popowich, Shaundra; Dean, Erin; Robinson, Christine; Lotocki, Robert; Altman, Alon D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcome, and reproductive function in women diagnosed with ovarian immature teratoma (IT). Our standard chemotherapy regime is currently etoposide/cisplatin (EP), creating a unique opportunity to evaluate this protocol in ovarian ITs. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis. Twenty-seven women older than 18 years with ovarian IT stages IA to IIIC were identified and included in this study. Patients were treated at 1 institution, Health Sciences Center, Women’s Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, between 1983 and 2013. Results The median age at diagnosis was 27.0 years (range, 18–36 years). Twenty-two (82%) presented with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I disease, 3 (11%) had stage II, and 2 patients (7%) had stage III disease. The histologic grade distribution was grade I in 9 patients (33%), grade II in 3 patients (11%), and grade III in 15 patients (56%). Initial management was surgical for all patients: 3 (11%) hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 1 (4%) cystectomy only, and 23 (85%) unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Twenty-one patients (78%) received adjuvant therapy. The median follow-up was 60 months (range, 36–72 months). One patient recurred (histological grade III) 6 months after surgery and had a complete clinical response to 4 cycles of EP chemotherapy. Twelve patients reported an attempt to conceive resulting in 10 pregnancies (8 after chemotherapy). Conclusions Ovarian IT is a curable disease. Fertility-sparing surgery should be offered. Adjuvant treatment with cisplatinum-based chemotherapy, typically with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, is still considered the standard in stages greater than stage IA grade I. Etoposide/cisplatin as a primary chemotherapy regime for early- or advanced-stage disease is an effective treatment with minimal adverse effects and high tolerability. This is

  5. Feeding preferences of the immature stages of three western north American ixodid ticks (Acari) for avian, reptilian, or rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Ted J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Larval and nymphal Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, I. (Ixodes) jellisoni Cooley and Kohls, and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were tested for host preference when simultaneously presented with a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner), California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus Merriam), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard), and California towhee (Pipilo crissalis Vigors) in an experimental apparatus. Differences were observed in the preferences among the three species and between life stages. More larvae of all species approached and contacted hosts than did nymphs. Subadult I. pacificus entered all host-containing chambers in the highest numbers and remained on lizards most often after contact. Subadult I. jellisoni entered and remained in the chambers containing kangaroo rats, while rejecting mice, lizards, and birds as hosts. Subadult D. occidentalis most frequently entered rodent-containing chambers and contacted these hosts. After overnight exposure to all nonavian hosts, only I. pacificus parasitized and fed successfully on all three animals. I. jellisoni fed only on kangaroo rats and D. occidentalis fed only on rodents. Molting success ranged from approximately 66 to 95% among tick species and stages. We concluded that, under laboratory conditions, I. pacificus larvae and nymphs prefer western fence lizards, but also will parasitize rodents. Dermacentor occidentalis immatures use deer mice and kangaroo rats similarly, whereas I. jellisoni subadults exclusively parasitize kangaroo rats. California towhees are considerably less attractive as hosts for these three ticks. These host preferences are consistent with what is known about the natural feeding habits of all three ticks. PMID:19198525

  6. In vitro transformation of immature hematopoietic cells by the P210 BCR/ABL oncogene product of the Philadelphia chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.; Chianese, E.; Witte, O.N.

    1987-09-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome is the cytogenetic hallmark of human chronic myelogenous leukemia. RNA splicing joins sequences from a gene on chromosome 22 (BCR) across the translocation breakpoint to a portion of the ABL oncogene from chromosome 9, resulting in a chimeric protein (P210) that is an active tyrosine kinase. Although strongly correlated with this specific human neoplasm, and implicated as an oncogene by analogy to the gene product of the Abelson murine leukemia virus, the P210 gene had not been tested directly for oncogenic potential in hematopoietic cells. The authors have used a retroviral gene-transfer system to express P210 in mouse bone marrow cells. When infected bone marrow is plated under conditions for long-term culture of cells of the B-lymphoid lineage, cells expressing high amounts of P210 tyrosine kinase dominate the culture and rapidly lead to clonal outgrowths of immature lymphoid cells. Expression of P210 is growth-stimulatory but not sufficient for full oncogenic behavior. Some clonal lines progress toward a fully malignant phenotype as judged by increased cloning efficiency in agar suspension and frequency and rapidity of tumor induction in syngeneic mice. Such in vitro systems should be useful in evaluating the sequential and perhaps synergistic involvement of the P210 gene and other oncogenes as models for the progressive changes observed in human chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  7. Axon growth and guidance genes identify nascent, immature, and mature olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jeremy C; Titlow, William B; McClintock, Timothy S

    2010-11-15

    Neurogenesis of projection neurons requires that axons be initiated, extended, and connected. Differences in the expression of axon growth and guidance genes must drive these events, but comprehensively characterizing these differences in a single neuronal type has not been accomplished. Guided by a catalog of gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that Cxcr4 and Dbn1, two axon initiation genes, marked the developmental transition from basal progenitor cells to immature OSNs in the olfactory epithelium. The CXCR4 immunoreactivity of these nascent OSNs overlapped partially with markers of proliferation of basal progenitor cells and partially with immunoreactivity for GAP43, the canonical marker of immature OSNs. Intracellular guidance cue signaling transcripts Ablim1, Crmp1, Dypsl2, Dpysl3, Dpysl5, Gap43, Marcskl1, and Stmn1-4 were specific to, or much more abundant in, the immature OSN layer. Receptors that mediate axonal inhibition or repulsion tended to be expressed in both immature and mature OSNs (Plxna1, Plxna4, Nrp2, Efna5) or specifically in mature OSNs (Plxna3, Unc5b, Efna3, Epha5, Epha7), although some were specific to immature OSNs (Plxnb1, Plxnb2, Plxdc2, Nrp1). Cell adhesion molecules were expressed either by both immature and mature OSNs (Dscam, Ncam1, Ncam2, Nrxn1) or solely by immature OSNs (Chl1, Nfasc1, Dscaml1). Given the loss of intracellular signaling protein expression, the continued expression of guidance cue receptors in mature OSNs is consistent with a change in the role of these receptors, perhaps to sending signals back to the cell body and nucleus. PMID:20882566

  8. Murine peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived NK cells.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Nissim; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Chiossone, Laura; Shahaf, Gitit; Walzer, Thierry; Vivier, Eric; Mehr, Ramit

    2016-05-01

    Murine NK cells can be divided by the expression of two cell surface markers, CD27 and Mac-1 (a.k.a. CD11b), into four separate subsets. These subsets suggest a linear development model: CD27(-) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(+) → CD27(-) Mac-1(+) . Here, we used a combination of BrdU labeling experiments and mathematical modeling to gain insights regarding NK-cell development in mouse bone marrow (BM), spleen and liver. The modeling results that best fit the experimental data show that the majority of NK cells already express CD27 upon entering the NK-cell developmental pathway. Additionally, only a small fraction of NK cells exit the BM to other sites, suggesting that peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived mature NK cells. PMID:26919267

  9. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after apexification with calcium silicate-based materials

    PubMed Central

    Evren, OK; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Tanriver, Mehmet; Capar, Ismail Davut; Kalkan, Abdussamed; Gok, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth filled with an apical barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were used. For standardization, the teeth were sectioned 6 mm above and 9 mm below the cementoenamel junction to simulate immature apex. Simulations of roots into immature apices were carried out using 1.5 mm diameter drills. The specimens were then randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 13) and one control group (n = 13). In experimental groups, MTA, Biodentine, and CEM were placed to apical 4 mm of the simulated immature roots. The samples were stored at 37° C and 100% humidity for 1 week. A load was applied on the crown of all teeth at 135° to their long axis until fracture. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: No statistically significant differences were found among MTA, CEM, and Biodentine (P > 0.05), and these groups demonstrated higher fracture resistance than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using any of the MTA, Biodentine, and CEM as an apical plug and restoring with fiber post and composite resin increases the fracture resistance of immature teeth. PMID:27095894

  10. Early immature neuronal death is partially involved in memory impairment induced by cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Cho, So Yeon; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Ji Wook; Park, Man Seok; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-07-15

    Memory impairment is a common after an ischemic stroke. While delayed neuronal death in the CA1 region is usually linked to cerebral ischemia-induced memory impairment, the role of early immature neuronal death within the DG region in the memory state of an ischemic stroke model has rarely been studied. Here, we show a partial role of immature neuronal death in memory impairment in a global ischemia model. We found early immature neuronal death, which was determined by DCX and NeuN-double-staining. Injection of z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, into the DG region rescued cells from immature neuronal death in the DG region without affecting delayed neuronal death in the CA1 region of an ischemic brain. Moreover, z-DEVD-fmk treatment partially rescued ischemia-induced spatial memory impairment. We also found that ischemia-induced LTP impairment in the perforant pathway was restored by z-DEVD-fmk treatment. These results suggest that early immature neuronal death is partially involved in ischemia-induced spatial memory impairment. PMID:27085588

  11. Comparison of phosphoprotein isolated from mature and immature human tooth roots.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S P; Clarkson, B H; Feagin, F F

    1992-12-01

    Mature (average patient age = 29.5 yr, closed apical foramen) and immature (average patient age = 17.5 yr, open apical foramen) root shards were placed in dialysis tubing and demineralized to completion using either 10% disodium EDTA plus protease inhibitors or 0.6 N HCl. The demineralized shards were re-extracted (five times) with 0.05 M tris-HCl, 1.0 M NaCl and then collagenase digested. No major differences were observed in chromatograms of extracts, re-extracts or collagenase digests from root shards demineralized in either way. In contrast, chromatograms of immature and mature roots showed qualitative differences. Chromatograms of mature roots demineralized in either way showed broader protein peaks and less organic phosphorus than those from immature tooth roots. A distinct band amid degraded phosphoprotein (150 K) was found in SDS-PAGE gels (7.5%) from EDTA-extracted immature tooth roots but not from mature tooth roots. Electroelution of this band revealed a typical phosphoprotein amino-acid profile containing increased aspartic acid and serine residues. Comparison of the total phosphoprotein and amino acid composition of extracts, re-extracts and collagenase digests revealed that phosphoprotein, serine and to a lesser extent aspartic acid were recovered in greater quantities from immature roots than mature tooth roots. These data suggest that the degree of maturation is crucial to the isolation of an intact phosphoprotein and provides additional evidence that human dentine phosphoprotein undergoes amino acid compositional changes during maturation. PMID:1471954

  12. Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Silk, J B; Stoinski, T S

    2011-04-01

    We examined the pattern and possible functions of social interactions between adult males and immatures in three free-ranging, multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Previous studies conducted during the 1970s when groups contained one to three adult males concluded that male-immature relationships were likely to be a form of low-cost paternal investment [Stewart, Mountain gorillas: three decades of research at Karisoke. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001]. We evaluated whether this hypothesis still held in groups containing six to nine adult males, or if male-immature relationships might serve other functions (e.g. mating effort, kin selection, or alliance building). Overall, we found that immatures spent the most time near, and interacted most with, the alpha silverback. These behaviors peaked during the period when infants were still quite vulnerable but increasing their independence from their mothers. Such findings suggest that parenting effort remains the primary function of male-immature relationships; however, there is some evidence for the mating effort hypothesis as well. PMID:21328594

  13. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The endodontic management of immature permanent incisors in young children can be challenging. This case reported an avulsed immature maxillary central incisors that underwent complete endodontic obturation using mineral trioxide aggregate. A 10-year-old male who suffered a fall injury avulsed both his central incisors. The revascularization process was not possible due to patient compliance and geographic reasons. Mineral trioxide aggregate was utilized as a novel endodontic treatment. After one year post-injury, the teeth remained symptom-free, the clinical and radiographic follow-up showed evidence of healthy periodontium. How to cite this article: Al-Kahtani A. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):88-96. PMID:24155609

  14. Nonsurgical management of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved. PMID:26180425

  15. Quantitative evaluation of collagen crosslinks and corresponding tensile mechanical properties in mouse cervical tissue during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Jiang, Hongfeng; Kim, MiJung; Vink, Joy; Cremers, Serge; Paik, David; Wapner, Ronald; Mahendroo, Mala; Myers, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the mechanical integrity of the cervix during pregnancy have implications for a successful delivery. Cervical collagens are known to remodel extensively in mice with progressing gestation leading to a soft cervix at term. During this process, mature crosslinked collagens are hypothesized to be replaced with immature less crosslinked collagens to facilitate cervical softening and ripening. To determine the mechanical role of collagen crosslinks during normal mouse cervical remodeling, tensile load-to-break tests were conducted for the following time points: nonpregnant (NP), gestation day (d) 6, 12, 15, 18 and 24 hr postpartum (PP) of the 19-day gestation period. Immature crosslinks (HLNL and DHLNL) and mature crosslinks (DPD and PYD) were measured using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). There were no significant changes in the total immature crosslink density (HLNL+DHLNL mol per collagen mol) throughout normal mouse gestation (range: 0.31-0.49). Total mature crosslink density (PYD+DPD mol per collagen mol) decreased significantly in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.17, d12: 0.097, d15: 0.026) and did not decrease with further gestation. The maturity ratio (total mature to total immature crosslinks) significantly decreased in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.2, d15: 0.074). All of the measured crosslinks correlated significantly with a measure of tissue stiffness and strength, with the exception of the immature crosslink HLNL. This data provides quantitative evidence to support the hypothesis that as mature crosslinked collagens decline, they are replaced by immature collagens to facilitate increased tissue compliance in the early softening period from d6 to d15. PMID:25397407

  16. Immature astrocytes promote CNS axonal regeneration when combined with chondroitinase ABC

    PubMed Central

    Filous, Angela R.; Miller, Jared H.; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M.; Horn, Kevin P.; Alilain, Warren J.; Silver, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Regeneration of injured adult CNS axons is inhibited by formation of a glial scar. Immature astrocytes are able to support robust neurite outgrowth and reduce scarring, therefore, we tested whether these cells would have this effect if transplanted into brain injuries. Utilizing an in vitro spot gradient model that recreates the strongly inhibitory proteoglycan environment of the glial scar we found that, alone, immature, but not mature, astrocytes had a limited ability to form bridges across the most inhibitory outer rim. In turn, the astrocyte bridges could promote adult sensory axon re-growth across the gradient. The use of selective enzyme inhibitors revealed that MMP-2 enables immature astrocytes to cross the proteoglycan rim. The bridge-building process and axon regeneration across the immature glial bridges were greatly enhanced by chondroitinase ABC pre-treatment of the spots. We used microlesions in the cingulum of the adult rat brains to test the ability of matrix modification and immature astrocytes to form a bridge for axon regeneration in vivo. Injured axons were visualized via p75 immunolabeling and the extent to which these axons regenerated was quantified. Immature astrocytes co-injected with chondroitinase ABC induced axonal regeneration beyond the distal edge of the lesion. However, when used alone, neither treatment was capable of promoting axonal regeneration. Our findings indicate that when faced with a minimal lesion, neurons of the basal forebrain can regenerate in the presence of a proper bridge across the lesion and when levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the glial scar are reduced. PMID:20629049

  17. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  18. Vital Pulp Therapy with Three Different Pulpotomy Agents in Immature Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Azadeh; Forghani, Maryam; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes apexogenesis treatment of three molar teeth of an 8-year-old boy using three different pulpotomy agents. Methods Pulpotomy was performed on decayed immature molar teeth with established irreversible pulpitis and the remaining pulp was capped with either zinc oxide eugenol, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Results Eighteen months clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed successful preservation of pulpal vitality with continued root development in all treated teeth. Conclusion Based on this case report, CEM cement may be an alternative option for pulpotomy treatment of immature permanent molars. PMID:23922578

  19. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  20. 76 FR 44571 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on January 25, 2011 (76 FR 4278-4279, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0114), in... Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature Inflorescences of Pacaya, Immature Inflorescences of Chufle, and Fresh... the importation into the continental United States of fresh edible flowers of izote,...

  1. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  2. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  3. Immatures of the New World Treehopper Tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immatures stages of 9 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Lallemandia Funkhouser, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time long with brief di...

  4. Relative Immaturity and ADHD: Findings from Nationwide Registers, Parent- and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halldner, Linda; Tillander, Annika; Lundholm, Cecilia; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: We addressed if immaturity relative to peers reflected in birth month increases the likelihood of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We linked nationwide Patient and Prescribed Drug Registers and used prospective cohort and nested case-control designs to study 6-69 year-old individuals in Sweden from July 2005 to December 2009…

  5. New Glabretal Triterpenes from the Immature Fruits of Poncirus trifoliata and Their Selective Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Ran; Lee, In-Kyoung; Woo, E-Eum; Kwon, Jin-Won; Yun, Bong-Sik; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Two new glabretal triterpenes, pancastatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including one- and two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells under low-glucose stress conditions. PMID:26633028

  6. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  7. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; Barbour, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st–2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  8. Effects of Pyriproxyfen and Buprofezin on Immature Development and Reproduction in the Stable Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most significant biting flies affecting cattle. Use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only limited success due to the insect’s unique feeding behaviors and immature development sites. A laboratory study...

  9. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  10. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  11. Remote sensing studies of immature soils on the Moon (Reiner-gamma formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.

    1993-01-01

    On the base of laboratory results and telescopic data it is shown that the spectropolarization ratio P(sub max(sup B))/P(sub max(sup R)) for blue and red spectral regions is a remote sensing parameter of lunar soil maturity. It correlates with value of maturity index derived from morphological or ferromagnetic methods of exposure age determination. This parameter is equal to 0.315 for Reiner-gamma formation. So Reiner-gamma area is covered by immature soil. An extensive spectral mapping of the Reiner-gamma formation with high spatial resolution (0.2 km/pixel) was produced. This result was obtained at the 2-meter aperture telescope of Pic-du-Midi (France). The data sets consist in repeated runs comprising 10 selected narrow-band images (from 0.4 to 1.05 micron). The analysis of these data suggests that such a type of immature material includes not more than 28% of agglutinattes. We find the model grain size of fine fraction to be 40 micrometers grain size, of more immature soil 400-500 micrometers, and of the formation soil 120-150 micrometers. The exposure age of the Reiner-gamma immature soil is equal about 10 x 10(exp 6) years.

  12. Subunit Composition of Neurotransmitter Receptors in the Immature and in the Epileptic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity is critical for synaptogenesis and the development of neuronal networks. In the immature brain excitation predominates over inhibition facilitating the development of normal brain circuits, but also rendering it more susceptible to seizures. In this paper, we review the evolution of the subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors during development, how it promotes excitation in the immature brain, and how this subunit composition of neurotransmission receptors may be also present in the epileptic brain. During normal brain development, excitatory glutamate receptors peak in function and gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA) receptors are mainly excitatory rather than inhibitory. A growing body of evidence from animal models of epilepsy and status epilepticus has demonstrated that the brain exposed to repeated seizures presents a subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors that mirrors that of the immature brain and promotes further seizures and epileptogenesis. Studies performed in samples from the epileptic human brain have also found a subunit composition pattern of neurotransmitter receptors similar to the one found in the immature brain. These findings provide a solid rationale for tailoring antiepileptic treatments to the specific subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors and they provide potential targets for the development of antiepileptogenic treatments. PMID:25295256

  13. IMMATURE RAT LEYDIG CELLS ARE INTRINSICALLY LESS SENSITIVE THAN ADULT LEYDIG CELLS TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leydig cells from immature rat tests appear to be insensitive to doses of ethane-1,2-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) which eliminate Leydig cells from adult rat testes. e sought to determine whether this differential response to EDS is intrinsic to the Leydig cell or mediated by other i...

  14. In Vitro Manganese Exposure Disrupts MAPK Signaling Pathways in Striatal and Hippocampal Slices from Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Pedro, Daniela Zótico; de Cordova, Fabiano Mendes; Lopes, Mark William; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel; Walz, Roger; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in the immature central nervous system, have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) could represent potential targets of Mn in striatal and hippocampal slices obtained from immature rats (14 days old). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the MAPK pathways are modulated after subtoxic Mn exposure, which do not significantly affect cell viability. The concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2; 10–1,000 μM) caused no change in cell viability in slices exposed for 3 or 6 hours. However, Mn exposure significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2/3 phosphorylation at both 3 and 6 hours incubations, in both brain structures. Furthermore, Mn exposure did not change the total content or phosphorylation of TH at the serine 40 site in striatal slices. Thus, Mn at concentrations that do not disrupt cell viability causes activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3) in immature hippocampal and striatal slices. These findings suggest that altered intracellular MAPKs signaling pathways may represent an early event concerning the effects of Mn in the immature brain. PMID:24324973

  15. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  16. Licensed to Ill: IL-9 Generation in Immature Mast Cells Permits Food-Elicited Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Nora A; Austen, K Frank

    2015-10-20

    Food-specific IgE is central to the pathobiology of food allergy, but not sufficient to induce disease. Chen et al. (2015) demonstrate that food-elicited reactions require an immature mast cell that generates IL-9 to induce its own maturation. PMID:26488812

  17. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  18. In a model of immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH)/MYC translocation, the Igh 3' regulatory region induces MYC expression at the immature stage of B cell development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi; Park, Sung Sup; Janz, Siegfried; Eckhardt, Laurel A

    2007-10-01

    Reciprocal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci and the cellular oncogene MYC are hallmark mutations of the human postgerminal center B cell neoplasm, Burkitt's lymphoma. They are occasionally found in other B cell lymphomas, as well. Translocations involving the heavy chain locus (IGH) place the MYC gene either in cis with both the intronic enhancer Emu and the IGH 3' regulatory region (3'RR) or in cis with only the 3'RR. The result is deregulated MYC expression. Recent studies have led to some controversy as to when, during B lymphocyte development, IGH/MYC chromosome translocations take place. A related issue, relevant not only to lymphoma development but also to normal controls on IGH gene expression, is the stage, during B lymphocyte development, at which the 3'RR is capable of activating MYC expression. We have developed mice transgenic for a human MYC (hMYC) gene under control of the four core enhancers from the mouse Igh 3'RR. Unlike other transgenic mouse models where premature and inappropriate MYC expression disrupts normal B cell development, the hMYC transgene in these studies carries a mutation that prohibits MYC protein synthesis. As a result, hMYC expression can be analyzed in all of the normal B cell compartments. Our data show that hMYC is expressed almost exclusively in B-lineage cells and is induced to high levels as soon as bone marrow cells reach the immature B cell stage. PMID:17639584

  19. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  20. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  1. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  2. Mesocyclops longisetus effects on survivorship of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Delfín-González, H; Parra Tabla, V

    1998-10-01

    The effect of the introduction of the entomophagous copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Acuacultura F.C.B. strain) on the survival of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres was evaluated under semi-natural conditions in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Life tables were constructed for the immature stages of the mosquito in the presence and absence of M. longisetus, and the survival data were compared using log-linear models. The data set was adjusted using the GLIM statistical package and the quality of adjustment was evaluated with a chi-squared test. Survivorship curves were constructed for each treatment. In the absence of M. longisetus, the survivorship of Ae. aegypti immature stages averaged 9%. The highest mortality rate was observed during the fourth larval instar (54%) and the resulting survival pattern corresponded to a type II survivorship curve. The mortality rate of Ae. aegypti first-instar larvae (fifty per tyre) increased more than 200-fold in the presence of M. longisetus (twenty per tyre) and the highest mortality was during the first two larval instars, where it reached 98.9%, with a resulting survivorship of 0.2%. Overall mortality was sixfold greater in the presence of the copepod than in its absence. The survival pattern of immature stages of Ae. aegypti in the presence of the copepod corresponded to a type III survivorship curve. As M. longisetus was so effective against Ae. aegypti immature stages in tyres under seminatural conditions, its long-term effectiveness should be evaluated under socially and ecologically realistic field conditions in Mexico. PMID:9824822

  3. Expression of claudin-1 and -11 in immature and mature pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) testes.

    PubMed

    Park, C J; Lee, J E; Oh, Y S; Shim, S; Nah, W H; Choi, K J; Gye, M C

    2011-02-01

    The expression of claudin-1 and -11, tight junctions (TJs) proteins was examined in immature and adult pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) testes. Claudin-1 and -11 cDNA were highly similar to those of human, mice, and chicken. Claudin-1 mRNA and protein (21 kDa) levels in immature testes were higher than those of adult testis. In immature testes until 6 weeks of age, Claudin-1 was found at contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells and between Sertoli cells and germ cells. In adult testis, Claudin-1 was found in early spermatocytes migrating the blood testis barrier (BTB). Blood vessels were positive for claudin-1. Claudin-11 mRNA and protein (21 kDa) increased during adulthood development of testis. In immature testis, Claudin-11 was found in apicolateral contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells, indicating its involvement in cell adhesion in immature testis. In adult testis, strong wavy Claudin-11 immunoreactivity was parallel to basal lamina at the basal part of seminiferous epithelium, indicating that Claudin-11 at the inter-Sertoli TJs may act as a structural element of the BTB. Weak Claudin-1 and -11 immunoreactivity at contacts between Sertoli cells to elongating/elongated spermatids, meiotic germ cells, and basal lamina suggests that they also participate in the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion in pheasant testis. Testosterone increased claudin-11 mRNA in testis organ culture and Sertoli cell primary culture, suggesting positive regulation of claudin-11 gene by androgen in Sertoli cells of pheasant testis. This is the first report on the claudins expression at BTB in avian testis. PMID:21074249

  4. Life table analysis for immatures and female adults of the predatory beetle,Delphastus catalinae,feeding on whiteflies under three constant temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immature development and reproductive life history of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) immatures was studied at three constant temperatures: 22, 26 and 30 ºC. Development rates and lower temperature thr...

  5. Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the mouse utricle following gentamicin ototoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kohei; Izumikawa, Masahiko; Beyer, Lisa A.; Atkin, Graham M.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Whereas most epithelial tissues turn-over and regenerate after a traumatic lesion, this restorative ability is diminished in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear; it is absent in the cochlea and exists only in a limited capacity in the vestibular epithelium. The extent of regeneration in vestibular hair cells has been characterized for several mammalian species including guinea pig, rat, and chinchilla, but not yet in mouse. As the fundamental model species for investigating hereditary disease, the mouse can be studied using a wide variety of genetic and molecular tools. To design a mouse model for vestibular hair cell regeneration research, an aminoglycoside-induced method of complete hair cell elimination was developed in our lab and applied to the murine utricle. Loss of utricular hair cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and corroborated by a loss of fluorescent signal in utricles from transgenic mice with GFP-positive hair cells. Regenerative capability was characterized at several time points up to six months following insult. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed that as early as two weeks after insult, a few immature hair cells, demonstrating the characteristic immature morphology indicative of regeneration, could be seen in the utricle. As time progressed, larger numbers of immature hair cells could be seen along with some mature cells resembling surface morphology of type II hair cells. By six months post-lesion, numerous regenerated hair cells were present in the utricle, however, neither their number nor their appearance was normal. A BrdU assay suggested that at least some of the regeneration of mouse vestibular hair cells involved mitosis. Our results demonstrate that the vestibular sensory epithelium in mice can spontaneously regenerate, elucidate the time course of this process, and identify involvement of mitosis in some cases. These data establish a road map of the murine vestibular regenerative process, which can be

  6. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. Material/Methods We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro® 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. Results The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (p<0.01). Conclusions The immature brainstem is a rate-dependent material in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the

  7. Unusual Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in Skeletally Immature Patient in Diaphysis of Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulik T; Nayak, Maunil R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor is a locally aggressive benign tumor. Giant cell tumor of bone is characteristically found in skeletally mature patient at the end of long bones in the epiphyseal region or epiphysio-metaphyseal region. Giant cell tumor is very rare in skeletally immature patient. But we are presenting a very rare case of giant cell tumor in skeletally immature patient in diaphyseal region which is very uncommon location for giant cell tumor. From this case we concluded that irrespective of the location and skeletal maturity, a giant cell tumor should be diagnosed based on its histology because classical clinical-radiological features are not always present. Index case strengthens this view. PMID:27299037

  8. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  9. Which Proximal Humerus Fractures Should Be Pinned? Treatment in Skeletally Immature Patients.

    PubMed

    King, Erik C B; Ihnow, Stephanie B

    2016-06-01

    Most proximal humerus fractures in skeletally immature individuals are treated nonoperatively with excellent functional results. Extensive remodeling of the proximal humerus and the wide arc of motion of the glenohumeral joint accommodate a large degree of fracture displacement and angulation. The treatment of severely displaced fractures and/or severely angulated fractures continues to be debated. Older patients and those with significantly displaced fractures may benefit from surgery because of their inability to remodel displacement and angulation during their limited remaining growth. The decision to treat a proximal humerus fracture in a skeletally immature patient operatively versus nonoperatively is dependent on the following 3 factors: displacement, bone age, and capacity to remodel. There is an increasing trend toward treating severely displaced and severely angulated fractures surgically, especially in older patients and adolescents. Smooth wires, percutaneous threaded wires, cannulated screws, and retrograde elastic stable intramedullary nailing are acceptable options for fixation. PMID:27100038

  10. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  11. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541

  12. Biology and External Morphology of Immatures of O psiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Neves, D A; Paluch, M

    2016-02-01

    The genus Opsiphanes Doubleday occurs in the Neotropics. Adults belong to the guild of frugivorous butterflies and use as host plants some genera of Arecaceae and Musaceae. The present study provides information on the biology and describes the external morphology of immatures of the species Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger obtained from females collected in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. The development of immatures was monitored and photographed in the laboratory. The larvae were fed with leaves of Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae), an ornamental plant. The egg stage lasted, on average, 7.2 days. The larval stage had five instars, with an average duration of 48.5 days. The pupal stage lasted 16.5 days. The average growth rate of the head capsule was 1.5 mm. PMID:26341197

  13. Overuse throwing injuries in skeletally immature athletes--diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mautner, By Ken; Blazuk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The number of skeletally immature athletes participating in organized sport is near an all-time high. For nearly half a century, the medical community has investigated the link between shoulder and elbow injuries with repetitive throwing. Despite substantial literature and research, several controversies still exist, including when to begin throwing breaking pitches. Furthermore, despite introduction of pitch recommendations for youth baseball, misconceptions, poor understanding of, and adherence to these guidelines persist. High-velocity and high-volume throwing and throwing while fatigued are significant risk factors for injury. Improved awareness and adherence to throwing guidelines should limit the number of injuries. Proper identification and treatment of injuries when they do occur can allow our skeletally immature athletes to safely return to overhead sports activities. PMID:25968854

  14. Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong

    2015-09-01

    We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.

  15. Changes in geometrical and biomechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Hou, Jack C.-H.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Nishimoto, Mitchell; Patel, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    The differences in the geometry and mechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibiae were detailed in order to provide comparative data for spaceflight, exercise, or disease experiments that use immature rats as an animal model. The experiment focuses on the particularly rapid period of growth that occurs in the Sprague-Dawley rat between 40 and 60 d of age. Tibial length and middiaphysical cross-sectional data were analyzed for eight different groups of rats according to age and sex, and tibial mechanical properties were obtained via three-point bending tests to failure. Results indicate that, during the 15 d period of rapid growth, changes in rat tibial geometry are more important than changes in bone material properties for influencing the mechanical properties of the tibia. Male tibiae changed primarily in structural properties, while in the female rats major changes in mechanical properties of the tibia were only attributable to changes in the structural properties of the bone.

  16. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep K.; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

  17. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S

    2014-07-01

    Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

  18. Structure of the Immature Dengue Virus at Low pH Primes Proteolytic Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, I-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Holdaway, Heather A.; Li, Long; Kostyuchenko, Victor A.; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Chen, Jue

    2008-09-17

    Intracellular cleavage of immature flaviviruses is a critical step in assembly that generates the membrane fusion potential of the E glycoprotein. With cryo-electron microscopy we show that the immature dengue particles undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that renders them accessible to furin cleavage. At a pH of 6.0, the E proteins are arranged in a herringbone pattern with the pr peptides docked onto the fusion loops, a configuration similar to that of the mature virion. After cleavage, the dissociation of pr is pH-dependent, suggesting that in the acidic environment of the trans-Golgi network pr is retained on the virion to prevent membrane fusion. These results suggest a mechanism by which flaviviruses are processed and stabilized in the host cell secretory pathway.

