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Sample records for immigrant household service

  1. Patterns of household immigration into South Texas.

    PubMed

    Briody, E K

    1987-01-01

    This article examines Mexican migration into South Texas in recent decades and focuses on changes in the characteristics of the migrants' households. An ethnographic approach is used in examining 56 permanent, immigrant households. "This article introduces a hypothesis for explaining the increase and permanency of household immigration." It is found that "immigration often leads to downward social mobility with respect to legal status of household members, type of employment, and property ownership. Of particular note is the transformation of the household from a single to a multiple worker unit, in response to agricultural labor demands and growing employment opportunities in the non-agricultural sector." PMID:12314666

  2. Public Library Services for Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Hanna S.; Schulte-Albert, Hans G.

    1982-01-01

    Several new ideas regarding public library services for helping immigrants adjust to life in Sweden are discussed with respect to standards, selection, and acquisition of materials, children's services, and future plans. A bibliography of 19 references is included. (CHC)

  3. Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Nontraditional Immigrant States? Lessons From Oregon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts. PMID:24625168

  4. Engaging Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in Immigration Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    In this report of innovative teacher practice, the author describes an arts-based event which brought together adolescent refugee and immigrant students and pre-service teachers to deliberate about immigration policies and attitudes in the United States.

  5. Differences in the locational attainment of immigrant and native-born households with children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, E; Friedman, S

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we use a data set created especially for New York City to evaluate whether the locational attainment of households with children, as indicated by the context of the neighborhoods in which they live, varies by their immigrant status. In addition, we evaluate whether the relationship between immigrant status and neighborhood conditions varies by the householder's race/ethnicity. Overall, when compared with native-born households with children, immigrant households with children live in neighborhoods of lower quality, characterized by higher teenage fertility rates and higher percentages of students in local schools scoring below grade level in math and of persons receiving AFDC, but lower rates of juvenile detention. Further analyses, however, revealed that race/ethnicity is far more potent than immigrant status per se in predicting where households with children live. PMID:11523262

  6. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care. PMID:24108090

  7. Household demand for waste recycling services.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2005-02-01

    Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that

  8. Impact of immigration on health and human services: Florida's experience.

    PubMed

    McNeece, C Aaron; Falconer, Mary Kay; Springer, David

    2002-01-01

    Florida has been the destination for large numbers of immigrants fleeing political persecution or economic hardships. Cubans and Haitians have been two of the largest immigrant groups arriving and settling in Florida. Both have received national and local attention. This article describes the immigration experience of Haitians and Cubans in Florida. The descriptions emphasize the differences between these two groups in their adjustment to life in south Florida. The article also addresses Florida's reaction to federal policies regarding immigration and highlights Florida's struggle to meet the service needs of these immigrant populations. Fiscal impacts of immigration are quantified in several service categories, including education, social services, health care, and criminal justice. Florida's action based on the documentation of the immigration fiscal impact is explained. Finally, how the state allocated the $18 million in federal funding provided as a response to Florida's documented impact is covered. PMID:12365756

  9. Disparities in Healthcare Access and Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Immigrant Non-English Primary Language Households in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sue C.; Yu, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in United State (US) has surged from 1 in 150 children in 2007 to 1 in 88 children in 2012 with substantial increase in immigrant minority groups including Hispanic and Somali children. Our study objective is to examine the associations between household language among children with ASD and national health quality indicators attainment. Methods: We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using cross-sectional data from the publicly-available 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) to investigate the association between household language use and quality indicators of medical home, adequate insurance, and early and continuous screening. Results: Approximately, 28% of parents of children with ASD from non-English primary language (NEPL) households reported their child having severe ASD as compared with 13% of parents from English primary language (EPL) households. Older children were more likely to have care that met the early and continuous screening quality indicator, while lower income children and uninsured children were less likely to have met this indicator. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Despite the lack of differences in the attainment of quality indicators by household language, the higher severity found in children in NEPL households suggests that they are exceptionally vulnerable. Enhanced early screening and identification for these children and supporting their parents in navigating the complex US health care delivery system would increase their participation in early intervention services. Immigration of children with special health care needs from around the world to the US has been increasing from countries with diverse healthcare systems. Our findings will help to inform policies and interventions to reduce health disparities for children with ASD from immigrant populations. As the prevalence of ASD has increased

  10. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  11. Do Medical Homes Reduce Disparities in Receipt of Preventive Services Between Children Living in Immigrant and Non-immigrant Families?

    PubMed Central

    Degboe, A. N.; Miranda, P. Y.; Francis, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model has the potential to reduce healthcare disparities among immigrant children. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between medical home (MH) participation and receipt of preventive services among immigrant children age 0–17. The study employed extant data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2007 (NSCH). Logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the relationship between receipt of preventive services and MH status among immigrant and non-immigrant children. Due to primarily the lack of family-centered care, only 40% of immigrant children met the medical home criteria versus approximately 62% of non-immigrant children. Immigrant children have decreased odds of receiving preventive care despite MH status. Improving the family-centered care aspect of the MH is necessary to increasing medical home access to immigrant children and the receipt of preventive services for immigrant children who meet the MH criteria. PMID:22052082

  12. 75 FR 54642 - Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Homeland Security proposes to establish a new Department of Homeland Security system of records notice titled, ``DHS U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services 012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository System of Records.'' Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository is a mirror copy of USCIS's major immigrant and non-immigrant......

  13. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  14. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  15. Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-in-law who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in…

  16. Mexican immigrant mothers' expectations for children's health services.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Redman, Richard W

    2007-10-01

    Women of Mexican descent living in the United States raise children who use health care services. What do immigrant Mexican mothers expect from children's health care services? And how do their expectations for children's health services compare to acculturated Mexican American mothers' expectations? This focused ethnographic study, based on repeated interviews with 28 mothers of varying acculturation levels, describes their expectations and experiences with children's health care services in the United States. Findings support a shared core of expectations for both Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers, and differences in health care access and financing, time spent in health care encounters, and cultural and linguistic expectations for care. Health care providers can use this information to approach Mexican-descent mothers and children with their expectations in mind, and craft a negotiated plan of care congruent with their expectations. PMID:17557932

  17. 76 FR 60059 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... ``Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I'' (August 29, 2011, 76 FR 53764) to allow for USCIS... Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System of Records... and Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System...

  18. Emergency Department Services Use among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tarraf, Wassim; Vega, William; González, Hector M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Immigrants have disproportionate lack of access to healthcare and insurance. Emergency departments could serve as a healthcare substitute and increased demand can negatively affect the U.S. emergency services system. Methods Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2000–2008) data was modeled to compare ED use between non-citizens, foreign-born (naturalized), and US-born citizens. Group differences were assessed using non-linear decomposition techniques. Results Non-citizens were less likely to use ED services (8.7%) compared to naturalized immigrants (10.6%) and US-born Americans (14.7%). Differences in ED use persisted after adjusting for the Behavioral Model covariates. Healthcare need and insurance partially explained the differences in ED use between the groups. Conclusion Between 2000–2008 non-citizen immigrants used markedly less ED services compared to U.S. citizens, regardless of their nation of origin. We also found that demographic and healthcare need profiles contributed to the divergence in use patterns between groups. A less restrictive healthcare policy environment can potentially contribute to lower population disease burden and greater efficiencies in the U.S. health care system. PMID:23447058

  19. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...

  20. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...

  1. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...

  2. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...

  3. 77 FR 47415 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Immigration Services (USCIS)--004--Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program System of..., ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Citizenship and Immigration Services--004-- Systematic Alien... Services, Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) program is a fee- based...

  4. How Do Social Service Providers View Recent Immigrants? Perspectives from Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington

    PubMed Central

    CLEVENGER, CASEY; DERR, AMELIA SERAPHIA; CADGE, WENDY; CURRAN, SARA

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how social service providers in two small, geographically distinct cities—Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington—understand the importance of welcoming and incorporating new immigrants in their cities. We focus on how providers characterize their responsibilities, how they understand the importance of responding to new immigrants, and what they describe as the challenges and opportunities presented by recent immigration to their cities. Despite differences in Portland and Olympia, we find that providers in both cities combine a sense of moral responsibility to help immigrants, with an emphasis on the economic and cultural resources immigrants bring to cities. These insights expand recent immigration scholarship from a focus on immigrants alone to include the perspectives and logics of social service workers who are often their first points of contact in new places. PMID:25110469

  5. Effects of Service Barriers on Health Status of Older Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Chau, Shirley B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of service barriers on the health status of older Chinese immigrants in Canada. A survey was completed in seven Canadian cities by a random sample of 2,214 older Chinese immigrants age 55 years or older. Service barriers related to administrative problems, personal attitudes, and circumstantial difficulties were…

  6. Immigrant Families and Public Child Welfare: Barriers to Services and Approaches for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earner, Ilze

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the results of two focus groups of immigrant parents who recently experienced child protective investigations in New York City. The purpose of this study was: (1) to hear immigrant parents describe their experiences with child welfare services, (2) to identify barriers to services these parents encountered, and (3) advocate…

  7. Exploring Social Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Social Services for Early Adjustment of Immigrant Adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; Kim, Kihyun; Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-10-01

    Recently arrived immigrant adolescents experience difficulties in adjusting to school in South Korea. However, the existing social services do not meet their psychosocial needs. This study investigates the perspectives of social service providers about challenges in providing services for immigrant adolescents early in their adjustments. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 27 South Korean social service providers. We identified barriers to social services, categorized into three themes: (1) Initial Contact Phase; (2) Service Delivery Phase; and (3) Structural Challenges. We suggest interventions concerning work-related stress for the social service providers, family-level involvement, diversity training, and integrated and collaborative immigration services. An examination of social service providers' challenges in working with immigrant adolescents is a necessary first step toward the development of programs and policies. PMID:27013328

  8. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  9. The Value of Hard Work: Lessons on Parent Involvement from an (Im)migrant Household.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R.

    2001-01-01

    Although it does not conform to school expectations of parental involvement, an immigrant family's attempts to instill values by exposing children to physical labor teach them about work and its hardships and makes them aware of the value of education. (Contains 61 references.) (SK)

  10. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  11. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  12. Experiences of French Speaking Immigrants and Non-immigrants Accessing Health Care Services in a Large Canadian City

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; Quan, Hude; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    French speakers residing in predominantly English-speaking communities have been linked to difficulties accessing health care. This study examined health care access experiences of immigrants and non-immigrants who self-identify as Francophone or French speakers in a mainly English speaking province of Canada. We used semi-structured interviews to gather opinions of recent users of physician and hospital services (N = 26). Language barriers and difficulties finding family doctors were experienced by both French speaking immigrants and non-immigrants alike. This was exacerbated by a general preference for health services in French and less interest in using language interpreters during a medical consultation. Some participants experienced emotional distress, were discontent with care received, often delayed seeking care due to language barriers. Recent immigrants identified lack of insurance coverage for drugs, transportation difficulties and limited knowledge of the healthcare system as major detractors to achieving health. This study provided the groundwork for future research on health issues of official language minorities in Canada. PMID:23202772

  13. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... household domestic service workers must provide, in event of an audit, the following documentation: (1) A...; (iii) That the alien is free to leave the employer's premises during all non-work hours except the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service...

  14. Discursive Roles and Responsibilities: A Study of Interactions in Chinese Immigrant Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines features of communication in American households where Chinese is used as a heritage language against the backdrop of global migration and technological advancement. It aims to elucidate how meaning emerges and evolves through repeated and varied performance by multiple participants over time, through mundane and iterative…

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App. C Appendix C to Part 61—Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures..., construction, and maintenance of new and existing INS facilities. All activities concerning the Immigration...

  16. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  17. Library Services for Immigrants: A Report on Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Citizenship and Immigration Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public libraries in the United States have a long history of providing resources and education to immigrants. This tradition may be traced to Andrew Carnegie's support for public libraries as a place for immigrant self-education, enlightenment, and the study of democracy and English. This role is especially relevant today as the immigrant…

  18. Improving Immigrant Populations' Access to Mental Health Services in Canada: A Review of Barriers and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mary Susan; Chaze, Ferzana; George, Usha; Guruge, Sepali

    2015-12-01

    This article emerges from a scoping review of over two decades of relevant literature on immigrants' access to mental health services in Canada. Key online databases were searched to explore the gaps and opportunities for improving access to mental health services using a review framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8:19-32, 2005). Immigrants and refugees came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds and had complex mental health-related concerns that were not currently being adequately addressed by existing services. The major barriers to the utilization of mental health services included: those related to the uptake of existing health information and services; those that were related to the process of immigrant settlement; and barriers related to availability of appropriate services. A thematic analysis of the range of recommendations that emerge from these studies for improvement of research, practice and policy is provided. PMID:25742880

  19. Are household factors putting immigrant Hispanic children at risk of becoming overweight: a community-based study in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Laura H; Anguiano, Ruben; Gross, Kevin H

    2004-10-01

    North Carolina has one of the fastest growing populations of Hispanic immigrants in the U.S. The prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the state has increased to 17%. Therefore, the objectives of this descriptive, exploratory study were to identify potential risk factors for childhood overweight at the household level among 128 immigrant Hispanic families with school-aged children living in Eastern North Carolina. Data concerning parental beliefs about overweight children, family participation in physical activity, and household availability of higher-calorie foods were collected using a structured, close-ended interview form. Forty-seven percent of parents believed that overweight children are unhealthy, 11% that if a child is overweight, it is God's will, and over 90% believed that overweight children should be taken to a nutritionist or physician for help with weight reduction. The activities undertaken by families four to seven times per week were watching television (70%), listening to music (69%), and reading (61%). Cookies, cold cereals, crackers, whole milk, ice cream, cheese, hotdogs, peanut butter, soft drinks, fruit drinks, chips, and pudding were regularly available in a majority of households. Regression analysis indicated that household income, parental education, and rural versus urban residence had no significant impact on frequency of family participation in physical activity or household availability of higher-calorie foods. Findings suggest a need for bilingual community health professionals to develop culturally sensitive wellness programs targeted at immigrant Hispanic families that promote greater engagement in moderate-intensity physical activity and more frequent consumption of lower-calorie foods. PMID:15471421

  20. Predictors of Health Service Barriers for Older Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Chau, Shirley B. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Elderly people from ethnic minority groups often experience different barriers in accessing health services. Earlier studies on access usually focused on types and frequency but failed to address the predictors of service barriers. This study examined access barriers to health services faced by older Chinese immigrants in Canada. Factor analysis…

  1. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. 16.99 Section 16.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Naturalization Service Alien File (A-File) and Central Index System (CIS), JUSTICE/INS-001A. (2) The Immigration and Naturalization Service Index System, JUSTICE/INS-001 which consists of the following...

  2. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. 16.99 Section 16.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Naturalization Service Alien File (A-File) and Central Index System (CIS), JUSTICE/INS-001A. (2) The Immigration and Naturalization Service Index System, JUSTICE/INS-001 which consists of the following...

  3. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. 16.99 Section 16.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Naturalization Service Alien File (A-File) and Central Index System (CIS), JUSTICE/INS-001A. (2) The Immigration and Naturalization Service Index System, JUSTICE/INS-001 which consists of the following...

  4. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. 16.99 Section 16.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Naturalization Service Alien File (A-File) and Central Index System (CIS), JUSTICE/INS-001A. (2) The Immigration and Naturalization Service Index System, JUSTICE/INS-001 which consists of the following...

  5. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. 16.99 Section 16.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Naturalization Service Alien File (A-File) and Central Index System (CIS), JUSTICE/INS-001A. (2) The Immigration and Naturalization Service Index System, JUSTICE/INS-001 which consists of the following...