  19. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  20. Cyclosporin A Preserves Mitochondrial Function after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Rat and Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Bhandare, Sunita; Lorom, David H.; Saraswati, Manda; Robertson, Courtney L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to be neuroprotective in mature animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its effects on immature animal models of TBI are unknown. In mature animal models, CsA inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), thereby maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis following injury by inhibiting calcium influx and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CsA's ability to preserve mitochondrial bioenergetic function following TBI (as measured by mitochondrial respiration and cerebral microdialysis), in two immature models (focal and diffuse), and in two different species (rat and piglet). Three groups were studied: injured+CsA, injured+saline vehicle, and uninjured shams. In addition, we evaluated CsA's effects on cerebral hemodynamics as measured by a novel thermal diffusion probe. The results demonstrate that post-injury administration of CsA ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction, preserves cerebral blood flow (CBF), and limits neuropathology in immature animals 24 h post-TBI. Mitochondria were isolated 24 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats and rapid non-impact rotational injury (RNR) in piglets, and CsA ameliorated cerebral bioenergetic crisis with preservation of the respiratory control ratio (RCR) to sham levels. Results were more dramatic in RNR piglets than in CCI rats. In piglets, CsA also preserved lactate pyruvate ratios (LPR), as measured by cerebral microdialysis and CBF at sham levels 24 h after injury, in contrast to the significant alterations seen in injured piglets compared to shams (p<0.01). The administration of CsA to piglets following RNR promoted a 42% decrease in injured brain volume (p<0.01). We conclude that CsA exhibits significant neuroprotective activity in immature models of focal and diffuse TBI, and has exciting translational potential as a therapeutic agent for neuroprotection in children. PMID

  1. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Navin; Narang, Isha; Mittal, Neelam

    2013-07-01

    Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) utilizing Choukroun's method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA) was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth. PMID:24124320

  2. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Navin; Narang, Isha; Mittal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) utilizing Choukroun's method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA) was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth. PMID:24124320

  3. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  4. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  5. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  6. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Arindam; Dewangan, Yatindra Kumar; Bain, Jayanta; Rakshit, Pritha; Dhruw, Krishnanand; Basu, Sandip Kanti; Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL) is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05) in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar. PMID:25593424

  7. Synthesis and assembly of retrovirus Gag precursors into immature capsids in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sakalian, M; Parker, S D; Weldon, R A; Hunter, E

    1996-01-01

    The assembly of retroviral particles is mediated by the product of the gag gene; no other retroviral gene products are necessary for this process. While most retroviruses assemble their capsids at the plasma membrane, viruses of the type D class preassemble immature capsids within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This has allowed us to determine whether immature capsids of the prototypical type D retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), can assemble in a cell-free protein synthesis system. We report here that assembly of M-PMV Gag precursor proteins can occur in this in vitro system. Synthesized particles sediment in isopycnic gradients to the appropriate density and in thin-section electron micrographs have a size and appearance consistent with those of immature retrovirus capsids. The in vitro system described in this report appears to faithfully mimic the process of assembly which occurs in the host cell cytoplasm, since M-PMV gag mutants defective in in vivo assembly also fail to assemble in vitro. Likewise, the Gag precursor proteins of retroviruses that undergo type C morphogenesis, Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus, which do not preassemble capsids in vivo, fail to assemble particles in this system. Additionally, we demonstrate, with the use of anti-Gag antibodies, that this cell-free system can be utilized for analysis in vitro of potential inhibitors of retrovirus assembly. PMID:8648705

  8. Nest Architecture, Colony Productivity, and Duration of Immature Stages in a Social Wasp, Mischocyttarus consimilis

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Thiago S.; Torres, Viviana O.; Fernandes, Wedson D.; Antonialli-Junior, William F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nest architecture, colony productivity, and duration of the immature stages of the social wasp Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikáán (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The study was carried out under field conditions. Nests of M. consimilis consist of a single uncovered comb, which is attached to the substratum by a single petiole. The data for the nest architecture showed a positive and significant correlation between the size of the comb and the diameter of the petiole, and also between the height and diameter of the cells. The nests were constructed on horizontal, vertical, and sloping substrata with no apparent preference for a specific orientation. The colonies produced 72.9 cells and 40.7 adults on average. The mean frequency of productive cells was 33.3%, and 19.4% of the cells were reused. The mean duration of the immature stages combined was 69.7 days and the egg, larval, and pupal stages had mean durations of 14.9, 36.0, and 18.8 days, respectively. The duration of each immature stage was significantly shorter in the warmhumid season, and the larval and pupal stages were shorter during the colony pre-emergence stage. PMID:21271847

  9. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  10. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  11. CXCR4 and a cell-extrinsic mechanism control immature B lymphocyte egress from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Thomas C.; Gomes, Ana Cordeiro; Cyster, Jason G.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte residence in lymphoid organs is controlled by a balance between retention and egress-promoting chemoattractants sensed by pertussis toxin (PTX)–sensitive Gαi protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we use two-photon intravital microscopy to show that immature B cell retention within bone marrow (BM) was strictly dependent on amoeboid motility mediated by CXCR4 and CXCL12 and by α4β1 integrin–mediated adhesion to VCAM-1. However, B lineage cell egress from BM is independent of PTX-sensitive GPCR signaling. B lineage cells expressing PTX rapidly exited BM even though their motility within BM parenchyma was significantly reduced. Our experiments reveal that when immature B cells are near BM sinusoids their motility is reduced, their morphology is predominantly rounded, and cells reverse transmigrate across sinusoidal endothelium in a largely nonamoeboid manner. Immature B cell egress from BM was dependent on a twofold CXCR4 down-regulation that was antagonized by antigen-induced BCR signaling. This passive mode of cell egress from BM also contributes significantly to the export of other hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells, and is reminiscent of erythrocyte egress. PMID:25403444

  12. Bacterial endotoxin sensitizes the immature brain to hypoxic--ischaemic injury.

    PubMed

    Eklind, S; Mallard, C; Leverin, A L; Gilland, E; Blomgren, K; Mattsby-Baltzer, I; Hagberg, H

    2001-03-01

    Epidemiological studies show a markedly increased risk of cerebral palsy following the combined exposure of infection and birth asphyxia. However, the underlying mechanisms of this increased vulnerability remain unclear. We have examined the effects of a low dose of bacterial endotoxin on hypoxic--ischaemic injury in the immature brain of rats. Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide 0.3 mg/kg) was administered to 7-day-old rats 4 h prior to unilateral hypoxia--ischaemia and the neurological outcome was determined 3 days later. Rectal temperature and cerebral blood flow was measured during the study and the expression of CD14 and toll-like receptor-4 mRNA in the brain was examined. We found that a low dose of endotoxin dramatically sensitizes the immature brain to injury and induces cerebral infarction in response to short periods of hypoxia--ischaemia that by themselves caused no or little injury. This effect could not be explained by a reduction in cerebral blood flow or hyperthermia. In association with the sensitization of injury we found an altered expression of CD14 mRNA and toll-like receptor-4 mRNA in the brain. These results suggest that the innate immune system may be involved in the vulnerability of the immature brain following the combination of infection and hypoxia--ischaemia. PMID:11285007

  13. Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani village, Mali.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Touré, Yeya T; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Dolo, Guimogo; Taylor, Charles E

    2004-05-01

    We observed the survivorship and distribution of larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles immature stages in three habitats (rock pools, swamp, and puddles) in Banambani village. Mali, West Africa, during the mid-rainy season of 2000. Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in the laboratory. Times spent in the various immature stages were determined, and laboratory survival was measured. Vertical life tables were obtained from each habitat. We found large day-to-day variation for age class composition within habitats across days. The swamp samples had small but statistically significant different distributions in some instar stages compared with rock pools and puddles as affected by precipitation history. There were obviously unstable age distributions in the swamp and puddles and to some extent in rock pools. There were more individuals in some later age classes than in earlier ones. The daily survival estimates using an exponential decay model were 0.807 in rock pools, 0.899 in the swamp, 0.818 in puddles, and 0.863 in the overall village. Possible reasons for the departure from stable age distribution were cannibalism, predation and other complex interactions, rainfall effects, sampling bias, and differences in physicochemical properties of the water in the habitats. PMID:15185933

  14. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  15. In vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo development after ultrarapid freezing of immature human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhang, L; Wang, X

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development of ultrarapidly frozen immature oocytes (immature cumulus-oocyte complexes; COCs) obtained from antral follicles in ovaries of patients with chocolate ovarian cysts. The COCs were cryopreserved by a vitrification method using 5.5 mol ethylene glycol l (-1) plus 1.0 mol sucrose l (-1) in Dulbecco's PBS (DPBS). The survival, maturation and fertilization rates, and the percentage of embryos developing to the two-cell stage were 59, 64, 70 and 71%, respectively. No significant differences were noted in the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development between control and cryopreserved oocytes. Two embryos that developed from cryopreserved oocytes of the oocyte donor programme were selected for transfer into the uterus of a recipient with premature ovarian failure, after the recipient had received steroid replacement. A biochemical pregnancy occurred in the recipient after embryo transfer. These results indicate that immature oocytes can survive after cryopreservation and subsequently can be cultured to mature oocytes that are capable of undergoing fertilization in vitro and developing into embryos. PMID:11226064

  16. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in skeletally immature patients: an individualized approach☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Júnior, Osmar Valadão; Saggin, Paulo Renato; Matos do Nascimento, Gilberto; Kuhn, André; Saggin, José; Inácio, André Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate a series of skeletally immature patients who underwent three surgical techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction according to each patient's growth potential. Methods a series of 23 skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery at ages ranging from 7 to 15 years was evaluated prospectively. The surgical technique was individualized according to the Tanner sexual maturity score. The surgical techniques used were transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction and extraphyseal reconstruction. Four patients underwent the extraphyseal technique, seven the partial transphyseal technique and twelve the full transphyseal technique, on the ACL. The postoperative evaluation was based on the Lysholm score, clinical analysis on the knee and the presence of angular deformity or dysmetria of the lower limb. Results the mean Lysholm score was 96.34 (±2.53). None of the patients presented differences in length and/or clinical or radiographic misalignment abnormality of the lower limbs. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using flexor tendon grafts in skeletally immature patients provided satisfactory functional results. Use of individualized surgical techniques according to growth potential did not give rise to physeal lesions capable of causing length discrepancies or misalignments of the lower limbs, even in patients with high growth potential. PMID:26229809

  17. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  18. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  19. The role of diet and housing-temperature in the production of genetically modified mouse embryos and their developmental capacity after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Michael; Denk, Nora; Schenkel, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Mutant mouse lines are unique models with an enormous scientific potential. Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos or of spermatozoa is a common approach to save those lines. The breeding of a line can be discontinued if sufficient specimens have been cryopreserved. Prerequisites to economically cryopreserve embryos are high yields of embryos prepared from donors and a high recovery rate after revitalization. Diets for laboratory animals are often produced from phytoestrogen-containing soy; the present study shows that feeding the donor animals with a phytoestrogen-poor diet is more efficient compared to a phytoestrogen-containing, soy-based diet. Additionally, a uterotrophic bioassay indicating the estrogenic role of compounds showed a significant increase of the relative uterus size of females fed with a phytoestrogen-rich diet. The role of the housing-temperature was investigated, too, showing that a housing-temperature of 24 °C results in the best embryo yields. The production of two-cell embryos is more economic than the production of eight-cell embryos. Investigating the recovery rate of frozen/thawed embryos, a very high recovery rate was determined when both, two- and eight-cell embryos were thawed. However, the capacity to develop to the next embryonic stage in vitro was dramatically reduced when two-cell embryos were compared to eight-cell embryos. After embryo transfer, the sex ratio became uneven and more males were delivered. This effect might be due to the procedures to which animals and embryos were subjected. These data show that many parameters can influence the production of animals when using (frozen/thawed) embryos. These parameters need continuous surveillance. PMID:26259536

  20. Description of a New Species of Neoadoxoplatys and Immature Stages of Neoadoxoplatys saileri Kormilev (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Associated with Bamboo.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Peredo, L; Ortega-León, G

    2014-06-01

    Neoadoxoplatys thomasi is described as a new species from Mexico and Venezuela. The immature stages of Neoadoxoplatys saileri Kormilev are presented for the first time. Immature stages are described and illustrated, some bamboo species of Guadua are recorded as hosts, distributional records in Mexico are also included; scanning electron micrographs of the eggs of N. saileri are provided. A key to separate the four known species of Neoadoxoplatys is included. PMID:27193619

  1. Castration and training in a spatial task alter the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    New neurons are generated in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (GCL) throughout adulthood. This process is modulated by many environmental and neurochemical factors. We previously observed that castrated mice, compared to sham-operated mice, perform poorly in the delayed matching to place water-maze task (DMTP). In this study we quantified the number of doublecortin expressing (DCX+) immature neurons and Ki-67 expressing (Ki-67+) proliferating progenitors in mice previously tested in a spatial DMTP task, a non-spatial DMTP, or that received equivalent amounts of handling only. Regardless of DMTP training experience castration reduced immature neuron number in the GCL but had no effect on proliferating progenitors. Compared to handling only, visible DMTP training reduced the immature neuron number but hidden DMTP training had no effect. Castration did not alter these environmental effects. Finally, performance on the spatial DMTP task did not correlate with immature neuron number. In addition, while the number of immature neurons was strongly reduced following cranial irradiation with 137Cs, this treatment did not affect spatial DMTP performance. Thus, in mice, castration disrupts spatial memory and reduces immature neuron number, but there is no strong link between these effects. PMID:20233585

  2. Mouse lysozyme M gene: isolation, characterization, and expression studies.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, M; Mangelsdorf, I; Wedel, A; Renkawitz, R

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized both cDNA and genomic DNA of the mouse lysozyme M gene. Derivation of the amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequences revealed six positions in the carboxyl terminus that differ from partial sequences previously published. The differential detection of specific mRNAs from the closely related lysozyme M and P genes has revealed different but overlapping tissue specificities of expression. The M gene is expressed weakly in myeloblasts, moderately in immature macrophages, and strongly in both mature macrophages and macrophage-rich tissues, while high levels of P transcripts are present only in small intestine. Sites of protein accumulation, rather than gene expression, have been identified by comparative quantitation of mRNA and enzyme levels. Images PMID:3413093

  3. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  4. A peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein prevents the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancers sensitive and resistant to tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James A; Mesfin, Fassil B; Andersen, Thomas T; Gierthy, John F; Jacobson, Herbert I

    2002-02-19

    An 8-mer peptide (EMTOVNOG) derived from alpha-fetoprotein was compared with tamoxifen for activity against growth of human breast cancer xenografts implanted in immune-deficient mice. Both peptide and tamoxifen prevented growth of estrogen-receptor-positive MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer xenografts. A subline of MCF-7, made resistant to tamoxifen by a 6-month exposure to this drug in culture, was found to be resistant to tamoxifen in vivo. Peptide completely prevented the xenograft growth of this tamoxifen-resistant subline of MCF-7. Neither peptide nor tamoxifen was effective in slowing the xenograft growth of the estrogen-receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer. A worrisome side effect of tamoxifen is its hypertrophic effect on the uterus. In this study, tamoxifen was shown to stimulate the growth of the immature mouse uterus in vivo, and the peptide significantly inhibited tamoxifen's uterotrophic effect. The mechanism of action of peptide is different from that of tamoxifen in that the peptide does not interfere with the binding of [(3)H]estradiol to the estrogen receptor. In conclusion, alpha-fetoprotein-derived peptide appears to be a novel agent that interferes with the growth of tamoxifen-sensitive as well as tamoxifen-resistant estrogen-receptor-positive human breast cancers; it inhibits the uterotrophic side effect of tamoxifen and, thus, it may be useful in combination with or in place of tamoxifen for treatment of estrogen-receptor-positive human breast cancers. PMID:11830647

  5. Monoclonal antibodies specific for oncofetal antigen – immature laminin receptor protein: Effects on tumor growth and spread in two murine models

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Shannon D; Warner, Roscoe L; Ali, Saqib; Chekuri, Apurupa; Dame, Michael K; Attili, Durga; Knibbs, Randall K; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Sinkule, Joseph; Morgan, Alton Charles; Barsoum, Adel; Smith, Lauren B; Beer, David G; Johnson, Kent J; Varani, James

    2015-01-01

    The oncofetal antigen – immature laminin receptor protein (OFA/iLRP) has been linked to metastatic tumor spread for several years. The present study, in which 2 highly-specific, high-affinity OFA/iLRP-reactive mouse monoclonal antibodies were examined for ability to suppress tumor cell growth and metastatic spread in the A20 B-cell leukemia model and the B16 melanoma model, provides the first direct evidence that targeting OFA/iLRP with exogenous antibodies can have therapeutic benefit. While the antibodies were modestly effective at preventing tumor growth at the primary injection site, both antibodies strongly suppressed end-organ tumor formation following intravenous tumor cell injection. Capacity of anti-OFA/iLRP antibodies to suppress tumor spread through the blood in the leukemia model suggests their use as a therapy for individuals with leukemic disease (either for patients in remission or even as part of an induction therapy). The results also suggest use against metastatic spread with solid tumors. PMID:25799942

  6. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was previously demonstrated, the fate of these progenitor cells is unknown. Here, we show that peripheral nerve injury in adult rats induces extensive spinal cord neurogenesis and a long-term increase in the number of spinal cord laminae I–II neurons ipsilateral to injury. The production and maturation of these new neurons correlates with the time course and modulation of nociceptive behaviour, and transiently mimics the cellular and behavioural conditions present in genetically modified animal models of chronic pain. This suggests that the number of immature neurons present at any time in the spinal cord dorsal horns contributes to the regulation of nociceptive sensitivity. The continuous turnover of these neurons, which can fluctuate between normal and injured states, is a dynamic regulator of nociceptive sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis, we find that promoters of neuronal differentiation inhibit, while promoters of neurogenesis increase long-term nociception. TrkB agonists, well-known promoters of nociception in the short-term, significantly inhibit long-term nociception by promoting the differentiation of newly produced immature neurons. These findings suggest that promoters of neuronal differentiation may be used to alleviate chronic pain. PMID:26223362

  7. Roles of thyroid hormones in follicular development in the ovary of neonatal and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Zheng, Kaizhi; Wei, Quanwei; Kong, Lingfa; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a critical role in ovarian follicular development, maturation and the maintenance of various endocrine functions. However, whether TH can affect ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of TH on ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats. Thirty female post-lactation mothers of Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into three groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper), and hypothyroid (hypo). On postnatal days (PND) 10 and 21, body weights, serum hormones, ovarian histologic changes, and immunohistochemistry of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) and nitric oxide synthase types (NOS), and NOS activities, were determined. The data showed that body weights significantly decreased in both hyper and hypo groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hyper group had increased serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2; whereas the hypo group manifested reduced serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2 on PND 10 and 21. The hyper and hypo groups showed significantly reduced total number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles on PND 10 and 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, antral follicle numbers in the hyper and hypo groups were significantly decreased on PND 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Immunostaining indicated that TRα1 and NOS were expressed in ovarian surface epithelium and oocytes of growing and antral follicles, with strong staining of the granulosa and theca cells of follicles. NOS activities were significantly augmented in the hyper, but diminished in the hypo groups on PND 10 and 21. In summary, our findings suggest that TH play important roles in ovarian functions and in the regulation of NOS activity. Our results also indicate that a relationship exists between the TH and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular

  8. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after different intra-radicular treatments.

    PubMed

    Sivieri-Araujo, Gustavo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after different intra-radicular treatments. Crowns and roots of bovine incisors were cut transversally and removed to simulate immature teeth. Root canal preparation and flaring were performed using a bur in crown-apex and apex-crown direction. The samples were distributed into 5 groups (n=10): Positive control (PoC) - no root canal flaring or filling; Negative control (NeC) - teeth were sectioned and their root canals were flared; Direct anatomical glass fiber post (RaP) - #2 Reforpost main glass fiber post relined with composite resin; Double tapered conical glass fiber posts (ExP) - #3 Exacto glass fiber post; and #2 Reforpost main glass fiber + Reforpin accessory glass fiber posts (RrP). In RaP, ExP and RrP, 4.0-mm apical plugs were done with MTA Angelus. The specimens were embedded in polystyrene resin inside cylinders and the periodontal ligament was simulated with a polyether-based impression material. The specimens were submitted to compressive fracture strength test (0.5 mm/min at 135° relative to the long axis of the tooth) in a servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine MTS 810. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's C or Tukey's tests (α=0.05). The control groups (PoC and NeC) showed lower fracture strength than the experimental groups. NeC presented the lowest resistance and ExP presented the highest resistance among the experimental groups. The flaring procedures produced a detrimental effect on the fracture resistance of the bovine teeth. Glass fiber intra-radicular posts increased significantly the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth. PMID:26200142

  9. Platelet concentrates for revitalization of immature necrotic teeth: a systematic review of the clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Lolato, Alessandra; Bucchi, Cristina; Taschieri, Silvio; Kabbaney, Ahmed El; Fabbro, Massimo Del

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review aimed at determining the effectiveness of autologous platelet concentrate (APC) in the treatment of immature necrotic teeth. An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs, CENTRAL. Comparative clinical studies were included, in which APC was tested for pulp regeneration and radicular development. Selected articles underwent risk-of-bias assessment. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were considered. Three randomized parallel studies and one split-mouth case series were included. One study had low risk of bias and three studies had high risk. A total of 61 immature necrotic teeth were treated in 56 patients. Follow-up ranged between 12 and 18 months. All studies used platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the test group, and one also used platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). After treatment, all teeth of control and experimental groups remained asymptomatic for the entire study duration. Only one study reported response to cold and electric pulp test, showing not significantly better outcomes for the test group. Similarly, periapical healing and apical closure were improved in the group treated with APC although statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.08 and P = 0.06, respectively), probably due to the limited sample size. The teeth treated with PRP achieved significantly better thickening of the dentin walls (P = 0.01), and root lengthening (P = 0.001) than control teeth. Despite the potential effectiveness of APC in promoting root development of necrotic immature teeth, scarce evidence exists regarding this subject. In the studies evaluated in this review, platelet concentrates showed promising results that warrant further investigation. PMID:26836782

  10. Injury and repair in the very immature lung following brief mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Brew, Nadine; Hooper, Stuart B; Allison, Beth J; Wallace, Megan J; Harding, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) of very premature infants contributes to lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the effects of which can be long-lasting. Little is currently known about the ability of the very immature lung to recover from ventilator-induced lung injury. Our objective was to determine the ability of the injured very immature lung to repair in the absence of continued ventilation and to identify potential mechanisms. At 125 days gestational age (days GA, 0.85 of term), fetal sheep were partially exposed by hysterotomy under anesthesia and aseptic conditions; they were intubated and ventilated for 2 h with an injurious MV protocol and then returned to the uterus to continue development. Necropsy was performed at either 1 day (short-term group, 126 days GA, n = 6) or 15 days (long-term group, 140 days GA, n = 5) after MV; controls were unventilated (n = 7-8). At 1 day after MV, lungs displayed signs of injury, including hemorrhage, disorganized elastin and collagen deposition in the distal airspaces, altered morphology, significantly reduced secondary septal crest density, and decreased airspace. Bronchioles had thickened epithelium with evidence of injury and sloughing. Relative mRNA levels of early response genes (connective tissue growth factor, cysteine-rich 61, and early growth response-1) and proinflammatory cytokines [interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β] were not different between groups 1 day after MV. At 15 days after MV, lung structure was normal with no evidence of injury. We conclude that 2 h of MV induces severe injury in the very immature lung and that these lungs have the capacity to repair spontaneously in the absence of further ventilation. PMID:21890511

  11. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  12. Vulnerability of the superficial zone of immature articular cartilage to compressive injury

    PubMed Central

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Muehleman, Carol; Li, Jun; Kurz, Bodo; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Frank, Eliot; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive modulus, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, our objectives were to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical and matrix-associated changes cause by injury. Methods Superficial and deeper zones disks from bovine calves were biomechanically characterized, injured (50% compression, 100%/sec) and re-characterized. Tissue compaction upon injury, GAG-density, GAG loss and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen-fiber-orientation and matrix damage was assessed using histology, Diffraction-Enhanced-X-Ray-Imaging, and texture analysis. Results Injured superficial disks showed surface disruption, compaction by 20.3±4.3%, and immediate biomechanical impairment: dynamic stiffness decreased to 7.1±3.3% of its initial value and equilibrium modulus was below detection. Tissue areas apparently intact by histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zones disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose GAG immediately after injury but lost 17.8±1.4% by 48h; deeper zones disks lost only 2.8±0.3% GAG. Biomechanical impairment was primarily associated with structural damage. Conclusion The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, and resulting in immediate loss of biomechanical function. In conjunction with delayed superficial GAG loss, these changes may predispose the articular surface to further softening, damage, and increased risk of developing secondary OA. PMID:20556809

  13. Pulmonary hemodynamic responses to in utero ventilation in very immature fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The onset of ventilation at birth decreases pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) resulting in a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). As the large cross sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed develops late in gestation, we have investigated whether the ventilation-induced increase in PBF is reduced in immature lungs. Methods Surgery was performed in fetal sheep at 105 d GA (n = 7; term ~147 d) to insert an endotracheal tube, which was connected to a neonatal ventilation circuit, and a transonic flow probe was placed around the left pulmonary artery. At 110 d GA, fetuses (n = 7) were ventilated in utero (IUV) for 12 hrs while continuous measurements of PBF were made, fetuses were allowed to develop in utero for a further 7 days following ventilation. Results PBF changes were highly variable between animals, increasing from 12.2 ± 6.6 mL/min to a maximum of 78.1 ± 23.1 mL/min in four fetuses after 10 minutes of ventilation. In the remaining three fetuses, little change in PBF was measured in response to IUV. The increases in PBF measured in responding fetuses were not sustained throughout the ventilation period and by 2 hrs of IUV had returned to pre-IUV control values. Discussion and conclusion Ventilation of very immature fetal sheep in utero increased PBF in 57% of fetuses but this increase was not sustained for more than 2 hrs, despite continuing ventilation. Immature lungs can increase PBF during ventilation, however, the present studies show these changes are transient and highly variable. PMID:20723253

  14. Tissue characterization following revascularization of immature dog teeth using different disinfection pastes.

    PubMed

    Pagliarin, Claudia Medianeira Londero; Londero, Clacir de Lourdes Dotto; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2016-01-01

    Revascularization of immature teeth with necrotic pulps traditionally involves the use of triple antibiotic paste, which may sometimes lead to undesirable complications. The objective of this study was to assess tissue repair in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis subjected to revascularization, comparing two different pastes used for root canal disinfection. Apical periodontitis was induced in 30 dog premolars. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups: root canals filled with triple antibiotic paste (n = 10); root canals filled with 1% propolis paste (n = 10); and no medication (n = 10). An additional group (n = 10, no intervention) was used as control. After 7 months, the jaws were histologically evaluated for the following variables: newly formed mineralized tissue (present/absent); vital tissue in the canal space (absent/periodontal ligament-like/pulp-like); apical extension of root (present/absent); and severity of inflammatory process (absent/mild/moderate/severe). There were no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups in new mineralized tissue formation and apical root development. The formation of vital tissue in the canal space, in turn, was statistically different between the triple paste and propolis groups: vital tissues were present in all revascularized teeth disinfected with propolis paste (100%), compared to 71% of those disinfected with the triple paste. Severity of inflammatory process was different between the triple paste and no medication groups. The new tissues formed onto canal walls and in the root canal space showed characteristics of cementum and periodontal ligament, respectively. Propolis may have some advantages over the triple paste for the revascularization of immature teeth. PMID:27556552

  15. Tracking through life stages: adult, immature and juvenile autumn migration in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli's shearwater (formerly named Cory's shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d(-1) vs 170 km.d(-1)). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  16. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  17. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed Central

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future

  18. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  19. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  20. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de Leeuw, Jan W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2',5',5',8a'-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1,10-bis(2',2',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of β,β-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV).

  1. Evaluation of clorsulon against immature Fascioloides magna in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1988-07-01

    Efficacy of clorsulon was evaluated against infection with immature Fascioloides magna in 24 cattle and 12 sheep. Infections were induced by oral administration of 600 metacercariae/host. In cattle, clorsulon at dosages of 7 and 21 mg/kg of body weight was 65 and 100% effective against 8-week-old flukes, and 20 and 74% effective against 16-week-old flukes, respectively. In sheep, clorsulon at a dosage of 21 mg/kg was 92% effective against 8-week-old flukes. Significantly (P less than 0.05) more F magna were recovered from untreated sheep than from untreated cattle. PMID:3421522

  2. The immature stages of Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Oca-Aguilar, Ana Celia Montes De; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The egg exochorion, larval instars and pupa of the phlebotomine sand fly Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) are described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the locality of Farallón, municipality of Actopan, Veracruz, Mexico. Morphology of fourth instar larval mouthparts, particularly the incisor lobe and molar lobe shape of mandible, could be important for species identification of immature Phlebotominae. In this work is compared the pupal chaetotaxy of Mi. chiapanensis with other species previously described. The fourth instar larva of Mi. chiapanensis is compared with other species of this genus, the most important differentiating characters being the size, shape and position of the abdominal dorsal internal seta. PMID:27394791

  3. Aggrecanolysis and in vitro matrix degradation in the immature bovine meniscus: mechanisms and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about endogenous or cytokine-stimulated aggrecan catabolism in the meniscal fibrocartilage of the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure, distribution, and processing of aggrecan in menisci from immature bovines, and to identify mechanisms of extracellular matrix degradation that lead to changes in the mechanical properties of meniscal fibrocartilage. Methods Aggrecanase activity in the native immature bovine meniscus was examined by immunolocalization of the aggrecan NITEGE neoepitope. To investigate mechanisms of cytokine-induced aggrecan catabolism in this tissue, explants were treated with interleukin-1α (IL-1) in the absence or presence of selective or broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen contents of explants and culture media were quantified by biochemical methods, and aggrecan catabolism was examined by Western analysis of aggrecan fragments. The mechanical properties of explants were determined by dynamic compression and shear tests. Results The aggrecanase-generated NITEGE neoepitope was preferentially localized in the middle and outer regions of freshly isolated immature bovine menisci, where sGAG density was lowest and blood vessels were present. In vitro treatment of explants with IL-1 triggered the accumulation of NITEGE in the inner and middle regions. Middle region explants stimulated with IL-1 exhibited substantial decreases in sGAG content, collagen content, and mechanical properties. A broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor significantly reduced sGAG loss, abrogated collagen degradation, and preserved tissue mechanical properties. In contrast, an inhibitor selective for ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 was least effective at blocking IL-1-induced matrix catabolism and loss of mechanical properties. Conclusions Aggrecanase-mediated aggrecanolysis, typical of degenerative articular cartilage, may play a physiologic role in the development

  4. Plant regeneration from immature inflorescence derived callus cultures of salt tolerant kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L.).

    PubMed

    Praveena, M; Giri, C C

    2012-10-01

    Efficient plant regeneration has been achieved from immature inflorescence derived callus cultures of salt tolerant grass Leptochloa fusca (L.). Young inflorescence explants displayed wide-ranging responses for callus induction and plant regeneration when subjected to different cold treatment durations and without cold treatment exposure (control) prior to its inoculation to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations/combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The PGRs included auxins: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), picloram (Pic), 3, 6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid (dicamba) and cytokinins: Kinetin (KN), N6-benzyl adenine (BA). These treatments promoted different callus induction frequencies as well as various callus types such as type 1, type 2 and type 3. Induction of type 2 callus (white and compact) with potential for regeneration was obtained from cold treated (3 days at 10 °C) immature inflorescence cultured on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l dicamba and 0.25 mg/l BA. The study demonstrated that 2.0 mg/l dicamba and 0.25 mg/l BA induced callus promoted improved frequency compared to zilch shoot regeneration response with other combinations involving 2, 4-D, picloram, KN and BA. Full strength MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA was found to be optimal for plant regeneration. The regeneration frequencies ranged from 13.8 ± 1.366 to 55.5 ± 2.766 with highest number of shoots (19.1 ± 0.560) per 50-60 mg of callus as explants after 28 days of inoculation. Plant regeneration was also obtained on the dicamba callus induction medium itself within 21 days inoculation of immature inflorescence explants. Half strength MS medium both semisolid and liquid devoid of plant growth regulators promoted highest frequency (92.8 ± 4.099 and 100 ± 0.00) of rooting in regenerated shoots. Plants with well developed roots were successfully transferred to pots and grown to maturity with normal flowering and

  5. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  6. Effect of aspiration vacuum on the developmental competence of immature human oocytes retrieved using a 20-gauge needle.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shu; Fukuda, Aisaku; Murata, Yasutaka; Kikkawa, Miho; Oku, Hirotsugu; Kanaya, Hiroyuki; Sonoda, Momoyo; Sugihara, Kengo; Murata, Tomoko; Nagata, Fumie; Nakaoaka, Yoshiharu; Morimoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-04-01

    In-vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes has been proposed as a potential alternative to conventional IVF treatment following ovarian stimulation. However, the effects of the oocyte retrieval conditions on subsequent development have not been well understood. This study assessed the effects of different aspiration vacuums during oocyte retrieval on the developmental competence of immature oocytes following IVM, IVF and embryo transfer, retrospectively. Immature oocytes were aspirated with 20-gauge needles with a vacuum of 180 or 300 mmHg. Immature oocytes were cultured in IVM medium for 26 h. All mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryo transfer was carried out 2 or 3 days after ICSI. The percentage of cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes and of transferable embryos per retrieved oocytes in 180 mmHg (69.7% and 23.8%, respectively) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in 300 mmHg (46.2% and 12.8%, respectively). The ongoing pregnancy rate per retrieval cycle in 180 mmHg (30%) was higher (P < 0.01) than that in 300 mmHg (4.3%). The data indicate that lower pressure of vacuum aspiration with a 20-gauge needle improves the developmental competence of immature oocytes following IVM, IVF and embryo transfer. PMID:17425825

  7. Protein synthesis in the rat brain: a comparative in vivo and in vitro study in immature and adult animals

    SciTech Connect

    Shahbazian, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis of CNS and other organs were compared in immature and adult rats by in vivo and slice techniques with administration of flooding doses of labeled precursor. The relationship between synthesis and brain region, cell type, subcellular fraction, or MW was examined. Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)valine into protein of CNS regions in vivo was about 1.2% per hour for immature rats and 0.6% for adults. For slices, the rates decreased significantly more in adults. In adult organs, the highest synthesis rate in vivo was found in liver (2.2% per hour) followed by kidney, spleen, lung, heart, brain, and muscle (0.5% per hour). In immature animals synthesis was highest in liver and spleen (2.5% per hour) and lowest in muscle (0.9% per hour). Slices all showed lower rates than in vivo, especially in adults. In vivo, protein synthesis rates of immature neurons and astrocytes and adult neurons exceeded those of whole brain, while that in adult astrocytes was the same. These results demonstrate a developmental difference of protein synthesis (about double in immature animals) in all brain cells, cell fractions and most brain protein. Similarly the decreased synthesis in brain slices - especially in adults, affects most proteins and structural elements.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Quercetagetin, an Active Component of Immature Citrus unshiu, in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Ock, Jong-Woo; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Citrus fruit contain various flavonoids that have multiple biological activities. However, the content of these flavonoids are changed during maturation and immature Citrus is known to contain larger amounts than mature. Chemokines are significant mediators for cell migration, while thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well known as the typical inflammatory chemokines in atopic dermatitis (AD), a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease. We reported recently that the EtOH extract of immature Citrus unshiu inhibits TARC and MDC production. Therefore, we investigated the activity of flavonoids contained in immature Citrus on TARC and MDC levels. As a result, among the various flavonoids, quercetagetin has stronger inhibitory effects on the protein and mRNA expression of TARC and MDC than other flavonoids. Quercetagetin particularly has better activity on TARC and MDC level than quercetin. In HPLC analysis, the standard peak of quercetagetin matches the peaks of extract of immature C. unshiu. This suggests that quercetagetin is an anti-inflammatory component in immature C. unshiu. PMID:24009872

  9. Does greater low frequency EEG activity in normal immaturity and in children with epilepsy arise in the same neuronal network?

    PubMed

    Michels, L; Bucher, K; Brem, S; Halder, P; Lüchinger, R; Liechti, M; Martin, E; Jeanmonod, D; Kröll, J; Brandeis, D

    2011-03-01

    Greater low frequency power (<8 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest is normal in the immature developing brain of children when compared to adults. Children with epilepsy also have greater low frequency interictal resting EEG activity. Whether these power elevations reflect brain immaturity due to a developmental lag or the underlying epileptic pathophysiology is unclear. The present study addresses this question by analyzing spectral EEG topographies and sources for normally developing children and children with epilepsy. We first compared the resting EEG of healthy children to that of healthy adults to isolate effects related to normal brain immaturity. Next, we compared the EEG from 10 children with generalized cryptogenic epilepsy to the EEG of 24 healthy children to isolate effects related to epilepsy. Spectral analysis revealed that global low (delta: 1-3 Hz, theta: 4-7 Hz), medium (alpha: 8-12 Hz) and high (beta: 13-25 Hz) frequency EEG activity was greater in children without epilepsy compared to adults, and even further elevated for children with epilepsy. Topographical and tomographic EEG analyses showed that normal immaturity corresponded to greater delta and theta activity at fronto-central scalp and brain regions, respectively. In contrast, the epilepsy-related activity elevations were predominantly in the alpha band at parieto-occipital electrodes and brain regions, respectively. We conclude that lower frequency activity can be a sign of normal brain immaturity or brain pathology depending on the specific topography and frequency of the oscillating neuronal network. PMID:20820898

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds. PMID:26573373

  11. Immature Rubus coreanus Shows a Free Radical-Scavenging Effect and Inhibits Cholesterol Synthesis and Secretion in Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, B.; Lee, H. Y.; Back, H. I.; Park, S. H.; Kim, M. G.; Kwon, J. W.; Song, J. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, H. R.; Chae, S. W.; Chae, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rubus coreanus fruits have been employed as a traditional medicine for centuries in the Asia-Pacific region. Its pharmacological action differs according to the different extraction methods utilized and the degree of fruit ripening. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of different ethanol extracts of mature and immature Rubus coreanus fruits in human hepatic cell line, HepG2 cells. The antioxidant activity, effect on superoxide dismutase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis efficiency was also evaluated. Immature Rubus coreanus extract showed higher antioxidant capability, compared with that of its mature fractions. Cellular antioxidant proteins including HO-1, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase were highly expressed in the presence of Rubus coreanus. Cholesterol levels in HepG2 cells treated with the water fraction of immature Rubus coreanus were significantly reduced. This antihyperlipidaemic action of Rubus coreanus is a consequence of cholesterol biosynthesis and extracellular secretion in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that among different ethanol fraction of mature and immature Rubus coreanus fruit extracts, water extract of immature fruit extract shows higher antioxidant as well as higher antihyperlipidaemic action. PMID:23440938

  12. Comparative Proteomic Identification of Mature and Immature Sperm in the Catfish Cranoglanis bouderius

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shaolin; Wang, Chao; Lv, Zijun; Zou, Jixing

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular responses of mature and immature sperm in the catfish Cranoglanis bouderius, we used the iTRAQ proteomics approach to perform proteomic profiling of spermatogenesis in C. bouderius. As a result, 1,941 proteins were identified, including 361 differentially expressed proteins, 157 upregulated proteins and 204 downregulated proteins in mature sperm relative to immature sperm. All of the identified proteins were categorized into seven types of subcellular localizations and three molecular functions and were found to be involved in nine biological processes. All of the differential proteins were involved in 235 different pathways. Moreover, we found that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway played an important role in the energy metabolism of sperm and that the EABB pathway was involved in the mechanism of spermatogenesis. Our study is the first to use the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to analyze the catfish sperm proteome, and the results we obtained using this approach are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fish spermatogenesis. PMID:26964044

  13. Molecular evidence for the localization of Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes in bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Ruth; Magallon-Tejada, Ariel; Achtman, Ariel H.; Moraleda, Cinta; Joice, Regina; Cisteró, Pau; Li Wai Suen, Connie S. N.; Nhabomba, Augusto; Macete, Eusebio; Mueller, Ivo; Marti, Matthias; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara; Schofield, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes are not observed in peripheral blood. However, gametocyte stages in organs such as bone marrow have never been assessed by molecular techniques, which are more sensitive than optical microscopy. We quantified P falciparum sexual stages in bone marrow (n = 174) and peripheral blood (n = 70) of Mozambican anemic children by quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting transcripts specific for early (PF14_0748; PHISTa), intermediate (PF13_0247; Pfs48/45), and mature (PF10_0303; Pfs25) gametocytes. Among children positive for the P falciparum housekeeping gene (PF08_0085; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene) in bone marrow (n = 136) and peripheral blood (n = 25), prevalence of immature gametocytes was higher in bone marrow than peripheral blood (early: 95% vs 20%, P < .001; intermediate: 80% vs 16%; P < .001), as were transcript levels (P < .001 for both stages). In contrast, mature gametocytes were more prevalent (100% vs 51%, P < .001) and abundant (P < .001) in peripheral blood than in the bone marrow. Severe anemia (3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.49-8.53) and dyserythropoiesis (6.21, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.25) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of mature gametocytes in bone marrow. Our results highlight the high prevalence and abundance of early sexual stages in bone marrow, as well as the relationship between hematological disturbances and gametocyte development in this tissue. PMID:24335496

  14. Nonlinear analysis and modeling of cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electrocorticogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Karin; Groh, Tobias; Schwab, Matthias; Witte, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    An approach combining time-continuous nonlinear stability analysis and a parametric bispectral method was introduced to better describe cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electroencephalogram (EEG). Signal models and data-driven investigations were performed to find optimal parameters of the nonlinear methods and to confirm the occurrence of nonlinear sections in the fetal EEG. The resulting measures were applied to the in utero electrocorticogram (ECoG) of fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation when organized sleep states were not developed and compared to previous results at 0.9 gestation. Cycling of the nonlinear stability of the fetal ECoG occurred already at this early gestational age, suggesting the presence of premature sleep states. This was accompanied by cycling of the time-variant biamplitude which reflected ECoG synchronization effects during premature sleep states associated with nonrapid eye movement sleep later in gestation. Thus, the combined nonlinear and time-variant approach was able to provide important insights into the properties of the immature fetal ECoG.

  15. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage.

    PubMed

    Finzsch, Markus; Schreiner, Silke; Kichko, Tatjana; Reeh, Peter; Tamm, Ernst R; Bösl, Michael R; Meijer, Dies; Wegner, Michael

    2010-05-17

    Mutations in the transcription factor SOX10 cause neurocristopathies, including Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome and peripheral neuropathies in humans. This is partly attributed to a requirement for Sox10 in early neural crest for survival, maintenance of pluripotency, and specification to several cell lineages, including peripheral glia. As a consequence, peripheral glia are absent in Sox10-deficient mice. Intriguingly, Sox10 continues to be expressed in these cells after specification. To analyze glial functions after specification, we specifically deleted Sox10 in immature Schwann cells by conditional mutagenesis. Mutant mice died from peripheral neuropathy before the seventh postnatal week. Nerve alterations included a thinned perineurial sheath, increased lipid and collagen deposition, and a dramatically altered cellular composition. Nerve conduction was also grossly aberrant, and neither myelinating nor nonmyelinating Schwann cells formed. Instead, axons of different sizes remained unsorted in large bundles. Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. PMID:20457761

  16. Comparisons of the electrophysiological effects of intravenous sotalol and propranolol on the immature mammalian heart.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Villafane, J; McCormack, J; Stolfi, A; Gelband, H; Pickoff, A S

    1989-06-01

    Sotalol is a beta blocker that has also been reported to exert class III antiarrhythmic effects. To evaluate the effects of sotalol on the immature heart, and specifically to assess the relative importance of its class III action, the electrophysiologic effects of incremental doses of intravenous dl-sotalol (cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg) were studied in 11 intact canines (ages 4-15 days) utilizing intracardiac programmed stimulation and electrogram recording techniques. These results were compared to the electrophysiologic effects obtained in an additional 14 neonatal canines given 0.6 mg/kg of the beta blocker propranolol intravenously. Sotalol caused a greater increase than propranolol in the resting sinus cycle length (45 vs. 4%). Importantly, sotalol resulted in greater increases in atrial and ventricular muscle refractoriness than did propranolol (AERP--77 vs. 4%, AFRP--57 vs. 6%; VERP--53 vs. 4%, VFRP--51 vs. 7%). Thus, the electrophysiologic effects of sotalol include large changes in myocardial refractoriness that are not observed with simple beta blockade induced by propranolol. These results suggest that sotalol exerts a significant class III effect in the immature mammalian heart, and thus may be useful as an antiarrhythmic agent in the neonate. PMID:2484088

  17. Longitudinal recordings of the vocalizations of immature Gombe chimpanzees for developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    Plooij, Frans X.; van de Rijt-Plooij, Hetty; Fischer, Martha; Pusey, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers are interested in chimpanzee vocal communication, both as an important aspect of chimpanzee social behavior and as a source of insights into the evolution of human language. Nonetheless, very little is known about how chimpanzee vocal communication develops from infancy to adulthood. The largest dataset of audiorecordings from free-living immature chimpanzees was collected by the late Hetty van de Rijt-Plooij and Frans X. Plooij at Gombe National Park, Tanzania (1971–1973). These recordings have not yet been analysed. Therefore, the most extensive effort to study the development of chimpanzee vocalizations remains unfinished. The audiospecimens total over 10 h on 28 tapes, including 20 tapes focusing on 17 specific immature individuals with a total of 1,136 recordings. In order to make this dataset available to more researchers, the analogue sound recordings were digitized and stored in the Macaulay Library and the Dryad Repository. In addition, the original notes on the contexts of the calls were translated and transcribed from Dutch into English. PMID:25977782

  18. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Xue-ying; Li, Dan; Yang, Lin; Huang, Shao-ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3–21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure. PMID:26170821

  19. New Biological and Immature Morphological Records of the Masked Chafer, Cyclocephala paraguayensis

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Larissa Simões Corrêa; de Souza, Thamyrys Bezerra; Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the biology of the masked chafer, Cyclocephala paraguayensis Arrow (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini), and its immature morphology, the beetle life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. After field collection, adults were placed inside containers filled with soil obtained in the original capture to provide an oviposition site after mating ocurred. Eggs were collected daily and isolated for manipulation experiments and life cycle observations. Detailed information about the eggs, instars and life cycle duration, and morphological features of immature stages were noted and examined. Egg viability was higher in the “nonmanipulated” batch. The complete ontogenic cycle of C. paraguayensis was 171 ± 11 days (n = 7). Despite the records of Cyclocephala being crop pests, reared larvae of C. paraguayensis thrived and developed into well-formed, fertile adults on an entirely saprophagous diet, indicating that they are not rhizophagous in the wild. The third instar can be distinguished from the other species mainly by the following unique characters: maximum width of the head capsule, distal antennal setae, and bifurcated setae on the raster. PMID:25201356

  20. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of MK-801 against traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Ataç; Sayın, Oya; Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Çalişir, Meryem

    2015-06-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in pediatric ages and also has major social, economic, and emotional outcomes, with diverse sequelae in many spheres of everyday life. We aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on hippocampal damage and behavioral deficits on 10-day-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. The aims of the present study were to determine: (i) the short term effects of MK-801 on hippocampal BDNF, NGF and NMDA receptor immunoreactivity and neuron density in hippocampus (ii) long term effects of MK-801 on cognitive dysfunction following TBI in the immature rats. MK-801, was injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 1mg/kg of body weight immediately after induction of traumatic injury. Hippocampal damage was examined by cresyl violet staining, BDNF, NGF and NMDAR receptor immunohistochemistry on P10 day and behavioral alterations were evaluated using elevated plus maze and novel object recognition tests two months after the trauma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations showed that treatment with a single dose of 1mg/kg MK-801 (i.p.) significantly ameliorated the trauma induced hippocampal neuron loss and decreased BDNF, NGF and NMDAR expressions in CA1, CA3 and DG hippocampal brain regions. Additionally, treatment with MK-801 ameliorated anxiety and hippocampus dependent memory of animals subjected to trauma. These results show that acute treatment of MK-801 has a neuroprotective role against trauma induced hippocampal neuron loss and associated cognitive impairment in immature rats. PMID:25943283

  2. Rapid increases in immature synapses parallel estrogen-induced hippocampal learning enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Anna; Suschkov, Sarah; Molinaro, Luke; Reynolds, Kathryn; Lymer, Jennifer M.; Bailey, Craig D. C.; Kow, Lee-Ming; MacLusky, Neil J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic increases in hippocampal spine synapse density are known to occur within minutes of estrogen exposure. Until now, it has been assumed that enhanced spinogenesis increased excitatory input received by the CA1 pyramidal neurons, but how this facilitated learning and memory was unclear. Delivery of 17β-estradiol or an estrogen receptor (ER)-α (but not ER-β) agonist into the dorsal hippocampus rapidly improved general discrimination learning in female mice. The same treatments increased CA1 dendritic spines in hippocampal sections over a time course consistent with the learning acquisition phase. Surprisingly, estrogen-activated spinogenesis was associated with a decrease in CA1 hippocampal excitatory input, rapidly and transiently reducing CA1 AMPA activity via a mechanism likely reflecting AMPA receptor internalization and creation of silent or immature synapses. We propose that estrogens promote hippocampally mediated learning via a mechanism resembling some of the broad features of normal development, an initial overproduction of functionally immature connections being subsequently “pruned” by experience. PMID:26655342

  3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  4. Initiation of precocious sexual maturation in the immature rat treated with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J F; Mahesh, V B

    1975-08-01

    Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) to immature female rats on day 27 for 3 days resulted in an increase in uterine weight within 6 h of injection and a surge of FSH, LH and prolactin occurred on day 30 resulting in premature ovulation. Increase in ovarian weight and vaginal patency also occurred on day 30. Ovulations occurred at various times on day 30 and some as late as day 33 and these could be synchronized by the administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). The gonadotropin surge resulting in ovulation could be blocked by central nervous system blocking agents like phenobarbital and reserpine. The action of DHA in inducing precocious ovulation appeared to be mediated through conversion to estrogens because DHA and testosterone both of which can be aromatized to estrogens at appropriate dose elvels caused potentiation of the effect of PMSG on the secretion of gonadotropins. They also induced vaginal patency in the castrated immature rat. Dihydrotestosterone, an androgen not aromatized to estrogens did not induce precocious ovulation, vaginal patency or potentiation of the effect of PMSG in the release of gonadotropins. Furthermore, cyanoketone an inhibitor of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and thus the conversion of DHA to estrogens, prevented vaginal patency and DHA-induced precocious ovulation. PMID:125650

  5. TRC8-dependent degradation of hepatitis C virus immature core protein regulates viral propagation and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Sayaka; Okamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Yukari; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Ito, Ayano; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Ono, Chikako; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okochi, Masayasu; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Chayama, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Shoji, Ikuo; Moriishi, Kohji; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane protease that participates in the production of the mature core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we show that SPP inhibition reduces the production of infectious HCV particles and pathogenesis. The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Moreover, the haploinsufficiency of SPP in CoreTg has similar effects. TRC8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the degradation of the immature core protein. The expression of the HCV core protein alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution and induces ER stress in SPP/TRC8 double-knockout cells. These data suggest that HCV utilizes SPP cleavage to circumvent the induction of ER stress in host cells. PMID:27142248

  6. Characterization of swine testicular cell line as immature porcine Sertoli cell line.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Guan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Jiawei; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Fenge

    2016-04-01

    Swine testicular (ST) cell line is isolated from swine fetal testes and has been widely used in biomedical research fields related to pig virus infection. However, the potential benefit and utilization of ST cells in boar reproductive studies has not been fully explored. As swine fetal testes mainly contain multiple types of cells such as Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, gonocytes, and peritubular myoid cells, it is necessary to clarify the cell type of ST cell line. In this study, we identified ST cell line was a collection of Sertoli cells by analyzing the unique morphological characteristic with satellite karyosomes and determining the protein expression of two markers (androgen-binding protein, ABP; Fas ligand, FASL) of Sertoli cells. Then ST cells were further confirmed to be immature Sertoli cells by examining the expression of three markers (anti-Mullerian hormone, AMH; keratin 18, KRT18; follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, FSHR). In conclusion, ST cells are a collection of immature Sertoli cells which can be good experimental materials for the researches involved in Sertoli cell functions and maturation, or even in boar reproductions. PMID:26744029

  7. Spatial analysis of Aedes aegypti immatures in Northern Argentina: clusters and temporal instability.

    PubMed

    Garelli, Fernando M; Espinosa, Manuel O; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal patterns of Aedes aegypti immatures based on four entomological surveys that inspected over 6000 households in a large neighborhood of the city of Clorinda between 2007 and 2008. Global and local spatial point pattern analyses of immature presence or absence, habitat quality (estimated using a previously obtained statistical model) and pupal production were performed. Global analyses showed aggregation of both infestation and habitat quality up to 10 times bigger than previously described, ranging from 150 to 400m between surveys. Pupal production was also clustered but at smaller scales than infestation presence/absence. The location of the clusters was temporally unstable between surveys. There was no spatial structure related to the control strategy; lots treated with temephos and lots uninspected (i.e., closed or refusing) were randomly distributed. These results suggest a combination of exogenous (the aggregation of better quality habitats) and endogenous (dispersal) processes explaining the observed patterns of larger-scale infestation. A spatial targeting strategy at the neighborhood scale would not be as cost-effective in Clorinda as in other sites where stable smaller-scale clusters permit the identification of key premises. PMID:23911331

  8. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  9. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  10. Single-Visit Pulp Revascularization of a Nonvital Immature Permanent Tooth Using Biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Aldakak, Mohammad Mhd Nader; Capar, Ismail Davut; Rekab, Mohammad Salem; Abboud, Souad

    2016-01-01

    An 11-year-old female patient was referred with a chief complaint of pain in the right mandibular second premolar. Clinical and radiographic examinations showed secondary caries under an old composite restoration, a negative response to a pulp test and an immature root with an open apex. After root canal cleaning and shaping, bleeding was invoked in the canal up to 2 mm short of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). After 10 min to allow clotting at this level, a plug of Biodentine was placed over the blood clot and the tooth was temporized with glass ionomer cement. At the next visit, the tooth was free of symptoms and a permanent filling was placed. Clinical and radiographic examinations during a two-year follow-up showed complete root maturation and intact supporting soft tissues without sinus tract, pain or swelling. Conclusion: The use of Biodentine in a single-visit apexification protocol to treat an immature permanent tooth with necrotic pulp can create a suitable environment for revascularization, resulting in the completion of root maturation. PMID:27471541

  11. TRC8-dependent degradation of hepatitis C virus immature core protein regulates viral propagation and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sayaka; Okamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Yukari; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Ito, Ayano; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Ono, Chikako; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okochi, Masayasu; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Chayama, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Shoji, Ikuo; Moriishi, Kohji; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane protease that participates in the production of the mature core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we show that SPP inhibition reduces the production of infectious HCV particles and pathogenesis. The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Moreover, the haploinsufficiency of SPP in CoreTg has similar effects. TRC8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the degradation of the immature core protein. The expression of the HCV core protein alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution and induces ER stress in SPP/TRC8 double-knockout cells. These data suggest that HCV utilizes SPP cleavage to circumvent the induction of ER stress in host cells. PMID:27142248

  12. Somatic embryogenesis in cultured immature zygotic embryos and leaf protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Koop, H U

    1997-01-01

    Immature zygotic embryos of six ecotypes (Nd-0, Ler, C24, Col-0, Nossen, Ws-2) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were cultured in vitro. The same ecotypes, except Nossen, were used for studies on leaf protoplast culture. Experimental conditions for the induction of somatic embryos were established in both culture systems. In the case of immature zygotic embryos, the parameters investigated were the influence of developmental stage of the explant, the ecotypes used, and various concentrations and combinations of growth regulatory substances (phytohormones). In the ecotype Ler, structures were discovered which were very similar to those found in the early stages of zygotic embryo-genesis: globular structures at the end of a suspensor-like single file of cells were frequently observed. In the case of leaf protoplasts, high efficiencies of colony formation and plant regeneration occurred in Ws-2 and C24. A novel type of cell division pattern was found in Col-0 and C24, again highly reminiscent of the early division patterns in zygotic embryos. Similarities and differences between zygotic and somatic embryogenesis are discussed. PMID:9232908

  13. Tool-use for drinking water by immature chimpanzees of Mahale: prevalence of an unessential behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Takahisa; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Zamma, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-04-01

    Use of leaves or sticks for drinking water has only rarely been observed during long-term study of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale. Recently, however, we observed 42 episodes of tool-use for drinking water (73 tools and two cases of using "tool-sets") between 1999 and 2004. Interestingly, all of the performers were immature chimpanzees aged from 2 to 10 years. Immature chimpanzees sometimes observed the tool-using performance of others and subsequently reproduced the behavior, while adults usually paid no attention to the performance. This tool-use did not seem to occur out of necessity: (1) chimpanzees often used tools along streams where they could drink water without tools, (2) they used tools for drinking water from tree holes during the wet season when they could easily obtain water from many streams, and (3) the tool-using performance sometimes contained playful aspects. Between-site comparisons revealed that chimpanzees at drier habitats used tools for drinking water more frequently and in a more "conventional" manner. However, some variations could not be explained by ecological conditions. Such variations and the increase in this tool-use in recent years at Mahale strongly suggest that social learning plays an important role in the process of acquiring the behavior. We should note here that such behaviors that lack obvious benefits or necessity can be prevalent in a group. PMID:16228665

  14. [Novel biomarker for pathological immature cells--soluble form of LR11].

    PubMed

    Bujo, Hideaki

    2012-05-01

    LR11 (also called SorLA or SORL1), a member of the LDL receptor family, was originally discovered in 1996 from genes specifically expressed in the intimal smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaques. The soluble form of LR11 (sLR11) as well as the membrane-bound form plays a key role in the phenotype conversion of medial smooth muscle cells into intimal smooth muscle cells through the activation of urokinase receptor/integrin-mediated intracellular pathways. The levels of sLR11 in serum or CSF are increased in patients with atherosclerotic diseases, Alzheimer's disease or malignant diseases including acute leukemias. The recently developed ELISA system using two specific antibodies against LR11 made it possible to measure sLR11 quantitatively and stably for many samples. Thus, a novel clinical examination is expected to detect the pathological immature cells important for the pathophysiology of the above diseases. The soluble receptor-based clinical approach, together with basic studies about the structure-function relationship, may shed light on the development of novel target therapy against pathological immature cells in the science fields of so far independently categorized diseases. PMID:22774576

  15. Impact of the neonicotinoid acetamiprid on immature stages of the predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Fogel, Marilina N; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Desneux, Nicolas; González, Belén; Ronco, Alicia E

    2013-08-01

    Eriopis connexa is a native coccinelid predator in the Neotropical Region. In Argentina it is commonly found associated to sucking pests in several crops and among them aphids and whiteflies. These pests are usually controlled with newly developed systemic insecticides, such as the neonicotinoids. However, the compatibility between selective pesticides and natural enemies is required before incorporating them in integrated pest management (IPM) packages. Within this frame, the objective of this study was to evaluate the side effect of various concentrations/doses of one commonly used neonicotinoid in vegetal crops, acetamiprid, on immature stages of E. connexa by dipping or topical exposure for eggs and larvae, respectively. Acetamiprid reduced egg hatching from 34 to 100 %. Moreover, the embryogenesis was disrupted by insecticide at early embryo stage at all tested concentrations. Second larval instar was more susceptible to acetamiprid than the fourth one and this susceptibility was positively related with the tested concentrations. On the other hand, the survival reduction at larval stage reached 100 % from 20 mg a.i./L (10 % of maximum field concentration). Besides, the reproduction of the females developed from topical bioassays on fourth instar larvae was strongly affected, with reduction in fecundity and fertility from 22 to 44 % and from 37 to 45 %, respectively. Overall the results showed a high toxicity of acetamiprid on immature stages of E. connexa, demonstrating that this broadly used insecticide could reduce biocontrol services provided by this predator and could also likely disturb IPM programs. PMID:23793295

  16. In vitro propagation of threatened terrestrial orchid, Malaxis khasiana Soland ex. Swartz through immature seed culture.

    PubMed

    Deb, Chitta Ranjan; Temjensangba

    2006-09-01

    Rapid in vitro propagation of the terrestrial orchid, M. khasiana through immature seed culture was achieved. Immature seeds of 8-9 week after pollination (WAP) cultured on MS medium (2% sucrose) supplemented with 500 mgl(-1) casein-hydrolysate and 1 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) exhibited germination of 75% seeds after 107 days of culture and subsequently supported the development of PLBs. Subsequent culture on MS medium enriched with 6 microM of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 18 microM each of BA and kinetin induced multiple shoots and plantlets. Transfer of PLBs to MS medium with 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) facilitated rapid proliferation of PLBs, while AC at 0.2% favored shoot bud induction and rhizome enlargement. The plantlets, developed on medium with IAA, BA and kinetin, after hardening in vitro for 8-10 weeks were planted in community pots and transferred to poly-house. The plantlets showed 65% survival under field conditions. PMID:16999034

  17. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C; Sellati, Timothy J; Harton, Jonathan A

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  18. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the black dump fly: Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Muscidae: Azeliinae).

    PubMed

    Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Ophyra aenescens (black dump fly) originally belonged to the New World, however, now it is spread worldwide. This fly is a mechanical vector of some pathogenic microorganisms and eggs of the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). The adults are associated with decaying matter and the immature stages colonize animal and human corpses. It is considered an important muscid species for forensic entomology. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the eggs, the three larval instars and the puparia of O. aenescens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spiracular opening of the first instar has an interruption in the middle of its length. Comparing to the other instar, the ventral tubercles are only developed in the first instar. The anterior spiracles have a variation in the numbers of spiracular ramification. The puparia morphology is similar to the third instar larvae, however the cephalic region is retracted and on the third thoracic segment, a respiratory structure is present. In conclusion, the SEM technique used and the results obtained are helpful to describe and differentiate the immature stages of O. aenescens and consequently support forensic and medical entomology. PMID:26943996

  19. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  20. Biology and External Morphology of the Immature Stages of the Butterfly Callicore pygas eucale, with Comments on the Taxonomy of the Genus Callicore (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The biology and the external morphology of the immature stages of Callicore pygas eucale (Fruhstorfer, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) are described. Immatures were collected on Allophylus edulis (Radlkofer) (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are given based on observations through electronic, stereoscopic, and optic microscopes, the latter two attached to a camera lucida. Results are compared and discussed with the immature stages of other species of the subtribe Callicorina. Immature stages data provide further evidence that Callicore is paraphyletic and that generic limits within the Callicorina need revision. PMID:25368047

  1. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  2. miR-762 promotes porcine immature Sertoli cell growth via the ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) gene

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Yu, Lei; Guan, Kaifeng; Hu, Pandi; Li, Yang; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Jialian; Jiang, Siwen; Li, Fenge

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of reports have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-762 is differentially expressed in immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Our present data shows that miR-762 directly binds the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) and down-regulates RNF4 expression. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RNF4 3′UTR that is significantly associated with porcine sperm quality traits leads to a change in the miR-762 binding ability. Moreover, miR-762 promotes the proliferation of and inhibits apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells, partly by accelerating DNA damage repair and by reducing androgen receptor (AR) expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-762 may play a role in pig spermatogenesis by regulating immature Sertoli cell growth. PMID:27596571

  3. The use of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of immature tooth with periapical lesion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ceren; Akgün, Özlem Martı; Altun, Ceyhan; Dinçer, Didem; Özkan, Cansel Köse

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion which was treated with regenerative approach using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The root canal of immature human permanent tooth with periapical lesion was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and disinfected with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. When the tooth was asymptomatic, PRP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were placed into the root canal. Six months after PRP treatment, radiographical examination revealed resolution of the radiolucency and progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Our findings suggest that PRP can be used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with periapical lesion, as part of a regenerative endodontic treatment procedure. PMID:25110649

  4. Pulmonary embolization of immature Fascioloides magna causing fatal hemothorax confirmed by molecular technique in a heifer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Rosser, Thomas Graham; Cooley, Jim

    2016-09-01

    The current report describes the use of a molecular technique to identify immature Fascioloides magna An 18-month-old Brangus heifer was found dead in the field without any prior clinical signs. The cause of death was exsanguination into the thoracic cavity associated with pulmonary embolization and infection by immature Fascioloides magna resulting in 2 large foci of pulmonary necrosis and focal arteriolar and lung rupture. The liver had a few random migratory tracts with typical iron and porphyrin fluke exhaust, but no identified fluke larvae. A single immature fluke was found in the lungs, and species level identification as F. magna was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2) and of partial 28S rRNA gene sequence. This is one of only a few pulmonary fascioloidiasis cases associated with hemothorax in the veterinary literature. PMID:27423736

  5. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis. PMID:27475572

  6. miR-762 promotes porcine immature Sertoli cell growth via the ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) gene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Yu, Lei; Guan, Kaifeng; Hu, Pandi; Li, Yang; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Jialian; Jiang, Siwen; Li, Fenge

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of reports have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-762 is differentially expressed in immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Our present data shows that miR-762 directly binds the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) and down-regulates RNF4 expression. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RNF4 3'UTR that is significantly associated with porcine sperm quality traits leads to a change in the miR-762 binding ability. Moreover, miR-762 promotes the proliferation of and inhibits apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells, partly by accelerating DNA damage repair and by reducing androgen receptor (AR) expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-762 may play a role in pig spermatogenesis by regulating immature Sertoli cell growth. PMID:27596571

  7. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  8. Micromorphology of immature stages of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1896 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important fly.