  6. Perceptions and utilization of primary health care services in Iraq: findings from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of sanctions and conflict, Iraq is rebuilding its health system, with a strong emphasis on the traditional hospital-based services. A network exists of public sector hospitals and clinics, as well as private clinics and a few private hospitals. Little data are available about the approximately 1400 Primary Health Care clinics (PHCCs) staffed with doctors. How do Iraqis utilize primary health care services? What are their preferences and perceptions of public primary health care clinics and private primary care services in general? How does household wealth affect choice of services? Methods A 1256 household national survey was conducted in the catchment areas of randomly selected PHCCs in Iraq. A cluster of 10 households, beginning with a randomly selected start household, were interviewed in the service areas of seven public sector PHCC facilities in each of 17 of Iraq's 18 governorates. A questionnaire was developed using key informants. Teams of interviewers, including both males and females, were recruited and provided a week of training which included field practice. Teams then gathered data from households in the service areas of randomly selected clinics. Results Iraqi participants are generally satisfied with the quality of primary care services available both in the public and private sector. Private clinics are generally the most popular source of primary care, however the PHCCs are utilized more by poorer households. In spite of free services available at PHCCs many households expressed difficulty in affording health care, especially in the purchase of medications. There is no evidence of informal payments to secure health services in the public sector. Conclusions There is widespread satisfaction reported with primary health care services, and levels did not differ appreciably between public and private sectors. The public sector PHCCs are preferentially used by poorer populations where they are important providers. PHCC

  7. Exclusionary policies in urban development: Under-servicing migrant households in Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Feler, Leo; Henderson, J Vernon

    2011-05-01

    Localities in developed countries often enact regulations to deter low-income households from moving in. In developing countries, such restrictions lead to the emergence of informal housing sectors. To deter low-income migrants, localities in developing countries withhold public services to the informal housing sector. Using a large sample of Brazilian localities, we examine migration and exclusion, focusing on the public provision of water to small houses where low-income migrants are likely to live. Withholding water connections reduces the locality growth rate, particularly of low-education households. In terms of service provision, during dictatorship in Brazil, we find evidence of strategic exclusion, where localities appear to withhold services to deter in-migration. We also find evidence of strategic interactions among localities within metro areas in their setting of service levels: if one locality provides more services to migrant households, other localities respond by withholding service. PMID:22707807

  8. Exclusionary policies in urban development: Under-servicing migrant households in Brazilian cities

    PubMed Central

    Feler, Leo; Henderson, J. Vernon

    2012-01-01

    Localities in developed countries often enact regulations to deter low-income households from moving in. In developing countries, such restrictions lead to the emergence of informal housing sectors. To deter low-income migrants, localities in developing countries withhold public services to the informal housing sector. Using a large sample of Brazilian localities, we examine migration and exclusion, focusing on the public provision of water to small houses where low-income migrants are likely to live. Withholding water connections reduces the locality growth rate, particularly of low-education households. In terms of service provision, during dictatorship in Brazil, we find evidence of strategic exclusion, where localities appear to withhold services to deter in-migration. We also find evidence of strategic interactions among localities within metro areas in their setting of service levels: if one locality provides more services to migrant households, other localities respond by withholding service. PMID:22707807

  9. The relationship between somatization and posttraumatic symptoms among immigrants receiving primary care services.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Catino, Elena; Pucci, Daniela; Carrer, Sara; Colosimo, Francesco; Lafuente, Montserrat; Mazzetti, Marco; Maisano, Bianca; Geraci, Salvatore

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and somatization are related in studies on complex trauma, though this relation is rarely studied in immigrants. The relationship between somatization and self-reported traumatic experiences and posttraumatic symptoms in patients attending a primary care service for immigrants was studied. The sample consisted of 101 patients attending a primary healthcare service dedicated to immigrants. Participants completed two self-assessment questionnaires specifically designed for use in transcultural research: the Bradford Somatic Inventory and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Both were translated and back-translated into eight languages. Somatization was significantly related to traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. In primary care centers for immigrants, physicians should give particular attention to somatization as a possible sign of unreported posttraumatic symptoms. PMID:20931663

  10. Service needs among Latino immigrant families: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Ayón, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to learn from Latino immigrant families what services they need to promote their families' well-being within a context of stringent anti-immigrant legislation. Fifty-two Latino immigrant parents participated in focus groups. Focus groups took place following the passage of Senate Bill 1070. Findings reveal five major categories of need: mental health, physical health care, education, information and support services, and community efforts. Participants' experiences as immigrants played a significant role in their narratives. The narratives reveal that families need assistance navigating systems of care, coping with discrimination and oppressive environments, strengthening ties among community members, and advocating for policy change. Social workers are called to address the needs of this community and advocate for human rights and social justice. PMID:24640227

  11. 75 FR 58961 - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is adjusting the fee schedule for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). USCIS conducted a comprehensive fee study, refined its cost accounting process, and determined that current fees do not recover the full costs of services provided. DHS has found that adjustment to the fee schedule is necessary to fully recover costs and maintain......

  12. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  13. Assessing health care services used by California's undocumented immigrant population in 2010.

    PubMed

    Pourat, Nadereh; Wallace, Steven P; Hadler, Max W; Ponce, Ninez

    2014-05-01

    Undocumented immigrants were excluded from the health benefit Marketplaces created by the Affordable Care Act partly because of claims that they contribute to problems such as high costs and emergency department (ED) crowding. This article examines the likely health care use and costs of undocumented immigrants in California in 2009-10. Using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we developed a model that estimated the state's adult and child undocumented immigrant population, since the survey does not explicitly inquire about undocumented status. The survey also provided information on insurance status, doctor visits, and ED visits in the previous year. We found that undocumented immigrants in California, and the uninsured among them, had fewer or similar numbers of doctor visits, ED visits, and preventive services use compared to US citizens and other immigrant groups. Allowing undocumented immigrants to purchase insurance in the Marketplaces and ensuring receipt of low-cost preventive services can contribute to lower premiums and reduce resource strains on safety-net providers. PMID:24799582

  14. Couples’ reports of household decision-making and the utilization of maternal health services in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal health service utilization and household decision-making in Bangladesh. Most studies of the predictors of reproductive health service use focus on women’s reports; however, men are often involved in these decisions as well. Recently, studies have started to explore the association between health outcomes and reports of household decision-making from both husbands and wives as matched pairs. Many studies of household decision-making emphasize the importance of the wife alone making decisions; however, some have argued that joint decision-making between husbands and wives may yield better reproductive health outcomes than women making decisions without input or agreement from their partners. Husbands’ involvement in decision-making is particularly important in Bangladesh because men often dominate household decisions related to large, health-related purchases. We use matched husband and wife reports about who makes common household decisions to predict use of antenatal and skilled delivery care, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Results from regression analyses suggest that it is important to consider whether husbands and wives give concordant responses about who makes household decisions since discordant reports about who makes these decisions are negatively associated with reproductive health care use. In addition, compared to joint decision-making, husband-only decision-making is negatively associated with antenatal care use and skilled delivery care. Finally, associations between household decision-making arrangements and health service utilization vary depending on whose report is used and the type of health service utilized. PMID:23068556

  15. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success. PMID:26251953

  16. Factors Associated with Willingness to Use Mental Health Services in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Responding to the concern about underutilization of mental health services in immigrant populations, the present study explored the factors associated with Korean immigrants' willingness to use mental health services. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, consideration was given to the role of predisposing (age, gender, marital status, education, and years in the United States), need (depressive symptoms), and enabling (health insurance, acculturation, and personal beliefs about depression) variables. The study estimated, using data from a sample of 205 Korean immigrants (ages 18-45), a logistic regression model of willingness to use mental health services. Although participants experiencing more depressive symptoms tend to be less willing to use these services (odds ratio [OR] = .89, p < .05), an increase in the odds of willingness to use them are found among women (OR = 2.52, p < .01), highly acculturated individuals (OR = 1.09, p < .05), and individuals who believe that depression is a medical condition (OR = 4.71, p < .01). Educational interventions focused on increasing mental health literacy may be beneficial in promoting mental health services for Korean immigrants. PMID:26984783

  17. Social Service Utilization, Sense of Community, Family Functioning and the Mental Health of New Immigrant Women in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiaobing; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 296 new immigrant women in Hong Kong, this study investigated how social service utilization, family functioning, and sense of community influenced the depressive symptoms of new immigrant women. Results of the structural equation modeling suggested that family functioning and sense of community were both significantly and negatively associated with the depression of new immigrant women. Utilization of community services also influenced the depression of immigrant women indirectly through the mediating effect of sense of community. Implications of the research findings for mental health intervention were discussed. PMID:23629592

  18. Fostering Cultural Humility among Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting with Children and Youth of Immigrant Families through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Darren; Lianne, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article documents a community-initiated service-learning project within a teacher education program. A social justice model guided the initiative to raise critical awareness on power and privilege while countering deficit-model thinking. Partnering with community agencies serving immigrant children and youth, the faculty researcher worked…

  19. Bridging Immigrants and Refugees with Early Childhood Development Services: Partnership Research in the Development of an Effective Service Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poureslami, Iraj; Nimmon, Laura; Ng, Kelly; Cho, Sarah; Foster, Susan; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and accessibility of early childhood development (ECD) services to ethno-cultural communities in the Tri-Cities region of British Columbia. Primary participants were recent immigrant and refugee parents from three ethnic communities: Chinese (both Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking) and Korean-, and Farsi-speaking groups…

  20. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  1. Sociocultural Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk and Service Use among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, W. Patrick; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Jolly, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a community-based participatory research approach to problem identification, the objective of this study is to explore sociocultural determinants of HIV/AIDS risk and service use among immigrant Latino…

  2. 78 FR 19568 - Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor Carriers and Related Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 82132), or you may visit http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-29/pdf/2010-32876.pdf . Background The Limited Service Exclusion (LSE) is a...), a statutory exception to the definition of Household Goods (HHG) motor carrier provided at 49...

  3. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent...

  4. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  5. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent...

  6. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  7. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  8. Health Status and Health Service Access and Use Among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihuan Jennifer; Yu, Stella M.; Ledsky, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the health status and patterns of health care use of children in US immigrant families. Methods. Data from the 1999 National Survey of America’s Families were used to create 3 subgroups of immigrant children: US-born children with noncitizen parents, foreign-born children who were naturalized US citizens, and foreign-born children with noncitizen parents. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between immigrant status and health access variables. Subgroup analyses were conducted with low-income families. Results. Foreign-born noncitizen children were 4 times more likely than children from native families to lack health insurance coverage and to have not visited a mental health specialist in the preceding year. They were 40% and 80% more likely to have not visited a doctor or dentist in the previous year and twice as likely to lack a usual source of care. US-born children with noncitizen parents were also at a disadvantage in many of these aspects of care. Conclusions. We found that, overall, children from immigrant families were in worse physical health than children from non-immigrant families and used health care services at a significantly lower frequency. PMID:16507736

  9. An Evaluation of the Impact of HEW Assistance on Recent Immigrants in the State of Hawaii. A Study of Health, Education and Welfare Service Delivery to Hawaii Immigrants: Recommendations to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbayani, Amefil

    This study identifies the problems and needs of recent immigrants to Hawaii, identifies those factors that hinder the effective delivery of Federally funded health, educational, and social services to immigrants, and recommends ways in which government agencies can meet immigrant needs in Hawaii. The study is based on a 1978 survey in which…

  10. Barriers to preventive health services for minority households in the rural south.

    PubMed

    Strickland, J; Strickland, D L

    1996-01-01

    Health values, behaviors, and status are shaped by place of residence, region, race, and socio-economic status, among other social factors. Consequently, this article examines barriers to preventive health services for lower-income blacks in five rural counties in Georgia. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through 281 household, 51 community leader, and six focus group interviews. Female respondents who had been pregnant were most likely to have received pregnancy-related services and all respondents least likely to have received vision and dental screenings. Six of the seven types of services inquired about were most likely to have been received in a private practice setting. Primary barriers to preventive service utilization included ability to pay, perception of need, service availability, accessibility of services, and the perception of racism. The relationship between structural and nonstructural barriers, their impact on preventive service utilization, and research recommendations also were developed and presented. PMID:10162852

  11. User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Russel, Kory; Tilmans, Sebastien; Kramer, Sasha; Sklar, Rachel; Tillias, Daniel; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service. After three months, changes in these households’ satisfaction with their sanitation situation, along with feelings of pride, modernity and personal safety, were compared to 248 households in two comparison cohorts. Following the service pilot, 71 per cent of participating households opted to continue with the container-based sanitation service as paying subscribers. The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services. PMID:26640322

  12. The Work Kids Do: Mexican and Central American Immigrant Children's Contributions to Households and Schools in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2001-01-01

    Research on Mexican and Central American immigrant children illuminates their everyday work as helpers in the home, community, and school. Their participation is shaped by gender dynamics. Their work can be viewed in multiple ways as volunteerism, learning opportunities, and cultural and linguistic brokering. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  13. [Use Of Hospital Services By The Immigrant Population In Umbria, Italy].

    PubMed

    Casadei, Riccardo; Angeli, Giuseppe; Casucci, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Pasquini, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible inequalities in the quality of health care services for the management of conditions such as cardiovascolar diseases, psychiatric disorders, appendectomy, and hysterectomy, offered to the immigrant population in the Umbria region (central Italy). Hospital discharge data covering the period 2009-2012 were analysed and crude and standardized hospitalization rates per 100,000 calculated. Immigrants were found to have an increased risk of undergoing procedures such as appendectomy and hysterectomy for benign disease, indicating a greater degree of nonappropriateness in this category of users. In the young immigrant population, admissions were mainly due to reproductive health problems in women, and injuries/trauma in men. The results of this study confirm that, despite regional efforts to reduce social inequalities and consequently inequalities in health, through regional legislation, information to the population, training of healthcare personnel, and cultural mediation, some inequalities are present in the quality of health care delivered to foreign-born persons in the region. Hence, there is a need to strengthen information campaigns for immigrants, to keep them informed of their rights, and to strengthen training courses among healthcare and social workers. PMID:27077557

  14. Statement of David Crosland, Acting Commissioner, Immigration & Naturalization Service, Before the Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees, and International Law, Judiciary Committee, on Haitian Refugees on June 17, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, David

    Since the early 1970s, Haitians have been arriving in the United States in increasing numbers. Since 1977, the Immigration and Naturalization Service has taken several steps in response to this influx and to problems Haitian refugees face regarding asylum, exclusion, and deportation. One major decision resulted in new regulations that would…

  15. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  16. Residents' preferences for household kitchen waste source separation services in Beijing: a choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents' preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  17. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system. PMID:24127096

  18. The Desire to Acquire: Forecasting the Evolution of Household Energy Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Steven

    People are constantly inventing and adopting new energy-using devices to make their lives more comfortable, convenient, connected, and entertaining. This study aggregates 134 energy-using household devices, not including major appliances, into categories based on the energy service they provide. By 2006, there were 43 energy-using devices in the average U.S. household that used over 4,700 kWh of electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. A fixed effects panel model was used to examine the relationship of demand for energy-using devices to energy price, household income, and the cost of these devices. This analysis finds that the elasticity of demand for these devices with respect to energy price is -0.52 with a 90% confidence interval of -1.04 to -0.01. The elasticity of demand to income is 0.52 (a 90% confidence interval of [-0.42, 1.46]. The cost of these devices was also statistically significant.

  19. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We present the prevalence of political violence (PV) of immigrant Latinos in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. Methods We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. We use a conceptual framework that assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Results Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Specific subgroups of Latinos, including men and Mexican immigrants, were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last 12 months service use. Conclusions The strong consequences of PV suggest the need for systematic screening and referral strategies. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories. PMID:18850369

  2. Emergency hospital services utilization in Lleida (Spain): A cross-sectional study of immigrant and Spanish-born populations

    PubMed Central

    Rué, Montserrat; Cabré, Xavier; Soler-González, Jorge; Bosch, Anna; Almirall, Mercè; Serna, Maria Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of emergency hospital services (EHS) has increased steadily in Spain in the last decade while the number of immigrants has increased dramatically. Studies show that immigrants use EHS differently than native-born individuals, and this work investigates demographics, diagnoses and utilization rates of EHS in Lleida (Spain). Methods Cross-sectional study of all the 96,916 EHS visits by patients 15 to 64 years old, attended during the years 2004 and 2005 in a public teaching hospital. Demographic data, diagnoses of the EHS visits, frequency of hospital admissions, mortality and diagnoses at hospital discharge were obtained. Utilization rates were estimated by group of origin. Poisson regression was used to estimate the rate ratios of being visited in the EHS with respect to the Spanish-born population. Results Immigrants from low-income countries use EHS services more than the Spanish-born population. Differences in utilization patterns are particularly marked for Maghrebi men and women and sub-Saharan women. Immigrant males are at lower risk of being admitted to the hospital, as compared with Spanish-born males. On the other hand, immigrant women are at higher risk of being admitted. After excluding the visits with gynecologic and obstetric diagnoses, women from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb are still at a higher risk of being admitted than their Spanish-born counterparts. Conclusion In Lleida (Spain), immigrants use more EHS than the Spanish born population. Future research should indicate whether the same pattern is found in other areas of Spain and whether EHS use is attributable to health needs, barriers to access to the primary care services or similarities in the way immigrants access health care in their countries of origin. PMID:18402704

  3. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  4. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  5. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  6. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  7. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  8. Acceptance of Internet-Based Health Care Services Among Households in Poland: Secondary Analysis of a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polish society is benefiting from growing access to the Internet, but the use of advanced e-services is still limited. The provision of Internet-based health services depends not only on the penetration of the Internet into society, but also on the acceptance of this technology by potential users. Objective The main objective of this study was focused on the assessment of predictors of acceptance of Internet use for provision of health services (eg, sociodemographic status, the use of information technologies, and consumption of health care services) among households in Poland. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of the dataset from the 2011 Social Diagnosis survey (a biannual survey conducted since 2001 about economic and non-economic aspects of household and individual living conditions in Poland). Analysis of the questionnaire results focused on the situations of the households included in the study. The predictors for 2 outcome variables describing the acceptance of households for Internet use for provision of a full health care service, or at least access to information and download of required forms, were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results After excluding those households that would not consider the use of health care services or for which predictor variables assumed missing values, the final analyses were conducted on data from 8915 households. Acceptance of the use of the Internet for provision of full health care services in Polish households was significantly higher among households in urban locations with ≥ 200,000 inhabitants than among households in rural areas; it was also higher with salaried employment as the source of income than with self-employment in agriculture (odds ratio [OR] = 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 - 0.70), retirement pension (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.39 - 0.54), disability pension (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.34 - 0.68), or with several simultaneous income sources (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.57 - 0

  9. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight... relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? If you use a relocation services company to ship HHG in excess of the maximum weight allowance, your agency will pay...

  10. Between two worlds: the use of traditional and Western health services by Chinese immigrants.

    PubMed

    Ma, G X

    1999-12-01

    This study examined the use of traditional and Western health services by Chinese immigrants, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic factors affecting health-seeking behaviors and health service utilization patterns among the study population from the perspectives of consumers and Chinese health care providers. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first, a consumer instrument, was designed for interviews of service recipients; the second, a health provider instrument, was designed to elicit information from traditional and Western providers. A few topics in the former instrument were cross-examined from the perspectives of health care providers. The investigation employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods for data collection. Qualitative ethnographic methods used included: (1) participant-observation, (2) face-to-face interview, and (3) case study. To complement the qualitative data, structured quantitative survey were conducted with all selected informants. A total of 105 informants participated in the study: 75 Chinese consumers and 30 Chinese health professionals. The latter group was composed of Western physicians and traditional practitioners. Results revealed several patterns of health-seeking and service utilization behaviors among the Chinese of Houston and Los Angeles. These included high rates of self-treatment and home remedies (balanced diets and other alternative medicines); medium rates of utilization of integrated Western and traditional health services, including travel to country of origin for care; and low rates of exclusive utilization of Western or traditional Chinese treatments. PMID:10593423

  11. Developing a Sociological Imagination by Doing Sociology: A Methods-Based Service-Learning Course on Women and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The author addresses the development and implementation of a service-learning project for an undergraduate course in which students interview immigrant women, incorporate the interviewees' experiences into an analytical paper, and present the findings at the end of the semester. Students are required to use C. Wright Mills's concepts of history…

  12. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act C Appendix C to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE...

  13. Immigrant Status, Mental Health Need, and Mental Health Service Utilization among High-Risk Hispanic and Asian Pacific Islander Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Hough, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined youth mental health service (MHS) use as a function of family immigrant status and type of mental health need (internalizing vs. externalizing). A sample of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander families (youth ages 11-18; N = 457) involved with public sectors of care provided reports of youth mental health need during an initial…

  14. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act C Appendix C to Part 61... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App. C Appendix C to Part 61—Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act 1. General. These procedures...

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act C Appendix C to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App....

  17. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act C Appendix C to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App....

  18. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  19. "It is an Issue of not Knowing Where to Go": Service Providers' Perspectives on Challenges in Accessing Social Support and Services by Immigrant Mothers of Children with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Haque, Nasim; Sheehan, Sinead; Jones, Gail

    2015-12-01

    In Canada little is known about the challenges immigrant mothers of children with disabilities encounter in accessing formal and informal social support. This paper presents the perspectives of service providers on the mothers' challenges. Data was collected from 27 service providers in Toronto, Canada in 2012 through in-depth interviews. The interview guide was informed by published literature on families of children with special needs. Level one analyses entailed descriptive analyses; and level two consisted of applying House's 4 domains of social support to organize the themes. Following House's domains, challenges to (1) Structural support, (2) Instrumental support, (3) Emotional support, and (4) Perception of support were identified. Among providers who work with families of children with disabilities there is recognition of the mothers' particular challenges in light of their immigration status. Language and communication are significant barriers for immigrant mothers in accessing social support. PMID:25376126

  20. Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Racialized Immigrants, Refugees, and Non-Status People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Y Brandon; Li, Alan Tai; Fung, Kenneth Po; Wong, Josephine Pui

    2015-05-01

    The demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) in Canada are increasingly diverse. Despite literature suggesting a potentially heightened mental health burden borne by racialized immigrant, refugee, and non-status PHAs (IRN-PHAs), researchers have hitherto paid insufficient attention to whether existing services adequately address this need and how services might be improved. Employing community-based research methodology involving PHAs from five ethnoracial groups in Toronto, Ontario, this study explored IRN-PHAs' mental health service-seeking behaviors, service utilization experiences, and suggestions for service improvements. Results showed that while most IRN-PHAs were proactive in improving their mental health, their attempts to obtain support were commonly undermined by service provider mistreatment, unavailability of appropriate services, and multiple access barriers. A three-pronged approach involving IRN-PHA empowerment, anti-stigma and cultural competence promotion, and greater service integration is proposed for improving IRN-PHAs' mental health service experience. PMID:25913347

  1. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The Background," is comprised of…

  2. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  3. Household's willingness to pay for heterogeneous attributes of drinking water quality and services improvement: an application of choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauda, Suleiman Alhaji; Yacob, Mohd Rusli; Radam, Alias

    2015-09-01

    The service of providing good quality of drinking water can greatly improve the lives of the community and maintain a normal health standard. For a large number of population in the world, specifically in the developing countries, the availability of safe water for daily sustenance is none. Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It hosts a population of more than two hundred thousand, yet only 45 % of the households are connected to the network of Yobe State Water Corporation's pipe borne water services; this has led people to source for water from any available source and thus, exposed them to the danger of contracting waterborne diseases. In order to address the problem, Yobe State Government has embarked on the construction of a water treatment plant with a capacity and facility to improve the water quality and connect the town with water services network. The objectives of this study are to assess the households' demand preferences of the heterogeneous water attributes in Damaturu, and to estimate their marginal willingness to pay, using mixed logit model in comparison with conditional logit model. A survey of 300 households randomly sampled indicated that higher education greatly influenced the households' WTP decisions. The most significant variable from both of the models is TWQ, which is MRS that rates the water quality from the level of satisfactory to very good. 219 % in simple model is CLM, while 126 % is for the interaction model. As for MLM, 685 % is for the simple model and 572 % is for the interaction model. Estimate of MLM has more explanatory powers than CLM. Essentially, this finding can help the government in designing cost-effective management and efficient tariff structure.

  4. Under-reporting of inpatient services utilisation in household surveys – a population-based study in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Eva LH; Leung, Gabriel M; Woo, Pauline PS; Choi, Sarah; Lo, Su-Vui

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognising that household interviews may produce biased estimates of health services utilisation, we examined for under- and over-reporting of hospitalisation episodes in three recent, consecutive population-based household surveys in Hong Kong. Methods Territory-wide inpatient service utilisation volumes as estimated from the 1999, 2001 and 2002 Thematic Household Surveys (THS) were benchmarked against corresponding statistics derived from routine administrative databases. Between-year differences on net under-reporting were quantified by Cohen's d effect size. To assess the potential for systematic biases in under-reporting, age- and sex-specific net under-reporting rates within each survey year were computed and the F-test was performed to evaluate differences between demographic subgroups. We modelled the effects of age and sex on the likelihood of ever hospitalisation through logistic regression to compare the odds ratios respectively derived from survey and administrative data. Results The extent of net under-reporting was moderately large in all three years amounting to about one-third of all inpatient episodes. However, there did not appear to be significant systematic biases in the degree of under-reporting by age or sex on stratified analyses and logistic regression modelling. Conclusion Under-reporting was substantial in Hong Kong's THS. Recall bias was likely most responsible for such reporting inaccuracies. A proper full-design record-check study should be carried out to confirm the present findings. PMID:15860127

  5. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  6. Counter-Storytelling through Service-Learning: Future Teachers of Immigrant Students in Texas and California Re-Tell the "Self" and the "Other"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise; de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of Critical Race Pedagogy in two service-learning initiatives that prepare pre-service teachers for working with an increasing immigrant student population in California and Texas. It is not uncommon for teachers to participate in the "Othering" dominant discourse that tends to see those who are of a lower…

  7. Mental Health of Immigrant Children: A New Challenge for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Services in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Clarke, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Ethnically, Ireland has diversified greatly over the past few years. According to the 2006 census, 419733 foreign nationals live in Ireland. Immigration is one of the one of the most stressful events a child can undergo; it involves profound changes, including a disruption of well-established relationships and acculturation. Since the…

  8. From Symptom Recognition to Services: How South Asian Muslim Immigrant Families Navigate Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegatheesan, Brinda; Fowler, Susan; Miller, Peggy J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three South Asian Muslim immigrant families who have a young child with autism. It describes the early period of their child's disability as the families encountered four critical issues in their lives: a complex disability, the culturally diverse conceptualizations of the disability, family-professional…

  9. Welcoming America's Newest Immigrants: Providing Access to Resources and Services for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    America has always been a nation of immigrants, and many school libraries serve students whose first language is not English. In AASL's 2009 "School Libraries Count! Survey," 14% of the 5,824 respondents reported a student population with 25% or more English language learners. Yet 91% reported that less than 5% of their collections are in a…

  10. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  11. Use of Mental Health–Related Services Among Immigrant and US-Born Asian Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye; Zane, Nolan; Sue, Stanley; Spencer, Michael S.; Appel, Hoa; Nicdao, Ethel; Alegría, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates of mental health–related service use (i.e., any, general medical, and specialty mental health services) as well as subjective satisfaction with and perceived helpfulness of care in a national sample of Asian Americans, with a particular focus on immigration-related factors. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002–2003). Results. About 8.6% of the total sample (n=2095) sought any mental health–related services; 34.1% of individuals who had a probable diagnosis sought any services. Rates of mental health–related service use, subjective satisfaction, and perceived helpfulness varied by birthplace and by generation. US-born Asian Americans demonstrated higher rates of service use than did their immigrant counterparts. Third-generation or later individuals who had a probable diagnosis had high (62.6%) rates of service use in the previous 12 months. Conclusions. Asian Americans demonstrated lower rates of any type of mental health–related service use than did the general population, although there are important exceptions to this pattern according to nativity status and generation status. Our results underscore the importance of immigration-related factors in understanding service use among Asian Americans. PMID:17138905

  12. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs. PMID:26471950

  13. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  14. Examining My Window and Mirror: A Pedagogical Reflection from a White Mathematics Teacher Educator about Her Experiences with Immigrant Latina Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinec-Craig, Crystal A.

    2014-01-01

    In this pedagogical reflection, a White mathematics teacher educator describes what she learned from three Latina pre-service teachers who were recent immigrants from Mexico while they completed an elementary mathematics methods course. Using Rochelle Gutierrez's (2012) metaphor of a window and mirror, the author interrogates her own identity and…

  15. Households, Migration and Labor Market Participation: The Adaptation of Mexicans to Life in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of extended family and other non-nuclear family households serves as an important mechanism in the adaptation of Mexican immigrants in San Diego. Different types of households are important at different times in the migration process, and immigration status influences the patterns of household variation. (KH)

  16. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational

  17. Challenges in access to health services and its impact on quality of life: a randomised population-based survey within Turkish speaking immigrants in London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim There are a significant number of Turkish speaking immigrants living in London. Their special health issues including women's health, mental health, and alcohol and smoking habits has been assessed. The aim of this study was to explore the ongoing challenges in access to health care services and its impact on Quality of Life of immigrants. Material and methods This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted between March and August 2010 with Turkish immigrants (n = 416) living in London. Of these, 308 (74%) were Turkish and 108 (26%) were Turkish Cypriots. All healthy or unhealthy adults of 17-65 years of age were enrolled. A structured questionnaire with 44 items in five subcategories and 26-items WHOQOL BREF were used. Results Mean duration of stay for Turkish Cypriots (26.9 ± 13.9 years) was significantly longer than Turkish immigrants (13.3 ± 7.5) (p < 0.001). Turkish immigrants (n = 108, 36.5%) need interpretation more often when using health services than Turkish Cypriots (n = 16, 15%) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses suggested significant effects of older age, non-homeownership, low socioeconomic class, poor access to health services, being ill, poor community integration and being obese on physical well-being and also significant effects of low income and poor community integration on perceived overall Quality of Life (WHOQOL) of the participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate how the health and well-being of members of the Turkish speaking community living in London are affected by social aspects of their lives. Providing culturally competent care and interpretation services and advocacy may improve the accessibility of the health care. PMID:22280521

  18. Health and Medical Care among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n = 46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household…

  19. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  20. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.6 Section 302-12.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  1. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  2. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  3. Comparing Psychiatric Service Use among Low-Income Women and Women in a General Household Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel; Warner, Lynn A.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of outpatient mental health services in a sample of low-income women (Mothers' Well-Being Study [MWS]) and compares the findings with a sample of similar-aged women in the general population (National Comorbidity Survey [NCS]). Overall, the prevalence of any 12-month mental health disorder was significantly greater…

  4. Utilization of Health Care Services for Childhood Morbidity and Associated Factors in India: A National Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sathyanarayana, T. N.; Kumar, H. N. Harsha

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about utilization of health services and associated factors are useful for improving service delivery to achieve universal health coverage. Methods Data on a sample of ever-married women from India Demographic and Health survey 2005–06 was used. Mothers of children aged 0–59 months were asked about child’s illnesses and type of health facilities where treatment was given during 15 days prior to the survey date. Type of health facilities were grouped as informal provider, public provider and private provider. Factors associated with utilization of health services for diarrhea and fever/cough was assessed according to Andersen’s health behavior model. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done considering sampling weights for complex sampling design. Results A total of 48,679 of ever-married women reported that 9.1% 14.8% and 17.67% of their children had diarrhea, fever and cough respectively. Nearly one-third of the children with diarrhea and fever/cough did not receive any treatment. Two-thirds of children who received treatment were from private health care providers (HCPs). Among predisposing factors, children aged 1–2 years and those born at health facility (public/private) were more likely to be taken to any type of HCP during illness. Among enabling factors, as compared to poorer household, wealthier households were 2.5 times more likely to choose private HCPs for any illness. Children in rural areas were likely to be taken to any type of HCP for diarrhea but rural children were less likely to utilize private HCP for fever/cough. ‘Need’ factors i.e. children having severe symptoms were 2–3 times more likely to be taken to any type of HCP. Conclusion Private HCPs were preferred for treatment of childhood illnesses. Involvement of private HCPs may be considered while planning child health programs. Health insurance scheme for childhood illnesses may to protect economically weaker sections from out-of-pocket health

  5. Development of a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Chinese immigrants to the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Christine ML; Napoles, Anna M; Chou, Jeyling; Seligman, Hilary K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Design In the current qualitative study, we (i) highlight methodological challenges which arise in developing survey instruments that will be used to make comparisons across language groups and (ii) describe the development of a Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module, called the San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module. Setting Community sites in San Francisco, CA, USA. Subjects We conducted cognitive interviews with twenty-two community members recruited from community sites hosting food pantries and with five professionals recruited from clinical settings. Results Development of conceptually equivalent surveys can be difficult. We highlight challenges related to dialect, education, literacy (e.g. preferences for more or less formal phrasing), English words and phrases for which there is no Chinese language equivalent (e.g. ‘balanced meals’ and ‘eat less than you felt you should’) and response formats. We selected final translations to maximize: (i) consistency of the Chinese translation with the intent of the English version; (ii) clarity; and (iii) similarities in understanding across dialects and literacy levels. Conclusions Survey translation is essential for conducting research in many communities. The challenges encountered illustrate how literal translations can affect the conceptual equivalence of survey items across languages. Cognitive interview methods should be routinely used for survey translation when such non-equivalence is suspected, such as in surveys addressing highly culturally bound behaviours such as diet and eating behaviours. Literally translated surveys lacking conceptual equivalence may magnify or obscure important health inequalities. PMID:24642365

  6. Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1) accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access) to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2) the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs), and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates) to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge

  7. 76 FR 60063 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the regulation ``Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I'' (August 29, 2011, 76 FR..., etc.). Health Information (e.g., communicable disease, physical or mental disorder, prostitution,...

  8. 78 FR 20680 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... FR 70739). USCIS is the component of DHS that oversees immigration benefit requests from foreign... Information (e.g., vaccinations, referrals, communicable disease, physical or mental disorder,...

  9. Health and medical care among the children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Kalil, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n=46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household citizenship and immigration status. The findings show that children residing in households with non-naturalized citizen parents, particularly those with a nonpermanent resident parent, experience worse health and less access to care even when controlling for important demographic, socioeconomic, and health insurance variables. PMID:22966918

  10. Household energy conservation: a review of the federal residential conservation service

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1984-09-01

    Most electric and gas utilities provide free or low-cost energy audits to their residential customers, usually as part of the federal Residential Conservations Service (RCS). RCS programs in the few states where competent evaluations were done show incremental energy savings for participants of approximately 3.5 percent. Assessing the economic worth of RCS programs is particularly difficult (and very site-specific) because of factors such as future fuel prices, differences between marginal and average fuel prices, discount rates, and differences in how programs are implemented. The meager evidence on RCS program cost-effectiveness suggests that the economic benefits are generally small. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. 31 CFR 542.521 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Syria or an entity in Syria. (c) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to persons in Syria in connection with the filing of an individual's application for the visa categories listed in... academic institutions are authorized to export services to Syria for the filing and processing...

  12. Keeping up with Changes in Laws Affecting Immigrants. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 20. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses keeping up with changes in laws affecting immigrants. Its objective is to teach students to track the legal framework that affects immigrants' lives and to build problem-solving…

  13. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  14. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... software being released is designated as EAR99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts... forth in 15 CFR 734.9; (3) The release does not otherwise require a license from the Department of.... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in...