    PubMed

    Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; Paños, Ángela; García, María-Dolores; Presa, Juan-José; Torres, Belén; Arnaldos, María-Isabel

    2015-02-01

    The Sarcophagidae are one of the most numerous groups of Diptera in the world, consisting of many species of forensic interest, whose immature stages are useful in the estimation of postmortem interval. The immature stages of some species of forensic importance still remain unknown or undescribed, like in the case of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) cultellata Pandellé, 1986, a species restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, south of France and north of Italy, which shares a ecological niche with species of the same subgenus, e.g., Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart, 1839, making it necessary to lay the groundwork for a proper specific differentiation before it can be successfully applied in forensic practice. This study provides the first micromorphological description of all preimaginal stages of S. (L.) cultellata using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results of which allow the morphology of the main features to be followed during the immature life cycle. We propose a combination of features for distinguishing Liopygia from other sarcophagid subgenera, based on the current level of morphological knowledge of immature stages. S. (L.) cultellata can be differentiated from S. (L.) argyrostoma and S. (L.) crassipalpis in every immature stage by both light microscopy and SEM. The presence of tegumental warts and a fan-shaped anterior spiracle with a single row of 15-18 respiratory papillae allow distinguishing the third instar larvae of S. (L.) cultellata from other Sarcophaga species described hitherto by SEM. Identification keys based on light microscopy observations are provided, covering all the immature stages of Liopygia subgenus occurring in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25429757

  9. Exercise-induced B cell mobilisation: Preliminary evidence for an influx of immature cells into the bloodstream.

    PubMed

    Turner, J E; Spielmann, G; Wadley, A J; Aldred, S; Simpson, R J; Campbell, J P

    2016-10-01

    The number of peripheral blood B lymphocytes doubles during acute exercise, but the phenotypic composition of this response remains unknown. In two independent exercise studies, using complimentary phenotyping strategies, we investigated the mobilisation patterns of distinct B cell subsets. In study one, nine healthy males (mean±SD age: 22.1±3.4years) completed a continuous cycling bout at 80% V̇O2MAX for 20min. In study two, seven healthy experienced cyclists (mean±SD age: 29.9±4.7years) completed a 30min cycling trial at a workload corresponding to +5% of the individual blood lactate threshold. In study one, CD3-CD19+ B cell subsets were classified into immature (CD27-CD10+), naïve (CD27-CD10-), memory (CD27+CD38-), plasma cells/plasmablasts (CD27+CD38+) and finally, recently purported 'B1' cells (CD27+ CD43+ CD69-). In study two, CD20+ B cells were classified into immature (CD27-IgD-), naïve (CD27-IgD+), and IgM+/IgG+/IgA+ memory cells (CD27+IgD-). Total B cells exhibited a mean increase of 88% (study one) and 60% (study two) during exercise. In both studies, immature cells displayed the greatest increase, followed by memory cells, then naïve cells (study one: immature 130%>mature 105%>naïve 84%; study two: immature 110%>mature 56%>naïve 38%). Our findings show that, unlike T cells and NK cells, B cell mobilisation is not driven by effector status, and, for the first time, that B cell mobilisation during exercise is comprised of immature CD27- IgD-/CD10+ cells. PMID:27321758

  10. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine in the skeletally immature: case report and updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Hsun; Grigoriou, Emmanouil; Dormans, John P

    2015-05-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of large joints. Synovial chondromatosis of the spine is very rare; this is the first reported case in the skeletally immature pediatric spine. A 12-year-old female presented with a posteriolateral neck mass and discomfort. A two-stage surgical resection of the mass was performed. This case shows that synovial chondromatosis can occur in the immature pediatric spine. Synovial chondromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a calcified paravertebral or lateral neck mass in children. PMID:25493704

  11. Dynamic Compression Effects on Immature Nucleus Pulposus: a Study Using a Novel Intelligent and Mechanically Active Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei; Gan, Yibo; Wang, Haoming; Zhang, Chengmin; Wang, Liyuan; Xu, Yuan; Song, Lei; Li, Songtao; Li, Sukai; Ou, Yangbin; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous cell culture and animal in vivo studies indicate the obvious effects of mechanical compression on disc cell biology. However, the effects of dynamic compression magnitude, frequency and duration on the immature nucleus pulposus (NP) from an organ-cultured disc are not well understood. Objective: To investigate the effects of a relatively wide range of compressive magnitudes, frequencies and durations on cell apoptosis and matrix composition within the immature NP using an intelligent and mechanically active bioreactor. Methods: Discs from the immature porcine were cultured in a mechanically active bioreactor for 7 days. The discs in various compressive magnitude groups (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 hours), frequency groups (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 Hz at a magnitude of 0.4 MPa for 2 hours) and duration groups (1, 2, 4 and 8 hours at a magnitude of 0.4 MPa and frequency of 1.0 Hz) experienced dynamic compression once per day. Discs cultured without compression were used as controls. Immature NP samples were analyzed using the TUNEL assay, histological staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content measurement, real-time PCR and collagen II immunohistochemical staining. Results: In the 1.3 MPa, 5.0 Hz and 8 hour groups, the immature NP showed a significantly increase in apoptotic cells, a catabolic gene expression profile with down-regulated matrix molecules and up-regulated matrix degradation enzymes, and decreased GAG content and collagen II deposition. In the other compressive magnitude, frequency and duration groups, the immature NP showed a healthier status regarding NP cell apoptosis, gene expression profile and matrix production. Conclusion: Cell apoptosis and matrix composition within the immature NP were compressive magnitude-, frequency- and duration-dependent. The relatively high compressive magnitude or frequency and long compressive duration are not helpful for maintaining the healthy status of an

  12. Establishment of primary cultures for mouse ameloblasts as a model of their lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Suzawa, Tetsuo . E-mail: suzawa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp; Itoh, Nao; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Katagiri, Takenobu; Morimura, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2006-07-07

    To understand how the properties of ameloblasts are spatiotemporally regulated during amelogenesis, two primary cultures of ameloblasts in different stages of differentiation were established from mouse enamel epithelium. Mouse primary ameloblasts (MPAs) prepared from immature enamel epithelium (MPA-I) could proliferate, whereas those from mature enamel epithelium (MPA-M) could not. MPA-M but not MPA-I caused apoptosis during culture. The mRNA expression of amelogenin, a marker of immature ameloblasts, was down-regulated, and that of enamel matrix serine proteiase-1, a marker of mature ameloblasts, was induced in MPA-I during culture. Using green fluorescence protein as a reporter, a visualized reporter system was established to analyze the promoter activity of the amelogenin gene. The region between -1102 bp and -261 bp was required for the reporter expression in MPA-I. These results suggest that MPAs are valuable in vitro models for investigation of ameloblast biology, and that the visualized system is useful for promoter analysis in MPAs.

  13. Successful vitrification of bovine immature oocyte using liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cryogenic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xian-Fei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Han, Wen-Xia; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of liquid helium (LHe) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) as cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes with open-pulled straw (OPS) system and determine the optimal cryoprotectant concentration of LHe vitrification. Cumulus oocyte complexes were divided into three groups, namely, untreated group (control), LN2 vitrified with OPS group, and LHe vitrified with OPS group. Oocyte survival was assessed by morphology, nuclear maturation, and developmental capability. Results indicated that the rates of normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst (89.3%, 52.8%, 42.7%, and 10.1%, respectively) in the LHe-vitrified group were all higher than those (79.3%, 43.4%, 34.1%, and 4.7%) in the LN2-vitrified group (P < 0.05) although the corresponding rates in both treated groups decreased compared with the control group (100%, 75.0%, 64.9%, and 40.8%; P < 0.05). Normal calves were obtained after the transfer of blastocysts derived from LHe- and LN2-vitrified oocytes. The effects of the different vitrification solutions (EDS30, EDS35, EDS40, EDS45, and EDS50) in LHe vitrification for bovine immature oocytes vitrification were examined. No difference was found in the rates of morphologically normal oocytes among the EDS30 (87.9%), EDS35 (90.1%), EDS40 (89.4%), and EDS45 (87.2%) groups (P > 0.05). The maturation rate of the EDS35 group (65.0%) was higher than those of the EDS30 (51.3%), EDS40 (50.1%), EDS45 (52.1%), and EDS50 groups (36.9%; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the cleavage and blastocyst rates between the EDS35 (49.0% and 12.1%) and EDS40 (41.7% and 10.2%) groups. However, the cleavage and blastocyst rates in the EDS35 group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the EDS30 (36.2% and 6.8%), EDS45 (35.9% and 5.8%), and EDS50 (16.6% and 2.2%) groups. In conclusion, LHe can be used as a cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes, and it is more

  14. Vulnerability of the Superficial Zone of Immature Articular Cartilage to Compressive Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rolauffs, R.; Muehleman, C; Li, J; Kurz, B; Kuettner, K; Frank, E; Grodzinsky, A

    2010-01-01

    The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive moduli as well as collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of the depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, this study was undertaken to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical, and matrix-associated changes caused by compressive injury. Disks from the superficial and deeper zones of bovine calves were biomechanically characterized. Injury to the disks was achieved by applying a final strain of 50% compression at 100%/second, followed by biomechanical recharacterization. Tissue compaction upon injury as well as sGAG density, sGAG loss, and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen fiber orientation and matrix damage were assessed using histology, diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging, and texture analysis. Injured superficial zone disks showed surface disruption, tissue compaction by 20.3 {+-} 4.3% (mean {+-} SEM), and immediate biomechanical impairment that was revealed by a mean {+-} SEM decrease in dynamic stiffness to 7.1 {+-} 3.3% of the value before injury and equilibrium moduli that were below the level of detection. Tissue areas that appeared intact on histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zone disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose sGAG immediately after injury, but lost 17.8 {+-} 1.4% of sGAG after 48 hours; deeper zone disks lost only 2.8 {+-} 0.3% of sGAG content. Biomechanical impairment was associated primarily with structural damage. The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury, causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, which results

  15. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ghasem; Mirhoseini, Mehri; Hemadi, Masoud; Khodadadi, Ali; Beygom Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 µm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells. PMID:27141545

  16. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  17. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  18. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  19. MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

  20. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Laguna, Ricardo; Fernández-Gonzalez, Raúl; Sanjuanbenito, Belén Pintado; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  1. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'. PMID:23373796

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Revascularized Immature Necrotic Tooth Evaluated by CBCT

    PubMed Central

    She, C. M. L.; Cheung, G. S. P.; Zhang, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    This case study reports the successful treatment of an immature upper premolar with periapical pathosis and sinus tract using revascularization technique. Clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated the recovery of vitality, continued root development, and periapical healing at the 7-month follow-up. In addition, severe calcification of the canal was noted at the 36-month follow-up. At the 66-month follow-up, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed complete periapical healing, apical closure, increase in root length and thickness of dentin, and severe calcification of the root canal. Even though the nature of tissue within the root canal is unknown, revascularization appears to give good clinical and radiographic success. This case report highlights that severe calcification of the canal is one of the long-term outcomes of revascularized root canals. PMID:26949550

  3. Attentional modulation of medial olivocochlear inhibition: evidence for immaturity in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K

    2014-12-01

    Efferent feedback shapes afferent auditory processing. Auditory attention has been shown to modulate medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent activity in human adults. Since auditory attention continues to develop throughout childhood, the present study explored whether attentional control of medial-efferent inhibition in 5-10 year-old children is adult-like. MOC inhibition was measured in adults (n = 14) and children (n = 12) during no-task (contralateral broadband noise), passive (contralateral noise with tone-pips) and active listening conditions (attended tone-pips embedded in contralateral broadband noise). A stronger MOC inhibition was observed when measured during the active listening condition for adults which is consistent with past work. However, the effect of auditory attention on MOC inhibition in children was not robust and was significantly lower compared to that observed for adults. These findings suggest the potential immaturity of the attentional mediation of MOC inhibition in tested children. PMID:25445819

  4. Photoletter to the editor: Topical 0.5% brimonidine gel to camouflage redness of immature scars.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Heppt, Markus; Tietze, Julia K; Ruzicka, Thomas; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Schauber, Jürgen

    2015-09-30

    Cutaneous scars develop as a result of a defective wound healing process. Scars are commonly visible as erythematous, sometimes disfiguring lesions which might be stigmatizing for the affected patient. Only a few therapies to improve the appearance of scars are available. Recently, brimonidine - a selective α2-receptor-agonist which causes vasoconstriction of small cutaneous vessels - was approved for the treatment of erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea. Topical brimonidine might also be helpful to improve redness of immature scars. Here we report on the effect of brimonidine 0.5% gel on a flat, erythematous scar in a 25-year-old female patient. Whitening of the scar could be observed immediately after application of brimonidine 0.5% gel and a good clinical result was observed within one hour. This effect lasted for up to three hours. We conclude that brimonidine 0.5% gel is a suitable topical therapy to reduce erythema in visible cutaneous scars. PMID:26512307

  5. Twin fetus in fetu with immature teratoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pourang, Houshang; Sarmadi, Soheila; Mireskandari, Seyed-Mohammad; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Mollaeian, Mansour; Alizadeh, Houman; Alehosein, Seyed-Mehdi

    2009-09-01

    Fetus in fetu is an extremely rare condition in which a fetus or fetus-like structure with a vertebral axis is seen in the body of its twin. This paper presents a case of fetus in fetu in a two- day-old female newborn who was referred for an abdominal mass, biliary vomiting, and feeding intolerance. After plain abdominal X-ray and ultrasonography, the patient underwent abdominal surgery with the primary diagnosis of teratoma or fetus in fetu. We found a retroperitoneal mass that consisted of double fetus in fetu and a separate undetermined mass. The pathologic examination confirmed double fetus in fetu and revealed a separate immature teratoma. She was discharged from the hospital after seven days in a healthy and normal condition. The level of serum alpha-fetoprotein was normal after three months of follow-up. PMID:19722777

  6. Compared morphology of the immatures of males of two urban ant species of Camponotus.

    PubMed

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-01-01

    The immatures of males of two species of Camponotus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described and compared by light and electron microscopy. The numbers of larval instars were determined: Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have four instars; and Camponotus vittatus Forel have three. Male larvae of the two species are similar to previously described Camponotus larvae, sharing the following traits: basic shape of body and mandible, presence of 'chiloscleres', 'praesaepium' (some specimens), labial pseudopalps, and ten pairs of spiracles. However, larvae of the two species can be separated by bodily dimensions and based on their hair number and types. Worker larvae of C. vittatus previously described are extensively similar to male larvae, with only a few inconspicuous differences that may result from intraspecific variation or sexual differences. PMID:22934715

  7. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; De Leeuw, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 8a{sup {prime}}-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1, 10-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 2{sup {prime}}, 6{sup {prime}}-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of {Beta}, {Beta}-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV). 24 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  9. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  10. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Stuart H.; Wallner, Adam M.; Porter, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  11. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  12. Revascularization of Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulpal Necrosis - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Kumar M, Sita Rama

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the Revascularization of a Permanent Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulp Necrosis and apical periodontitis. Access opening was done & the canal was disinfected with copious irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste (Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, and Minocycline) as intracanal medicament. After the disinfection protocol is complete, it is followed by revascularization procedure. The apex was mechanically irritated to initiate bleeding into the canal to produce a blood clot to the level just below the level of cementoenamel junction. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot followed by bonded resin restoration above it. After one year follow up; the patient was asymptomatic, no sinus tract was evident. Apical periodontitis was resolved, and there was radiographic evidence of continuing thickness of dentinal walls. PMID:25386542

  13. Global dynamics of delay equations for populations with competition among immature individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liz, Eduardo; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    We analyze a population model for two age-structured species allowing for inter- and intra-specific competition at immature life stages. The dynamics is governed by a system of Delay Differential Equations (DDEs) recently introduced by Gourley and Liu. The analysis of this model presents serious difficulties because the right-hand sides of the DDEs depend on the solutions of a system of nonlinear ODEs, and generally cannot be solved explicitly. Using the notion of strong attractor, we reduce the study of the attracting properties of the equilibria of the DDEs to the analysis of a related two-dimensional discrete system. Then, we combine some tools for monotone planar maps and planar competing Lotka-Volterra systems to describe the dynamics of the model with three different birth rate functions. We give easily verifiable conditions for global extinction of one or the two species, and for global convergence of the positive solutions to a coexistence state.

  14. GABA depolarizes immature neurons and inhibits network activity in the neonatal neocortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kirmse, Knut; Kummer, Michael; Kovalchuk, Yury; Witte, Otto W; Garaschuk, Olga; Holthoff, Knut

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence from in vitro studies suggests that GABA is depolarizing during early postnatal development. However, the mode of GABA action in the intact developing brain is unknown. Here we examine the in vivo effects of GABA in cells of the upper cortical plate using a combination of electrophysiological and Ca(2+)-imaging techniques. We report that at postnatal days (P) 3-4, GABA depolarizes the majority of immature neurons in the occipital cortex of anaesthetized mice. At the same time, GABA does not efficiently activate voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and fails to induce action potential firing. Blocking GABA(A) receptors disinhibits spontaneous network activity, whereas allosteric activation of GABA(A) receptors has the opposite effect. In summary, our data provide evidence that in vivo GABA acts as a depolarizing neurotransmitter imposing an inhibitory control on network activity in the neonatal (P3-4) neocortex. PMID:26177896

  15. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of dmrt1 in the immature Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Leng, X Q; Du, H J; Li, C J; Cao, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the cDNA of dmrt1 gene from the Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis was isolated and its expression pattern was characterized in different tissues of immature A. sinensis. By real-time quantitative PCR (qrtPCR) analysis, the A. sinensis dmrt1 mRNA was detected mainly in gonad and with a higher level in the testis than the ovary, especially in 3 and 4 year-old samples. This indicated that the dmrt1 expression exhibited gradual testis specificity with development. The subcellular localization analysis indicated that the Dmrt1 protein exists only in germ cells and not in somatic cells. These results suggest that A. sinensis dmrt1 might be a highly specific sex differentiation gene for testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26706998

  16. Immaturity of human stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes in culture: fatal flaw or soluble problem?

    PubMed

    Veerman, Christiaan C; Kosmidis, Georgios; Mummery, Christine L; Casini, Simona; Verkerk, Arie O; Bellin, Milena

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are increasingly used to model cardiac disease, test drug efficacy and for safety pharmacology. Nevertheless, a major hurdle to more extensive use is their immaturity and similarity to fetal rather than adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we provide an overview of the strategies currently being used to increase maturation in culture, which include prolongation of time in culture, exposure to electrical stimulation, application of mechanical strain, growth in three-dimensional tissue configuration, addition of non-cardiomyocytes, use of hormones and small molecules, and alteration of the extracellular environment. By comparing the outcomes of these studies, we identify the approaches most likely to improve functional maturation of hPSC-CMs in terms of their electrophysiology and excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:25583389

  17. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus induced on immature embryos of Alstroemeria spp. L.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, C E; Posthuma, A; De Jeu, M J; Jacobsen, E

    1996-01-01

    The plant regeneration ability of callus obtained from zygotic embryos of the monocot Alstroemeria spp. was studied. The best explants for somatic embryogenesis were immature zygotic embryos in half-ovules when the endosperm was still soft and white. For 2 genotypes embryogenic callus was induced on callus induction medium with a success rate of 54%. The best callus induction period was 10 weeks. The morphology of embryogenic callus was nodular. Somatic embryos were formed after transfer of the callus to regeneration medium. These somatic embryos revealed later on the typical features of zygotic Alstroemeria embryos. The total duration of the plant regeneration protocol, from inoculation till rooted plantlets ready for transfer to the greenhouse, was 28 weeks. PMID:24178361

  18. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera.

    PubMed

    McKamey, Stuart H; Wallner, Adam M; Porter, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  19. Effect of hydroxyurea on immature reticulocyte fraction in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Bagdasaryan, Robert; Glasser, Lewis; Quillen, Karen; Chaves, Fernando; Xu, Dongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) is a good indicator of bone marrow erythropoiesis in response to hemolysis or tissue hypoxia and is markedly increased in sickle cell disease (SS). We compared IRF changes in SS patients with those who were treated with hydroxyurea (SS-HU), and those who had concurrent alpha globin gene deletion (SS-(- deletion). Forty-two patients including 16 SS, 16 SS-HU, and 10 SS-alpha-deletion patients were studied. Significant decreases (P <.01) in reticulocyte indices including IRF, the reticulocyte percentage, and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) were observed in SS-alpha-deletion compared to SS patients. On the other hand, although the reticulocyte percentage (P <.01) and ARC (P <.01) were significantly decreased in SS-HU compared with SS patients, the IRF was persistently elevated in both groups (P = .4), suggesting continuous bone marrow stimulation in SS-HU patients in response to tissue hypoxia. The possible underlying physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17984040

  20. Shoulder injuries in the skeletally immature baseball pitcher and recommendations for the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Zaremski, Jason L; Krabak, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Since 1996, when the first article on pitch restriction recommendations was published, the number of research articles involving skeletally immature pitchers has increased. Potential shoulder injuries in this age group are proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and superior labrum anteroposterior lesions. Fatigue, improper biomechanics, and overuse are the most common reasons for these injuries. In the hopes of preventing injury to young pitchers, numerous organizations, including the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee, The American Sports Medicine Institute, Little League Baseball & Softball, and the Long Term Athlete Development Program for Baseball Canada, have developed recommendations on pitching restrictions that include limits on pitch count, pitches per week, pitches per season, and rest between pitching. Awareness by sports medicine providers, coaches, and parents/guardians of the most up-to-date recommendations on injury prevention and return to play guidelines should reduce the incidence of acute and chronic injuries in adolescent baseball pitchers. PMID:22814728

  1. In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are distributed across Europe, Asia and North America. C. falcata is a temperate species of East Asia and an endangered species in Japan. As successful propagation from seeds of this species has never been reported, a reproducible method is described here for seed production in situ and propagation using immature seeds in asymbiotic culture in vitro. • Methods Effects of hand-pollination and bagging treatment of ovaries were examined. Young capsules were collected every 10 d from 50 d after pollination until 120 d after pollination. Immature seeds obtained from these capsules were cultured asymbiotically on modified Kano medium and ND medium. Seed viability was examined within TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) test solution and histological observations were made on viable seeds by paraffin embedding at each collection stage. • Key Results and Conclusions Hand-pollination followed by bagging treatment of ovaries with aluminium foil was effective for insect control during fruit development, and successfully yielded capsules. Of the capsules, 74·5 % survived to full maturity. The highest frequency (39·8 %) of seed germination was obtained with seeds harvested 70 d after pollination. The frequency declined with progress of seed maturity on the mother plant. Minimal germination was observed with seeds harvested 100 d or later after pollination. Histological observation suggests that accumulation of such substances as lignin in the inner integument surrounding the embryo

  2. An improved radiative transfer model for estimating mineral abundance of immature and mature lunar soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei; Li, Lin; Sun, Ying

    2015-06-01

    An improved Hapke's radiative transfer model (RTM) is presented to estimate mineral abundance for both immature and mature lunar soils from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) dataset. Fundamental to this improved Hapke's model is the application of an alternative equation to describe the effects of larger size submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) (>50 nm) in the interior of agglutinitic glass that mainly darken the host material, contrasting to the darkening and reddening effects of smaller size SMFe (<50 nm) residing in the rims of mineral grains. Results from applying a nonlinear inversion procedure to the improved Hapke's RTM show that the average mass fraction of smaller and larger size SMFe in lunar soils was estimated to be 0.30% and 0.31% respectively, and the particle size distribution of soil samples is all within their measured range. Based on the derived mass fraction of SMFe and particle size of the soil samples, abundances of end-member components composing lunar soil samples were derived via minimizing the difference between measured and calculated spectra. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the fitted and measured spectra is lower than 0.01 for highland samples and 0.005 for mare samples. This improved Hapke's model accurately estimates abundances of agglutinitic glass (R-squared = 0.88), pyroxene (R-squared = 0.69) and plagioclase (R-squared = 0.95) for all 57 samples used in this study including both immature and mature lunar soils. However, the improved Hapke's RTM shows poor performance for quantifying abundances of olivine, ilmenite and volcanic glass. Improving the model performance for estimation of these three end-member components is the central focus for our future work.

  3. Comparative efficacies of six different media for cryopreservation of immature buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf testis.

    PubMed

    Devi, Lalitha; Makala, Himesh; Pothana, Lavanya; Nirmalkar, Khemlal; Goel, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    Buffalo calves have a high mortality rate (~80%) in commercial dairies and testis cryopreservation can provide a feasible option for the preservation of germplasm from immature males that die before attaining sexual maturity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate combinations of 10 or 20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with 0, 20 or 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for cryopreservation of immature buffalo testicular tissues, subjected to uncontrolled slow freezing. Tissues cryopreserved in 20% DMSO with 20% FBS (D20S20) showed total, tubular and interstitial cell viability, number of early apoptotic and DNA-damaged cells, surviving germ and proliferating cells and expression of testicular cell-specific proteins (POU class 5 homeobox (POU5F1), vimentin (VIM) and actin ?2 (ACTA2)) similar to that of fresh cultured control (FCC; P>0.05). Expression of cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A (CYP11A1) protein and testosterone assay showed that only tissues cryopreserved in D20S20 had Leydig cells and secretory functions identical to that of FCC (P>0.05). High expression of superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2), cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding motif protein3 (RBM3) proteins in cryopreserved tissues indicated involvement of cell signalling pathways regulating cellular protective mechanisms. Similarity in expression of pro-apoptosis proteins transcription factor tumour protein P53 (TP53) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) in D20S20 cryopreserved tissues to that of FCC (P>0.05) suggested lower apoptosis and DNA damage as key reasons for superior cryopreservation. PMID:25482277

  4. Comparison of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol for the Vitrification of Immature Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    SOMFAI, Tamás; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; KASHIWAZAKI, Naomi; EGERSZEGI, István; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development. PMID:23666455

  5. Cerebral blood volume measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and radiolabels in the immature lamb brain.

    PubMed

    Barfield, C P; Yu, V Y; Noma, O; Kukita, J; Cussen, L J; Oates, A; Walker, A M

    1999-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technique that is increasingly being used for the noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in newborn infants, but it has not been fully validated against established methods. These experiments in immature lambs (gestation 92+/-1 d, mean+/-SEM) compared CBV measured using NIRS-derived estimates of oxygenated Hb (n = 5) with CBV estimated with radiolabeled indicators (125I-labeled serum albumin and 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, n = 10). Total brain CBV (mL/100 g tissue) measured using NIRS was 2.5+/-0.2 compared with 2.5+/-0.2 using radiolabels (NS). Regional tissue plasma, red blood cells, and whole blood volumes from radiolabels varied significantly (p < or = 0.05) throughout the brain. Whole blood volume (mL/100 g tissue) was largest in choroid plexus (16.2+/-2.1) and least in white matter (0.7+/-0.1) with a significant hierarchy evident among regions: choroid plexus > cerebellum > cortex > brain stem = midbrain > white matter. Regional plasma and red blood cell distributions were similar to whole blood, being highest in choroid plexus (13.0+/-1.6 and 3.2+/-0.9, respectively), and least in white matter (0.8+/-0.1 and 0, respectively). These data from the immature lamb brain indicate that total CBV measured with NIRS is essentially identical with the volumes obtained using intravascular radiolabels. Among cerebral regions, white matter contributes little to the global blood volume measured with NIRS because its red blood cell content is very low. PMID:10400134

  6. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  7. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:21982053

  8. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations do not fully reflect current scientific understanding. Following the precautionary principle, we further argue that regulators should consider the possibility that foetuses and neurologically immature postnatal animals may suffer due to subcortically based ‘raw basic affects’ (i.e. relatively undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress, exercise, management and fetal health, and about the impact of the timing of a fetal insult on long-term postnatal welfare. PMID:26973382

  9. Fracture resistance of immature teeth filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, bioaggregate, and biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Emre; Bayram, Huda Melike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of teeth with immature apices treated with coronal placement of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), bioaggregate (BA), and Biodentine. Materials and Methods: Forty-one freshly extracted, single-rooted human premolar teeth were used for the study. At first, the root length was standardized to 9 mm. The crown-down technique was used for the preparation of the root canals using the rotary ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) of F3 (30). Peeso reamer no. 6 was stepped out from the apex to simulate an incompletely formed root. The prepared roots were randomly assigned to one control (n = 5) and three experimental (n = 12) groups, as described below. Group 1: White MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) was prepared as per the manufacturer's instructions and compacted into the root canal using MAP system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and condensed by pluggers (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil). Group 2: The canals were filled with DiaRoot-BA (DiaDent Group International, Canada). Group 3: Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) solution was mixed with the capsule powder and condensed using pluggers. Instron was used to determine the maximum horizontal load to fracture the tooth, placing the tip 3 mm incisal to the cementoenamel junction. Mean values of the fracture strength were compared by ANOVA followed by a post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: No significant difference was observed among the MTA, BA, and biodentine experimental groups. Conclusion: All the three materials tested, may be used as effective strengthening agents for immature teeth. PMID:27095900

  10. Immature articular cartilage and subchondral bone covered by menisci are potentially susceptive to mechanical load

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The differences of mechanical and histological properties between cartilage covered by menisci and uncovered by menisci may contribute to the osteoarthritis after meniscectomy and these differences are not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential differences in the mechanical and histological properties, and in particular the collagen architecture, of the superficial cartilage layer and subchondral bone between regions covered and uncovered by menisci using immature knee. Methods Osteochondral plugs were obtained from porcine tibial cartilage that was either covered or uncovered by menisci. Investigation of the thickness, mechanical properties, histology, and water content of the cartilage as well as micro-computed tomography analysis of the subchondral bone was performed to compare these regions. Collagen architecture was also assessed by using scanning electron microscopy. Results Compared to the cartilage uncovered by menisci, that covered by menisci was thinner and showed a higher deformity to compression loading and higher water content. In the superficial layer of cartilage in the uncovered regions, collagen fibers showed high density, whereas they showed low density in covered regions. Furthermore, subchondral bone architecture varied between the 2 regions, and showed low bone density in covered regions. Conclusions Cartilage covered by menisci differed from that uncovered in both its mechanical and histological properties, especially with regards to the density of the superficial collagen layer. These regional differences may be related to local mechanical environment in normal condition and indicate that cartilage covered by menisci is tightly guarded by menisci from extreme mechanical loading. Our results indicate that immature cartilage degeneration and subchondral microfracture may occur easily to extreme direct mechanical loading in covered region after meniscectomy. PMID:24669849

  11. Rapidly growing giant cell tumor of bone in a skeletally immature girl.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Gensuke; Ueno, Teruko; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Motoi, Noriko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in skeletally immature patients is rare, and little is known regarding how fast GCTB can grow. We report a case of a 10-year-old skeletally immature girl with pathologically proven GCTB with obvious growth plate invasion that showed surprisingly rapid growth over only 14 days. A radiograph of the left knee revealed well-circumscribed, geographic bone destruction at the distal metaphysis of the femur with a focal cortical defect, suggesting a pathologic fracture. No abnormal mineralization or periosteal reaction was seen. A CT without contrast and an MRI demonstrated a homogeneous lesion with cortical disruption posteriorly and laterally with a slight soft tissue extension. Biopsy showed numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindle-shaped mononuclear cells without any sign of malignancy, suggesting GCTB. However, rapid lesion enlargement and destruction of the surrounding cortex were noted 14 days after biopsy. Considering the amount of bone destruction, traditional treatment of curettage and bone cement would not suffice to sustain structural strength. In addition, considering the patient's age, the tumor location, and the aggressive course, a malignant tumor, especially a giant cell-rich osteosarcoma, could not be excluded. Therefore, en bloc resection, including the growth plate and prosthetic replacement, were performed. Confirmation of GCTB was made from a pathologic evaluation, and a breach to the growth plate was identified. Since very little inflammatory reaction, degenerative change, or aneurysmal, bone, cyst-like change was found, the growth plate invasion was confirmed as due to GCTB extension, not due to the preoperative biopsy. PMID:26585568

  12. Age-dependent differences in the thermoregulatory response of the immature rat to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Fusco, L E

    1991-02-01

    Major improvement in the homeothermic ability of the rat occurs during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development. Changes in thermoregulatory responsiveness to a single injection of ethanol (EtOH) may occur during this period. Immature rats (2-3, 8-9, and 14-15 days of age) were administered either saline or EtOH (2 or 4 g/kg BW; ip) at thermoneutral ambient temperatures (Ta). In one experiment, metabolic rate (MR) and body temperatures (colonic and skin) were recorded for 1-3 hr postinjection. A second experiment determined blood EtOH concentration in rats from the 3 age groups over an 8-hr period following injection of EtOH. 4 g EtOH/kg produced few significant reductions in thermoregulatory function of 2-3 day-old rats, but decreased MR by 16% and colonic temperature by 0.5-0.7 degrees C in 8-15 day-old animals. 2 g EtOH/kg had no effect on 8-9 day-old rats, but reduced MR and colonic temperature in rats aged 14-15 days. In every case, the hypothermic response to EtOH was correlated with a reduction in MR. Back and abdominal skin temperatures decreased with colonic temperature, and tail skin temperature indicated EtOH-induced vasoconstriction in older rats. Blood EtOH concentrations were similar in the three age groups during the first 2 hr postinjection and did not explain differences in metabolic response. The magnitude and duration of thermoregulatory responsiveness to EtOH increases with age in the immature rat. PMID:2024730

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow during hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vannucci, R.C.; Lyons, D.T.; Vasta, F.

    1988-02-01

    Immature rats subjected to a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia sustain brain damage confined largely to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. To ascertain the extent and distribution of ischemic alterations in the brains of these small animals, we modified the Sakurada technique to measure regional cerebral blood flow using carbon-14 autoradiography. Seven-day-old rats underwent right common carotid artery ligation following which they were rendered hypoxic with 8% O2 at 37 degrees C. Before and during hypoxia, the rat pups received an injection of iodo(/sup 14/C)antipyrine for determination of regional cerebral blood flow. Blood flows to individual structures of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere were not influenced by arterial occlusion alone; flows to the contralateral hemisphere and to the brainstem and cerebellum actually increased by 25-50%. Hypoxia-ischemia was associated with decreases in regional cerebral blood flow of the ipsilateral hemisphere such that by 2 hours, flows to subcortical white matter, neocortex, striatum, and thalamus were 15, 17, 34, and 41% of control, respectively. The hierarchy of the blood flow reductions correlated closely with the distribution and extent of ischemic neuronal necrosis. However, unlike the pathologic pattern of this model, the degree of ischemia appeared homogeneous within each brain region. Blood flows to contralateral cerebral hemispheric structures were relatively unchanged from prehypoxic values, whereas flows to the brainstem and cerebellum nearly doubled and tripled, respectively. Thus, ischemia is the predominant factor that determines the topography of tissue injury to major regions of immature rat brain, whereas metabolic factors may influence the heterogeneous pattern of damage seen within individual structures.