  15. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... software being released is designated as EAR99 under the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR parts... forth in 15 CFR 734.9; (3) The release does not otherwise require a license from the Department of.... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in...

  16. Improving Immigrants' Access to Public Services in the United States: Language Access Policy and Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Language access mandates in the USA, which require that governmental services be provided in any needed language, have been largely ignored since their first enacting. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the number of national, state, and local efforts to accommodate limited English-proficient individuals. This article provides an…

  17. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres. PMID:26950568

  18. 76 FR 70739 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... the regulation ``Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I'' (August 29, 2011, 76 FR... armed groups; work in penal or detention systems, weapons distribution, combat training, etc.) Health Information (e.g., vaccinations, referrals, communicable disease, physical or mental disorder,...

  19. Immigrant Education in Sweden: Lessons for America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Farber, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Although state services for immigrants are quite generous, immigrant communities have struggled, socially and economically, to enter mainstream Swedish society. A growing sense of transgenerational isolation is evident. Education of immigrant children is characterized by "negative tolerance" and lack of bilingual support. Conceptions of…

  20. Primary Health Care Needs of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This report constitutes the response by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) to 1977 and 1978 Congressional directives to assess immigrants' access to health care and the impact of immigrants on public health services and resources. Areas covered in the report are: (1) the primary health care needs of immigrants, including…

  1. Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Julian L.

    This report contains economic and demographic facts related to immigration, but it does not advocate any position or ideology nor make any judgments about whether immigrants should receive government services. When possible, data are presented as graphs. A review of the facts makes it apparent that the rate of U.S. immigration in the 1990s is…

  2. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  3. Mental health of immigrants and refugees.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Pumariega, Joanne B

    2005-10-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs of our new immigrant populations, as well as treatment and services approaches to address their unique needs. PMID:16142540

  4. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  5. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  6. 75 FR 28035 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20529. For privacy issues please contact: Mary Ellen Callahan (703-235... Image Storage and Retrieval System (ISRS). If the employee is a non-immigrant, E-Verify queries the Form... the employee getting a TNC but the employee did not try to resolve the issue with SSA or DHS and...

  7. Issues Relating to Women's Immigration Status. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 8. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on issues related to women's immigration status. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  8. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  9. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  10. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  11. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  12. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry ...

  13. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials. PMID:20568574

  14. Integrating Water Treatment into Antenatal Care: Impact on Use of Maternal Health Services and Household Water Treatment by Mothers-Rural Uganda, 2013.

    PubMed

    Matanock, Almea; Anderson, Tara; Ayers, Tracy; Likicho, Lilian; Wamimbi, Richard; Lu, Xin; Emeetai, Thomas; Kakande, Celia; Mutabazi, Miriam; Quick, Robert

    2016-05-01

    To increase maternal health service use and household water treatment (HWT), free water treatment kits were provided at first antenatal care (ANC) visits and free water treatment sachet refills were provided at follow-up ANC visits, delivery, and postnatal visits in 46 health facilities in rural Uganda. We evaluated the impact by surveying 226 women in the initiative (intervention group) and 207 women who received ANC before the initiative began (comparison group). There was no differences in the percentages of intervention and comparison group women with ≥ 4 ANC visits; however, a higher percentage of intervention group women reported treating their drinking water (31.7% versus 19.7%, P = 0.01), and had free chlorine residual in stored water (13.5% versus 3.4%, P = 0.02) than comparison group women. The intervention did not appear to motivate increased maternal health service use, but demonstrated improvements in HWT. PMID:27001758

  15. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  16. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  17. 75 FR 54528 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository... pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 for the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services- 012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository System of Records system of records and this proposed...

  18. Public assistance receipt among immigrants and natives: how the unit of analysis affects research findings.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, J; Glick, J E; Bean, F D

    1999-02-01

    Differences between immigrant and native households in rates of welfare receipt depend on nativity differences in individual-level rates of receipt, in household size, in mean number of recipients in receiving households, and in household nativity composition. We present algebraic derivations of these relationships and use data from the 1990 and 1991 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine empirically the extent to which levels of welfare receipt for immigrants and natives are sensitive to the use of household-, family-, or individual-level units of analysis or presentation. The findings show that nativity differences are statistically significant only at the level of larger units. The results also indicate that if immigrants and natives had identical living arrangements, immigrants' household-level receipt of Supplemental Security Income would significantly exceed natives' receipt even more than it actually does, but the nativity difference in receipt of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) would reverse directions. Moreover, the level of AFDC receipt of immigrant households falls significantly below that of native households when native-born children living in households headed by immigrants are treated as if they were foreign born. PMID:10036596

  19. Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

  20. Two Decades of Immigration: Has the Sky Fallen Yet? Pat Brown Institute of Public Affairs State of Immigration Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modarres, Ali

    This report provides a demographic analysis of immigration to the United States and California, using information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service annual reports and digital database for 1990-98. It features details on the Asian immigrant population for the 1990s. From 1820-1998, about 62 million immigrants came to America. Nearly…

  1. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  2. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  3. The Economics of U.S. Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The economic gains from immigration are much like those from international trade: The economy benefits overall from immigration, but there are distributional effects that create both winners and losers. Immigration is different from trade, however, in that the physical presence of the people who provide the goods and services that drive the…

  4. The Economic Effects of Immigration: Specification of a Model. Impacts of Immigration in California, Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Frank

    Many of the arguments behind efforts to reform this nations's immigration laws allege that immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, take jobs away from native workers, depress wages, and receive public services valued in excess of their tax contributions. To provide a basis for appraising these economic arguments, this paper presents a model for…

  5. CONTACT WITH HEALTH-CARE SERVICE EXPECTATION AND REALITY OF SITUATION EXPERIENCED BY IMMIGRANTS SEEKING SWEDISH HEALTH-CARE

    PubMed Central

    Krupic, Ferid; Sadic, Sahmir; Fatahi, Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate how immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo experienced contact with Swedish health-care regarding meeting with health-care professionals. Material and Methods: Eighteen participants, nine men and nine women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo participated in focus group interviews (FGI). Data were collected from April 2013 to April 2014 through three group interviews using open-ended questions. A qualitative approach, incorporating a critical incident technique (CIT) was used. Results: The findings highlighted patient’s negative experiences regarding the Swedish health care system. Their main complaints concerned delayed ambulances, lack of doctors in outpatient clinics, long journeys to the hospital and long waiting time at the emergency department. Lack of information about the disease, difficulties seeing a doctor in the department, poor language skills and insufficient interpreters were some of other difficulties that mentioned by participants. Conclusions: In order to provide satisfactory health care to patient with different ethnic backgrounds, it is important to be aware of their vulnerable situation and their limit capacity to express their needs. This research could be a starting point in developing strategies for reducing ethnicity-based misunderstandings and inequalities in the health-care system. PMID:27147923

  6. For Love of Family and Family Values: How Immigrant Motivations Can Inform Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacenti, David

    2009-01-01

    This article consists of more than fifty interviews with Spanish and Yucatec-Mayan men from Yucatan, Mexico, to the United States. Based on interview responses, I contend that Yucatec-Mayan immigrants support Jeffrey Cohen's (2004) "household model" and use a ch'i'ibal-centered, or family-centered, decision-making process to frame leaving and…

  7. Household after-tax income: 1985.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1987-06-01

    This report is the 6th in a series presenting estimates of household after-tax income and taxes paid by households. Data from the 1983 Annual Housing Survey, the Income Survey Development Program, and the Internal Revenue Service were combined with the March 1986 Current Population Survey data to derive the estimates shown in this report. Highlights of the data follow. 1) Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by .9% over the 1984 figure after accounting for the 3.6% rise in consumer prices. The mean after-tax incomes of both white households ($23,480) and black households ($15,790) increased from 1984 to 1985. Hispanic household income ($17,920) showed no signicant change. 2) Mean after-tax income is highest in the West ($24,350); households in the Northeast had the largest increase in mean after-tax income for the period 1980-1985 (10.9%). 3) Mean after-tax incomes increased from 1984-1985 for married-couple family households with children to $28,390 and for female-maintained family households with no husband present to $13,090. There was no significant change among married-couple family households without children ($27,710). 4) Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased between 1984 and 1985 by 1.3% after adjusting for inflation. 5) Household paid an average of $6950 in taxes in 1985, $170 higher than the average taxes paid in 1984 after adjusting for price changes. 6) In 1985, 65% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study. Taxes paid by poverty households amounted to 8% of the total money income received. 7) The average % of income paid in taxes ranged from 11% for households with incomes $10,000 to 29% for households with incomes of $50,000+. PMID:12268943

  8. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  9. 76 FR 60070 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... distribution, combat training, etc.). Health Information (e.g., communicable disease, physical or mental... FR 53764) to allow for USCIS to transition to an electronic environment. This regulation will assist... the requirements of the INA, to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Centers...

  10. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  11. Housing Adjustment among Immigrants in Israel: Application of Complementary Non-Metric and Metric Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebhun, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    This study applies two different complementary statistical techniques to examine the structure and determinants of homeownership and consumption of household goods among immigrants in Israel. Findings from partial-order analysis (POSAC) reveal significant differences between immigrant groups by type, rather than level, of household…

  12. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  13. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities. PMID:21643725

  14. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  15. The Effect of Household and Community on School Attrition: An Analysis of Thai Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2012-01-01

    We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…

  16. Health care utilization by immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare utilization studies show how well documented disparities between migrants and non-migrants. Reducing such disparities is a major goal in European countries. However, healthcare utilization among Italian immigrants is under-studied. The objective of this study is to explore differences in healthcare use between immigrant and native Italians. Cross-sectional study using the latest available (2004/2005) Italian Health Conditions Survey. We estimated separate hurdle binomial negative regression models for GP, specialist, and telephone consultations and a logit model for emergency room (ER) use. We used logistic regression and zero-truncated negative binomial regression to model the zero (contact decision) and count processes (frequency decisions) respectively. Adjusting for risk factors, immigrants are significantly less likely to use healthcare services with 2.4 and 2.7 % lower utilization probability for specialist and telephone consultations, respectively. First- and second-generation immigrants' probability for specialist and telephone contact is significantly lower than natives'. Immigrants, ceteris paribus, have a much higher probability of using ERs than natives (0.7 %). First-generation immigrants show a higher probability of visiting ERs (1 %). GP visits show no significant difference. In conclusion Italian immigrants are much less likely to use specialist healthcare and medical telephone consultations than natives but more likely to use ERs. Hence, we report an over-use of ERs and under-utilization of preventive care among immigrants. We recommend improved health policies for immigrants: promotion of better information dissemination among them, simplification of organizational procedures, better communications between providers and immigrants, and an increased supply of health services for the most disadvantaged populations. PMID:23239018

  17. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  18. NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRATION AND NATIVE OUT-MIGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Kyle; Hall, Matthew; Tolnay, Stewart E.

    2011-01-01

    This study combines data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with data from four censuses to examine the effects of foreign-born populations in the immediate neighborhood of residence and surrounding neighborhoods on the residential mobility decisions of native-born black and white householders. We find that the likelihood of out-mobility for native householders is significantly and positively associated with the relative size of, and increases in, the immigrant population in the neighborhood. Consistent with theoretical arguments related to the distance dependence of mobility, large concentrations of immigrants in surrounding areas reduce native out-mobility, presumably by reducing the attractiveness of the most likely mobility destinations. A sizable share of local immigration effects can be explained by the mobility-related characteristics of native-born individuals living in immigrant-populated areas, but the racial composition of the neighborhood (for native whites) and local housing market conditions (for native blacks) also are important mediating factors. The implications of these patterns for processes of neighborhood change and broader patterns of residential segregation are discussed. PMID:21731082

  19. Emergency Immigrant Education Program (EIEP), 1996-97. Research Report on an Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Accountability.

    Services for immigrant students in the Houston Independent School District (Texas) are provided under provisions of the Emergency Immigrant Education Assistance Act. The implementation of these services was evaluated for the 1996-97 school year. A total of 20,558 eligible immigrant students were identified in the school district's database for…

  20. Mental-Health Aid for Immigrant Children Lags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    As educators and experts assess the quality of student mental-health services in light of the deadly shootings last April 16, the Virginia Tech gunman's immigrant background is focusing attention on what immigration workers say is a lack of services tailored to such groups. Mental-health professionals say that, in general, even school districts…

  1. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Randy

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. This report presents characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2001. Information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data collected by the federal Food and Nutrition Service for quality…

  2. The Mutual Relationship Between Immigrants' Disrupted Everyday Activities and Their Health: A Grounded Theory of Experiences of Korean Immigrants Settling in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hagyun; Hocking, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For Asian immigrants, immigration has the potential to disrupt all familiar routines. That is a threat to their health and well-being. This grounded theory study explored how immigrants adjust to a new environment by analyzing the experiences of 25 Korean immigrants in New Zealand. The findings suggest that immigration is a stress-inducing phenomenon that requires adjustment of valued activities and adversely affects their health. In response, participants worked on regaining control over disrupted activities by opting for two world perspectives. The study helps social workers to develop effective interventions and services for immigrants to better handle health problems. PMID:26954511

  3. Behavioral and Environmental Explanations of Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Stan A; Perlstadt, Harry; Dziura, James D; Post, Lori A

    2016-10-01

    Immigrant/refugee children sometimes have substantially higher blood lead levels (BLLs) than US-born children in similar environments. We try to understand why, by exploring the relationship between immigration status of mother and the BLLs of US-born children. We compared BLLs of children born in Michigan to immigrant and non-immigrant parents, using the Michigan database of BLL tests for 2002-2005, which includes the child's race, Medicaid eligibility and address. We added census data on socio-demographic/housing characteristics of the child's block group, and information about parents. Low parental education, single parent households, mothers' smoking and drinking, all increase the child's BLL. However, immigrant parents had fewer characteristics associated with high BLL than US born parents, and their children had lower BLLs than children of US-born mothers. Our findings suggest that prior findings of higher BLLs among immigrant/refugee children probably result from them starting life in high-lead environments. PMID:26163335

  4. Family Functioning and Early Learning Practices in Immigrant Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…

  5. A Scoping Review of Immigrant Experience of Health Care Access Barriers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalich, Angela; Heinemann, Lyn; Ghahari, Setareh

    2016-06-01

    Canadian population-based surveys report comparable access to health care services between immigrant and non-immigrant populations, yet other research reports immigrant-specific access barriers. A scoping review was conducted to explore research regarding Canadian immigrants' unique experiences in accessing health care, and was guided by the research question: "What is currently known about the barriers that adult immigrants face when accessing Canadian health care services?" The findings of this study suggest that there are unmet health care access needs specific to immigrants to Canada. In reviewing research of immigrants' health care experiences, the most common access barriers were found to be language barriers, barriers to information, and cultural differences. These findings, in addition to low cultural competency reported by interviewed health care workers in the reviewed articles, indicate inequities in access to Canadian health care services for immigrant populations. Suggestions for future research and programming are discussed. PMID:26093784

  6. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  7. Leaving no children or families outside: the challenges of immigration.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andres J; Rothe, Eugenio

    2010-10-01

    This study addresses potentially stressful events that accompany the process of immigration for children and their families. Acculturation stress, combined with service disparities, may contribute to a higher risk for psychopathology among immigrant children and youth, as compared to their parents. Culturally informed, evidence-based treatment and preventive interventions that meet the mental health and cultural needs of immigrant children and families have the potential to minimize this higher risk of adverse mental health consequences. PMID:20950291

  8. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  9. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  10. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Macera, Margherita; Sagnelli, Caterina; Zampino, Rosa; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million people chronically infected and 600000 deaths per year due to acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitis or, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration from countries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a low HBV endemicity warrants particular attention to prevent the spread of HBV infection to the native population. This review article analyzes the epidemiology and virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in immigrant populations and in their host countries, and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of this infection. Among the immigrants from different geographical areas, those from South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, in accordance with the high endemicity of the countries of origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants reflect those of the geographical areas of origin: HBV genotype A and D predominate in immigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those from Asia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literature data on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAg-positive immigrants are scanty. The management of HBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult and requires expert personnel and dedicated structures for their assistance. The social services, voluntary operators and cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimized psychological and clinical intervention. PMID:26730274

  12. Assessing the impact of a nurse-delivered home dried blood spot service on uptake of testing for household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women across two London trusts.

    PubMed

    Keel, P; Edwards, G; Flood, J; Nixon, G; Beebeejaun, K; Shute, J; Poh, J; Millar, A; Ijaz, S; Parry, J; Mandal, S; Ramsay, M; Amirthalingam, G

    2016-07-01

    Despite national guidance recommending testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women, provision and uptake of this is sub-optimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in-home dried blood spot (DBS) testing to increase testing and vaccination of household contacts of hepatitis B-infected pregnant women as an alternative approach to conventional primary-care follow-up. The study was conducted across two London maternity trusts (North Middlesex and Newham). All hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women identified through these trusts were eligible for inclusion. The intervention of in-home DBS testing for household contacts was introduced at North Middlesex Trust from November 2010 to December 2011. Data on testing and vaccination uptake from GP records across the two trusts were compared between baseline (2009) and intervention (2010-2011) periods. In-home DBS service increased testing uptake for all ages (P < 0·001) with the biggest impact seen in partners, where testing increased from 30·3% during the baseline period to 96·6% during the intervention period in North Middlesex Trust. Although impact on vaccine uptake was less marked, improvements were observed for adults. The provision of nurse-led home-based DBS may be useful in areas of high prevalence. PMID:26833270

  13. Immigrants and refugees: the psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, J David

    2006-12-01

    Psychiatric studies of immigrants have yielded contradictory findings regarding rates of mental illness. Current evidence suggests that rates of schizophrenia (and probably other disorders) among immigrant groups are low compared with native-born populations when sending and receiving countries are socially and culturally similar. The rates for immigrants are higher when sending and receiving countries are dissimilar, probably because of multiple social problems faced by immigrants in the receiving country. Refugees who flee their own country because of fears of violence or starvation often have had extremely traumatic experiences, which may result in PTSD and sometimes chronic impairment. Asylum seekers who arrive illegally to seek refuge in a foreign country also may have multiple traumas and experience further distress from their uncertain residency and legal status. Although much is known about the effects of migration, competent culturally sensitive services for migrants remain inadequate to meet the need. PMID:17166947

  14. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  15. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  16. On the Borders: The Arrival of Irregular Immigrants in Malta--Some Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the issue of the continual arrival of irregular immigrants in Malta and the problems that ensue. The view generally held is that we need to respond to the needs of irregular immigrants by providing services. However, with reference to some of Jacques Derrida's ideas, I argue in this paper that the "other"/immigrant is not there…

  17. Stemming the Red Tide: Free Speech and Immigration Policy in the Case of Margaret Randall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Examines the conflict between the First Amendment and immigration policy and law (particularly the 1952 McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act), as seen in the case against Margaret Randall (an alien facing deportation from the U.S. because of her pro-leftist writings) by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. (SR)

  18. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5 Pre-immigration trusts. (a)...

  19. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  20. 22 CFR 40.34 - Immigrant membership in totalitarian party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... political party or organization in power at the time of such service. (d) Voluntary Membership After Age 16... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immigrant membership in totalitarian party. 40... § 40.34 Immigrant membership in totalitarian party. (a) Definition of affiliate. The term affiliate,...

  1. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  2. Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

  3. Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment? Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    This paper examines the determinants and consequences of immigrant/linguistic concentrations (enclaves), discussing reasons for the formation of those concentrations. It develops hypotheses regarding "ethnic goods" (market and non-market goods and services consumed by members of an immigrant/ethnic group that are not consumed by others), the…

  4. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon

    2016-01-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  5. Household Budgets as a Social Indicator of Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Johan H.

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a universally accepted method of calculating poverty, household expenditure can be used to provide an indication of inequality of wealth and serve as an indicator of poverty. Household expenditure comprises expenditure of private households on goods and services, irrespective of their durability. The portion of household budgets…

  6. Immigrants' Pathways to Outpatient Mental Health: Are there Differences with the Native Population?

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Gambaro, Eleonora; Rossi, Annalisa; Toso, Alessandra; Feggi, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Castignoli, Giorgio; Mainini, Piera; Tarricone, Ilaria; Torre, Eugenio; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    A poor use of mental health services has been described in immigrants. We compared the sociodemographic, clinical and treatment features of immigrants and natives attending a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC). 191 immigrants and 191 randomly selected natives applying to the Borgomanero CMHC between 1 January 2003 and 31 August 2013 were compared. Our sample consisted mainly of the so-called "economic" immigrant. Adjustment disorders and reaction to stress were the most frequent diagnoses; in most cases symptoms onset occurred after migration. Although treatment features overlapped in the two groups (duration, number of contacts), immigrants showed a higher frequency of treatment dropout. While it is necessary to improve access to mental health services for immigrants, for the "economic" immigrant it may be more important to focus on establishing a therapeutic relationship that can be experienced as reliable and trustworthy. The finding of similar pathways to access the CMHC in natives and immigrants is encouraging. PMID:26705107

  7. [Tuberculosis infection and disease in immigrant children].

    PubMed

    Giacchino, Raffaella; di Martino, Lucio; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Pisanti, Antonello

    2003-06-01

    From the second half of the eighties, the cases of tuberculosis (TBC) in Italy have been constantly increasing. The increase in TBC cases in developed countries is related to different factors, including HIV epidemic and increased number of immigrants from countries with high TBC incidence and important socio-economic problems. Compared with adults few children with TBC were homeless or coinfected with HIV, nonetheless the children lived frequently in low socioeconomic status and consequently high risk of being uninsured and with adults at risk for tuberculosis (immediate relative, household members, or recently immigrated). An epidemiologic study was carried out, in order to evaluate the impact of TBC infection in immigrant children. From January 2001 to December 2002, Mantoux test (5 IU) was performed in immigrant children hospitalized or followed in two children hospitals. They included 228 children: mean age 4 years (range 1 month to 15 years). The patients came from: South America (44%) (especially from Ecuador), from Africa (20%), from Eastern Europe (19%), (especially from Middle East and North Africa), from Far East (17%). In 30 cases (13,2%) Mantoux test was positive. Among these latter, 21 presented latent infection, whereas another 9 had tuberculous disease with pulmonary localization and one of them associated with cervical adenopathy. In the study period, among all children (4426) admitted the two Units, the prevalence of tuberculous disease was 2,5% in immigrant children compared 0.2% in native children. Accurate epidemiologic monitoring, further clinical studies aimed at highlighting TBC peculiar aspects in children, and adequate therapy can lead to TBC control in the immigrant children. PMID:15020852

  8. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants' residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans' and Central Americans' prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  9. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  10. Evaluating the Impact of Immigration Policies on Health Status Among Undocumented Immigrants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D.; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations. PMID:24375382

  11. Household health care facility utilization in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Herrin, A N; Pons, M C

    This paper presents probit estimates of household utilization of health care facilities in the Philippines. Using household data from the 1987 National Health Survey and supply data from the Department of Health, separate probit equations are estimated for each of the four major types of facilities in the Philippines: Public hospitals, private hospitals, major rural health units and barangay (village) health stations. The probability that a household will utilize services from these facilities is estimated as a function of socioeconomic, demographic and supply variables. The results indicate substantial differences in utilization patterns by income class. Households in the highest income quartile are approximately twice as likely (0.451 versus 0.236) to utilize private hospital services vis-à-vis households in the lowest income quartile, ceteris paribus. The results also indicate substantial substitution between public and private services. An increase in the availability of private hospital beds significantly reduces the probability that a household will utilize government facilities. PMID:10050192

  12. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  13. [Medical emergencies in the adult immigrant].

    PubMed

    Junyent, M; Núñez, S; Miró, O

    2006-01-01

    The need for medical care of the immigrant population is growing in proportion to the increase in the number of immigrants resident in Spain. This article reviews the socio-demographic characteristics of the immigrant population that come for consultations in the emergency services and discusses those particularities, both medical (neurocysticercosis, tuberculosis, infection by the AIDS virus, hepatitis, malaria, parasitosis, Ulysses syndrome) and paramedical (knowledge of the health card, concept of medicine, language barrier), that differentiate them from the native population. Nonetheless, since we are dealing with a young population that is in principle healthy, their reasons for consultation do not greatly differ from the general population. It is worth drawing attention to the high level of satisfaction of this population with the care afforded them in the hospital emergency services. PMID:16721415

  14. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  15. Immigration Statistics. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (October 10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    This document provides a transcript of a hearing of the House Subcommittee on Census and Population which focused on immigration statistics and ways of improving the methods of accounting for all immigrants. Prepared statements were presented by four witnesses: (1) Daniel B. Levine, the director of the Panel on Immigrations Statistics, who…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  17. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Hosiery shops. Hotels. Household appliance stores. Household furniture storage and moving establishments. Household refrigerator service and repair shops. Infants' wear shops. Jewelry stores. Liquor stores....

  18. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Hosiery shops. Hotels. Household appliance stores. Household furniture storage and moving establishments. Household refrigerator service and repair shops. Infants' wear shops. Jewelry stores. Liquor stores....

  19. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Hosiery shops. Hotels. Household appliance stores. Household furniture storage and moving establishments. Household refrigerator service and repair shops. Infants' wear shops. Jewelry stores. Liquor stores....

  20. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Hosiery shops. Hotels. Household appliance stores. Household furniture storage and moving establishments. Household refrigerator service and repair shops. Infants' wear shops. Jewelry stores. Liquor stores....

  1. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  2. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  3. [Household economy and gender differences in international migration: a case study of Bolivians in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Balan, J

    1990-01-01

    The author analyzes household economy and sex differentials among Bolivian immigrants in Argentina. "While male Bolivian (mainly from Cochabamba) immigrants come to Argentina in search of better job opportunities, female immigration does not result generally from an individual decision, but from the adjustment to family, implying a loss in status and independence as compared to their place of origin. Job opportunities for Bolivian female workers are reduced mainly on account of their poor literacy levels; thus they often work for very low wages, deprived of any social benefits." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342978

  4. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children’s education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China. PMID:20835379

  5. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  6. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  7. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  8. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  9. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They Come,"…

  10. Immigrants and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    The ways in which educators and schools in the United States have responded to the children of immigrants are explored, and the patterns, causes, and consequences of educational outcomes on immigrants are reviewed. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of historians and social scientists. Results of scholarship…

  11. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of Mexican-American…

  12. Immigrants in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suarez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and…

  13. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Mitigation by Alternative Household Wastewater Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain ...

  15. Household transitions in the migrations of Dominicans and Colombians to New York.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, G; Gurak, D T

    1992-01-01

    "Using life history survey data, we examined the correlates of change in the composition of Dominican and Colombian immigrant co-residential households [in New York City] at three points in time--prior to migration, just after migration and at the time of the survey. We found that there is considerable heterogeneity in the patterns of household transitions, although the majority of both Dominican and Colombian households at the time of the survey were nuclear family households. Dominican women tended to have made transitions into single-parent households by the time of the survey. Background and migration characteristics influence the pattern of household transitions, but fail to explain the ethnic and gender differences." PMID:12285044

  16. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  17. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  18. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  19. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says. "The hot-button issue became…

  20. Help-seeking rates for intimate partner violence (IPV) among Canadian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Forte, Tonia; Mont, Janice Du; Romans, Sarah; Cohen, Marsha M

    2006-09-01

    We examined rates of help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent (0-9 years in Canada) and non-recent (10+ years in Canada) immigrant women. Data from a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey were used. Help-seeking variables included disclosure of IPV, reporting IPV to police, use of social services subsequent to IPV, and barriers to social service use. Recent immigrant women, compared with non-recent immigrant women, were significantly more likely to report IPV to police and less likely to use social services. Findings have important implications for prevention and detection of IPV in immigrant communities and in future research. PMID:16893805

  1. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social services.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Williamson, David F

    2002-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages a woman's physical and mental well-being, and indicates that her children are likely to experience abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences. Adult HMO members completed a questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. We used their responses to retrospectively assess the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence and experiencing any of the 9 ACEs and multiple ACEs (ACE score). Compared to persons who grew up with no domestic violence, the adjusted odds ratio for any individual ACE was approximately two to six times higher if IPV occurred (p < 0.05). There was a powerful graded increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. In addition, the total number of ACEs was increased dramatically for persons who had witnessed IPV during childhood. There was a positive graded risk for self-reported alcoholism, illicit drug use, i.v. drug use and depressed affect as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. Identification of victims of IPV must include screening of their children for abuse, neglect and other types of adverse exposures, as well as recognition that substance abuse and depressed affect are likely consequences of witnessing IPV. Finally, this data strongly suggest that future studies, which focus on the effect of witnessing IPV on long-term health outcomes, may need to take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple ACEs, which can also affect these outcomes. PMID:11991154

  2. One century of foreign immigration to the United States: 1880-1979.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A W

    1985-09-01

    Due to declining fertility rates and increased numbers of immigrants, legal foreign immigration now comprises 1/4 of the US's annual population growth. This article uses 1900-1979 Immigration and Naturalization Service data on immigrants' intended destination to examine immigration policy and its effect on immigrants and the American people. From the US's beginnings to the 1880s, immigrants came mainly from Great Britain, Germany, and other Northern and Western European countries, in the 1890s; over 70% of immigrants came from Italy, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and Germany. Immigration had peaked at over 1 million persons a year at the outbreak of World War I, then declined sharply, and rose again greatly during the first 2 decades of the 20th Century. The first significant legislation to restrict ethnic groups was in the early 1880s with the Chinese Exclusion Act; In 1924, Congress passed the 2nd Immigration and Naturalization Act which used the 1890 census to set quotas for ethnic groups, and later used the 1920 census to fix quotas in the national origins system; both pieces of legislation favored Northern and Western Europeans. Immigration declined drastically during the 1930s and early 1940s, but the Displaced Persons Act, the War Brides Act, and 1950s legislation allowed more Asian refugees and some other ethnic groups to enter the country. The nationality origins quotas were eliminated in 1965, and were followed by dramatic changes in immigration character as persons from formerly low quota nations flooded into the US. 1976 and 1978 legislation made immigration still more equitable, and the Refugee Act of 1980 allowed admittance of 50,000 refugees with no regard for geographic or ideological biases. A preference system, in operation since 1924, has favored relatives of citizens and immigrants with certain skills. Females presently outnumber male immigrants, average immigrant age is 26.2 years, and over 1/2 of the immigrants since 1950 have been housewives

  3. [Antenatal care in immigrants].

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Coll, C; Coloma, M; Martín, J I; Padrón, E; González González, N L

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of immigration has had an impact on the health care of the population. The immigrant population in Spain today represents approximately 8% of the total population. The majority of this population proceeds from countries with low income, and its origin and distribution is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups. PMID:16721417

  4. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants. PMID:15693224

  5. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  6. Household instability and self-regulation among poor children

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that poverty may negatively influence children’s psychological and behavioral health by increasing their exposure to chaotic living conditions in the household. The present study provides a descriptive ‘snapshot’ of instability in low-income households, and examines the associations between exposure to major destabilizing events over the course of a year and three domains of poor urban children’s self-regulation. Descriptive analyses suggest that although caregivers from unstable households report higher average levels of health problems and depression, they also have greater assets/savings, are more educated, and are less likely to be immigrants than caregivers from stable households. Results of propensity score-matched regression analyses reveal that high levels of household instability are significantly and negatively associated with preschoolers’ effortful control and global attention/impulsivity control, but not with their executive function. Children from mildly unstable homes (i.e., those who had experienced a single destabilizing event in the past year) showed no significant differences in any domain of self-regulation relative to their peers from stable households, suggesting a dose-response relationship between the number of destabilizing events experienced by children and their outcomes. Implications for theories of poverty-related adversity, stress, and parenting are discussed in addition to future directions for research. PMID:26924923

  7. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. PMID:12289341

  8. Immigration and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D T

    1986-05-01

    "This paper aims to provide an overview of immigration and ageing, and to highlight some implications of the numbers and characteristics of the immigrant elderly for the development of policies for aged care [in Australia]. Particular attention is given to the issues of demographic ageing, family support and institutionalisation." The author uses data from recent official and other published sources to examine the elderly immigrant population by birthplace and racial origin, sex, proportion institutionalized, and proportion handicapped. It is found that "insufficient recognition of the widespread lack of fluency in English among the ethnic minority aged is the greatest obstacle to achieving adequate provision for their needs." PMID:12268076

  9. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  10. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings. PMID:20438174

  11. NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE (NHSDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey has been conducted since 1971 and serves as the primary source of information on the prevalence and incidence of illicit drug, al...

  12. 76 FR 9034 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... adverse notification from employers. E-Verify Self Check provides a vehicle for an individual to... Citizenship and Immigration Services--DHS/USCIS--013 E-Verify Self Check System of Records AGENCY: Privacy... Immigration Services--SORN DHS/USCIS--013 E-Verify Self Check System of Records.'' The U.S. Citizenship...

  13. Reaching Out to America's Immigrants: Community Health Advisors and Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To describe clinical services and health communication needs for recent immigrants. Methods: A review of relevant health behavior and policy research published in the past 20 years was conducted. Results: Health coverage for primary care, prenatal and safety net services needs to be continued for all immigrants. Legislative bodies should…

  14. Development of a Culturally Specific Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2007-01-01

    A rapid increase in the number of Chinese immigrants and the specific challenges faced by low-income Chinese immigrant youth attending urban schools warrant culturally sensitive school-based interventions and services. However, research and services are limited for this population because of cultural biases in traditional career theories and the…

  15. Formulating Social Policy vis-a-vis Immigrants: Win-Win or Zero-Sum Game?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed

    This paper examines the effectiveness of social services provided to Mexican immigrants in rural California. In addition, the paper offers recommendations for service delivery models and for rethinking the objectives of immigrant social policy. At the most basic level, current social program planning and associated analyses of policy options fail…

  16. Changing Household Dynamics: Children's American Generational Resources in Street Vending Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Emir

    2013-01-01

    This article prompts a re-visioning of segmented assimilation theory by examining the household dynamics and consequences that occur when Latino immigrant children and youth become active contributors to family street vending businesses. Based on participant observation and 20 in-depth interviews with Latino children who work with their immigrant…

  17. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and

  18. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  19. Vietnamese, Laotian, Ethiopian, & Former Soviet Union Refugees in Texas. Findings from the Texas Refugee Study. Texas Office of Immigration & Refugee Affairs, Texas Department of Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric H.; Barton, Lisa S.