  14. Depression and/or potentiation of cortical responses after status epilepticus in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Tsenov, G; Mares, P

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) resulted in delayed changes of single cortical interhemisperic (transcallosal) responses in immature rats. Low-frequency stimulation inducing depression and/or potentiation was studied to analyze possible dynamic changes in cortical responses. Status was elicited in 12-day-old (SE12) or 25-day-old (SE25) rats. Control siblings received saline instead of pilocarpine. Interhemispheric responses were elicited by stimulation of the sensorimotor region of the cerebral cortex 3, 6, 9, 13, or 26 days after status. A series of 5 biphasic pulses with intensity equal to twofold threshold were used for stimulation. The interval between pulses was 100, 125, 160, 200 or 300 ms, eight responses were always averaged. Peak amplitude of the first positive, first negative and second positive waves was measured and responses to the second, third, fourth and fifth pulse were compared with the first one. Animals after status epilepticus as well as lithium-paraldehyde controls exhibit a frequency depression at nearly all the intervals studied. An outlined increase of responses in SE rats in comparison with the controls three days after SE stayed just below the level of statistical significance. In addition, animals in the SE12 group exhibited potentiation of responses at this interval after SE. With longer intervals after SE, the relation between SE and control animals changed twice resulting in a tendency to lower amplitude of responses in SE than in control rats 26 days after SE. Rats in the SE25 group exhibited higher responses than controls 13 days after status, but this difference was not present at the longest interval after SE. Low-frequency stimulation did not reveal increased cortical excitability as a long-lasting consequence of status epilepticus induced in immature rats. In addition, the outlined differences between SE and control rats changed with the time after SE. PMID:16925471

  15. Electrophysiological effects of chilotoquine on tight junctions of immature rat Sertoli cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Okanlawon, A; Dym, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of CQ, an antimalarial drug with antiprotease activity, and NH4Cl, a related amines on the development of intercellular tight junctions in cultured immature rat Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells were seeded in serum-free defined medium at a density of 3 x 10(6) cells/0.64 cm2/well on Matrigel-covered Millicell-HA filters. CQ (1 microM and 2 microM) or NH4Cl (6.25 mM and 12 mM) was added to the outer (basal) compartment of the bicameral system either on day 1 or day 7 of the culture. Formation of tight junctions was monitored by measurement of the transepithelial resistance (TER) at 24 hr intervals using an impedance meter. TER in untreated controls was 50 omega/cm2 on day 1, increased progressively to 80 omega/cm2 by day 7 and plateaued until day 12. The cells treated from day 1 with CQ showed dose-dependent progressive increase in TER until day 12, reaching 191 omega/cm2 in cells treated with 1 microM concentration. In cells treated with CQ starting from day 7 of culture onwards, TER patterns were similar to those noted following exposure to chloroquine from day 1. Also in cultures containing NH4Cl, in comparison to the control, the increase in TER was significantly higher. These observations demonstrate that CQ and HN4Cl promote tight junction formation between immature rat Sertoli cells invitro suggesting that antiproteases may be involved in the formation of blood-testis barrier. PMID:11205819

  16. Immature B Cell Egress from Bone Marrow Is SOCS3 Independent

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, João P.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 has been suggested to regulate CXCR4 signaling in a variety of human cell lines. In mice, conditional SOCS3 inactivation in hematopoietic cells including B-lineage lymphocytes has been reported to exacerbate CXCR4-signaling and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, which resulted in altered immature B cell distribution in bone marrow (BM) due to sustained α4β1 integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix. However, a recent study examining conditional SOCS3 deletion specifically in B-lineage cells failed to detect significant roles in B-lineage cell retention in BM. In this study we carefully examined the role played by SOCS3 in CXCR4 signaling in developing B cell subsets. We show that in mice conditionally deficient in SOCS3 exclusively in B cells (Socs3fl/fl Mb1cre/+) there was no detectable difference in B cell development in BM and in periphery. We show that SOCS3 deficient and sufficient immature B cell subsets are similarly distributed between BM parenchyma and sinusoids, and are equally competent at exiting BM into peripheral blood. Furthermore, we found no significant differences in CXCR4 desensitization upon ligand exposure in developing B lymphocyte subsets. Consequently, SOCS3-deficient and sufficient B-lineage cell migration towards CXCL12 in vitro was undistinguishable, and B-lineage cell amoeboid motility within BM parenchyma was also unaffected by SOCS3-deficiency. Thus we conclude that SOCS3 has no detectable influence on biological processes known to be controlled by CXCR4 signaling. PMID:26274929

  17. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 mutation induces immaturity of the dentate granule cells of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Recently, increases in anxiety-related behaviors and epilepsy have been observed in SNAP-25 knock-in (KI) mice, which have a single amino acid substitution of Ala for Ser187. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in this mutant remain unknown. Results In this study, we found that a significant number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells was histologically and electrophysiologically similar to immature DG neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult mutants, a phenomenon termed the “immature DG” (iDG). SNAP-25 KI mice and other mice possessing the iDG phenotype, i.e., alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous mice, Schnurri-2 knockout mice, and mice treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine, showed similar molecular expression patterns, with over 100 genes similarly altered. A working memory deficit was also identified in mutant mice during a spontaneous forced alternation task using a modified T-maze, a behavioral task known to be dependent on hippocampal function. Chronic treatments with the antiepileptic drug valproate abolished the iDG phenotype and the working memory deficit in mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the substitution of Ala for Ser187 in SNAP-25 induces the iDG phenotype, which can also be caused by epilepsy, and led to a severe working memory deficit. In addition, the iDG phenotype in adulthood is likely an endophenotype for at least a part of some common psychiatric disorders. PMID:23497716

  18. Cl− uptake promoting depolarizing GABA actions in immature rat neocortical neurones is mediated by NKCC1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Junko; Okabe, Akihito; Toyoda, Hiroki; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2004-01-01

    GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain, but during early postnatal development the elevated [Cl−]i in immature neocortical neurones causes GABAA receptor activation to be depolarizing. The molecular mechanisms underlying this intracellular Cl− accumulation remain controversial. Therefore, the GABA reversal potential (EGABA) or [Cl−]i in early postnatal rat neocortical neurones was measured by the gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp method, and the relative expression levels of the cation−Cl− cotransporter mRNAs (in the same cells) were examined by semiquantitative single-cell multiplex RT-PCR to look for statistical correlations with [Cl−]i. The mRNA expression levels were positively (the Cl− accumulating Na+,K+−2Cl− cotransporter NKCC1) or negatively (the Cl− extruding K+−Cl− cotransporter KCC2) correlated with [Cl−]i. NKCC1 mRNA expression was high in early postnatal days, but decreased during postnatal development, whereas KCC2 mRNA expression displayed the opposite pattern. [Cl−]i and NKCC1 mRNA expression were each higher in cortical plate (CP) neurones than in the presumably older layer V/VI pyramidal neurones in a given slice. The pharmacological effects of bumetanide on EGABA were consistent with the different expression levels of NKCC1 mRNA. These data suggest that NKCC1 may play a pivotal role in the generation of GABA-mediated depolarization in immature CP cells, while KCC2 promotes the later maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the rat neocortex. PMID:15090604

  19. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF UNSTABLE PELVIC RING FRACTURE IN SKELETALLY IMMATURE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Joao Antonio Matheus; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Ricardo; Júnior, Luiz Augusto Peçanha Tavares; Goldsztajn, Flávio; Rocha, Tito; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the outcomes from definitive surgical treatment for unstable fractures of the pelvic ring in children undergoing surgical reduction and stabilization. Methods: We studied 10 patients with immature skeletons who suffered unstable fractures of the pelvic ring and were treated between March 2004 and January 2008. The study was retrospective, based on clinical and radiographic evaluations. Results: The mean age at the time of the trauma was 8.8 years (2 to 13 years). Seven patients were female and three was male. There were eight cases of trauma caused by being run over, and one case each of a motorcycle accident and falling from a height. Five patients had other associated injuries such as fractures of the clavicle, femoral diaphysis, proximal humerus, lower leg bones, olecranon and bladder injury. All the patients evaluated showed an excellent clinical outcome. The pelvic asymmetry before surgery ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 cm (mean 1.45 cm), and dropped to values between 0.2 and 0.9 cm (mean 0.39 cm) after reduction. In no case was any change observed in pelvic asymmetry measured in the immediate postoperative period and at the end of follow-up. Conclusion: Pelvic ring fractures in skeletally immature patients are rare and surgical treatment is unusual. Several authors have questioned conservative treatment because of the complications encountered. Bone remodeling does not seem enough to cause an improvement in pelvic asymmetry, and this justifies the choice of surgical treatment for reduction and correction of pelvic ring deformities. PMID:27026968

  20. Role of CD56-expressing immature biliary epithelial cells in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Zhong; Yu, Jia-Kang; Peng, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Ying; Lui, Vincent CH; Nicholls, John M; Tam, Paul KH; Lamb, Jonathan R; Chen, Yan; Xia, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical and pathological parameters and expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in patients with biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: Established clinical laboratory markers of hepatic function, including enzyme activity, protein synthesis, and bilirubin metabolism, were evaluated in patients with BA and compared with those in patients with choledochal cysts and neonatal hepatitis. Pathological changes in tissue morphology and fibrosis were examined by histological and tissue collagen staining. Immunohistochemical staining for the biliary epithelial cell markers CD56 and CK19 together with the Notch signaling related molecules Notch1 and Notch2 was performed in the context of alterations in the structure of intrahepatic biliary ducts. RESULTS: Differences in some clinical laboratory parameters among the three diseases examined were observed, but they did not correlate with the pathological classification of fibrosis in BA. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of CD56-positive immature bile ducts in most patients (74.5%) with BA but not in patients with choledochal cysts or neonatal hepatitis. The number of CD56-expressing cells correlated with disease severity, with more positive cells present in the later stages of liver damage (81.8% vs 18.2%). Furthermore, bile plugs were mainly found in CD56-positive immature biliary ducts. Notch signaling was a key regulatory pathway in biliary duct formation and played a role in tissue fibrosis. Notch1 was co-expressed in CD56-positive cells, whereas Notch2 was found exclusively in blood vessels in the portal area of patients with BA. CONCLUSION: The maturation of biliary epithelial cells and the expression of Notch may play a role in the pathogenesis of BA. PMID:26937142

  1. The Immature Stages and Natural History of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Lthomiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Hill, Ryan I.; Rosendo Simbaña, Wilmer; Gentry, Grant

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and oviposition behavior of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) from northeastern Ecuador. An unidentified species of Solanum (Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on leaves, stems or epiphytes growing on the host. Veladyris pardalis has four larval stadia, and takes 64–70 days to mature from oviposition to adult. PMID:19619012

  2. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  3. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

  4. Unstimulated human CD4 lymphocytes express a cytoplasmic immature form of the common cytokine receptor gamma-chain.

    PubMed

    Bani, L; Pasquier, V; Kryworuchko, M; Salamero, J; Thèze, J

    2001-07-01

    As a component of various cytokine receptors, common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (gamma(c)) is essential in the development of the immune system and plays an important role in different stages of inflammatory and immune responses. Here we establish that resting CD4 T cells and the Jurkat CD4 T cell line do not express the mature form of gamma(c) (64 kDa) recognized by mAb Tugh4. However, these cells constitutively transcribe the corresponding gamma(c) gene. This apparent paradox was solved by the demonstration that polyclonal anti-gamma(c) Abs detected endoglycosidase-H-sensitive immature forms of gamma(c) (54-58 kDa) expressed by quiescent CD4 T lymphocytes and Jurkat cells. Immature gamma(c) is characterized as an intracellular component localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Pulse-chase analysis shows that the immature gamma(c) is rapidly degraded after synthesis. After activation of CD4 T lymphocytes, and as seen in the CD4 T cell line Kit 225, the endoglycosidase-H-resistant mature form of gamma(c) is detectable at the cell surface and in the endosomal compartment. For the first time, our results demonstrate that a cytokine receptor chain may be constitutively produced as an immature form. Furthermore, this supports the notion that expression of the functional form of gamma(c) may require intracellular interactions with lineage- or subset-specific molecular partners. PMID:11418669

  5. Efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult Trichuris vulpis infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Annette; Altreuther, Gertraut; Schroeder, Iris; Charles, Samuel; Cruthers, Larry; Kok, Dawid J; Kraemer, Friederike; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of a novel flavoured tablet formulation of emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) against mature and immature adult whipworms (Trichuris vulpis) at the proposed minimum dose of 1 mg emodepside and 5 mg praziquantel per kg body weight in dogs. Three randomised, blinded and controlled laboratory studies with naturally or experimentally infected dogs were performed. The first study was conducted as a dose determination study in experimentally infected dogs using three different dose levels, i.e., 0.5x, 1x and 2x the minimum therapeutic dose. Two further studies confirmed the efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets against mature and immature adult T. vulpis at the recommended minimum dose. In all three studies, the efficacy against mature and immature adult T. vulpis was >99%. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that the emodepside plus praziquantel tablet is an effective and safe treatment against mature and immature adult stages of T. vulpis in dogs. PMID:19575221

  6. Relationship between olfactory and visual stimuli during host plant recognition in immature and adult glassy-winged sharpshooter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An olfactometer was designed to assess the relative effects of visual, olfactory, and visual x olfactory stimuli on host plant detection in adult and immature glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata. Factorial designs were used in no-choice tests to measure responses to binary combination...

  7. EFFECTS OF ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ON ADULT AND IMMATURE RABBIT LEYDIG CELLS: COMPARISON WITH EDS-TREATED RAT LEYDIG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethane-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) has been shown to selectively kill Leydig cells and depress testosterone production in adult rats. ecent study has shown that immature rat leydig cells are less sensitive to EDS exposure. here is evidence that the rabbit metabolizes EDS to methane ...

  8. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  9. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development, female oviposition, and egg-hatching in the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most economically significant biting flies affecting cattle. Use of traditional insecticides have only limited success in control of stable flies largely due to the stable fly’s unique feeding behaviors and immature developm...

  10. Nonsurgical management of large periapical lesion in mature and immature teeth using different calcium hydroxide formulations: case series.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Vinay; Hegde, Reshma S; Moogi, Prashant P; Prashant, B R; Patil, Basanagouda

    2013-01-01

    This case series evaluates the effectiveness of different calcium hydroxide formulations with various vehicles in management of large periapical lesion in mature and immature teeth. This will help clinicians to make informed judgments about which formulations of calcium hydroxide should be used for specific endodontic procedures. PMID:24858773

  11. Examining triclosan-induced potentiation of the estrogen uterotrophic effect

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in rats orally administered 3 μg/kg EE and TCS (2 to 18 mg/kg) in the utero...

  12. Gravity Anomaly Between Immature And Mature Subduction Zones In The Western Pacific And Its Implications For Subduction Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, S.

    2008-12-01

    From immature to mature subduction zones, the western Pacific is a key area to investigate subduction evolution. Among them, the Yap and Mussau trenches located in the boundary of Caroline plate and the Hjort trench to the south of New Zealand are considered as immature subduction zones. The common geological features of immature subduction zones include: (1) a short trench-arc distance, (2) the lack of Wadati-Benioff zone, and (3) the absence of arc volcanism triggered by subducting slab. On the other hand, the Izu-Bonin- Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec trenches are well-developed or mature subduction zones characterized by active arc volcanism and deep earthquakes. We compare two end-members, immature and mature subduction zones, with gravity anomaly derived from satellite altimetry which has sufficient accuracy for this kind of regional study. The isostatic residual gravity anomalies show that the width of non-isostatically- compensated region of the mature subduction zone is substantially wider than that of immature ones. Moreover, when we removed the gravitational effects due to the seafloor from the free-air gravity anomaly, a large difference was found between the immature and mature subduction zones in the overriding plate side. In the mature subduction zones, a low gravity anomaly of ~200-250 mGals can be found in the overriding plate which differs from the immature subduction zones. We discuss the possible causes of the low gravity anomaly including: (1) serpentinization in the upper mantle; (2) presence of partial melt in the mantle wedge; (3) difference in the density structure between the overriding and subducting plates in terms of slab age and cooling history; and (4) thickened crust or anomalous crustal structure beneath the arc. Serpentinization cannot explain the low gravity anomaly at ~150-200 km from the trench. Also, the difference of gravity anomaly due to the difference of the slab age is insufficient to account for the total anomaly. In this

  13. Survival of immature Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in aquatic habitats in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, central Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon M; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background The survivorship and distribution of Anopheles arabiensis larvae and pupae was examined in a rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, central Kenya, from August 2005 to April 2006, prior to implementation of larval control programme. Methods Horizontal life tables were constructed for immatures in semi-field condition. The time spent in the various immature stages was determined and survival established. Vertical life tables were obtained from five paddies sampled by standard dipping technique. Results Pre-adult developmental time for An. arabiensis in the trays in the experimental set up in the screen house was 11.85 days from eclosion to emergence. The mean duration of each instar stage was estimated to be 1.40 days for first instars, 2.90 days for second instars, 1.85 days for third instars, 3.80 days for fourth instars and 1.90 days for pupae. A total of 590 individuals emerged into adults, giving an overall survivorship from L1 to adult emergence of 69.4%. A total of 4,956 An. arabiensis immatures were collected in 1,400 dips throughout the sampling period. Of these, 55.9% were collected during the tillering stage, 42.5% during the transplanting period and 1.6% during the land preparation stage. There was a significant difference in the An. arabiensis larval densities among the five stages. Also there was significant variation in immature stage composition for each day's collection in each paddy. These results indicate that the survival of the immatures was higher in some paddies than others. The mortality rate during the transplanting was 99.9% and at tillering was 96.6%, while the overall mortality was 98.3%. Conclusion The survival of An. arabiensis immatures was better during the tillering stage of rice growth. Further the survival of immatures in rice fields is influenced by the rice agronomic activities including addition of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides. For effective integrated vector management, the application of larvicides

  14. The Mouse That Soared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  15. CONDITIONAL ABLATION AND RECOVERY OF FOREBRAIN NEUROGENESIS IN THE MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Benjamin H.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Fuller, Cynthia L.; Lichtenwalner, Robin J.; Zhang, Helen; Velander, Alan J.; Li, Xiangquan; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Burant, Charles F.; Parent, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Forebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within two weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics. PMID:19363795

  16. Mouse Phenome Database

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Stephen C.; Bult, Carol J.; Bogue, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; phenome.jax.org) was launched in 2001 as the data coordination center for the international Mouse Phenome Project. MPD integrates quantitative phenotype, gene expression and genotype data into a common annotated framework to facilitate query and analysis. MPD contains >3500 phenotype measurements or traits relevant to human health, including cancer, aging, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, infectious disease susceptibility, blood disorders, neurosensory disorders, drug addiction and toxicity. Since our 2012 NAR report, we have added >70 new data sets, including data from Collaborative Cross lines and Diversity Outbred mice. During this time we have completely revamped our homepage, improved search and navigational aspects of the MPD application, developed several web-enabled data analysis and visualization tools, annotated phenotype data to public ontologies, developed an ontology browser and released new single nucleotide polymorphism query functionality with much higher density coverage than before. Here, we summarize recent data acquisitions and describe our latest improvements. PMID:24243846

  17. Mouse phenome database.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Stephen C; Bult, Carol J; Bogue, Molly A

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; phenome.jax.org) was launched in 2001 as the data coordination center for the international Mouse Phenome Project. MPD integrates quantitative phenotype, gene expression and genotype data into a common annotated framework to facilitate query and analysis. MPD contains >3500 phenotype measurements or traits relevant to human health, including cancer, aging, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, infectious disease susceptibility, blood disorders, neurosensory disorders, drug addiction and toxicity. Since our 2012 NAR report, we have added >70 new data sets, including data from Collaborative Cross lines and Diversity Outbred mice. During this time we have completely revamped our homepage, improved search and navigational aspects of the MPD application, developed several web-enabled data analysis and visualization tools, annotated phenotype data to public ontologies, developed an ontology browser and released new single nucleotide polymorphism query functionality with much higher density coverage than before. Here, we summarize recent data acquisitions and describe our latest improvements. PMID:24243846

  18. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  19. Osterix is dispensable for the development of the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Soo; Park, Geon-Il; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2016-09-01

    Osterix (Osx) has been shown to be an osteoblast-specific transcription factor for bone formation. Recently, it has been reported that Osx is significantly expressed in the mouse olfactory bulb, proving that Osx may play a role in olfactory bulb development, as well as bone development. Here, we studied morphological differences and neuronal cell alterations in the olfactory bulb using an Osx gene-modified mouse model. Although Osx expression was reduced, morphological differences were not observed in the olfactory bulb of Osx heterozygous mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Immunofluorescence using the neuronal marker genes DCX, MAP2, NeuN, and GFAP showed neuronal cell alterations caused by Osx deficiency in the mitral cell layer (MCL) and granule cell layer (GCL) of the olfactory bulb at postnatal stage. The number, morphology, and expression patterns of immature neurons, mature neurons, and astrocytes were identical in both wild-type and Osx heterozygous mice. At the post-embryonic stage, the expression of neuronal markers DCX, Nestin, MAP2, and NeuN were examined in the MCL and GCL of the olfactory bulb in wild-type, Osx heterozygous, and Osx knockout embryos. Both DCX- and Nestin-positive immature neurons, and MAP2- and NeuN-positive mature neurons, revealed a similar expression pattern in all mouse types. These results indicated that olfactory bulb development was not significantly impaired in the absence of Osx. Further study may be necessary to explain the functional properties of the olfactory bulb caused by Osx deficiency. PMID:27449610

  20. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  1. Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease lack immature peripheral blood plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, D C; Metzke, D; Schmitz, J; Scheffold, A; Sturm, A; Wiedenmann, B; Dignass, A U

    2005-01-01

    Background: Breakdown of tolerance against the commensal microflora is believed to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dendritic cells (DC) have been implicated in this process in various animal models, but data on human DC in IBD are very limited. Aim: To characterise plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) in patients with active versus inactive IBD and healthy controls. Patients and Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from 106 patients (Crohn’s disease (CD) n = 49, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19). Disease activity was scored using the modified Truelove Witts (MTWSI) for UC and the Harvey Bradshaw severity indices (HBSI) for CD. Four colour flow cytometric analysis was used to identify, enumerate, and phenotype DC. DC from patients with acute flare ups and healthy controls were cultured and stimulated with CpG ODN 2006 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: IBD patients in remission (PDC UC, 0.39%; CD, 0.35%; MDC-1 UC, 0.23%; CD, 0.22% of PBMC) have slightly lower numbers of circulating DC compared with healthy controls (PDC 0.41%, MDC-1 0.25% of PBMC). In acute flare ups IBD patients experience a significant drop of DC (PDC UC, 0.04%; CD, 0.11%; MDC-1 UC, 0.11%; CD, 0.14% of PBMC) that correlates with disease activity (correlation coefficients: PDC MTWSI, 0.93; HBSI, 0.79; MDC-1 MTWSI, 0.75; HBSI, 0.81). Moreover, both express α4β7 integrin and display an immature phenotype. Freshly isolated PDC and MDC-1 from untreated flaring IBD patients express higher baseline levels of CD86 which increases further in culture and upon stimulation compared with healthy controls. Conclusion: IBD patients lack immature blood DC during flare ups which possibly migrate to the gut. An aberrant response to microbial surrogate stimuli suggests a disturbed interaction with commensals. PMID:15647187

  2. Growing Teratoma Syndrome Secondary to Ovarian Giant Immature Teratoma in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Liu, Zhenzhen; Dong, Chengyong; Long, Fei; Liu, Qinlong; Sun, Deguang; Gao, Zhenming; Wang, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare clinical entity first described by Logothetis et al in 1982. Although it is unusual for GTS to be located in the ovary, this report is of a case of an adolescent girl who underwent a complete surgical resection of the mass. Histopathology confirmed only an immature teratoma had originated from the ovary and so she received adjuvant chemotherapy with blemycin, etopside, and cisplatin over 4 cycles. Results from an abdominal enhanced CT (computed tomography) 9 years later revealed a giant mass had compressed adjacent tissues and organs. Laparotomy was performed and a postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a mature teratoma, and so the diagnosis of ovarian GTS was made. One hundred one cases of ovarian GTS from English literature published between 1977 and 2015 were collected and respectively analyzed in large samples for the first time. The median age of diagnosis with primary immature teratoma was 22 years (range 4–48 years, n = 56). GTS originating from the right ovary accounted for 57% (27/47, n = 47) whereas the left contained 43% (20/47, n = 47). Median primary tumor size was 18.7 cm (range 6–45 cm, n = 28) and median subsequent tumor size was 8.6 cm (range 1–25 cm, n = 25). From the primary treatment to the diagnosis of ovarian GTS, median tumor growth speed was 0.94 cm/month (range 0.3–4.3 cm/month, n = 21). Median time interval was 26.6 months (range 1–264 months, n = 41). According to these findings, 5 patients did have a pregnancy during the time interval between primary disease and GTS, making our patient the first case of having a pregnancy following the diagnosis of ovarian GTS. Because of its high recurrence and insensitiveness to chemotherapy, complete surgical resection is the preferred treatment and fertility-sparing surgery should be considered for women of child-bearing age. Anyhow GTS of the ovary has an excellent prognosis. Patients with GTS had

  3. Oocyte production and ovarian steroid concentrations of immature rats in response to some commercial gonadotrophin preparations.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K M; Weaver, A; Wards, R L; Ball, K; Lun, S; Mullin, C; McNatty, K P

    1990-01-01

    Four commercial gonadotrophin preparations, namely Folligon, F.S.H.-P., Folltropin and Ovagen, were examined for their effects on oocyte production and ovarian steroid concentrations in immature rats. The ratios of the FSH to LH concentrations of the preparations, determined by radioreceptor assays, were Folligon 5, F.S.H.-P. 18, Folltropin 49 and Ovagen 1090. Forty-eight hours after administering each gonadotrophin preparation to immature rats, ovulation was induced by injection of chorionic gonadotrophin. Twenty-four hours later, oocytes were recovered from the oviducts and counted. Oocytes were produced after injection of chorionic gonadotrophin following a single injection of Folligon (10-50 i.u.). However, no oocytes were produced in response to the other gonadotrophin preparations unless they were administered by continuous infusion (30-1000 micrograms day-1). When given by injection (Folligon) or infusion (others), the gonadotrophin preparations all promoted a dose-dependent increase in mean oocyte production, except at the highest doses when mean oocyte numbers either remained unchanged or declined significantly in the cases of Folligon and F.S.H.-P. The highest mean numbers of oocytes produced in response to Folltropin (48 +/- 9 oocytes, mean +/- s.e.m.) and Ovagen (47 +/- 7) were greater than those attained with Folligon (21 +/- 6) or F.S.H.-P. (31 +/- 5). Mean ovarian weights also increased in a dose-dependent fashion in response to each of the gonadotrophin preparations. Measurements of ovarian steroid concentrations 48 h after the onset of gonadotrophin treatment (i.e. immediately prior to ovulation induction with chorionic gonadotrophin) showed that the gonadotrophin preparations markedly influenced the ratios of ovarian oestradiol-17 beta and androgen (androstenedione plus testosterone) concentrations. At low doses the gonadotrophin preparations increased the ratio of oestradiol-17 beta to androgens, but at the highest doses, with the exception of

  4. Neuroblast Distribution after Cortical Impact Is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sabrina R.; Smith, Colin M.; Keeley, Kristen L.; McGuone, Declan; Dodge, Carter P.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Costine, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND) 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6) or after injury (PND 7 and 8), and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU+ neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of neuroblasts that

  5. Neuroblast Distribution after Cortical Impact Is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sabrina R; Smith, Colin M; Keeley, Kristen L; McGuone, Declan; Dodge, Carter P; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Costine, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND) 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6) or after injury (PND 7 and 8), and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU(+) neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of neuroblasts that

  6. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  7. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study

    PubMed Central

    Jannatifar, Rahil; Shokri, Saeed; Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejatbakhsh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. Objective: This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. Materials and Methods: 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control) without any treatment, and group D (vehicle) received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919), group A (43.4 ±. 120), and long term (40.6 ±. 299) immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats. PMID:27141538

  8. The Mouse Olfactory Peduncle

    PubMed Central

    Brunjes, Peter C; Kay, Rachel B; Arrivillaga, J. P

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3, 12 and 24 month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm3and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm3. Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar though smaller to those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of GABAergic neurons), though the relative numbers of each cell type differs between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in the rat. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed. PMID:21618219

  9. In vitro plant regeneration from immature cotyledon explants of macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla L. Johnson).