    The Texas Refugee Study was initiated to collect valid and reliable information to better direct refugee policy, improve services to refugees, give service providers information to help them become more competitive in seeking federal and private dollars, and help refugees better understand their own communities. The targeted groups, Vietnamese,…

  20. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field. PMID:25929014

  1. Perceptions of mental health among recently immigrated Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006

  2. A Nation of Immigrants: A Call for a Specialization in Immigrant Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, David W.; Okamura, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary challenges serving immigrants and their communities require a reexamination of social services, social work practice, and social work curricula, as millions of people, particularly from non-European countries, have come to the United States in the last 40 years. Social work must develop a new field of specialization that addresses the…

  3. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  4. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  5. Native out-migration and neighborhood immigration in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to three decades of census data on immigrant settlement patterns, this study examines how the migration behaviors of native-born whites and blacks are related to local immigrant concentrations, and how this relationship varies across traditional and nontraditional metropolitan gateways. Our results indicate that regardless of gateway type, the likelihood of neighborhood out-migration among natives increases as the local immigrant population grows-an association that is not explained by sociodemographic characteristics of householders or by features of the neighborhoods and metropolitan areas in which they reside. Most importantly, we find that this tendency to move away from immigrants is pronounced for natives living in metropolitan areas that are developing into a major gateway-that is, a community that has experienced rapid recent growth in foreign-born populations. We also demonstrate that among mobile natives, the neighborhoods that they move to have substantially smaller immigrant concentrations than the ones they left, a finding that is especially evident in new gateway areas. PMID:25428121

  6. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  7. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  8. Children of Immigrants: Immigration Trends. Fact Sheet No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuny, Karina; Chaudry, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of publications on children of immigrants. The series updates the Urban Institute's May 2006 fact sheet that described the characteristics of children of immigrants in the early 2000s. The current series profiles the population of children of immigrants in the United States using data from the 2007 American…

  9. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  10. New Directions in Immigration History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine S.

    1987-01-01

    Defines new directions that immigration history has taken in the 1980s, and indicates areas in which further work should be done. A variety of subjects are discussed - from recent immigration arrivals to new methods of historical data collection. (BSR)

  11. A Study of Predictors of College Completion among SEEK Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazon, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the strength of the relationship between eight situational and demographic variables and college completion among immigrant students in SEEK, an educational opportunity program. The eight variables studied as possible predictors of college completion included household composition, length of residency, English as a primary…

  12. Bilingual "Educación" in the Home: Everyday Mexican Immigrant Family Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    As we embrace the increasing numbers of young Mexican immigrant children and their families present in our schools, it is important for educators to better understand the many family educational practices present in these households. This article examines the strategies and resources utilized by two Mexican-born and two U.S.-born Mexican immigrant…

  13. Reading and Math Achievement among Low-Income Urban Latino Youth: The Role of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmannova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a household-based, stratified random sample of youth and their caregivers from low-income inner-city neighborhoods, this study examined the variability in the academic achievement of Latino youth. The results indicate a significant advantage in reading achievement for first- and second-generation immigrant youth, as compared to the…

  14. The Effect of Immigration on Religious Belief and Practice: A Theologizing or Alienating Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Higgins, Monica Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the New Immigrant Survey, we examine the religious beliefs and practices of new legal immigrants to the United States. We find that Christian immigrants are more Catholic, more Orthodox, and less Protestant than American Christians, and that those immigrants who are Protestant are more likely to be evangelical. In addition to being more Catholic and more Orthodox than American Christians, the new immigrants are also paradoxically less Christian, with a fifth reporting some other faith. Detailed analysis of reported church attendance at places of origin and in the United States suggest that immigration is a disruptive event that alienates immigrants from religious practice rather than “theologizing” them. In addition, our models clearly show that people who join congregations in the United States are highly selected and unrepresentative of the broader population of immigrants in any faith. In general, congregational members were more observant both before and after emigration, were more educated, had more cumulative experience in the United States, and were more likely to have children present in the household and be homeowners and therefore yield biased representations of all adherents to any faith. The degree of selectivity and hence bias also varies markedly both by religion and nationality. PMID:23606773

  15. The Effect of Immigration on Religious Belief and Practice: A Theologizing or Alienating Experience?

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Higgins, Monica Espinoza

    2011-09-01

    Using data from the New Immigrant Survey, we examine the religious beliefs and practices of new legal immigrants to the United States. We find that Christian immigrants are more Catholic, more Orthodox, and less Protestant than American Christians, and that those immigrants who are Protestant are more likely to be evangelical. In addition to being more Catholic and more Orthodox than American Christians, the new immigrants are also paradoxically less Christian, with a fifth reporting some other faith. Detailed analysis of reported church attendance at places of origin and in the United States suggest that immigration is a disruptive event that alienates immigrants from religious practice rather than "theologizing" them. In addition, our models clearly show that people who join congregations in the United States are highly selected and unrepresentative of the broader population of immigrants in any faith. In general, congregational members were more observant both before and after emigration, were more educated, had more cumulative experience in the United States, and were more likely to have children present in the household and be homeowners and therefore yield biased representations of all adherents to any faith. The degree of selectivity and hence bias also varies markedly both by religion and nationality. PMID:23606773

  16. Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

  17. Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2013-02-01

    A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

  18. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  19. Immigration: One of Today's Enigmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Ellen G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the issues and questions involved in the current debate on immigration policy. Discusses recent amendments to the immigration laws, closing the borders to the unskilled and poor. Outlines the four types of potentially acceptable immigration applicants and considers the economic impact of the current policy. (MJP)

  20. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed. PMID:26424425

  1. Satisfaction in Multigenerational Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindel, Charles H.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Using social exchange theory, examined satisfaction of the primary caregiver with living in a multigenerational household in 99 Midwestern families. Identified important predictors of satisfaction consisting of characteristics of the older person (indicators of dependency status, characteristics of the primary caregiver, and the situational…

  2. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  3. The Household Energy Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas W.; Jenkins, John

    The Household Energy Game has been developed to provide some indication of energy use and individual management. The game is divided into two sections. In the first section, one is to devise one's own energy budget. Energy use is calculated in the areas of transportation, heating, hot water, air conditioning, and appliances. In each of these major…

  4. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  5. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  6. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. PMID:26851978

  7. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  8. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  9. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  10. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  11. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  12. Immigration reform, American style.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status. PMID:12159575

  13. [Immigration in a country of immigration: the Canadian experience].

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, R

    1994-01-01

    "Until well after the Second World War, Canadian immigration policy favoured immigration in general, but it was characterised by ethnic and racial preferences and waves of discrimination. Only after 1962 was a less discriminatory point system...implemented which selected immigrants according to their standard of education and the demands of the Canadian labour market. This policy still indirectly favoured 'old' immigration groups. Since 1978 a new immigration law has been the basis of an annual immigration plan taking into account social, humanitarian, and economic criteria. One of its consequences has been the shift towards a greater proportion of Asian immigrants. This change has led to various tensions in the Canadian public." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320693

  14. [Health conditions of immigrant women in Italy].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lispi, L; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    The number of immigrant women in Italy has increased from 260,000 in 1991 to at least 750,000 in 2003. This article describes the health situation of these women, in particular it deals with reproductive health. Immigrant women are generally young, in good health and they go to the health services mainly for pregnancy, delivery, spontaneous and induced abortion. Forty-eight per cent of acute hospital admissions and 56 per cent of day hospital admissions in 2002 were related to reproduction. Among foreign citizens, the induced abortion rate is three times higher than that reported among Italians, while the risk of spontaneous abortion is similar (97 per thousand and 101 per thousand, respectively). In general, the data show that immigrant women in Italy live in deprived social conditions, which can influence their reproductive choices and their access to health services. In order to take account of their particular needs, it is necessary to modify the health services and plan public health interventions especially for the prevention of induced abortion. PMID:16041925

  15. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  16. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  17. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  18. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  19. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  20. Daily and cultural issues of postnatal depression in african women immigrants in South East london: tips for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion "that you have to get on with it." The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  1. Daily and Cultural Issues of Postnatal Depression in African Women Immigrants in South East London: Tips for Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion “that you have to get on with it.” The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  2. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  3. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  4. Latino immigration: Preparing school psychologists to meet students' needs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J; Carrillo, Gerardo L; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A; Lasser, Jon

    2016-06-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the educational, social, and emotional needs of immigrant Latino children, we describe Project SUPERB (Scholars Using Psychology and Education to Reach Bilinguals), a grant-funded initiative to address the shortage of bilingual (Spanish-English) school psychologists. We discuss important issues regarding training and preparation to develop the competencies necessary for effective assessment, intervention, and collaboration in the context of school settings to help immigrant children achieve success. Finally, we identify ways in which school psychologists may adopt a leadership role in working with schools and families to promote positive outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551253

  5. A comparison of health access between permanent residents, undocumented immigrants and refugee claimants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation

  6. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and

  7. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  8. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  9. [Focus on Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Chester, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This journal issue consists of articles and other information about immigration issues, as well as discussions of the utility of racial and ethnic categories. "An International Perspective on Migration" (Cathi Tactaquin) examines the intertwined economic, political, and environmental causes of international migration; discusses how development…

  10. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  11. The Immigration of Asian Professionals to the United States: 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanjanapan, Wilawan

    1995-01-01

    Examines the recent flow of Asian professionals to the United States based on Immigration and Naturalization Service data for the fiscal years 1988 to 1990. Size of group, composition, and mode of entry are investigated. Results show that Asians are a dominant group in the immigration of professionals. (SLD)

  12. High Parenting Aggravation Among US Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between the joint effects of children’s immigrant family type and race/ethnicity on parenting aggravation. Methods. We analyzed data on a nationally representative sample of 101 032 children aged birth through 17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Results. Analysis of the Aggravation in Parenting Scale showed that 26% of foreign-born parents with foreign-born children were highly aggravated, followed by 22% of foreign-born parents with US-born children and 11% of US-born parents. Multivariable analyses indicated that all minority parents experienced high parenting aggravation compared with non-Hispanic White US-born parents; the odds of reporting parenting aggravation were 5 times higher for Hispanic foreign-born parents. All foreign-born parents, regardless of race/ethnicity, reported significantly elevated parenting aggravation. Parents of adolescents, children with special health care needs, and nontraditional and lower-income households were also more likely to report high parenting aggravation. Conclusions. Our findings clearly document significantly elevated levels of parenting aggravation among immigrant and minority families. Public health programs and clinicians should target referrals and interventions for these families to avoid potential health problems for both children and their families. PMID:22994171

  13. Household exposure models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in US dwellings. The estimated ratio of household- inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. We use a dermal absorption model to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  14. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1984.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1986-07-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $21,560 in 1984, up by 2.7% over the 1983 figure after accounting for the 4.3% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($27,460) increased between 1983 and 1984 by 2.9%; 3) taxes absorbed about 22% of the total money income received by households; 4) households paid an average of $6400 in taxes in 1984, about $20 higher than paid in 1983; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1984 in the Northeast, South, and West regions; 6) in 1984, 64% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study; and 7) the percentage of income paid in taxes ranged from 10% in households with incomes less than $10,000 to 28% in households with incomes of $50,000 or more. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $513 billion in 1984. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on base without families; and 3) returns of decedents. PMID:12280649

  15. No vacancy: the political geography of immigration control in advanced industrial countries.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a unique framework for analyzing the politics of immigration control in developed countries and reviews related political theories. The author describes distinctive patterns of immigration in selected OECD countries and standard explanations. The author argues that the costs and benefits of immigration are spatially unevenly distributed and explains how spatial concentrations affect costs and benefits, as well as how local conditions, population, and the business community create support for and opposition to immigration. Evidence from Great Britain is used to support the framework. Control of immigration is due to the power of local constituencies in creating and maintaining a national political coalition. Local constituency preferences are a systematic, but not exclusive, feature that underpin the politics of immigration control. Other factors may have periodic impacts. The case of Great Britain, during 1955-81, illustrates the importance of disaggregated analysis. Cross national analyses will reveal the variation in level of impact. Japan and Germany, with similar economic and political histories, indicate substantial differences in net demand for immigration. Conditions, such as high, rapidly increasing immigration proportions, access to social services, and higher unemployment, may lead to hostility and less community support for immigration. The theory is based on native-immigrant competition over scarce resources, variable business support depending upon the flexibility of local markets and potential for capital mobility, and the dynamics of party competition as influenced by underlying structural conditions. PMID:12294227

  16. Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Survey of Children's Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA. PMID:24288488

  17. U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip; Martin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on U.S. immigration, exploring global issues that affect immigration, such as: economic trends, post-cold war events, and transnationalism. Addresses legal immigration, including permanent and temporary status, refugees and asylees, unauthorized migration, integrating immigrants, and administration of immigration programs. (CMK)

  18. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  19. Hispanic immigrants in the USA: social and mental health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Parekh, Amrita; Wainberg, Milton L; Duarte, Cristiane S; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, María A

    2016-09-01

    Hispanic immigration in the USA and its effect on many areas of US society are of great relevance to health care, public health, mental health, and medical and social sciences. In this report, we review and discuss pertinent literature on causes, procedures, and eventual outcomes of Hispanic migration waves throughout the last four decades. Hispanic immigrants do not constitute a monolithic group, despite the clear predominance of Mexican and Mexican-American segments. Common features of Hispanic immigrants include a younger average age, higher presence of married households, and lower educational levels than the overall US population. Differences within the Hispanic immigrant population are present in naturalisation figures, English language fluency, occupational and income status, health insurance coverage, and sense of accomplishment in the host society. We examine most of these aspects in the context of the so-called Hispanic paradox, presented as both a cause and a result of a heavily discussed acculturative process. We investigate prevalence and other data on depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and psychotic syndromes, with emphasis on the need to do further neurobiological, epigenetic, and sociocultural research in the Hispanic population. PMID:27568273

  20. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  1. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples. PMID:26914837

  2. Immigration, Integration and Ghetto Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    We study ghetto formation in a population with natives and immigrants in the framework of the two-dimensional Ising-model with Kawasaki-exchange dynamics. It is the phase structure of the Ising model, the integration speed and the immigration rate which determine whether ghetto formation between natives and immigrants can be avoided or not. Our simulations are performed in- and out-of-equilibrium.

  3. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12341015

  4. Food Insecurity and Its Sociodemographic Correlates among Afghan Immigrants in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Rasoul; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and its sociodemographic determinants among Afghan immigrants in two major cities of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 310 adult females from immigrant Afghan households in Tehran (n=155) and Mashhad (n=155), who were recruited through multistage sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, using a questionnaire. Food security was measured by a locally-adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. More than 60% suffered from moderate-to-severe food insecurity, 37% were mildly food-insecure while about 23% were food-secure. Food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in female-headed households, households whose head and spouse had lower level of education, belonged to the Sunni sect, and those with illegal residential status, unemployment/low job status, not owning their house, low socioeconomic status (SES), and living in Mashhad. Prevalence of food insecurity was relatively high among Afghan immigrants in Iran. This calls for the need to develop community food security strategies for ensuring their short- and long-term health. PMID:24288950

  5. American household structure in transition.

    PubMed

    Glick, P C

    1984-01-01

    The number of U.S. households rose by 58 percent between 1960 and 1983, with nontraditional household types accounting for most of the increase. Whereas the number of households containing married couples with children younger than 18 rose by only four percent over the period, one-parent households increased by 175 percent; one-person households, by 173 percent; and households composed of unmarried couples, by 331 percent. In 1983, households maintained by married couples constituted six in 10 U.S. households; the second most common household type--adults living alone--accounted for about one-quarter of all households. Lone parents living with their children represent nearly one in 10 households. Almost all of these parents are women--of whom two-thirds are separated or divorced, one-quarter have never been married, and fewer than one in 10 are widows. Among adults living alone, women aged 45 and older predominate; but the rate at which the practice has been adopted since 1960 has been greatest among those under age 45. Most of the growth in the number of one-person households occurred during the 1970s. The increase in cohabitation--most of it also in the 1970s--has similarly been concentrated in the younger age-groups. The living arrangements of children younger than 18 have changed accordingly over the two decades. Since 1960, the number of children living with two parents has declined by nearly one-fifth, and the number living with one parent--generally the mother--has more than doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6500019

  6. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection. PMID:26612500

  7. Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Cots, Francesc; Castells, Xavier; García, Oscar; Riu, Marta; Felipe, Aida; Vall, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    Background The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population. Methods Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death), medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC) and those from low-income countries (ILIC) and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups) and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect. Results With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults. Conclusion Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry, which is becoming ever more

  8. From Immigrant Enclave to Main Street, USA: The Social Policy Implications of Real-World Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed

    This paper presents findings from a state-sponsored study of the adult education needs of limited-English-proficient (LEP) adults in California. The findings relate primarily to the situation of the over 2.3-million Spanish-speaking LEP adults, and within this population, to Mexican immigrants. Data were gathered in household surveys in three…

  9. Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region.

    PubMed

    Lum, Irene D; Swartz, Rebecca H; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2016-05-01

    Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for emergent themes using NVivo. Five factors were found to impact primary care access and use: lack of social contacts, lack of universal healthcare coverage during their initial arrival, language as a barrier, treatment preferences, and geographic distance to primary care. Overall findings suggest that immigrants moving to smaller areas such as the Niagara Region face similar barriers to primary care as those moving into large cities. Some barriers, however, appear to be specific to the context of smaller urban centres, further exacerbated by living in a small city due to a smaller immigrant population, fewer services for immigrants, and less diversity in practicing physicians. More research is required to understand the contextual factors inhibiting primary care access and use among immigrants moving to smaller urban centres, and determine effective strategies to overcome these barriers. PMID:27017093

  10. A survey of recycling behaviour in households in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tuddin, Rabaah; Ayupp, Kartinah; Ayup, Kartinah

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the factors that might influence recycling behaviour of the households in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Information on recycling activity, socio-economic characteristics, and attitudes of the households towards recycling were obtained from interviews with 456 households in Dhaka. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the recycling behaviour of the households. The results showed that environmental consciousness, the availability of storage space, and age (25-35 years) are significant positive predictors of recycling behaviour (at the 1% level). Another variable Income 2 (TK3,000-15,000) is also positively correlated with recycling (at the 5% level). Establishment of a recycling programme could be an effective strategy in implementing sustainable waste management in Bangladesh. For this strategy to succeed, however, active partnership between households and the waste management service department is required. The households' attitudes toward recycling should, therefore, be taken into consideration as should the results of this study, which are important indicators of households' positive attitudes toward sustainable waste management in Dhaka. PMID:19942645

  11. Stressors, coping resources, functioning, and role limitations among older korean immigrants: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea Flynn

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the differential impacts of stressors and coping resources on the functioning and roles of 246 older Korean immigrant men and women. Older Korean immigrant women were significantly more likely than men to have acculturation and socioeconomic stressors, physical/social functioning problems, and role limitations. English-language barriers and lack of transportation were significantly related to lower functioning and higher role limitations of older Korean women compared to those of older men. Providing social and health care services with bilingual and transportation services to older Korean immigrant women is recommended to increase their physical/social functioning and role performance. PMID:24483283

  12. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  13. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  14. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  15. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  16. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  17. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  18. Fighting for Immigrant Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2007-01-01

    On the morning of Dec. 12, 2006, hundreds of federal agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement descended upon six Swift and Co. meat-packing plants in Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and Utah affecting communities. These federal crackdowns on illegal immigrants reverberate in schools too, forcing superintendents to confront some…

  19. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  20. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  1. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  2. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  3. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's expansion of it are…

  4. Immigration and the American Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debate over immigration in the United States and its influence on national racial and ethnic demographics as well as the economic and social impact. Questions of environmentalism and multiculturalism coupled with American racism and the need for immigration restriction are addressed. (GR)

  5. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  6. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Kerstin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents the effects of increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies on Mexican migrant workers in the United States. Methods Drawing on data from the Mexican Migration Project we create a data file that links age, education, English language ability, and cumulative U.S. experience in three legal categories (documented, undocumented, guest worker) to the occupational status and wage attained by migrant household heads on their most recent U.S. trip. Results We find that the wage and occupational returns to various forms of human capital generally declined after harsher policies were imposed and enforcement dramatically increased after 1996, especially for U.S. experience and English language ability. Conclusion These results indicate that the labor market status of legal immigrants has deteriorated significantly in recent years as larger shares of the migrant workforce came to lack labor rights, either because they were undocumented or because they held temporary visas that did not allow mobility or bargaining over wages and working conditions. PMID:21857750

  7. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official Website of the Department of Homeland Security Español | Blog | About USCIS | Contact Us A-Z ... response to statutory requirements, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will allow up to 12,998 nonimmigrants ...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  16. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  17. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  18. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  19. Immigrant Family Stability: Some Primary Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Geraldine

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that immigration entails redefinition of sex roles and kin obligations in immigrant families; reveals a trend toward increasingly differentiated nuclear families among immigrants; and identifies pressures that may make immigrant families more susceptible to instability than American families, and countervailing forces that may contribute…

  20. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  1. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  2. Counseling Immigrant Students in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Karen D.; Davis, Terah

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2010 United States Census, one out of every five children live in an immigrant family with either one or both parents being immigrants. This paper will explore the unique needs of children of immigrants who come to school as immigrant students. A discussion of the use of Reality Therapy as a counseling approach with this…

  3. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.5 Household eligibility. (a) Certification procedures. All applicant... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  4. Occupational stratification, job-mismatches, and child poverty: understanding the disadvantage of Black immigrants in the US.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the implications of occupational stratification and job mismatches for the welfare of children, using data from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey. The results show that Black children of immigrants have household heads that are more likely to have occupations with low SEI scores than children in US-born households. More importantly, they demonstrate that intersections between parental job-mismatches and employment in the bottom rather than upper levels of the occupational distribution have important implications for understanding poverty differences among children. Job mismatches within occupations with low SEI scores are associated with greater poverty risks among Black than White, Asian, or Hispanic children of immigrants. However, racial poverty disparities are considerably lower among children with household heads in the highest occupational strata. PMID:25592931

  5. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  6. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  7. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    PubMed

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas. PMID:20835762

  8. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena; Källestål, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Background Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL) is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193) were invited to participate in the study (n=127). In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100) were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80) and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66) domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion Immigrant detainees report low QOL

  9. Unintentional ingestion of cleaners and other substances in an immigrant Mexican population: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, Katie; Tsai, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric poisoning is a salient issue worldwide and also affects the USA. In past years, ingestion of household cleaners was the second leading cause of unintentional poisonings in children. All children are at risk for ingestions, although immigrant children may be at greater risk. The purpose of this study was to document child ingestion experiences from toxic household substances via semistructured interviews with immigrant Mexican mothers. Participants were recruited from a paediatric primary care practice in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas (N=35). Eighteen of 35 respondents (51%) reported that their child, nephew/niece or a friend's child had accidentally ingested a cleaning solution, gasoline or herbal remedy. Of those ingestions, 12 were reportedly from an alternative container, such as a juice box or soda bottle. Improper storage was the primary reason for ingestion. Culturally appropriate home visits and interventions are needed to better prevent ingestion in young children. PMID:25782982

  10. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  11. Food discard practices of householders.

    PubMed

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  12. Contextualizing the Trauma Experience of Women Immigrants From Central America, South America, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kaltman, Stacey; de Mendoza, Alejandra Hurtado; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women. PMID:22144133

  13. The influence of social programs in source countries on various classes of U.S. immigration.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M; Waldman, D M; Zahniser, S S

    1999-03-01

    "This article uses a unique set of pooled cross-sectional and time series data to examine the annual rate of U.S. immigration during 1972-1991 from 60 source countries. One distinguishing feature of the article is that it breaks out and cross-classifies various classes of immigrants--numerically limited versus numerically exempt and new immigrant versus adjustment of status. A second distinguishing feature is that it utilizes a unique vector of variables relating to the presence and characteristics of various social programs in source countries. The models developed here emphasize the importance of both differential economic advantage and the ease with which a prospective migrant can transfer skills to the U.S. labor market. Hausman-Taylor instrumental variable estimates of the coefficients indicate that in addition to other factors, social programs in source countries are significant determinants of immigration to the USA." Data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service's Public Use Files. PMID:12155404

  14. The association between acculturation and health insurance coverage for immigrant children from socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of origin.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-06-01

    Among immigrant children whose parents have historically had lower education, the study explored which immigrant children were most likely to have coverage based on maternal region of origin. The direct and indirect relationship of acculturation on immigrant children's coverage was also assessed. A subsample of US-born children with foreign-born mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort was analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions (n = 1,686). Children whose mothers emigrated from the Caribbean or Indochina had greater odds of being insured compared to children whose mothers emigrated from Mexico. Moreover, Latin American children did not statistically differ from Mexican children in being uninsured. Maternal citizenship was positively associated with children's coverage; while living in a household with a mother who migrated as a child was negatively associated with private insurance. To increase immigrant children's coverage, Latin American and Mexican families may benefit from additional financial assistance, rather than cultural assistance. PMID:22610692

  15. Acculturative Stress and Diminishing Family Cohesion Among Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Mario; Ibañez, Gladys E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a theorized link between Latino immigrants’ experience of acculturative stress during their two initial years in the United States (US) and declines in family cohesion from pre- to post-immigration contexts. This retrospective cohort study included 405 adult participants. Baseline assessment occurred during participants’ first 12 months in the US. Follow-up assessment occurred during participants’ second year in the US. General linear mixed models were used to estimate change in family cohesion and sociocultural correlates of this change. Inverse associations were determined between acculturative stress during initial years in the US and declines in family cohesion from pre-immigration to post-immigration contexts. Participants with undocumented immigration status, those with lower education levels, and those without family in the US generally indicated lower family cohesion. Participants who experienced more acculturative stress and those without family in the US evidenced a greater decline in family cohesion. Results are promising in terms of implications for health services for recent Latino immigrants. PMID:22790880

  16. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  17. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  18. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean

  19. 8 CFR 204.9 - Special immigrant status for certain aliens who have served honorably (or are enlisted to serve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... least 12 years. 204.9 Section 204.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... least 12 years. (a) Petition for Armed Forces special immigrant. An alien may not be classified as an... service obligation of at least 12 years; (3) The alien is a national of an independent state...

  20. 77 FR 71668 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Choice of Address and Agent for Immigrant Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Choice of Address and Agent for Immigrant Visa Applicants... collection instrument and supporting documents, to Sydney Taylor, Visa Services, U.S. Department of State...: Title of Information Collection: Choice of Address and Agent for Immigrant Visa Applicants. OMB...

  1. The New Latino South and the Challenge to Public Education: Strategies for Educators and Policymakers in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The lack of resources devoted to educating Latinos in emerging immigrant communities is generating negative educational outcomes and de facto educational segregation in the South. While Latino immigrants continue to dominate employment in the meat processing, service, and construction sectors in these communities, they are underrepresented on…

  2. Coping with unreliable public water supplies: Averting expenditures by households in Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Yang, Jui-Chen; Whittington, Dale; Bal Kumar, K. C.

    2005-02-01

    This paper investigates two complementary pieces of data on households' demand for improved water services, coping costs and willingness to pay (WTP), from a survey of 1500 randomly sampled households in Kathmandu, Nepal. We evaluate how coping costs and WTP vary across types of water users and income. We find that households in Kathmandu Valley engage in five main types of coping behaviors: collecting, pumping, treating, storing, and purchasing. These activities impose coping costs on an average household of as much as 3 U.S. dollars per month or about 1% of current incomes, representing hidden but real costs of poor infrastructure service. We find that these coping costs are almost twice as much as the current monthly bills paid to the water utility but are significantly lower than estimates of WTP for improved services. We find that coping costs are statistically correlated with WTP and several household characteristics.

  3. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292381

  4. Hunger in legal immigrants in California, Texas, and Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, J; Gupta, S K; Tran, P; Cook, J T; Meyers, A F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in low-income legal immigrants. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Latino and Asian legal immigrants attending urban clinics and community centers in California, Texas, and Illinois with a food security questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 630 respondents, 40% of the households were food insecure without hunger and 41% were food insecure with hunger. Independent predictors of hunger were income below federal poverty level (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72, 4.30), receipt of food stamps (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.57, 4.09), Latino ethnicity (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.49, 3.82), and poor English (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.82). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hunger among low-income legal immigrants is unacceptably high. Access to food assistance programs is important for the health and well-being of this population. PMID:11030002

  5. Selected Health Status Measures of Children from US Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stella M.; Lin, Sue C.; Adirim, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 91,532), we studied the relationship between the joint effects of immigrant family type (foreign-born children, US-born children/one foreign-born parent, US-born children/both foreign-born parents, and US-born children/US-born parents) and race/ethnicity on various health measures (parent-reported physical and dental health, obesity/overweight, breast-feeding, school absence, injury, and chronic condition). We used weighted logistic regression to examine the independent effects of the 12-level joint variable on various health status measures while controlling for confounding factors. Overall, nearly one-third of families with both foreign-born parents were poor, and one-quarter of the parents in these households did not complete high school. Compared with non-Hispanic White US-born children, multivariable analyses indicate that all Hispanic children have higher odds of obesity, poor physical and dental health, with Hispanic foreign-born children 7 times as likely to report poor/fair physical health. Most children of immigrant parents were more likely to have been breast-fed and less likely to miss school more than 11 days. Child age and household poverty status were independently associated with most of the health status measures. Combined race/ethnicity and immigrant family type categories have heterogeneous associations with each health outcome measure examined. Culturally competent interventions and policies should be developed to serve these expanding communities. PMID:23936667

  6. Household Poverty Dynamics in Malawi: A Bivariate Probit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenala Bokosi, Fanwell

    The aim of this study is to identify the sources of expenditure and poverty dynamics among Malawian households between 1998 and 2002 and to model poverty transitions in Malawi using a bivariate probit model with endogenous selection to address the initial conditions' problem. The exogeneity of the initial state is strongly rejected and could result in considerable overstatement of the effects of the explanatory factors. The results of the bivariate probit model do indicate that education of the household head, per capita acreage cultivated and changes in household size are significantly related to the probability of being poor in 2002 irrespective of the poverty status in 1998. For those households who were poor in 1998, the probability of being poor in 2002 was significantly influenced by household size, value of livestock owned and mean time to services, while residence in the Northern region was a significant variable in determining the probability of being poor in 2002 for households that were not poor in 1998.

  7. Coping with a New Health Culture: Acculturation and Online Health Information Seeking Among Chinese Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society. PMID:25228489

  8. Tax Filing and Other Financial Behaviors of EITC-Eligible Households: Differences of Banked and Unbanked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee; Livermore, Michelle; Davis, Belinda Creel

    2011-01-01

    Holding a bank account is crucial to the income-maximizing and asset-building of households. This study uses 2008 survey data of EITC-eligible households assisted at Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) sites to document their tax filing behavior and use of Alternate Financial Services (AFS). Specifically, the differences in tax filing and AFS…

  9. 75 FR 14559 - Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines and Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... ``Federally Mandated Exclusions'' Notice 66 FR 4669, April 20, 2001, pages 20318-20320. (2) Own and occupy the... Rural Utilities Service Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines... in grant funds to be competitively awarded for the Household Water Well System (HWWS) Grant...

  10. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PMID:23148903

  11. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  12. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  13. PICTURE OF SUBSIDIZED HOUSEHOLDS -- 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data contains nearly five million subsidized households across the United States. It includes: (1) totals; (2) Indian housing; (3) public housing; (4) Section 8 certificates and vouchers; (5) Section 8 moderate rehabilitation; (6) Section 8 new and substantial rehabilitation...

  14. EFFECT OF NATIVITY AND DURATION OF RESIDENCE ON CHRONIC HEALTH CONDITIONS AMONG ASIAN IMMIGRANTS IN AUSTRALIA: A LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Samba Siva Rao; Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of Asian nativity and duration of residence in Australia on the odds of reporting a chronic health condition (cancer, respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus). Data were from waves 3, 7 and 9 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) longitudinal survey, and multi-level group-mean-centred logistic regression models were used for the analysis. After covariate adjustment, Asian immigrants were less likely to report cancer and respiratory problem compared with native-born Australians. While there was no significant difference in reporting CVD, they were more likely to report diabetes than native-born people. Asian immigrants maintained their health advantage with respect to cancer regardless of duration of residence. However, after 20 years of stay, Asian immigrants lost their earlier advantage and were not significantly different from native-born people in terms of reporting a respiratory problem. In contrast, Asian immigrants were not measurably different from native-born Australians in reporting diabetes if their length of stay in Australia was less than 20 years, but became disadvantaged after staying for 20 years or longer. There was no measurable difference in the odds of reporting CVD between Asian immigrants and native-born Australians for any duration of residence. On the whole this study found that health advantage, existence of healthy immigrant effect and subsequent erosion of it with increasing duration of residence among Asian immigrants depends upon the chronic health condition. PMID:26139212

  15. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  16. Social context, household composition and employment among migrant and nonmigrant Dominican women.