    PubMed

    Mulwa, Richard M S; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-12-01

    The macadamia tree, an Australian native, is highly valued for its nuts. Macadamia improvement programs so far have relied on conventional breeding and selection. The production of improved cultivars required to meet future demands could be accelerated by the application of modern biotechnological techniques, but this requires an efficient and reproducible regeneration system that has not yet been established for macadamia. We report here shoot regeneration from immature cotyledon explants of macadamia. Adventitious buds were induced on the cotyledon explants from fruits collected at 140 and 190 days after full bloom (DAFB) on MS medium supplemented with either 10 or 15 microM TDZ. The addition of 2% coconut milk (CM) to 10 microM TDZ containing media resulted in enhanced adventitious bud induction from 190 DAFB explants. Further shoot development from the induced buds was depressed in media containing TDZ + CM; the addition of 0.001 microM IAA to this combination doubled shoot development, from 1.9-3.9 shoots per explant. The transfer of bud clumps to media supplemented with 8.8 microM BA alone or in combination with either 0.14 microM GA(3) or 0.001 microM IAA significantly increased shoot production from the previously induced explants by 1.5-2 times of that observed in TDZ + CM medium. Histological examinations revealed that shoot regeneration was primarily by organogenesis originating from cells on or just below the cut surfaces of explants. PMID:16858554

  10. Unique glycosignature for intervertebral disc and articular cartilage cells and tissues in immaturity and maturity

    PubMed Central

    Collin, E. C.; Kilcoyne, M.; White, S. J.; Grad, S.; Alini, M.; Joshi, L.; Pandit, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, on/off markers for intervertebral disc (IVD) and articular cartilage (AC) cells (chondrocytes) and distinct glycoprofiles of cell and tissue-types were identified from immaturity to maturity. Three and eleven month-old ovine IVD and AC tissues were histochemically profiled with a panel of lectins and antibodies. Relationships between tissue and cell types were analysed by hierarchical clustering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) composition of annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP) and AC tissues was determined by HPLC analysis. Clear on/off cell type markers were identified, which enabled the discrimination of chondrocytes, AF and NP cells. AF and NP cells were distinguishable using MAA, SNA-I, SBA and WFA lectins, which bound to both NP cells and chondrocytes but not AF cells. Chondrocytes were distinguished from NP and AF cells with a specific binding of LTA and PNA lectins to chondrocytes. Each tissue showed a unique CS composition with a distinct switch in sulfation pattern in AF and NP tissues upon disc maturity while cartilage maintained the same sulfation pattern over time. In conclusion, distinct glycoprofiles for cell and tissue-types across age groups were identified in addition to altered CS composition and sulfation patterns for tissue types upon maturity. PMID:26965377

  11. Evaluation of immune functions in captive immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Higgins, Benjamin M; DeGuise, Sylvain; Godard-Codding, Céline A J

    2013-11-15

    Sea turtles face numerous environmental challenges, such as exposure to chemical pollution and biotoxins, which may contribute to immune system impairment, resulting in increased disease susceptibility. Therefore, a more thorough assessment of the host's immune response and its susceptibility is needed for these threatened and endangered animals. In this study, the innate and acquired immune functions of sixty-five clinically healthy, immature, captive loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were assayed using non-lethal blood sample collection. Functional immune assays were developed and/or optimized for this species, including mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and phagocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque and discontinuous Percoll gradients, respectively. The T lymphocyte mitogens ConA significantly induced lymphocyte proliferation at 1 and 2 μg/mL while PHA significantly induced lymphocyte proliferation at 5 and 10 μg/mL. The B lymphocyte mitogen LPS significantly induced proliferation at 1 μg/mL. Monocytes demonstrated higher phagocytic activity than eosinophils. In addition, monocytes exhibited respiratory burst. Natural killer cell activity was higher against YAC-1 than K-562 target cells. These optimized assays may help to evaluate the integrity of loggerhead sea turtle's immune system upon exposure to environmental contaminants, as well as part of a comprehensive health assessment and monitoring program. PMID:24094689

  12. Osteogenic differentiation of immature osteoblasts: Interplay of cell culture media and supplements.

    PubMed

    Brauer, A; Pohlemann, T; Metzger, W

    2016-03-01

    Differentiation of immature osteoblasts to mature osteoblasts in vitro initially was induced by supplementing the medium with β-gylcerophosphate and dexamethasone. Later, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, vitamin K3 and TGFβ1 were used in varying concentrations as supplements to generate a mature osteoblast phenotype. We tested the effects of several combinations of cell culture media, seeding protocols and osteogenic supplements on osteogenic differentiation of human primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed by staining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP/NBT) and by von Kossa staining of deposited calcium phosphate. The combinations of culture media and supplements significantly influenced osteogenic differentiation, but the seeding protocol did not. Staining of ALP and calcium phosphate could be achieved only if our own mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or if a commercial mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with osteoblast growth medium. Especially for von Kossa, we observed great variations in the staining intensity. Because osteogenic differentiation is a complex process, the origin of the osteoblasts, cell culture media and osteogenic supplements should be established by preliminary experiments to achieve optimal differentiation. Staining of ALP or deposited calcium phosphate should be supplemented with qRT-PCR studies to learn more about the influence of specific supplements on osteogenic markers. PMID:26795823

  13. Differentiation of immature DCs into endothelial-like cells in human esophageal carcinoma tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Bai, Ruihua; Qin, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Yanan; Yang, Hongyan; Huang, Youtian; Li, Gang; Zhao, Mingyao; Dong, Ziming

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported endothelial-like differentiation (ELD) of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in the microenvironment derived from EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma conditioned medium (CM). However, the CM is far different from the esophageal carcinoma tissue of patients. In addition, the potential role of peri-esophageal carcinoma in the ELD of iDCs is also unknown. In the present study, we showed that the tumor microenvironment derived from esophageal carcinoma homogenate promoted iDCs to differentiate from the DC pathway toward endothelial cells, while the peri-esophageal carcinoma homogenate did not have this function. During the course of ELD, ERK signaling pathway and CREB were activated. Blocking MEK, both the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, and the ELD of iDCs were inhibited. These data suggest that esophageal carcinoma tissue, not peri-esophageal carcinoma tissue, can drive iDCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells, instead of differentiation into mature DCs, thereby losing the ability of antigen presentation. PMID:23708958

  14. Immature Responses to GABA in Fragile X Neurons Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Telias, Michael; Segal, Menahem; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited cognitive disability. However, functional deficiencies in FX neurons have been described so far almost exclusively in animal models. In a recent study we found several functional deficits in FX neurons differentiated in-vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), including their inability to fire repetitive action potentials, and their lack of synaptic activity. Here, we investigated the responses of such neurons to pulse application of the neurotransmitter GABA. We found two distinct types of responses to GABA and sensitivity to the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline; type 1 (mature) characterized by non-desensitized responses to GABA as well as a high sensitivity to bicuculline, and type 2 (immature) which are desensitized to GABA and insensitive to bicuculline. Type 1 responses were age-dependent and dominant in mature WT neurons. In contrast, FX neurons expressed primarily type 2 phenotype. Expression analysis of GABA-A receptor subunits demonstrated that this bias in human FX neurons was associated with a significant alteration in the expression pattern of the GABA-A receptor subunits α2 and β2. Our results indicate that FMRP may play a role in the development of the GABAergic synapse during neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration of the lack of a mature response to GABA in human FX neurons and may explain the inappropriate synaptic functions in FXS. PMID:27242433

  15. Excitotoxic neuronal death in the immature brain is an apoptosis-necrosis morphological continuum.

    PubMed

    Portera-Cailliau, C; Price, D L; Martin, L J

    1997-02-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is a clinically relevant degenerative process that causes selective neuronal death by mechanisms that remain unclear. Cell death is usually classified as apoptotic or necrotic based on biochemical and morphological criteria. Excitotoxic lesions in the adult rat striatum result in neuronal death associated with apoptotic DNA laddering despite a necrotic appearance of neurons ultrastructurally. This suggests that apoptosis and necrosis may not be mutually exclusive modes of cell death. Here, we characterized normal developmental cell death in the newborn rat brain with respect to DNA fragmentation patterns and ultrastructural morphology to establish a standard for apoptosis in the nervous system, and we concluded that it is essentially indistinguishable from apoptosis described in other tissues. We then investigated whether brain maturity could influence the morphology of neuronal death in vivo in the excitotoxically lesioned newborn rat forebrain. Kainic acid induced DNA laddering and death of neurons exhibiting a variety of morphologies, ranging from necrosis to apoptosis. In neurons that were dying by apoptosis, morphologic changes were characterized by a highly ordered sequence of organelle abnormalities, with swelling of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesiculation preceding most nuclear changes and mitochondrial disruption. We concluded that brain maturity influences the morphologic phenotype of neurodegeneration and that excitotoxic neuronal death in the immature brain is not a uniform event but, rather, a continuum of apoptotic, necrotic, and overlapping morphologies. This excitotoxic paradigm might prove useful for analyzing the mechanisms that govern cell death under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:9120055

  16. RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC SPORTS INJURIES IN THE SKELETALLY IMMATURE ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Molony, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, participation in organized youth sports has risen to include over 35 million contestants.1 The rise in participation has brought about an associated increase in both traumatic and overuse injuries in the youth athlete, which refers to both children and adolescents within a general age range of seven to 17. Exposure rates alone do not account for the increase in injuries. Societal pressures to perform at high levels affect both coaches and athletes and lead to inappropriate levels of training intensity, frequency, and duration. In this environment high physiologic stresses are applied to the immature skeleton of the youth athlete causing injury. Typically, since bone is the weakest link in the incomplete ossified skeleton, the majority of traumatic injuries result in fractures that occur both at mid‐shaft and at the growth centers of bone. The following clinical commentary describes the common traumatic sports injuries that occur in youth athletes, as well as those which require rapid identification and care in order to prevent long term sequelae. PMID:23316432

  17. Geranylated flavanones from the secretion on the surface of the immature fruits of Paulownia tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Sawa; Kohshima, Shiro; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2008-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the viscous secretion on the surface of immature fruits of Paulownia tomentosa furnished nine geranylated flavanones, 6-geranyl-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavanone (1), 6-geranyl-3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (2), 6-geranyl-4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavanone (3), 6-geranyl-4',5,5',7-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (4), 6-geranyl-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (5), 4',5,5',7-tetrahydroxy-6-[6-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2(E),7-octadienyl]-3'-methoxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-6-[6-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2(E),7-octadienyl]flavanone (7), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-6-[7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2(E)-octenyl]flavanone (8), and 3,4',5,5',7-pentahydroxy-3'-methoxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)flavanone (9), along with six known geranylated flavanones. Among these, compounds 4, 6-9 and the known 6-geranyl-3',4',5,7-tetraahydroxyflavanone (diplacone), 6-geranyl-3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavanone (diplacol) and 3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-6-[7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-2(E)-octenyl]flavanone showed potent radical scavenging effects towards DPPH radicals. PMID:18206191

  18. Concealed expansion of immature precursors underpins acute burst of adult HSC activity in foetal liver.

    PubMed

    Rybtsov, Stanislav; Ivanovs, Andrejs; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-04-15

    One day prior to mass emergence of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the foetal liver at E12.5, the embryo contains only a few definitive HSCs. It is thought that the burst of HSC activity in the foetal liver is underpinned by rapid maturation of immature embryonic precursors of definitive HSCs, termed pre-HSCs. However, because pre-HSCs are not detectable by direct transplantations into adult irradiated recipients, the size and growth of this population, which represents the embryonic rudiment of the adult haematopoietic system, remains uncertain. Using a novel quantitative assay, we demonstrate that from E9.5 the pre-HSC pool undergoes dramatic growth in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region and by E11.5 reaches the size that matches the number of definitive HSCs in the E12.5 foetal liver. Thus, this study provides for the first time a quantitative basis for our understanding of how the large population of definitive HSCs emerges in the foetal liver. PMID:27095492

  19. Identification and cellular localisation of voltage-operated calcium channels in immature rat testis.

    PubMed

    Fragale, A; Aguanno, S; Kemp, M; Reeves, M; Price, K; Beattie, R; Craig, P; Volsen, S; Sher, E; D'Agostino, A

    2000-04-25

    Sertoli cells regulate the spermatogenic process mainly through the secretion of a complex fluid into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules behind the blood-testis barrier, containing many of the essential proteins necessary for maintenance and maturation of male germ cells. Thus, the study of Sertoli cell secretory processes is strictly correlated with the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of spermatogenesis. In this work the authors have explored the voltage-sensitive calcium channel variety in the immature rat testis, their localisation and distribution within the seminiferous epithelium and peritubular and interstitial tissues as well as the possible role in the control of Sertoli cell secretion. The results reported in this paper, obtained by in situ hybridisation, immunohistology of rat testicular sections and Western blot analysis of Sertoli cell plasma membranes, show that mammalian Sertoli cells express mRNA encoding for several voltage-operated calcium channel subunits and express such proteins on their surface. Experiments performed on Sertoli cell monolayers cultured in the presence of specific toxins indicate that both N and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels are involved in the regulation of protein secretion. PMID:10854695

  20. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    PubMed

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. PMID:25525103

  1. Activity-dependent upregulation of presynaptic kainate receptors at immature CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Vernon R J; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Hirvonen, Teemu; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E

    2014-12-10

    Presynaptic kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) regulate glutamate release probability and short-term plasticity in various areas of the brain. Here we show that long-term depression (LTD) in the area CA1 of neonatal rodent hippocampus is associated with an upregulation of tonic inhibitory KAR activity, which contributes to synaptic depression and causes a pronounced increase in short-term facilitation of transmission. This increased KAR function was mediated by high-affinity receptors and required activation of NMDA receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthetase, and postsynaptic calcium signaling. In contrast, KAR activity was irreversibly downregulated in response to induction of long-term potentiation in a manner that depended on activation of the TrkB-receptor of BDNF. Both tonic KAR activity and its plasticity were restricted to early stages of synapse development and were lost in parallel with maturation of the network due to ongoing BDNF-TrkB signaling. These data show that presynaptic KARs are targets for activity-dependent modulation via diffusible messengers NO and BDNF, which enhance and depress tonic KAR activity at immature synapses, respectively. The plasticity of presynaptic KARs in the developing network allows nascent synapses to shape their response to incoming activity. In particular, upregulation of KAR function after LTD allows the synapse to preferentially pass high-frequency afferent activity. This can provide a potential rescue from synapse elimination by uncorrelated activity and also increase the computational dynamics of the developing CA3-CA1 circuitry. PMID:25505341

  2. Concealed expansion of immature precursors underpins acute burst of adult HSC activity in foetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovs, Andrejs; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One day prior to mass emergence of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the foetal liver at E12.5, the embryo contains only a few definitive HSCs. It is thought that the burst of HSC activity in the foetal liver is underpinned by rapid maturation of immature embryonic precursors of definitive HSCs, termed pre-HSCs. However, because pre-HSCs are not detectable by direct transplantations into adult irradiated recipients, the size and growth of this population, which represents the embryonic rudiment of the adult haematopoietic system, remains uncertain. Using a novel quantitative assay, we demonstrate that from E9.5 the pre-HSC pool undergoes dramatic growth in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region and by E11.5 reaches the size that matches the number of definitive HSCs in the E12.5 foetal liver. Thus, this study provides for the first time a quantitative basis for our understanding of how the large population of definitive HSCs emerges in the foetal liver. PMID:27095492

  3. ANG II modulation of cardiac growth and remodeling in immature fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Jeremy; Scholz, Thomas D; Segar, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    ANG II increases fetal blood pressure and stimulates fetal heart growth; however, little is known regarding its direct effects on cardiomyocytes in vivo. We sought to determine whether ANG II stimulates heart growth and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia in utero in the immature fetal heart independent of the effects on cardiac afterload. In twin gestation, fetal sheep at ∼100 days gestation (term 145 days), one fetus received a chronic (6 days) infusion of ANG II alone (50 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or ANG II plus nitroprusside (NTP) to attenuate the increase in blood pressure; noninstrumented twins served as controls. ANG II alone, but not ANG II + NTP resulted in a significant increase in heart mass (left and right ventricle + septum, corrected for body weight) compared with controls. ANG II, but not ANG II+NTP, also significantly increased cardiomyocyte area compared with control and increased the percentage of binucleated myocytes. ANG II with or without concomitant infusion of NTP increased cardiac PCNA expression, a marker of proliferation. Steady-state protein expression of terminal mitogen-activated protein kinases, cyclin B1, cyclin E1, and p21 were similar among groups. We conclude that in vivo, ANG II increases fetal cardiac mass via cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, differentiation, and to a lesser extent hyperplasia. The effects of ANG II on hypertrophy appear dependent upon the increase in blood pressure (mechanical load), whereas effects on proliferation are load-independent. PMID:25810382

  4. Immature human dendritic cells enhance their migration through KCa3.1 channel activation.

    PubMed

    Crottès, David; Félix, Romain; Meley, Daniel; Chadet, Stéphanie; Herr, Florence; Audiger, Cindy; Soriani, Olivier; Vandier, Christophe; Roger, Sébastien; Angoulvant, Denis; Velge-Roussel, Florence

    2016-04-01

    Migration capacity is essential for dendritic cells (DCs) to present antigen to T cells for the induction of immune response. The DC migration is supposed to be a calcium-dependent process, while not fully understood. Here, we report a role of the KCa3.1/IK1/SK4 channels in the migration capacity of both immature (iDC) and mature (mDC) human CD14(+)-derived DCs. KCa3.1 channels were shown to control the membrane potential of human DC and the Ca(2+) entry, which is directly related to migration capacities. The expression of migration marker such as CCR5 and CCR7 was modified in both types of DCs by TRAM-34 (100nM). But, only the migration of iDC was decreased by use of both TRAM-34 and KCa3.1 siRNA. Confocal analyses showed a close localization of CCR5 with KCa3.1 in the steady state of iDC. Finally, the implication of KCa3.1 seems to be limited to the migration capacities as T cell activation of DCs appeared unchanged. Altogether, these results demonstrated that KCa3.1 channels have a pro-migratory effect on iDC migration. Our findings suggest that KCa3.1 in human iDC play a major role in their migration and constitute an attractive target for the cell therapy optimization. PMID:27020659

  5. Immature oocyte quality and maturational competence of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gabriel Martin; Dalvit, Gabriel Carlos; Achi, María Verónica; Miguez, Marcelo Sergio; Cetica, Pablo Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Porcine immature oocyte quality (i.e., that of live oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage) was evaluated according to features of the surrounding cumulus, aiming to establish maturational competence of different subpopulations of such cumulus-oocyte complexes. Six subpopulations were identified: A1 (with a dense cumulus), A2 (with a translucent cumulus), B1 (with the corona radiata), B2 (partly naked oocytes), C (naked oocytes), D (with a dark cumulus). The percent incidence of live oocyte in these subpopulations changed significantly as related to cumulus features, however the occurrence of oocytes in the germinal vesicle stage was lower in class D only. Similar metaphase II rates achieved in A1, A2, B1 and B2 classes after in vitro maturation suggest that the nucleus may in fact mature in vitro, in spite of the different accompanying cumulus features which are typical of these classes. In contrast, a higher cytoplasmic maturation rate obtained in class A may indicate a stronger dependence of this variable upon cumulus features than that shown by nuclear maturation. When different types of cumulus expansion after in vitro maturation were considered (i.e., fully expanded cumulus, partly expanded cumulus, and partly naked oocyte), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes reaching metaphase II or cytoplasmic maturation. It is concluded that morphological features of the collected porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (rather than cumulus behavior during culture) may be useful for selection of potentially competent oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo production. PMID:20067032

  6. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  7. Distinct long-term neurocognitive outcomes after equipotent sevoflurane or isoflurane anaesthesia in immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, T. M.; Chang, F. L.; Shih, J.; Alvi, R. S.; Quitoriano, G. R.; Rau, V.; Barbour, K. C.; Elphick, S. A.; Kong, C. L.; Tantoco, N. K.; Ben-Tzur, D.; Kang, H.; McCreery, M. S.; Huang, P.; Park, A.; Uy, J.; Rossi, M. J.; Zhao, C.; Di Geronimo, R. T.; Stratmann, G.; Sall, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many anaesthetics when given to young animals cause cell death and learning deficits that persist until much later in life. Recent attempts to compare the relative safety or toxicity between different agents have not adequately controlled for the relative dose of anaesthetic given, thereby making direct comparisons difficult. Methods Isoflurane or sevoflurane were given at 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 4 h to postnatal day 7 (P7) rat pups. Beginning at P75 these animals underwent fear conditioning and at P83 Morris water maze testing to assess working memory, short-term memory and early long-term memory using delays of 1 min, 1 h, and 4 h. Results No difference between groups was seen in fear conditioning experiments. Morris water maze learning was equivalent between groups, and no difference was seen in working memory. Sevoflurane-treated animals had a deficit in early long-term memory, and isoflurane-treated animals had a deficit in both short-term and early long-term memory. Conclusions Both isoflurane and sevoflurane delivered at 1 MAC for 4 h to immature rats caused a deficit in long-term memory. Isoflurane also caused a deficit in short-term memory. Isoflurane might be more detrimental than sevoflurane in very young animals. PMID:23592692

  8. Evidence that the mature leaves contribute auxin to the immature tissues of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Glancy, Naomi E; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2007-07-01

    In plants such as the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), it is widely thought that the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is synthesised mainly in the immature tissues of the apical bud and then transported basipetally to other parts of the plant. Consistent with this belief are results showing that removal of the apical bud markedly reduces the IAA content in the stem. However, it has also been suggested that the mature leaves may synthesise substantial amounts of IAA, which enters the basipetal transport stream after being transported to the shoot apex in the phloem (Cambridge and Morris in Planta 99:583-588, 1996). To examine this theory, we defoliated pea plants and measured the effect on IAA content in the remaining shoot tissues. IAA levels were reduced in the internodes, and to a lesser extent in the apical bud, after defoliation, suggesting that mature leaves are indeed an important source of auxin for the shoot. Consistent with this idea, we have demonstrated that mature, fully expanded leaves are capable of de novo IAA synthesis. Furthermore, we report evidence for the presence of IAA in the phloem sap of pea. Together these results support those of Cambridge and Morris, suggesting that mature leaves are a source of the IAA in the basipetal transport stream. PMID:17308928

  9. Stabilizing immature breathing patterns of preterm infants using stochastic mechanosensory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bloch-Salisbury, Elisabeth; Indic, Premananda; Bednarek, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns in preterm infants consist of highly variable interbreath intervals (IBIs) that might originate from nonlinear properties of the respiratory oscillator and its input-output responses to peripheral and central signals. Here, we explore a property of nonlinear control, the potential for large improvement in the stability of breathing using low-level exogenous stochastic stimulation. Stimulation was administered to 10 preterm infants (postconceptional age: mean 33.3 wk, SD 1.7) using a mattress with embedded actuators that delivered small stochastic displacements (0.021 mm root mean square, 0.090 mm maximum, 30–60 Hz); this stimulus was subthreshold for causing arousal from sleep to wakefulness or other detectable changes in the behavioral state evaluated with polysomnography. We used a test-retest protocol with multiple 10-min intervals of stimulation, each paired with 10-min intervals of no stimulation. Stimulation induced an ∼50% reduction (P = 0.003) in the variance of IBIs and an ∼50% reduction (P = 0.002) in the incidence of IBIs > 5 s. The improved stability of eupneic breathing was associated with an ∼65% reduction (P = 0.04) in the duration of O2 desaturation. Our findings suggest that nonlinear properties of the immature respiratory control system can be harnessed using afferent stimuli to stabilize eupneic breathing, thereby potentially reducing the incidence of apnea and hypoxia. PMID:19608934

  10. Immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE with increased direct Sμ to Sε recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wesemann, Duane R.; Magee, Jennifer M.; Boboila, Cristian; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Gallagher, Michael P.; Portuguese, Andrew J.; Manis, John P.; Zhou, Xiaolong; Recher, Mike; Rajewsky, Klaus; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces initially expressed Cμ (IgM) constant regions (CH) exons with downstream CH exons. Stimulation of B cells with anti-CD40 plus interleukin-4 induces CSR from Cμ to Cγ1 (IgG1) and Cε (IgE), the latter of which contributes to the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. Although Cε CSR can occur directly from Cμ, most mature peripheral B cells undergo CSR to Cε indirectly, namely from Cμ to Cγ1, and subsequently to Cε. Physiological mechanisms that influence CSR to Cγ1 versus Cε are incompletely understood. In this study, we report a role for B cell developmental maturity in IgE CSR. Based in part on a novel flow cytometric IgE CSR assay, we show that immature B cells preferentially switch to IgE versus IgG1 through a mechanism involving increased direct CSR from Cμ to Cε. Our findings suggest that IgE dysregulation in certain immunodeficiencies may be related to impaired B cell maturation. PMID:22143888

  11. Mortality and survival patterns for the immature stages of Psorophora columbiae.

    PubMed

    Andis, M D; Meek, C L

    1985-09-01

    To determine the patterns of Psorophora columbiae survival and mortality, methods were employed that involved the simultaneous use of laboratory-reared cohorts, predator-exclusion cages, and field estimates of larval dynamics. Laboratory studies indicated that the maximum daily survival averaged from 0.92 for day-old larvae to 1.0 for the older age classes with no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in survival among days. Data from predator-exclusion cages indicated that mortality inflicted by factors other than predation was significantly (P less than 0.05) more intense in the younger age classes and the relatively few individuals that survived to the older age classes had a high expectation of successful emergence. A quantitative estimate of the mortality inflicted on Ps. columbiae larvae by all indigenous natural enemies indicated that mortality rates were higher in the older age classes. This supports the view that the predator complex is a major source of irreplaceable mortality for immature mosquitoes inhabiting Louisiana rice fields. PMID:2906675

  12. Nonmuscle Myosin II Regulates the Morphogenesis of Metanephric Mesenchyme–Derived Immature Nephrons

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Mariam C.; Ohmori, Tomoko; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Fujimura, Sayoko; Conti, Mary Anne; Wei, Qize; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The kidney develops from reciprocal interactions between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. The mesenchyme transforms into epithelia and forms complicated nephron structures, whereas the ureteric bud extends its pre-existing epithelial ducts. Although the roles are well established for extracellular stimuli, such as Wnt and Notch, it is unclear how the intracellular cytoskeleton regulates these morphogenetic processes. Myh9 and Myh10 encode nonmuscle myosin II heavy chains, and Myh9 mutations in humans are implicated in congenital kidney diseases and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in adults. Here, we analyzed the roles of Myh9 and Myh10 in the developing kidney. Ureteric bud-specific depletion of Myh9 resulted in no apparent phenotypes, whereas mesenchyme-specific Myh9 deletion caused proximal tubule dilations and renal failure. Mesenchyme-specific Myh9/Myh10 mutant mice died shortly after birth and showed a severe defect in nephron formation. The nascent mutant nephrons failed to form a continuous lumen, which likely resulted from impaired apical constriction of the elongating tubules. In addition, nephron progenitors lacking Myh9/Myh10 or the possible interactor Kif26b were less condensed at midgestation and reduced at birth. Taken together, nonmuscle myosin II regulates the morphogenesis of immature nephrons derived from the metanephric mesenchyme and the maintenance of nephron progenitors. Our data also suggest that Myh9 deletion in mice results in failure to maintain renal tubules but not in glomerulosclerosis. PMID:25168025

  13. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-04-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose (/sup 14/C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM (/sup 3/H//sup 14/C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. /sup 14/C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than /sup 3/H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of /sup 3/H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of /sup 3/H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the /sup 3/H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no /sup 14/C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear.

  14. Proteomic analysis of immature rat pups brain in response to hypoxia and ischemia challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Jun; Ma, Dong-Qing; Cui, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia and ischemia significantly affects perinatal brain development, even worse in preterm infants. However, the details of the mechanism leading to permanent brain damage after hypoxia-ischemia attack have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics could provide insight into the potential mechanism and help to promote the clinical treatment. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed 24 hours after hypoxia-ischemia using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry coupled to label-free analysis. Compared to control, 193 proteins were present only in hypoxic-ischemic group. In addition, 34 proteins were more than 2 folds up-regulated and 14 proteins were more than 2 folds down-regulated in hypoxia-ischemia group. Gene Ontology database showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins comprised mitochondrial proteins et al. Molecular function analysis revealed that the majority of proteins were involved in ion binding et al. Biological process analysis showed that the majority of proteins were involved in response to organic substance et al. STRING 9.0 software analysis were used to explore the complex interactions existed among the proteins. Western blot were used to verify the fold changes of some proteins-microtubule-associated protein 2 and microtubule-associated protein tau. This novel study performed a full-scale screening of the proteomics research in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage of immature rat. PMID:25197337

  15. Efficacy of various larvicides against Aedes aegypti immatures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos. PMID:23883850

  16. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content.

  17. Effects of laser irradiation on immature olfactory neuroepithelial explants from the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, A.F.; Snow, J.B. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    The photobiological effect of low-output laser irradiation on the maturation and regeneration of immature olfactory bipolar receptor cells of the rat was studied. The maturation and regeneration of the receptor cells of rat fetuses were quantified in neuroepithelial explants with morphometric analysis. The number of explants with outgrowth and the number and length of neuritic outgrowths were determined on a regular basis for 12 days. Explants in the experimental group were irradiated with a helium-neon laser using different incident energy densities (IED). Explants in the fluorescent light control group were exposed to fluorescent light for the same periods of time as those in the experimental group were exposed to laser irradiation. Explants in another control group were not exposed to laser or fluorescent light irradiation. The IED of 0.5 J/cm2 laser irradiation has been found to increase significantly the number of explants with outgrowth and the number and length of the outgrowths. Other laser IEDs or fluorescent light irradiation did not influence maturation or regeneration.

  18. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T

    1991-11-01

    Sand, gravel, sawdust, and pine shavings were used as bedding in outdoor calf hutches and compared with straw relative to the density of immature (maggot) house flies, Musca domestica, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans. In 6-wk field trials, average densities of house and stable fly maggots in concrete mix sand ranged from only .3 to 1.6 and 0 to .1 maggots/L, respectively; pea size gravel bedding also strongly suppressed densities from less than .1 to .3 and less than .1 to .1 maggots/L, respectively. These densities represent reductions of 76 to greater than 99% relative to straw bedding, but both sand and gravel compacted and became soiled with calf feces, which resulted in unacceptable bedding sanitation and foul odors. Densities of house and stable fly maggots in pine shavings did not differ from those in straw bedding. Nevertheless, in sawdust bedding, maggot density was limited to averages of 1.4 to 8.3 house and 9.8 to 11.8 stable fly maggots/L; this represented reductions of 45 to 91% relative to straw. In a follow-up trial, house and stable fly maggot densities in sawdust averaged 11.3 and 43.9 maggots/L, respectively, reductions of 77 and 46%. These findings suggest that bedding calf hutches with sawdust during warm weather can be useful as an ecologically sound approach to controlling muscoid fly populations on dairy farms. PMID:1757634

  19. Thermal fluctuations of immature SOD1 lead to separate folding and misfolding pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Ashok; Rumfeldt, Jessica AO; Broom, Helen R; Doyle, Colleen M; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Meiering, Elizabeth M; Kay, Lewis E

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving cytotoxic conformations of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). A major challenge in understanding ALS disease pathology has been the identification and atomic-level characterization of these conformers. Here, we use a combination of NMR methods to detect four distinct sparsely populated and transiently formed thermally accessible conformers in equilibrium with the native state of immature SOD1 (apoSOD12SH). Structural models of two of these establish that they possess features present in the mature dimeric protein. In contrast, the other two are non-native oligomers in which the native dimer interface and the electrostatic loop mediate the formation of aberrant intermolecular interactions. Our results show that apoSOD12SH has a rugged free energy landscape that codes for distinct kinetic pathways leading to either maturation or non-native association and provide a starting point for a detailed atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms of SOD1 oligomerization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07296.001 PMID:26099300

  20. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects. PMID:19428502

  1. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Case report Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed. He was presented with incidental finding of mature cystic teratoma after elective surgery for what appeared to be left-sided inguinal hernia. The tumour was most likely a metastasis of childhood teratoma. Origin within remaining left testicle was not found. Upon further imaging diagnostics, several intrahepatic lesions were revealed. Based on radiologic appearance they were suspicious to be metastases. The patient underwent two ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cytologic diagnosis was inconclusive. Histology of laparoscopically obtained tissue disclosed presence of normal splenic tissue and led to diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. Conclusions Though hepatic splenosis is rare, it needs to be included in differential diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. Accurate interpretation of those lesions is crucial for appropriate management of the patient. If diagnosis eludes after cytologic diagnostics alone, laparoscopic excision of nodular lesion is warranted before considering more extensive liver resection. PMID:27247554

  2. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Facilitating Surgical Resection of Infantile Massive Intracranial Immature Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Takahiro; Tsuji, Yoshihito; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Yukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeichi, Yasuhiro; Yamazoe, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Immature teratoma (IMT) is the most frequent histological subtype of infantile intracranial teratoma, the most common congenital brain tumor. IMT contains incompletely differentiated components resembling fetal tissues. Infantile intracranial IMT has a dismal prognosis, because it is often inoperable due to its massive size and high vascularity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in decreasing tumor volume and vascularity to facilitate surgical resection in other types of infantile brain tumors. However, only one recent case report described the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for infantile intracranial IMT in the literature, even though it is common entity with a poor prognosis in infants. Here, we describe the case of a 2-month-old male infant with a very large intracranial IMT. Maximal surgical resection was first attempted but was unsuccessful because of severe intraoperative hemorrhage. Neoadjuvant carboplatin and etoposide (CARE) chemotherapy was then administered with the aim of shrinking and devascularizing the tumor. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor size did not decrease, but intraoperative blood loss significantly decreased and near-total resection was achieved by the second and third surgery. The patient underwent adjuvant CARE chemotherapy and has been alive for 3 years after surgery without tumor regrowth. Even when neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not decrease tumor volume of infantile intracranial IMT, surgical resection should be tried because chemotherapy can facilitate surgical resection and improve clinical outcome by reducing tumor vascularity. PMID:27039944

  3. Flunarizine limits hypoxia-ischemia induced morphologic injury in immature rat brain.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, F S; Buchanan, K; Hudson, C; Johnston, M V

    1986-01-01

    We examined the impact of pre-treatment with the calcium antagonist flunarizine on the development of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the immature rat. Unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 2 hours of 8% oxygen in 7-day-old rats was used as a model for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This procedure leads to atrophy in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to carotid occlusion, with prominent foci of neuronal infarction in the caudate-putamen (striatum). The morphologic injury develops after 1 1/2 hours of hypoxia; and there is an equivalent time threshold for duration of hypoxic exposure needed to acutely stimulate dopamine release in the ipsilateral striatum. Parenteral administration of 30 mg/kg of flunarizine before hypoxic exposure limited both the release of dopamine acutely and the extent of morphologic damage observed two weeks after the insult. Oral administration of 30 mg/kg of flunarizine in a different vehicle prevented morphologic damage but had no effect on stimulated dopamine release. The drug vehicle for the parenteral preparation also prevented tissue injury, but to a lesser degree than flunarizine. However the parenteral vehicle was equipotent with parenteral flunarizine in limiting acute stimulation of dopamine release. The results demonstrate that flunarizine has potent neuroprotective properties against morphologic brain injury from hypoxia-ischemia, acting by a mechanism which is independent of effects on dopamine release. PMID:3715946

  4. Unusual presentation of immature teratoma of the neck: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K Jayaprakash; Kishan Prasad, H L; Rai, Sandeep; Kumar, Y Sunil; Bhat, Shubha; Sajjan, Netra; Rao, Chandrika

    2015-01-01

    Cervical region teratoma is a rare disease, accounting for 3-5% of all teratomas in the children. Teratomas of the head and neck due to their obscure origin, unpredictable behavior, and often manifest as a clinical surprise. Airway obstruction is the most serious postnatal complication of cervical teratoma. Prenatal diagnosis is crucial for early recognition of the neck masses that could obstruct the airway. We present a case of 4-month-old female child at age of 4 th month with right submandibular region swelling. Computed tomography neck showed ill-defined, multiloculated cystic lesion with enhancing thick septations in the right side of the neck. Excision biopsy revealed Grade I--immature teratoma--cervical region. On 1-year of close follow-up, no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis was seen. Unlike adults, teratomas in children are often congenital and very rarely turn malignant. The treating consultant should be aware of their natural history, clinical features, pathology, and principles of management. PMID:26458608

  5. ( sup 99m Tc)diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in arthritis of the immature dog knee

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Soballe, K.; Henriksen, T.B.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Buenger, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between (99mTc)diphosphonate uptake and bone hemodynamics was studied in canine carrageenan-induced juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood flow was determined with microspheres, plasma and red cell volumes were measured by labeled fibrinogen and red cells, and the microvascular volume and mean transit time of blood were calculated. Normal femoral epiphyses had lower central and higher subchondral blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values. Epiphyseal vascular volume was uniform, resulting in a greater transit time of blood centrally. In arthritis, blood flow and diphosphonate uptake were increased subchondrally and unaffected centrally, while epiphyseal vascular volume was increased throughout, leading to prolonged transit time centrally. The normal metaphyses had low blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values in cancellous bone and very high values in growth plates, but a large vascular volume throughout. The mean transit time therefore was low in growth plates and high in adjacent cancellous bone. Arthritis caused decreased blood flow and diphosphonate uptake in growth plates but increased vascular volume and transit time of blood. Diphosphonate uptake correlated positively with blood flow and plasma volume and negatively with red cell volume in a nonlinear fashion. Thus, changes in diphosphonate uptake and microvascular hemodynamics occur in both epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone in chronic synovitis of the immature knee. The (99mTc)diphosphonate bone scan seems to reflect blood flow, plasma volume, and red cell volume of bone.

  6. Gonadal Morphology, Histology, and Endocrinological Characteristics of Immature Female Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Matsumoto, Rui; Nakamura, Masaru; Ueda, Keiichi; Sato, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Captive breeding of whale sharks is one of the great challenges for aquariums. However, there is limited information available related to reproductive physiology due to the difficulty of sampling and long-term observation. In the present report, we provide information on the reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, which were incidentally captured as bycatch in a set-net off the coast of Okinawa, Japan. Total lengths of three captured female whale sharks were 403, 665, and 761 cm, respectively, at the time of their death. Collected paired ovaries differed in size between right and left. However, it seems not to determine which side of ovary becomes developed. Histological observations revealed that oocytes surrounded by follicle cell layers localized in the developed ovary, and most developed oocytes exhibited yolk vesicle stage. Additionally, in the largest specimen, there were low levels of three steroid hormones (Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, and Estradiol-17ß) that did not show seasonal variation. The present results indicate that even the whale shark over 7 m in TL are still histologically and endocrinologically immature. We expect that the present data will provide fundamental information related to reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, and will contribute to protection activities and increased success in captive breeding of whale sharks. PMID:26428723

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Fang; Huang, Yu-Lin; Lu, Yang-Qing; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP), N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2), and gem-associated protein (GEMIN)8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1), heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71), hemoglobin subunit α (HBA), and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K), were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes. PMID:26784167

  8. Adhesion to Carbon Nanotube Conductive Scaffolds Forces Action-Potential Appearance in Immature Rat Spinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Francesca Maria; Calura, Enrica; Rizzetto, Lisa; Carrieri, Claudia; Roncaglia, Paola; Martinelli, Valentina; Scaini, Denis; Masten, Lara; Turco, Antonio; Gustincich, Stefano; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, carbon nanotube growth substrates have been used to investigate neurons and neuronal networks formation in vitro when guided by artificial nano-scaled cues. Besides, nanotube-based interfaces are being developed, such as prosthesis for monitoring brain activity. We recently described how carbon nanotube substrates alter the electrophysiological and synaptic responses of hippocampal neurons in culture. This observation highlighted the exceptional ability of this material in interfering with nerve tissue growth. Here we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote the development of immature neurons isolated from the neonatal rat spinal cord, and maintained in vitro. To address this issue we performed electrophysiological studies associated to gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that spinal neurons plated on electro-conductive carbon nanotubes show a facilitated development. Spinal neurons anticipate the expression of functional markers of maturation, such as the generation of voltage dependent currents or action potentials. These changes are accompanied by a selective modulation of gene expression, involving neuronal and non-neuronal components. Our microarray experiments suggest that carbon nanotube platforms trigger reparative activities involving microglia, in the absence of reactive gliosis. Hence, future tissue scaffolds blended with conductive nanotubes may be exploited to promote cell differentiation and reparative pathways in neural regeneration strategies. PMID:23951361

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and massive shoot regeneration from immature embryo explants of tef.

    PubMed

    Gugsa, Likyelesh; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) provides a major source of human nutrition in the Horn of Africa, but biotechnology has had little impact on its improvement to date. Here, we report the elaboration of an in vitro regeneration protocol, based on the use of immature zygotic embryos as explant. Explant size was an important determinant of in vitro regeneration efficiency, as was the formulation of the culture medium. Optimal results were obtained by culturing 0.2-0.35 mm embryo explants on a medium containing KBP minerals, 9.2-13.8 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6 mM glutamine, and 0.5% Phytagel. Although this protocol was effective for both the improved cultivar "DZ-01-196" and the landrace "Fesho", the former produced consistently more embryogenic tissue and a higher number of regenerants. An average of more than 2,800 shoots could be obtained from each "DZ-01-196" explant after 12 weeks of in vitro culture. These shoots readily formed roots, and plantlets transferred to soil were able to develop into morphologically normal, fertile plants. This regeneration and multiplication system should allow for the application of a range of biotechnological methods to tef. PMID:22028975

  10. Comparison of the activity and distribution of analog II and related compounds in the mouse and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, J.T.; Koenig, K.K.; Magarian, R.A.; Shridhar, R.; Griffin, M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that 1,1-dichloro-Cis-2,3-diphenylcyclopropane (Analog II) is antiestrogenic in the mouse and inhibits the initiation and promotion of DMBA-induced tumors in the rat. Recently the authors have synthesized related cyclopropyl derivative of stilbene and stilbenediol. The object of the present study was to compare the activity of these compounds in the mouse and rat. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of each compound was determined using the 3-day uterotropic assay and uterine histology in immature female Swiss Webster mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. (/sup 3/H)-Analog II was used in the tissue distribution studies. It was found that whereas Analog II was antiestrogenic in the mouse, this compound and related cis-stilbene analogs produced no antiestrogenic activity in the rat. However, trans-stilbenediol derivatives were estrogenic in both the mouse and rat with relatively equivalent activity in both species. In the tissue distribution study (/sup 3/H)-Analog II was found to be specifically concentrated in uterine tissue of the mouse but not the rat. This observation may explain, in part, the difference in antiestrogenic activity of Analog II between these two rodent species.

  11. Biology and immature stages of Pherbellia limbata (Diptera: Sciomyzidae), a parasitoid of the terrestrial snail Granaria frumentum.

    PubMed

    Nerudová-Horsáková, Jana; Murphy, William L; Vala, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The very rare Palaearctic Pherbellia limbata (Meigen, 1830) lives in limestone steppes and other xerothermic habitats in central and southern Europe. For the first time, the egg, first-, second- and third-instar larvae and the puparium are described. Scanning electron micrographs of various morphological features of immature stages are provided. Larvae of P. limbata are parasitoids exclusively of the terrestrial snail Granaria frumentum (Draparnaud, 1801). Results of this study are integrated with those of previous studies of the biology, ecology, immature stages, and mollusc-prey habitat of the other 28 (of 96) Pherbellia species for which life cycles have been completely or partially elucidated. Recent published taxonomic approaches to clarifying the phylogeny of the Sciomyzidae are discussed, particularly those involving DNA analyses of Pherbellia species. PMID:27395157

  12. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. PMID:26950105

  13. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

  14. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  15. Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook.

    PubMed

    Sungkumlong; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2008-04-01

    In vitro mass production of C. suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook, an endangered orchid with its snowy white flowers having horticultural potential was accomplished through immature seed culture, and subsequent plant regeneration. The developmental stage of the immature seeds and nutrient media significantly influenced the germination frequency. Seeds at 13 months after pollination cultured on 3% sucrose containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 15% coconut water exhibited 93% germination after 40 days of culture. Upon subculture, the germinated shoots on MS medium with 9 microM BA, 6 microM NAA, 3% casein hydrolysate and 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) yielded >12 shoots per shoot or bud. Addition of AC favoured the enlargement of pseudobulbs and better rooting. The plantlets transferred to community potting mix after in vitro hardening (8-10 wk) displayed 85% survival. PMID:18512333

  16. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed. PMID:27615899

  17. Chandra Catches the `Mouse'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an x-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. This image, from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the x-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. G359.23-0.82 gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Chandler program.

  18. KRAS Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Rónán C.; Heyer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    KRAS is a potent oncogene and is mutated in about 30% of all human cancers. However, the biological context of KRAS-dependent oncogenesis is poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer provide invaluable tools to study the oncogenic process, and insights from KRAS-driven models have significantly increased our understanding of the genetic, cellular, and tissue contexts in which KRAS is competent for oncogenesis. Moreover, variation among tumors arising in mouse models can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying response or resistance to therapy in KRAS-dependent cancers. Hence, it is essential that models of KRAS-driven cancers accurately reflect the genetics of human tumors and recapitulate the complex tumor-stromal intercommunication that is manifest in human cancers. Here, we highlight the progress made in modeling KRAS-dependent cancers and the impact that these models have had on our understanding of cancer biology. In particular, the development of models that recapitulate the complex biology of human cancers enables translational insights into mechanisms of therapeutic intervention in KRAS-dependent cancers. PMID:21779503

  19. Self-reported immature defense style as a predictor of outcome in short-term and long-term psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Maarit A; Sirkiä, Carlos; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identification of pretreatment patient characteristics predictive of psychotherapy outcome could help to guide treatment choices. This study evaluates patients' initial level of immature defense style as a predictor of the outcome of short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. Method In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 adult outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to individual short-term (psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy. Their defense style was assessed at baseline using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire and classified as low or high around the median value of the respective score. Both specific (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Symptom Check List Anxiety Scale [SCL-90-Anx], Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]) and global (Symptom Check List Global Severity Index [SCL-90-GSI], Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]) psychiatric symptoms were measured at baseline and 3–7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Results Patients with high use of immature defense style experienced greater symptom reduction in long-term than in short-term psychotherapy by the end of the 3-year follow-up (50% vs. 34%). Patients with low use of immature defense style experienced faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy during the first year of follow-up (34% vs. 19%). Conclusion Knowledge of patients' initial level of immature defense style may potentially be utilized in tailoring treatments. Further research on defense styles as outcome predictors in psychotherapies of different types is needed. PMID:25161816

  20. Hydrocortisone-induced anti-inflammatory effects in immature human enterocytes depend on the timing of exposure.

    PubMed

    Rautava, Samuli; Walker, W Allan; Lu, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The immature human gut has a propensity to exaggerated inflammatory responses that are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Prenatal exposure to corticosteroids has been reported to reduce the risk of NEC, while postnatal dexamethasone treatment is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct role of hydrocortisone in gene expression patterns and inflammatory responses in immature human enterocytes. Time-dependent hydrocortisone effects in nontransformed primary human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line H4 were investigated by cDNA microarray. Fetal intestinal organ culture and cell culture experiments were conducted. Inflammatory responses were induced by stimulation with IL-1β and TNF-α with and without hydrocortisone. IL-8 and IL-6 expression and secretion were measured as functional readout. Here we report time-dependent hydrocortisone-induced changes in gene expression patterns detected by cDNA microarray. Hydrocortisone significantly attenuated IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses in the immature human gut when administered at the time of the proinflammatory insult: IL-1β-induced IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in the fetal ileum as well as H4 cells were significantly reduced. Hydrocortisone also inhibited IL-8 secretion in response to TNF-α. In contrast, TNF-α-induced IL-8 secretion was not reduced in cells treated with hydrocortisone for 48 h before stimulation. Our observations provide a physiological basis for understanding the differential clinical effects of corticosteroids in the immature human gut depending on the timing of treatment. PMID:27056727

  1. Description of the egg and immature stages of Martarega lofoides Padilla-Gil, 2010 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gil, Dora N

    2015-01-01

    The egg and five nymphal stages, of the Neotropical species Martarega lofoides are described and illustrated for the first time. The immature stages are very similar, differing mainly in the body length, width of the body, head and pronotum, degree of wing pads development, synthlipsis width, and pattern of setae on the ventral abdomen. Adults and nymphs used in this study were collected from the Caunapi River in the Pacific region of southwestern Colombia. PMID:25781406

  2. Effects of Vitrification on Immature and in vitro Matured, Denuded and Cumulus Compact Goat Oocytes and Their Subsequent Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Govind Narayan; Meena, Harikesh; Solanki, Kanika

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitrification has proven to be more effective than slow freezing methods to cryopreserve mammalian oocytes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of vitrification on immature and in vitro matured, denuded and cumulus compact goat oocytes and their subsequent fertilization. Methods Oocytes were either cryopreserved as immature cumulus compact (IMCC) (n=98 Exp 1; 102 Exp 2) and immature denuded (IMDN) (n=127 Exp 1; 109 Exp 2) or were first matured in vitro for 28 h and then cryopreserved as mature cumulus compact (MCC) (n=109 Exp 1; 89 Exp 2) or mature denuded (MDN) (n=112 Exp 1; 110 Exp 2) oocytes in four groups. The vitrification solution comprised of Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline supplemented with 0.5% sucrose, 0.4% bovine serum albumin and 8 M propylene glycol. After 7 days of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, oocytes in all groups were evaluated for normal morphologic survival and in vitro maturation (Experiment 1) and fertilization in vitro using epididymal buck spermatozoa (Experiment 2). Results The number of oocytes retaining normal morphology was significantly higher (p <0.05) for cumulus compact oocytes (IMCC: 94.12% vs. IMDN: 89.22%, experiment 1 and MCC: 87.80% vs. MDN: 82.17%, experiment 2) compared to the denuded oocytes. The in vitro maturation of oocytes was highest for non-vitrified control oocytes. The maturation of vitrified IMCC oocytes was significantly higher than IMDN and their fertilizability was higher than MCC and MDN oocytes. Conclusion The results suggest that immature cumulus compact goat oocytes better tolerate cryopreservation stress by vitrification in terms of fertilization rate. PMID:23926524

  3. [Genetics of mouse-hole].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    The Oldfield mouse and the Deer mouse build very different burrows in nature and also in the laboratory. This behaviour is innate and, in a series of beautiful experiments making use of new generation sequencing for genetic mapping, the authors map the burrow architecture to a very small number of loci and demonstrate modular evolution of behaviour. PMID:23621941

  4. Morphology and development rate of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886) (Diptera, Neriidae) under natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Andrés Felipe Vinasco; Gironza, Nancy Soraya Carrejo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Of the 116 Neriidae species known to date, 113 species have not been studied in their immature stages. Here, we examine the development of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886), which has one of the broadest distributions of Neriidae in southern North America, Central America, and South America; offering excellent opportunities for biological studies. A population of this species was monitored over a five month period. The following characteristics were tracked for a population located on the University of Valle campus in Cali, Colombia: oviposition duration, number of eggs per egg mass and lifespan of each immature stage (egg, larva, and puparium) under natural conditions (in situ). The external morphology of the egg, larva, and puparium were described; their stages lasted 58 (± 4) hours, 10 (± 1) days and 13 (± 1) days, respectively. The lapse of time for each larval instar was statistically supported by using Tukey comparisons and cluster analysis of hypopharyngeal sclerite length and mandibular area. In addition, it was also sustained throughout the morphological study of structural changes in mouth hook, and anterior and posterior spiracles. Finally, the presence of the labial and epipharyngeal sclerites are reported as new characters of Nerioidea. Natural history data are provided. PMID:27551201

  5. Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Obturated with Gutta-Percha or Resilon and Reinforced by Composite or Post

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Mojazi Amiri, Elham; Kermanshah, Hamidreza; Ghabraei, Sholeh; Jamei, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this ex- vivo study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth, obturated with Gutta-percha or Resilon and reinforced by either composite resin or fiber post. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four human maxillary incisors were divided into seven groups (n=12). Teeth in all groups were prepared until Peeso #5 (1.5mm) could be passed through the apex. Root ends received 4mm of MTA plug as an apical barrier. Groups received the followings: 1.Gutta-percha, 2.Resilon, 3.Gutta-percha + composite resin, 4.Resilon + composite resin, 5.Gutta-percha + fiber post, 6.Resilon + fiber post and 7.No obturation (control group). Access openings were filled with composite resin. Specimens were then subjected to oblique load using Instron Testing Machine. The mean peak load at fracture was recorded and analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Experimental groups had a significantly more fracture resistance than the control group (P< 0.05). No significant difference was seen between experimental groups. Teeth reinforced by fiber post showed favorable fracture resistance. Conclusion: Treatment plans used in this study increase the fracture resistance of immature teeth. Use of fiber posts in immature teeth, may be the most favorable clinically applicable technique. PMID:26056522

  6. Morphology and development rate of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886) (Diptera, Neriidae) under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Andrés Felipe Vinasco; Gironza, Nancy Soraya Carrejo

    2016-01-01

    Of the 116 Neriidae species known to date, 113 species have not been studied in their immature stages. Here, we examine the development of the immature stages of Glyphidops (Oncopsia) flavifrons (Bigot, 1886), which has one of the broadest distributions of Neriidae in southern North America, Central America, and South America; offering excellent opportunities for biological studies. A population of this species was monitored over a five month period. The following characteristics were tracked for a population located on the University of Valle campus in Cali, Colombia: oviposition duration, number of eggs per egg mass and lifespan of each immature stage (egg, larva, and puparium) under natural conditions (in situ). The external morphology of the egg, larva, and puparium were described; their stages lasted 58 (± 4) hours, 10 (± 1) days and 13 (± 1) days, respectively. The lapse of time for each larval instar was statistically supported by using Tukey comparisons and cluster analysis of hypopharyngeal sclerite length and mandibular area. In addition, it was also sustained throughout the morphological study of structural changes in mouth hook, and anterior and posterior spiracles. Finally, the presence of the labial and epipharyngeal sclerites are reported as new characters of Nerioidea. Natural history data are provided. PMID:27551201

  7. Immature Animals Have Higher Cellular Density in the Healing Anterior Cruciate Ligament than Adolescent or Adult Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Haus, Brian M.; Vavken, Patrick; Palmer, Matthew P.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the biologic stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. However, the effect of age on the ability of ligaments to heal has not yet been defined. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletal maturity would significantly affect the cellular and vascular repopulation rate of an ACL wound site. Skeletally Immature (open physes), Adolescent (closing physes), and Adult (closed physes) Yucatan minipigs underwent bilateral ACL transection and suture repair using a collagen-platelet composite. The response to repair was evaluated histologically at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. All three groups of animals had completely populated the ACL wound site with fibroblasts at 1 week. The Immature animals had a higher cellular density in the wound site than the Adult animals at weeks 2 and 4. Cells in the Immature ligament wounds were larger and more ovoid than in the Adult wounds. There were no significant differences in the vascular density in the wound site. Animal age had a significant effect on the density of cells populating the ACL wound site. Whether this observed cellular difference has an effect on the later biomechanical function of the repaired ACL requires further study. PMID:20127960

  8. Long-term natal site-fidelity by immature lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) at a subtropical island.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Demian D; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Gruber, Samuel H; Dibattista, Joseph D; Franks, Bryan R; Kessel, Steven A; Guttridge, Tristan; Pikitch, Ellen K; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2009-08-01

    Although many sharks begin their life confined in nursery habitats, it is unknown how rapidly they disperse away from their natal area once they leave the nursery. We examine this issue in immature lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from the time they leave the nursery (approximately age 3) at a subtropical island (Bimini, Bahamas), through to the onset of sexual maturity (approximately age 12). From 1995 to 2007 we tagged and genotyped a large fraction of the nursery-bound sharks at this location (0-3 years of age, N = 1776 individuals). From 2003 to 2007 we sampled immature sharks aged from 3 to 11 years (N = 150) living around the island and used physical/genetic tag recaptures coupled with kinship analysis to determine whether or not each of these 'large immature sharks' was locally born. We show that many island-born lemon sharks remain close to their natal area for long periods (years) after leaving the nursery; more than half of the sampled sharks up to 135 cm total length ( approximately 6 years old) were locally born. The fraction of locally born sharks gradually declined with increasing shark size, indicating that dispersal is relatively slow and does not primarily occur after sharks reach a threshold size. Local conservation measures (e.g. localized fishery closures, marine protected areas) can therefore help protect island-born lemon sharks even after they leave the nursery habitat. PMID:19659480

  9. Immature platelet fraction measured on the Sysmex XN hemocytometer predicts thrombopoietic recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Noreen; Klinkenberg, Lieke JJ; Meex, Steven JR; Beckers, Erik AM; de Wit, Norbert CJ; Prinzen, Lenneke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A period of thrombocytopenia is common after stem cell transplantation (SCT). To prevent serious bleeding complications, prophylactic platelet transfusions are administered. Previous studies have shown that a rise in immature platelets precedes recovery of platelet count. Our aim was to define a cutoff value for immature platelets predicting thrombopoietic recovery within 2 d. Methods Hematological parameters were measured on the Sysmex XN hemocytometer. We calculated reference change values (RCV) for platelets in eight healthy individuals as marker for platelet recovery. To define a cutoff value, we performed ROC analysis using data from 16 autologous SCT patients. Results RCV for platelet concentration was 14.1%. Platelet recovery was observed 13 (median; range 9–31) days after SCT. Increase in immature platelet fraction (IPF) before platelet recovery was seen in all autologous SCT patients. Optimal cutoff IPF was found to be 5.3% for platelet recovery within 2 d (specificity 0.98, sensitivity 0.47, positive predictive value 0.93). Conclusions We identified an optimal cutoff value for IPF 5.3% to predict platelet recovery after autologous SCT within 2 d. Implementing this cutoff value in transfusion strategy may reduce the number of prophylactic platelet transfusions. PMID:24660761

  10. Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Ekman, Deborah; Law, Carmella; Poynten, I Mary; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Thurloe, Julia K; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16 (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser capture microdissected lesions. The clinical significance of recognizing PIM lies in preventing misdiagnosis as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (the presumed precursor to anal cancer), due to the morphologic immaturity of the cell population. In routine practice, awareness of anal canal PIM and p16 immunostaining will prevent this. Further study of the natural history of anal canal PIM is needed. PMID:26551619

  11. The effect of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on root development of immature permanent teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Ghadimi, Sara; Tamiz, Parvin; Mottahary, Pouriya; Dehghan, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic injuries and dental caries can be a big challenge to immature teeth. In these cases, the main purpose of treatment is to maintain the pulp vitality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on accelerating the rate of dentinogenesis in pulpotomy of immature permanent teeth (apexogenesis). Three dogs, 4-6 months old, were used in this study. One jaw in each dog was randomly assigned to laser irradiation group. All selected teeth were pulpotomized with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and restored with amalgam. In the laser group, the Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm, 0.3 W, 4 J/cm(2), 9 s) was used on buccal and lingual gingiva of each tooth in 48 h intervals for 2 weeks. In order to observe the newly formed dentine, tetracycline was injected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the operation. Then, ground sections of teeth were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The data was analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) test. The mean distance between the lines of tetracycline formed on the 1st and 14th day was significantly higher in the laser group (P = 0.005). Within the limitation of this study, irradiation of Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm) can accelerate the rate of dentinogenesis in apexogenesis of immature permanent teeth with MTA in dogs. PMID:24858234

  12. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Gorocica-Rosete, Patricia; Pizaña-Venegas, Alberto; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In mice that develop SLE, the PRL receptor is expressed in early bone marrow B-cells, and increased levels of PRL hasten disease manifestations, which are correlated with a reduction in the absolute number of immature B-cells. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of PRL in an in vitro system of B-cell tolerance using WEHI-231 cells and immature B-cells from lupus prone MRL/lpr mice. WEHI-231 cells express the long isoform of the PRL receptor, and PRL rescued the cells from cell death by decreasing the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) as measured by Annexin V and active caspase-3. This decrease in apoptosis may have been due to the PRL and receptor interaction, which increased the relative expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and decreased the relative expression of proapoptotic Bad. In immature B-cells from MRL/lpr mice, PRL increased the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of BCR, which may favor the maturation of self-reactive B-cells and contribute to the onset of disease. PMID:27314053

  13. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report.

    PubMed

    Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

  14. The effect of vitrification of immature bovine oocytes to the subsequent in vitro development and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Faheem, Marwa S; Baron, E; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Pavani, K; da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P < 0.05) oocyte maturation rate compared with the fresh and PROH groups. For morula and blastocyst rates, the DMSO group achieved a lower (P < 0.05) morula rate compared with the fresh group, while at the blastocyst stage, there were no differences between fresh and both cryoprotectants groups. For molecular analysis, at the 4-cell stage, most studied genes showed an inconsistent pattern of expression either from the PROH or DMSO groups. Noteworthily, these differences were limited at the morula and blastocyst stages. In conclusion, the cryotop method is sufficient for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant. PMID:25424305

  15. Immature mosquitoes from groundwater habitats in a temperate wetland of Argentina: environmental associations and seasonal variation of community attributes.

    PubMed

    Cardo, Maria Victoria; Vezzani, Dario; Carbajo, Anibal Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    We studied the seasonal patterns of 3 community attributes (breeding site index, richness, and diversity) of groundwater mosquito immatures and their associations with meso- and microhabitat factors in the Parana Lower Delta, Argentina, from December 2009 to November 2010. Monthly collections at 4 sites yielded 2,313 mosquito immatures, belonging to 19 species assigned to 6 genera. Immatures developed in a wide range of microenvironmental conditions (water temperature 4.0-30.2 degrees C, pH 5.4-9.1, electrical conductivity 0.02-6.33 mS/cm, and dissolved oxygen 0-235.6%), and their occurrence was significantly associated with lower water temperature and dissolved oxygen values. Most frequently captured species were Culex dolosus s.l. (58.6%), Aedes crinifer (22.9%), and Cx. intrincatus (19.0%). Breeding site index was highest in winter (0.76) and lowest in spring (0.54). Species richness and diversity varied significantly among seasons (peaking in summer), land uses, and habitat types. PMID:23833894

  16. Effect of plant spacing on the population of mosquito immatures in rice fields in Madurai, south India.

    PubMed

    Victor, T J; Reuben, R

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted during 'Kuruvai' crop season from December 1992 to January 1993 in the rice fields of the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu to determine the influence of plant spacing and plant canopy on the populations of mosquito immatures. Three paddy varieties (ADT36, IR50 and IR20) were selected with two types of plant spacing, one with normal spacing (15 x 10 cm) and another wider (20 x 15 cm) than the normal spacing. Results showed that the field planted with normal spacing of paddy had significantly higher populations of culicine and anopheline immatures than the fields planted with wider spacing of paddy. The paddy varieties did not have any significant effect on the population of mosquito immatures. Light intensity, measured at the water surface using an illuminometer, was inversely related to the development of plant canopy and the results suggested that plant canopy does not inhibit oviposition by mosquitoes in the early stages of paddy growth, but it was responsible for the decline in the populations in the later stages of paddy growth. The plant spacing had a significant effect on the populations of chironomids and libellulids and other insects were not affected significantly. PMID:11820078

  17. The mouse genome informatics and the mouse genome database

    SciTech Connect

    Maltais, L.J.; Blackburn, R.E.; Bradt, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is a centralized, comprehensive database of the mouse genome that includes genetic mapping data, comparative mapping data, gene descriptions, mutant phenotype descriptions, strains and allelic polymorphism data, inbred strain characteristics, physical mapping data, and molecular probes and clones data. Data in MGD are obtained from the published literature and by electronic transfer from laboratories working on large backcross panels of mice. MGD provides tools that enable the user to search the database, retrieve data, generate reports, analyze data, annotate records, and build genetic maps. The Encyclopedia of the Mouse Genome provides a graphic user interface to mouse genome data. It consists of software tools including: LinkMap, a graphic display of genetic linkage maps with the ability to magnify regions of high locus density: CytoMap, a graphic display of cytogenetic maps showing banded chromosomes with cytogenetic locations of genes and chromosomal aberrations; CATS, a catalog searching tool for text retrieval of mouse locus descriptions. These software tools provide access to the following data sets: Chromosome Committee Reports, MIT Genome Center data, GBASE reports, Mouse Locus Catalog (MLC), and Mouse Cytogenetic Mapping Data. The MGD is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web (WWW) and Gopher. In addition GBASE can be accessed via the Internet.

  18. Transcriptional Modulation of Intestinal Innate Defense/Inflammation Genes by Preterm Infant Microbiota in a Humanized Gnotobiotic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lei; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; Wang, Yunwei; Chang, Eugene B.; Claud, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims It is known that postnatal functional maturation of the small intestine is facilitated by microbial colonization of the gut. Preterm infants exhibit defects in gut maturation, weak innate immunity against intestinal infection and increased susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, all of which may be related to the inappropriate microbial colonization of their immature intestines. The earliest microbes to colonize the preterm infant gut encounter a naïve, immature intestine. Thus this earliest microbiota potentially has the greatest opportunity to fundamentally influence intestinal development and immune function. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of early microbial colonization on global gene expression in the distal small intestine during postnatal gut development. Methods Gnotobiotic mouse models with experimental colonization by early (prior to two weeks of life) intestinal microbiota from preterm human infants were utilized. Microarray analysis was used to assess global gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Results and Conclusion Multiple intestinal genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix communication, and immune function are developmental- and intestinal microbiota- regulated. Using a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model, we demonstrate that certain early preterm infant microbiota from prior to 2 weeks of life specifically induce increased NF-κB activation and a phenotype of increased inflammation whereas other preterm microbiota specifically induce decreased NF-κB activation. These fundamental differences correlate with altered clinical outcomes and suggest the existence of optimal early microbial communities to improve health outcomes. PMID:25928420

  19. Analysis of the Tibial Epiphysis in the Skeletally Immature Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.; Almardawi, Ranyah; Mitchell, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physeal-sparing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is being performed increasingly in skeletally immature knees. Purpose: To determine normal values for the maximum oblique length and “safe” physeal-sparing length and their corresponding angular trajectories across the tibial epiphysis on reconstructed magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: An electronic search for pediatric knee MR examinations from April 2003 to April 2013 was performed at our institution. A 3-dimensional system viewer was used to measure the maximum oblique length, physeal-sparing length, and their corresponding angular trajectories on reconstructed MRIs. Knees were stratified by age into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of boys <13 years and girls <12 years and group 2 consisted of older boys (13-14 years) and girls (12-14 years). Each cohort was further stratified by sex. Group 1 consisted of 36 knees (mean age, 10.9 years) and group 2 consisted of 59 knees (mean age, 13.6 years). Results: Significant differences existed for the maximum oblique length and its angular trajectory for the younger versus older cohort (22.2 ± 2.7 vs 23.8 ± 2.7 mm, P = .007; 42.0° ± 4.0° vs 39.4° ± 4.2°, P = .003) and for the physeal-sparing length and its angular trajectory (19.4 ± 2.8 vs 21.3 ± 2.9 mm, P = .001; 30.1° ± 4.1° vs 28.2° ± 4.5°, P = .042). In group 2, females had shorter maximal oblique length and physeal-sparing length than boys (22.7 ± 2.3 vs 25.0 ± 2.7 mm, P < .001; 20.3 ± 2.6 vs 22.4 ± 2.9 mm, P = .004). Conclusion: The maximum oblique length across the tibial epiphysis is shorter than previously believed, measuring approximately 22 mm and approximately 24 mm for high- and intermediate-risk knees, respectively. However, “safe” physeal-sparing lengths were only approximately 19 mm and 21 mm for the younger and older cohorts, respectively. The angles

  20. Immature hippocampal neuronal networks do not develop tolerance to the excitatory actions of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Rafael; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) damages the hippocampus, a brain region that is involved in learning and memory processes. The mechanisms responsible for this effect of EtOH are not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that acute EtOH exposure potently stimulates oscillatory activity driven by the excitatory actions of GABA in the CA3 region of the neonatal rat hippocampus. This activity can be recorded during the growth spurt period as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Here, we characterized the effects of prolonged EtOH exposure on GDPs. In the first study, we prepared hippocampal coronal slices from neonatal rats and exposed these to control artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) or ACSF plus 50 mM EtOH for 3-4 h. We then performed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons, which revealed that tolerance to the GDP stimulating effects of EtOH did not occur after continuous exposure. In the second study, we exposed neonatal rats to air or air plus 1.9 g/dl EtOH in vapor chambers for 4h/day for 1 or 3 days (neonatal peak blood EtOH concentration = 40-45 mM). We then performed slice electrophysiological studies 24 h after the end of EtOH exposure and found that there was no statistically significant difference in the acute effect of 50 mM EtOH on GDP frequency in samples from neonates exposed to air or air plus EtOH. These findings indicate that EtOH persistently stimulates network-driven oscillatory activity in the developing hippocampus. We propose that the lack of adaptive response to continuous EtOH exposure could make immature neuronal networks particularly vulnerable to the actions of this agent. PMID:17307647

  1. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars: Recording aqueous and surface-atmosphere processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Kevin M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-05-01

    Rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. However, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water-rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water-rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. Our results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  2. Patterns of x-radiation-induced Schwann cell development in spinal cords of immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, S.A.; Heard, J.K.; Leiting, J.E.

    1983-03-01

    Schwann cells, Schwann cell myelin, and connective tissue components develop in the spinal cord of the immature rat following exposure to x-rays. For the purposes of this paper, these intraspinal peripheral nervous tissue constituents are referred to as IPNT. A series of investigations are in progress to elucidate factors related to the development of IPNT, and the present study is a light microscopic evaluation of the relationship between the amount of radiation administered (1,000-3,000R) to the lumbosacral spinal cord in 3-day-old rats and the incidence and distribution of IPNT at intervals up to 60 days postirradiation (P-I). The results showed that IPNT was present in only 33% of the rats exposed to 1,000R, whereas its presence was observed in 86% or more of those in the 2,000-, 2,500-, and 3,000R groups. The distribution of IPNT was quite limited in the 1,000R group, where it was restricted to the spinal cord-dorsal root junction and was found in only a few sections within the irradiated area. The distribution was more widespread with increasing amounts of radiation, and IPNT occupied substantial portions of the dorsal funiculi and extended into the dorsal gray matter in the 3,000R group. In all aR mals developing IPNT in the groups receiving 2,000R or more, the IPNT was present in essentially all sections from the irradiated area. Further studies will compare in detail spinal cords exposed to 1,000R in which IPNT is an infrequent, limited occurrence with those exposed to higher doses where IPNT occurs in a more widespread fashion in essentially all animals.

  3. Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

  4. Immature truncated O-glycophenotype of cancer directly induces oncogenic features

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Dabelsteen, Sally; Madsen, Frey Brus; Francavilla, Chiara; Kopp, Katharina L.; Steentoft, Catharina; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Hansen, Lars; Bennett, Eric P.; Woetmann, Anders; Yin, Guangliang; Chen, Longyun; Song, Haiyan; Bak, Mads; Hlady, Ryan A.; Peters, Staci L.; Opavsky, Rene; Thode, Christenze; Qvortrup, Klaus; Schjoldager, Katrine T.-B. G.; Clausen, Henrik; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Wandall, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of immature truncated O-glycans is a characteristic feature observed on virtually all epithelial cancer cells, and a very high frequency is observed in early epithelial premalignant lesions that precede the development of adenocarcinomas. Expression of the truncated O-glycan structures Tn and sialyl-Tn is strongly associated with poor prognosis and overall low survival. The genetic and biosynthetic mechanisms leading to accumulation of truncated O-glycans are not fully understood and include mutation or dysregulation of glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of O-glycans, as well as relocation of glycosyltransferases controlling initiation of O-glycosylation from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum. Truncated O-glycans have been proposed to play functional roles for cancer-cell invasiveness, but our understanding of the biological functions of aberrant glycosylation in cancer is still highly limited. Here, we used exome sequencing of most glycosyltransferases in a large series of primary and metastatic pancreatic cancers to rule out somatic mutations as a cause of expression of truncated O-glycans. Instead, we found hypermethylation of core 1 β3-Gal-T-specific molecular chaperone, a key chaperone for O-glycan elongation, as the most prevalent cause. We next used gene editing to produce isogenic cell systems with and without homogenous truncated O-glycans that enabled, to our knowledge, the first polyomic and side-by-side evaluation of the cancer O-glycophenotype in an organotypic tissue model and in xenografts. The results strongly suggest that truncation of O-glycans directly induces oncogenic features of cell growth and invasion. The study provides support for targeting cancer-specific truncated O-glycans with immunotherapeutic measures. PMID:25118277

  5. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kenneth M.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  6. Maternal rank influences the outcome of aggressive interactions between immature chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A. Catherine; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    For many long-lived mammalian species, extended maternal investment has a profound effect on offspring integration in complex social environments. One component of this investment may be aiding young in aggressive interactions, which can set the stage for offspring social position later in life. Here we examined maternal effects on dyadic aggressive interactions between immature (<12 years) chimpanzees. Specifically, we tested whether relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning an aggressive interaction. We also examined maternal responses to aggressive interactions to determine whether maternal interventions explain interaction outcomes. Using a 12-year behavioural data set (2000–2011) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, we found that relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning aggressive interactions in male–male and male–female aggressive interactions: offspring were more likely to win if their mother outranked their opponent’s mother. Female–female aggressive interactions occurred infrequently (two interactions), so could not be analysed. The probability of winning was also higher for relatively older individuals in male–male interactions, and for males in male–female interactions. Maternal interventions were rare (7.3% of 137 interactions), suggesting that direct involvement does not explain the outcome for the vast majority of aggressive interactions. These findings provide important insight into the ontogeny of aggressive behaviour and early dominance relationships in wild apes and highlight a potential social advantage for offspring of higher-ranking mothers. This advantage may be particularly pronounced for sons, given male philopatry in chimpanzees and the potential for social status early in life to translate more directly to adult rank. PMID:25624528

  7. Effects of fat supplementation and immature alfalfa to concentrate ratio on lactation performance of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jerred, M J; Carroll, D J; Combs, D K; Grummer, R R

    1990-10-01

    Forty-six multiparous Holstein cows were assigned 5 d postpartum to a completely randomized design employing a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Factors were 0 or 5% added prilled fat (DM basis) substituted for shelled corn and alfalfa silage fed in forage-to-concentrate ratios of 45:55, 64:36, and 84:16 (DM basis). Interactions between fat and forage level were not observed for any of the parameters measured. Energy density, calculated using data from a digestibility trial, was similar between 45:55 and 64:36 diets (1.66 Mcal NE1/kg) and was lower with 84:16 diets (1.48 Mcal NE1/kg) for the 100 d trial. Fat supplementation increased energy density of the diets (1.67 vs. 1.53 Mcal NE1/kg). Dry matter digestibility, energy intake, and 4% FCM yields were similar for cows fed 45:55 and 64:36 diets and lower for those fed the 84:16 diets. Fat supplementation did not affect DM digestibility. Dry matter intake declined with increasing forage level and fat supplementation. Milk yield decreased as forage level increased. Fat supplementation did not affect yield of milk or FCM. Milk fat percentage was lower for cows fed 45:55 than 64:36 or 84:16 diets. Fat supplementation increased milk fat percentage. Milk protein yield decreased as forage level increased but was unaffected by fat supplementation. Results suggest higher levels of concentrate support higher milk yields, and prilled fat supplementation improves fat test when fed with immature forages. Prilled fat supplementation did not enhance lactation performance because of depressed DM intake in early lactation. PMID:2178173

  8. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Traumatized Immature Permanent Necrotic Teeth after Revascularization/Revitalization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A.; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Revascularization treatment is rapidly becoming an accepted alternative for the management of endodontic pathology in immature permanent teeth with necrotic dental pulps. However, the success and timing of clinical resolution of symptoms and of radiographic outcomes of interest, such as continued hard tissue deposition within the root, are largely unknown. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 20 teeth were treated with a standardized revascularization treatment protocol, and monitored for clinical and radiographic changes for one year. Standardized radiographs were collected at regular intervals and radiographic changes were quantified. Results All 20 treated teeth survived during the 12 month follow up period and all 20 also met the clinical criteria for success at 12 months. As a group, the treated teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in radiographic width and length, and a decrease in apical diameter, although the changes in many cases were quite small such that the clinical significance is unclear. The within-case percent change in apical diameter after 3 months was 16% and had increased to 79% by 12 months, with 55% (11/20) showing complete apical closure. The within-case percent change in root length averaged less than 1% at 3 months and increased to 5% at 12 months. The within-case percent change in root thickness averaged 3% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Conclusions Although clinical success was highly predictable with this procedure, clinically meaningful radiographic root thickening and lengthening is less predictable at one year of follow up. Apical closure is the most consistent radiographic finding. PMID:25443280

  9. Space Weathering of Intermediate-Size Soil Grains in Immature Apollo 17 Soil 71061

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Robinson, G. A.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding space weathering, which is caused by micrometeorite impacts, implantation of solar wind gases, radiation damage, chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputter erosion and deposition, continues to be a primary objective of lunar sample research. Electron beam studies of space weathering have focused on space weathering effects on individual glasses and minerals from the finest size fractions of lunar soils [1] and patinas on lunar rocks [2]. We are beginning a new study of space weathering of intermediate-size individual mineral grains from lunar soils. For this initial work, we chose an immature soil (see below) in order to maximize the probability that some individual grains are relatively unweathered. The likelihood of identifying a range of relatively unweathered grains in a mature soil is low, and we plan to study grains ranging from pristine to highly weathered in order to determine the progression of space weathering. Future studies will include grains from mature soils. We are currently in the process of documenting splash glass, glass pancakes, craters, and accretionary particles (glass and mineral grains) on plagioclase from our chosen soil using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). These studies are being done concurrently with our studies of patinas on larger lunar rocks [e.g., 3]. One of our major goals is to correlate the evidence for space weathering observed in studies of the surfaces of samples with the evidence demonstrated at higher resolution (TEM) using cross-sections of samples. For example, TEM studies verified the existence of vapor deposits on soil grains [1]; we do not yet know if they can be readily distinguished by surfaces studies of samples. A wide range of textures of rims on soil grains is also clear in TEM [1]; might it be possible to correlate them with specific characteristics of weathering features seen in SEM?

  10. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pallis, Monica; Harvey, Tamsin; Russell, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent), we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells) by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448) and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236) and 4E-BP1 (T36/45), we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML. PMID:26985829

  11. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of Indian medicinal plants in immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Sandhya K.; Barde, Prajakt J.; Raut, Sanket B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of four Indian medicinal plants Saraca indica (Si), Symplocos racemosa (Sr), Cyperus rotundus (Cr), Terminalia arjuna (Ta), a marketed preparation of Si (Aśokāriṣṭa) and a combination of Si + Sr using an experimental model of estrogenicity. Materials and Methods: After approval of the institutional animal ethics committee, 22 day old female rats (n = 54) were randomly allocated to 9 groups – Group 1 and Group 2: Vehicle controls, Group 3: Ethinyl estradiol, Group 4: Si (270 mg/kg), Group 5: Sr (270 mg/kg), Group 6: Cr (540 mg/kg), Group 7: Ta (270 mg/kg), Group 8: Ashokarishta (4 ml/kg), Group 9: Si + Sr (135 mg/kg). Variables studied were: Body weight, uterine weight, relative uterine weight, presence of vaginal opening, histomorphology of the uterus and total uterine glycogen content. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: All animals in the ethinyl estradiol group showed a significant change in all the variables. None of the individual test drugs, neither the marketed preparation produced change in any of the variables. The plant drug combination also did not produce a change in any of the variables studied except in histomorphology wherein it caused a slight increase in the height of the luminal epithelium of the uterus (P < 0.05 vs. Group 1). Conclusion: The plant drugs Si, Sr, Cr, Ta and Aśokāriṣṭa did not demonstrate estrogenic activity in the immature rat model. The plant drug combination Si + Sr showed questionable estrogenic activity which needs to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:26865741

  12. Transcriptome analysis of immature xylem in the Chinese fir at different developmental phases

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jian; He, Xuelian; Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background.Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.] is one of the most important native tree species for timber production in southern China. An understanding of overall fast growing stage, stem growth stage and senescence stage cambium transcriptome variation is lacking. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed during development of xylem tissue in Chinese fir, aiming to delineate the molecular mechanisms of wood formation. Results. We carried out transcriptome sequencing at three different cultivation ages (7Y, 15Y and 21Y) generating 68.71 million reads (13.88 Gbp). A total of 140,486 unigenes with a mean size of 568.64 base pairs (bp) were obtained via de novo assembly. Of these, 27,427 unigenes (19.52%) were further annotated by comparison to public protein databases. A total of 5,331 (3.79%) unigenes were mapped into 118 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG). Differentially expressed genes (DEG) analysis identified 3, 16 and 5,899 DEGs from the comparison of 7Y vs. 15Y, 7Y vs. 21Y and 15Y vs. 21Y, respectively, in the immature xylem tissues, including 2,638 significantly up-regulated and 3,280 significantly down-regulated genes. Besides, five NAC transcription factors, 190 MYB transcription factors, and 34 WRKY transcription factors were identified respectively from Chinese fir transcriptome. Conclusion. Our results revealed the active transcriptional pathways and identified the DEGs at different cultivation phases of Chinese fir wood formation. This transcriptome dataset will aid in understanding and carrying out future studies on the molecular basis of Chinese fir wood formation and contribute to future artificial production and applications. PMID:27330860

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of SOX9 protein in immature, mature, and neoplastic canine Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Palmieri, Chiara; Sironi, Giuseppe; Fantinato, Eleonora; Veronesi, Maria C; Groppetti, Debora; Giudice, Chiara; Martignoni, Benedetta; Grieco, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    Sex-determining region Y box9 gene (SOX9) protein plays a pivotal role in male sexual development. It regulates the transcription of the anti-Müllerian hormone gene promoting development of testis cords, multiplication, and maturation of Sertoli cells (SCs) and maintenance of spermatogenesis in adult testis. The immunohistochemical expression of SOX9 in normal testes has been reported in humans, mice, and rats. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of SOX9 in canine SCs during testicular maturation and neoplastic transformation. Canine testicular samples derived from three fetuses, four newborns, four prepubertal puppies, five adult dogs, 31 Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs) (one metastasizing), and five Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) were selected from departmental archive and tested immunohistochemically with a polyclonal antibody against SOX9 (1:150). All SCs from fetal, neonatal, and adult testes had a strong and exclusively nuclear labeling for SOX9. In SCs from prepubertal testes, SOX9 staining was highly variable with one negative sample (one of four), two samples with exclusively nuclear staining (two of four), and one with both nuclear and cytoplasmic labeling (one of four). Leydig cells (LCs) and LCTs were always negative. All 31 SCTs were positive for SOX9. The expression of SOX9 was nuclear, nuclear and cytoplasmic, and exclusively cytoplasmic in 18 of 31, 11 of 31, and two of 31 SCTs, respectively. This first report on the immunohistochemical expression of SOX9 in canine testes reports that in normal SCs from fetal, neonatal, and adult testes SOX9 labeled the nucleus, as in humans and laboratory animals. The cytoplasmic labeling observed in one prepubertal pairs of testes and in 11 SCTs could reflect SC immaturity or dedifferentiation, paralleling results observed in rat testes. The expression of SOX9 in SCs and SCTs and its absence in LCs and LCTs suggests that SOX9 is a reliable diagnostic marker for both normal and neoplastic SCs. PMID:26777558

  14. Insights into the role of iron in immature rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Wei; Yang, Li-Jun; Ding, Ying-Xue; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Cui, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of iron in the occurrence and development of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) in immature rat models using 3-day-old Sprague Dawley rats. Normal control (NC), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), anemia, HI + ischemia, early iron treatment and late iron treatment groups were established. Rat brain tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and pathologically evaluated. Iron content and mRNA expression levels of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and transferrin receptor in the brain tissues were measured. Ultrastructural changes in the actin, microtubules, myelin and mitochondria of oligodendrocytes and axons were examined by electron microscopy. Numbers of viable myelin sheaths and oligodendrocytes in the periventricular area were also observed. Pathological damage of brain tissue in the HI group was markedly increased compared with that in the NC group. Furthermore, there was a higher iron content and reduced number of viable oligodendrocytes in the periventricular area of the HI group compared with the NC group. No significant difference in iron content was observed between the HI + anemia and NC groups. The number of viable oligodendrocytes in the HI + anemia group was increased compared with that in the HI group, and the number in the HI + anemia group with late iron treatment was lower compared with that in the NC group and increased compared with that in the HI + anemia group. Electron microscopy revealed a significantly higher number of myelin sheaths in the HI + anemia group than in the HI group. IRP2 mRNA expression levels in the brain tissues were significantly decreased in the HI + anemia group compared with the HI group. The results suggest that anemia may reduce the rate of increase of iron content of the brain following HI. However, the early occurrence of anemia may protect against HIBI. PMID:27602087

  15. Effect of daily treatment with Thai herb, Kaempferia parviflora, in Hershberger assay using castrated immature rats.

    PubMed

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Watanabe, Gen; Wetchasit, Phongphat; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the testosterone-like effect of Kaempferia parviflora (KP). Castrated immature rats were randomized and divided into two groups (control and KP-treatment groups). The rats (n=7-8) were treated daily for 5 days by oral route with water in the control group and 1,000 mg/kg of KP in the treatment group. All rats were decapitated 24 h after their last dose and then blood samples were collected for assay of serum FSH, LH, testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone levels. The seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands, ventral prostate, levator ani muscle plus bulbocavernosus muscle, glans penis, kidneys and the adrenal glands were collected and weighed for organ wet weight. Body weight and weight of food intake were recorded throughout the study period. The results show that relative body weight gain in the KP-treatment group was significantly increased 24 and 48 h after the first dose (P<0.05) and then was indistinguishable from the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative reproductive and non-reproductive organ weights between the groups, although all organ weights, except for the glans penis, tended to increase in the KP-treatment group. The serum testosterone levels were significantly increased in the KP-treatment group. There were no significant differences in the serum FSH, LH, progesterone, or corticosterone levels between the groups, even though the serum progesterone level tended to increase and serum LH level tended to decrease in the KP-treatment group. The present study indicates that KP has no testosterone-like effect on reproduction in male rats. PMID:17179656

  16. Delayed thermoregulatory changes in the immature rat following a single injection of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Fusco, L E

    1992-02-01

    Adult rats exhibit rebound hyperthermia within 24 hr following a single injection of ethanol (EtOH). Tests were conducted to determine whether similar changes in thermoregulatory ability occur in the immature rat. Animals were administered saline or EtOH (4 g/kg BW; intraperitoneally) at 2 to 3, 8 to 9, or 14 to 15 days of age. Littermates were handled or left undisturbed with the dams to serve as controls. All rats were tested at 24 or 48 hr post-treatment to measure steady-state colonic temperature (Tco), tail skin temperature and metabolic rate (MR) at both thermoneutral and cold ambient temperatures (Tas). The youngest group exhibited no delayed change in body temperature or MR at 24 or 48 hr post-treatment with EtOH. Likewise, thermoregulatory ability of rats pretreated with EtOH at 8 or 9 or 14 to 15 days of age was not significantly different from controls when tested 24 hr post-treatment at thermoneutral Ta. In contrast, Tco of EtOH-treated rats in the two older age groups was 1 degree C above control level when tested 24 hr post-treatment at cold Ta. This Tco response can be explained by differences in heat transfer to the tail and MR. No altered response to cold Ta was found at 48 hr postinjection, indicating recovery from the EtOH effect. A single injection with EtOH at 2 to 15 days of age results in a change in Tco, which is dependent on postinjection time, age, and Ta. PMID:1313662

  17. Developmental Switch in Neurovascular Coupling in the Immature Rodent Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zehendner, Christoph M.; Tsohataridis, Simeon; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Yang, Jenq-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular coupling (NVC) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is a mechanism that provides regions of the brain with more oxygen and glucose upon increased levels of neural activation. Hemodynamic changes that go along with neural activation evoke a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that can be used to study brain activity non-invasively. A correct correlation of the BOLD signal to neural activity is pivotal to understand this signal in neuronal development, health and disease. However, the function of NVC during development is largely unknown. The rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex is an experimentally well established model to study neurovascular interdependences. Using extracellular multi-electrode recordings and laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF) we show in the murine barrel cortex of postnatal day 7 (P7) and P30 mice in vivo that NVC undergoes a physiological shift during the first month of life. In the mature CNS it is well accepted that cortical sensory processing results in a rise in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). We show in P7 animals that rCBF decreases during prolonged multi-whisker stimulation and goes along with multi unit activity (MUA) fatigue. In contrast at P30, MUA remains stable during repetitive stimulation and is associated with an increase in rCBF. Further we characterize in both age groups the responses in NVC to single sensory stimuli. We suggest that the observed shift in NVC is an important process in cortical development that may be of high relevance for the correct interpretation of brain activity e.g. in fMRI studies of the immature central nervous system (CNS). PMID:24224059

  18. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from immature cotyledons of Camellia nitidissima Chi.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jinfeng; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Muhan; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Ma, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is a world-famous economic and ornamental plant with golden-yellow flowers. It has been classified as one of the rarest and most endangered plants in China. Our objective was to induce somatic embryogenesis, shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration for C. nitidissima. Three types of callus (whitish, reddish and yellowish) were induced from immature cotyledons on improved woody plant medium (WPM) with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Among the callus, whitish callus was induced by 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and reddish and yellowish callus were induced by strongly active cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), singly or combined with weakly active auxin, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The embryogenic callus could differentiate into somatic embryos, nodular embryogenic structures (large embryo-like structures) or adventitious shoots depending on the PGR used in WPM. BAP was best for adventitious buds and zeatin was best for somatic embryogenesis while kinetin (Kt) was best for the formation of nodular embryogenic structures. The three regeneration pathways often occurred in the same embryogenic callus clumps. Most shoots (80.0%) developed roots in WPM supplemented with 24.6 μM IBA and 0.3 μM NAA while 47.5% of somatic embryos could germinate directly and develop into plantlets on induction medium supplemented with 0.9 μM BAP and 0.1 μM NAA. The nodular embryogenic structures could be sub-cultured and cyclically developed in one of two differentiation pathways: shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Plantlets derived from shoot buds rooted and somatic embryos germinated when transplanted into soil in a greenhouse; 66.7% of plantlets from shoot culture and 78.6% of plantlets from somatic embryos survived after 8 weeks' acclimatization. PMID:23790533

  19. Detection and quantification of circulating immature platelets: agreement between flow cytometric and automated detection.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Homam; Nadipalli, Srinivas; Usmani, Saba; DeLao, Timothy; Green, LaShawna; Kleiman, Neal S

    2016-07-01

    Immature platelets-also termed reticulated platelets (RP)-are platelets newly released into the circulation, and have been associated with a variety of pathological thrombotic events. They can be assessed by flow cytometry after staining with thiazole orange (TO) or by using a module added to a fully automated analyzer that is currently in wide clinical use and expressed as a fraction of the total platelet count (IPF). We sought to assess the correlation and agreement between these two methods. IPF was measured using Sysmex XE 2100-and at the same time point- we used TO staining and flow cytometry to measure RP levels. Two different gates were used for the flow cytometry method, 1 and 0.5 %. Measurements from the automated analyzer were then compared separately to measurements performed using each gate. Agreement between methods was assessed using Bland-Altman method. Pearson's correlation coefficient was also calculated. 129 subjects were enrolled and stratified into 5 groups: (1) Healthy subjects, (2) End stage renal disease, (3) Chronic stable coronary artery disease, (4) Post Coronary artery bypass surgery, (5) Peripheral thrombocytopenia. Median IPF levels were increased for patients in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 (4.0, 4.7, 4.3, and 8.3 % respectively) compared to healthy subjects (2.5 %) p = 0.0001. Although the observed correlation between the two methods tended to be good in patients with high IPF values (i.e., group 5), the overall observed correlation was poor (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.27). Furthermore, there was poor agreement between the two methods in all groups. Despite the good correlation that was observed between the two methods at higher IPF values, the lack of agreement was significant. PMID:26831482

  20. Dictyophara europaea (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae): description of immatures, biology and host plant associations.

    PubMed

    Krstić, O; Cvrković, T; Mitrović, M; Toševski, I; Jović, J

    2016-06-01

    The European lantern fly Dictyophara europaea (Linnaeus, 1767), is a polyphagous dictyopharid planthopper of Auchenorrhyncha commonly found throughout the Palaearctic. Despite abundant data on its distribution range and reports on its role in the epidemiology of plant-pathogenic phytoplasmas (Flavescence dorée, FD-C), literature regarding the biology and host plants of this species is scarce. Therefore, the aims of our study were to investigate the seasonal occurrence, host plant associations, oviposition behaviour and immature stages of this widespread planthopper of economic importance. We performed a 3-year field study to observe the spatio-temporal distribution and feeding sources of D. europaea. The insects's reproductive strategy, nymphal molting and behaviour were observed under semi-field cage conditions. Measurement of the nymphal vertex length was used to determine the number of instars, and the combination of these data with body length, number of pronotal rows of sensory pits and body colour pattern enabled the discrimination of each instar. We provide data showing that D. europaea has five instars with one generation per year and that it overwinters in the egg stage. Furthermore, our study confirmed highly polyphagous feeding nature of D. europaea, for all instars and adults, as well as adult horizontal movement during the vegetation growing season to the temporarily preferred feeding plants where they aggregate during dry season. We found D. europaea adult aggregation in late summer on Clematis vitalba L. (Ranunculaceae), a reservoir plant of FD-C phytoplasma strain; however, this appears to be a consequence of forced migration due to drying of herbaceous vegetation rather than to a high preference of C. vitalba as a feeding plant. Detailed oviposition behaviour and a summary of the key discriminatory characteristics of the five instars are provided. Emphasis is placed on the economic importance of D. europaea because of its involvement in

  1. A preterm pig model of lung immaturity and spontaneous infant respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caminita, Frank; van der Merwe, Marie; Hance, Brittany; Krishnan, Ramesh; Miller, Sarah; Buddington, Karyl; Buddington, Randal K

    2015-01-15

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia remain the leading causes of preterm infant morbidity, mortality, and lifelong disability. Research to improve outcomes requires translational large animal models for RDS. Preterm pigs delivered by caesarian section at gestation days (GD) 98, 100, 102, and 104 were provided 24 h of neonatal intensive care, monitoring (pulse oximetry, blood gases, serum biomarkers, radiography), and nutritional support, with or without intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV; pressure control ventilation with volume guarantee). Spontaneous development of RDS and mortality without MV are inversely related with GD at delivery and correspond with inadequacy of tidal volume and gas exchange. GD 98 and 100 pigs have consolidated lungs, immature alveolar architecture, and minimal surfactant protein-B expression, and MV is essential at GD 98. Although GD 102 pigs had some alveoli lined by pneumocytes and surfactant was released in response to MV, blood gases and radiography revealed limited recruitment 1-2 h after delivery, and mortality at 24 h was 66% (35/53) with supplemental oxygen provided by a mask and 69% (9/13) with bubble continuous positive airway pressure (8-9 cmH2O). The lungs at GD 104 had higher densities of thin-walled alveoli that secreted surfactant, and MV was not essential. Between GD 98 and 102, preterm pigs have ventilation inadequacies and risks of RDS that mimic those of preterm infants born during the saccular phase of lung development, are compatible with standards of neonatal intensive care, and are alternative to fetal nonhuman primates and lambs. PMID:25398985

  2. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  3. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation activates pyruvate oxidation in an immature swine model in vivo. Twelve male mixed-breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30–49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (group C) or pyruvate (group P) during the final 6 h of 8 h of ECMO. Over the final hour, piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, as a reference substrate for oxidation, and [13C6]-l-leucine, as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of the citric acid cycle intermediates. An increase in anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation in group P occurred compared with no change in pyruvate oxidation. Additionally, pyruvate promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient-sensitive enzymes, like AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation for fatty acid oxidation. Pyruvate also promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In conclusion, although prolonged pyruvate supplementation did not alter pyruvate oxidation, it did elicit changes in nutrient- and energy-sensitive pathways. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of pyruvate and its downstream effect on cardiac function. PMID:25910802

  4. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pallis, Monica; Harvey, Tamsin; Russell, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent), we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells) by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448) and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236) and 4E-BP1 (T36/45), we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML. PMID:26985829

  5. Comprehensive Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis of Immature Articular Cartilage following Ischemic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Adapala, Naga Suresh; Kim, Harry K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in piglets results in an ischemic injury to the immature articular cartilage. The molecular changes in the articular cartilage in response to ONFH have not been investigated using a transcriptomic approach. The purpose of this study was to perform a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to identify genes that are upregulated in the immature articular cartilage following ONFH. Methods ONFH was induced in the right femoral head of 6-week old piglets. The unoperated femoral head was used as the normal control. At 24 hours (acute ischemic-hypoxic injury), 2 weeks (avascular necrosis in the femoral head) and 4 weeks (early repair) after surgery (n = 4 piglets/time point), RNA was isolated from the articular cartilage of the femoral head. A microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip Array. An enrichment analysis and functional clustering of the genes upregulated due to ONFH were performed using DAVID and STRING software, respectively. The increased expression of selected genes was confirmed by a real-time qRTPCR analysis. Results Induction of ONFH resulted in the upregulation of 383 genes at 24 hours, 122 genes at 2 weeks and 124 genes at 4 weeks compared to the normal controls. At 24 hours, the genes involved in oxidoreductive, cell-survival, and angiogenic responses were significantly enriched among the upregulated genes. These genes were involved in HIF-1, PI3K-Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways. At 2 weeks, secretory and signaling proteins involved in angiogenic and inflammatory responses, PI3K-Akt and matrix-remodeling pathways were significantly enriched. At 4 weeks, genes that represent inflammatory cytokines and chemokine signaling pathways were significantly enriched. Several index genes (genes that are upregulated at more than one time point following ONFH and are known to be important in various biological processes) including HIF-1A, VEGFA, IL-6, IL6R, IL-8, CCL2, FGF2, TGFB2

  6. Conditional Gene Targeting in Mouse High Endothelial Venules

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hiroto; Hirakawa, Jotaro; Tobisawa, Yuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Saga, Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized blood vessels of secondary lymphoid organs composed of endothelial cells with a characteristic cuboidal morphology. Lymphocytes selectively adhere to and migrate across HEVs to initiate immune responses. In this study, we established a novel transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase under the transcriptional control of the gene encoding HEV-expressed sulfotransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GlcNAc6ST-2), using bacterial artificial chromosome recombineering. Crossing these transgenic mice with the ROSA26 reporter strain, which expresses lacZ following Cre-mediated recombination, and staining the resulting progeny with 5-bromo-4-chloro-5-indolyl-β-D-galactoside indicated that Cre recombinase was specifically expressed in mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in secondary lymphoid organs but not in any other blood vessels of the transgenic mice. The expression of Cre recombinase correlated with a developmental switch, from immature, mAb MECA367-reactive HEVs to mature, mAb MECA79-reactive HEVs in neonatal lymph nodes. In addition to the HEVs, Cre recombinase was also strongly expressed in the colonic villi, which recapitulated the intrinsic expression of GlcNAc6ST-2 as confirmed in GlcNAc6ST-2GFP/GFP knock-in mice and by RT-PCR. Furthermore, treatment with an antimicrobial agent revealed that the colonic expression of Cre recombinase in the transgenic mice was regulated by commensal bacteria in the colon. In addition, Cre recombinase was expressed in a small subset of cells in the brain, testis, stomach, small intestine, and lung. In view of the restricted expression of Cre recombinase, this transgenic mouse line should be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene functions using the Cre/loxP system. PMID:19380794

  7. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  8. Morphogenetic reaggregation and luteinization of mouse preantral follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S V; Tojo, R

    1979-11-01

    Small (60-90 micrometer) and large (100-130 micrometer) preantral follicles were isolated from adult mouse ovaries by a collagenase-dissection technique. These follicles were composed of resting oocytes surrounded either by granulosa cells, only, or by granulosa and undifferentiated theca cells. Further enzymatic dissociation of primary follicles yielded monodisperse cells characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, microfilament-rich pseudopodia and only scant lipid droplets. These cells reaggregated, when explanted in stationary culture, forming epithelial cords and structures macroscopically reminiscent of native ovarian follicles. Anticipated association of follicular cells in epithelial-like monolayers was rare (less than or equal to 10% of all cultured cells). Formation and growth of both follicle-like (FLS) and cord-like (CLS) structures occurred within 24 hours of culture, continued for 14 days, and was inhibited by cytochalasin B, but not by neuraminidase. FLS and CLS, as well as cell monolayers, underwent luteinization, as indicated by the presence in the culture medium of radioimmunoassayable progesterone and by frequent cytological features suggestive of active steroidogenesis. The present report indicates that (a) specific cell affinities exist among immature follicular cells which may play a role in folliculogenesis; and (b) follicular cells are endowed, from their early developmental stages with intrinsic steroidogenic capabilities which become phenotypically expressed after escape from the intraovarian environment. PMID:532792

  9. Expression of cubilin in mouse testes and Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y S; Seo, J T; Ahn, H S; Gye, M C

    2016-04-01

    Cubilin (cubn) is a receptor for vitamins and various protein ligands. Cubn lacks a transmembrane domain but anchors to apical membranes by forming complexes with Amnionless or Megalin. In an effort to better understand the uptake of nutrients in testis, we analysed cubn expression in the developing mice testes. In testes, cubn mRNA increased from birth to adulthood. In the inter-stitium and isolated seminiferous tubules, neonatal increase in cubn mRNA until 14 days post-partum (pp) was followed by a marked increase at puberty (28 days pp). Cubn was found in the gonocytes, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the developing testes. In adult testes, strong Cubn immunoreactivity was found in the elongating spermatids, suggesting the role of Cubn in endocytosis during early spermiogenesis. In Sertoli cells and peritubular cells, Cubn immunoreactivity was weak throughout the testis development. In the inter-stitium, Cubn immunoreactivity was found in foetal Leydig cells, was weak to negligible in the stem cells and progenitor Leydig cells and was strong in immature and adult Leydig cells, demonstrating a positive association between Cubn and steroidogenic activity of Leydig cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Cubn may participate in the endocytotic uptake of nutrients in germ cells and somatic cells, supporting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in mouse testes. PMID:26148765

  10. Preclinical mouse models of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Uluçkan, Özge; Segaliny, Aude; Botter, Sander; Santiago, Janice M; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common form of primary bone tumors with high prevalence in children. Survival rates of osteosarcoma are low, especially in the case of metastases. Mouse models of this disease have been very valuable in investigation of mechanisms of tumorigenesis, metastasis, as well as testing possible therapeutic options. In this chapter, we summarize currently available mouse models for osteosarcoma and provide detailed methodology for the isolation of cell lines from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), gene modification and tumor cell injection methods, as well as imaging techniques. PMID:25987985

  11. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly gen