    PubMed

    Gurak, D T; Kritz, M M

    1996-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the social context of ethnic groups may shape employment patterns by immigrant women. This study examines the effects of household composition on the employment patterns among Dominican Republic migrants in New York City and among Dominicans in the Dominican Republic. This study is based on studies by Tienda and Glass and expands household composition groups. The comparison between countries serves as a control for the effects of culture. The inclusion in the US sample of Colombian migrants serves to further reinforce the effects of social context over cultural influences. Data are obtained from the 1981 survey of 528 Colombian and Dominican migrant women aged 20-45 years living in New York City's Queens borough and 50% of Manhattan borough and a 1978 survey of women living in Santo Domingo and Santiago. Women who lived in the Dominican Republic were better educated and more likely to be employed. Over 50% of migrant women in New York received public assistance, and 88% of women receiving public assistance were female heads of households. In the Dominican Republic, the social context did not include the opportunity for receipt of public assistance. 61% of women living in the Dominican Republic and only 50% of migrant women were currently married. Female headship was 36.8% in the US and 11.8% abroad. Twice as many households abroad included other adult family members. These findings illustrate the importance of social context and household composition in explaining female immigrant employment. Dominican women living in New York with children and without a spouse were less likely to be employed than women with spouses or women without spouses or children. In the Dominican Republic, women with spouses or adult men in the household were less likely to work. Selective migration was ruled out as an explanatory factor. PMID:12291749

  17. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receipts at the time of transaction in accordance with § 274.8(b)(7). (e) Access to retail stores. (1) The EBT system shall provide for minimal disruption of access to and service in retail stores by eligible... equipped with POS devices shall be made available to SNAP households during all retail store hours...

  18. Increasing Participation in Mainstream Financial Markets by Black Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint-Comeaut, Maude; Rhine, Sherrie L. W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 194 black households in a Chicago neighborhood found that one in five did not use banks, 49% had credit cards, over 75% used alternative financial services (AFS), and many used informal financial networks. Nonbank and AFS users tended to be lower income, less educated, younger, and unmarried people. Consumer education and public policy…

  19. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Benefit redemption by eligible households. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.7 Benefit redemption by...

  20. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Benefit redemption by eligible households. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.7 Benefit redemption by...

  1. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  2. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  3. Ethnic enclave resources and predictors of depression among Arizona's Korean immigrant elders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Young; Domanski, Margaret Dietz; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-07-01

    This is the first study examining predictors of depression among Arizona's Korean immigrant elders not residing in ethnic enclaves. A snowball sample of 120 elders, aged 64 and over, completed the study interview. The proportion of respondents reporting depression was 38.1%, higher than the incidence reported among counterparts in New York City's immigrant ethnic enclaves. Multiple regression analyses (R2=.44) indicate that English language proficiency had the most powerful effect on explaining depression. Discussion centers on why programs aimed at reducing language barriers among socially isolated immigrant elders need to be a first priority in service provision. PMID:19585324

  4. Comparison of Health Care Resource Utilization by Immigrants Versus Native Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Carlotta; Baviera, Marta; Sequi, Marco; Cortesi, Laura; Tettamanti, Mauro; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Pasina, Luca; Dignefa, Codjo Djade; Fortino, Ida; Bortolotti, Angela; Merlino, Luca; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Nobili, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    To compare the utilization of health care resources (drug prescriptions, hospital admissions and health care services) by immigrant versus native elderly people (65 years or more), by using administrative database of the Lombardy Region. For each immigrant (an older people born out of Italy), one person born in Lombardy (native) was randomly selected and matched by age, sex and general practitioner. The 25,508 immigrants selected were less prescribed with at least one drug (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.67-0.76) and had a lesser use of health care services (OR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.75-0.84) than natives. No statistically significant differences were found for hospital admission rates (OR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.99-1.04). A lower rate of health care resource utilization was observed in elderly immigrants who had been living in the host region for as many as 10 years. PMID:25576178

  5. Crowding out effect of tobacco expenditure and its implications on household resource allocation in India.

    PubMed

    John, Rijo M

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines whether spending on tobacco crowds out expenditure on basic needs and whether it has implications on nutrition intake and household resource allocation in India. The paper uses a household sample survey from India for the year 1999--2000. A system of quadratic conditional Engel curves was estimated for a set of 10 broad groups of commodities. The results suggest that tobacco consuming households had lower consumption of certain commodities such as milk, education, clean fuels and entertainment which may have more direct bearing on women and children in the household than on men suggesting possible 'gender effects' and biases in the allocation of goods and services within the household. Tobacco spending was also found to have negative effects on per capita nutrition intake. The nature of crowding out was found to be similar in low- and high-income households. PMID:18187245

  6. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse. PMID:22071095

  7. The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Lee, Yongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly…

  8. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  9. Identifying Older Chinese Immigrants at High Risk for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Lauderdale, Diane S; Kuohung, Victoria; Chang, Suey-Lee; Chin, Marshall H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Data about whether Asian Americans are a high-risk or a low-risk group for osteoporosis are limited and inconsistent. Few previous studies have recognized that the heterogeneity of the Asian American population, with respect to both nativity (foreign- vs U.S.-born) and ethnicity, may be related to osteoporosis risk. OBJECTIVE To assess whether older foreign-born Chinese Americans living in an urban ethnic enclave are at high risk of osteoporosis and to refer participants at high risk for follow-up care. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey and osteoporosis screening, undertaken as a collaborative project by the Chinese American Service League and researchers at the University of Chicago. SETTING Chicago's Chinatown. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred sixty-nine immigrant Chinese American men and women aged 50 and older. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Chinese Americans in this urban setting are generally recent immigrants from south China with limited education and resources: mean age at immigration was 54, 56% had primary only or no education, and 57% reported “fair” or “poor” self-rated health. Eighteen percent are uninsured and 55% receive Medicaid. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus was estimated using quantitative ultrasound. Immigrant Chinese women in the study had lower average BMD than reference data for white women or U.S.-born Asian Americans. BMD for immigrant Chinese men in the study was similar to white men at ages 50 to 69, and lower at older ages. Low body mass index, low educational attainment and older age at immigration were all associated with lower BMD. CONCLUSIONS Foreign-born Chinese Americans may be a high-risk group for osteoporosis. PMID:12848833

  10. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    to acculturation and identity construction, both personal and communal. The lack of social and cultural networks for recent immigrants prevents their involvement in the cultural systems that traditionally support breastfeeding. With this in mind, healthcare professionals should deliver services in a culturally appropriate and sensitive manner where women feel supported as well as empowered. PMID:24345192

  11. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  12. The Effect of Household Smoking Bans on Household Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods. We used data from a May–June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, households with smokers (n = 456) to determine the simultaneous association between smoking levels in the home and the presence of home restrictions on smoking. Results. We found that home smoking rules predicted smoking in the home but smoking in the home had no effect on home smoking restrictions. Conclusions. Absent in-home randomized experiments, a quasi-experimental causal inference suggesting that home smoking rules result in lower home smoking levels may be plausible. PMID:24524533

  13. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  14. 76 FR 67361 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Part 42 RIN 1400-AC86 Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as... the IASA into law, modifying the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) as regards adoptions from... Subjects in 22 CFR Part 42 Immigration, Passports and Visas. Accordingly, for the reasons set forth in...

  15. Finnish immigrants and dental care in Stockholm county.

    PubMed

    Widström, E

    1983-01-01

    In recent decades Sweden has become an immigrant country. The proportion of persons of foreign origin in the population has risen from 0.5% in the 1940s to slightly more than 10% in the early 1980s. Migration to Sweden is a part of the extensive international migration of labour that has occurred in Europe since the Second World War. Almost half of the immigrants in Sweden come from Finland. The common Nordic Labour market since 1954 allows free migration of nordic citizens. No comprehensive dental health studies have been performed on immigrants in Sweden. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the dental situation and utilization of dental services by Finnish immigrants to Stockholm county. Three different methods were used to gather dental epidemiological data. A clinical examination of an age-stratified random sample consisting of 170 adult Finnish citizens living at Huddinge, a suburb of Stockholm, provided data on the oral health during 1977. A questionnaire survey of a random sample of 1332, 20-59 yr old Finnish citizens in the same community in 1981 provided information on utilization of dental services, dental visiting behaviour and factors which determined this and also on perceived treatment needs in this population group. Finally, a comparison of use of dental services by and treatment provided to all Finnish citizens aged between 17-64 yr, born on the 20th of any month and living in the County of Stockholm, and to a matched comparison group of Swedes, was based on data from 1975. National health statistics, available since the introduction of the Dental Insurance scheme in Sweden, were used. A longitudinal follow-up survey of utilization of dental services and secular changes in dental attendance in 1976-1980 by 1152 settled Finnish immigrants, selected in the afore mentioned way, and a Swedish comparison group was also done using the same information source. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: The clinical and

  16. Disparities in Quality of Healthcare of Children from Immigrant Families in the US.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Rocío; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine disparities in quality of pediatric primary care among children from immigrant families in the US. Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 83,528 children ages 0-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, weighted logistic regression was used to assess the effect of immigrant family type on five indicators of quality of healthcare across children's racial/ethnic groups. Analyses controlled for indicators of child's access to care, family socio-economic characteristics, and primary language spoken in the household. Unadjusted estimates revealed a pattern of decreasing disparities from immigrant children to second-generation children, native-born children of immigrant parents, and to third-generation children, native-born children of native-born parents. Controlling for confounders showed that the positive effect of generational status on the quality of healthcare of children from immigrant families varied across indicators and among racial/ethnic groups. Not even third-generation Hispanic and Black children reached parity with third-generation White children on reported amount of time that providers devoted to their care and on providers' sensitivity to their family's values and customs. In contrast, disparities in reports of providers listening carefully to caregivers disappeared after adjusting for confounders, and only families headed by immigrant parents reported receiving less specific health-related information than the families of native-born White children. Our study suggests that it is important to develop interventions that help healthcare professionals to learn how different types of immigrant families perceive the interactions with the healthcare system and how to deliver care that increases the satisfaction of children from different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25987471

  17. Immigration Patterns, Public Opinion, and Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for illustrating how shifting patterns of immigration and public reaction have influenced public policy toward immigration restriction. Details objectives and procedures for activities using National Archives documents. Includes a worksheet and copies of government documents. (CH)

  18. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  19. The foundation of kinship: Households

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair bonding and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems could emerge that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women and generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history. PMID:21799658

  20. Household sanitation in Uasin Gishu district in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Some, E S

    1992-11-01

    In rural Uasin Gishu District in 1990, 78.2% of the households had pit latrines, 11.3% ventilated improved pit latrines, 0.8% water-borne and 9.7% with no toilet facilities. On inspection, 97% of the toilet facilities were in use. Compost pits were present in 52.3% of the households. Utensil drying racks were found in 56.0% of the households. Compared to previous estimates, these levels represent a tremendous improvement in sanitation service coverage. It is recommended that the impact of water and sanitation programmes on health status needs to be evaluated. There is a need for studies to be done on the value of utensil drying racks in disease control. PMID:1298615

  1. [The psychopathology of immigrants and refugees].

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Aysel

    2002-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed major waves of emigration, exile and taking refuge abroad. In this paper, a review of the psychiatric literature published between 1990 and 2000 in English and Turkish is presented. Although refugees are considered to differ from economic migrants in a number of respects, they both experience culture and language change and may experience family disruption, social isolation, and hostility from the population of the host country. Accordingly, all refugees and immigrants go through stages of resettlement and need to integrate their past cultural experiences into their new life and culture. The process of integration depends on the subjects' age, mental integrity, and on the conditions he/she lives in. Research indicates that children acculturate more quickly and learn language faster than elders; but they may suffer from role reversal when they are expected to be linguistic and cultural translators for their parents. Young adults at the stage of identity formation can be cut off and feel alienated. Elderly persons have a higher risk of culture shock as they leave behind more memories and connections. These trigger different types of anxieties. The literature shows high levels of acculturative distress, and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, and refugees are considered to be at risk for suicidal behavior. The complex social and psychological needs of refugee and immigrant families place demands on special services for children, adolescents and adults. PMID:12794656

  2. [Demographic developments in 1996: increased immigration].

    PubMed

    De Beer, J; Prins, C J

    1997-03-01

    "The major demographic event [in the Netherlands] in 1996 has been the increase in immigration from 96 thousand to 109 thousand. Both the immigration from countries such as Turkey and Morocco and the immigration from the countries of the European Union increased. The number of asylum seekers, however, decreased. The numbers of births, deaths and emigrants hardly changed in 1996. In spite of the increase in immigration, population growth was only slightly higher than in the preceding year." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321087

  3. [What is the effect of immigration policy?].

    PubMed

    De Beer, J

    1998-08-01

    "In 1993 and 1994 the Dutch government took new measures in order to restrict immigration. The effect of these measures on the size of immigration is estimated by adding intervention variables to a regression model in which immigration is explained by a linear trend and the unemployment rate.... It is estimated that immigration in 1994-1997 was 20% lower than it would have been if the restrictive measures had not been taken." (EXCERPT) PMID:12294178

  4. Development in Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Cowden, John D; Kreisler, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Children of immigrant families experience developmental processes in the contexts of migration and settlement, presenting immigration-specific challenges. Child health providers can use awareness of the cultural-ecological model of immigrant child development to explore how acculturation, ethnic identity formation, and bilingualism affect the children and families under their care. Cross-cultural strategies for evaluating and supporting immigrant child development are presented to guide the provider in clinical interactions and community efforts. PMID:27565358

  5. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  7. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  10. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  11. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  12. The Effect of Literacy on Immigrant Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ana; Green, David A.; Riddell, W. Craig

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of literacy on immigrant earnings and the sources of lower returns to education and experience among immigrants. We find that the native-born literacy distribution dominates that for immigrants. However, the two groups obtain similar returns to literacy skills, contrary to discrimination-based explanations for…

  13. Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G., Ed.; Portes, Alejandro, Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading scholars in immigration studies shows how the children of immigrants in diverse groups are faring and assimilating in the United States. The 10 papers are (1) "Introduction--Ethnogenesis: Coming of Age in Immigrant America" (Ruben G. Rumbaut and Alejandro Portes); (2) "The Demographic Diversity of Immigrants…

  14. Psychological Acculturation of Young Visible Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the psychological acculturation of young visible immigrants in Western industrialized countries, examining the psychosocial milieu that parents and society provide them, and the inability to assimilate or acculturate. "Visible" immigrant is a value neutral term for nonwhite or non-Caucasian immigrants. (SLD)

  15. Immigrant Youth Mental Health, Acculturation, and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frabutt, James M.

    2006-01-01

    One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…

  16. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  17. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  18. Immigrants as Portrayed in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Fu, Danling; Lowery, Ruth McKoy

    2004-01-01

    America is a nation of immigrants, many of whom came as part of families, who left their home countries for different reasons to settle here. In the late nineteenth century, immigrants came from Northern Europe and then from Southern Europe, but recent immigrants tend to come from Eastern Europe (mostly old Soviet Union countries), Hispanic, and…

  19. Intergroup Relations and Predictors of Immigrant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danso, Kofi; Lum, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from 1,036 participants, which included 4 immigrant groups, we examined the factors that influence immigrants' experiences as they interact with nonimmigrant Americans. Logistic and multinomial regression results indicate that non-European immigrants were more likely to report negative experiences with Americans. The odds of…

  20. Counselling Immigrants: School Contexts and Emerging Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Investigates strategies employed by Israeli secondary school counselors working with immigrant students from the former Soviet Union. Findings highlight the importance counselors attribute to the school context and its organizational culture when working with immigrants. Four counselor roles for working with immigrants emerged. Discusses…

  1. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  2. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  3. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Lottery fee, as prescribed by the Secretary of State, is set forth in the Schedule of Fees, 22 CFR 22.1. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants....

  4. A postcolonial feminist perspective inquiry into immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Maureen O'Mahony, Joyce; Truong Donnelly, Tam

    2010-07-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. As a result, there is greater emphasis on health care providers and the health care system to provide culturally appropriate and equitable care. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems and experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. In this paper we advocate for new ways of research inquiry in exploring immigrant women's mental health care experiences, ones that move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness toward recognition that the health of immigrant women must be addressed within the social, cultural, economic, historical, and political context of their lives. Drawing on past research we demonstrate how the postcolonial feminist perspective can be used to illuminate the ways in which race, gender, and class relations influence social, cultural, political, and economic factors, which, in turn, shape the lives of immigrant women. We suggest that postcolonial feminism provides an analytic lens to (a) generate transformative knowledge about immigrant women's mental health care experiences; (b) improve equitable health care; and (c) increase understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the immigrant women's health care needs. PMID:20521913

  5. The effect of immigration and acculturation on victimization among a national sample of Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of immigrant status, acculturation, and the interaction of acculturation and immigrant status on self-reported victimization in the United States among Latino women, including physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatened violence. In addition, immigrant status, acculturation, gender role ideology, and religious intensity were examined as predictors of the count of victimization among the victimized subsample. The Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study surveyed 2,000 adult Latino women who lived in high-density Latino neighborhoods in 2008. The present study reports findings for a subsample of women who were victimized in the United States (n = 568). Immigrant women reported significantly less victimization than U.S.-born Latino women in bivariate analyses. Multivariate models showed that Anglo orientation was associated with greater odds of all forms of victimization, whereas both Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with lower odds of all forms of victimization. Latino orientation was more protective for immigrant women than for U.S.-born Latino women with regard to sexual victimization. Among the victimized subsample, being an immigrant, Anglo acculturation, and masculine gender role were associated with a higher victimization count, whereas Latino orientation and religious intensity were associated with a lower victimization count. The findings point to the risk associated with being a U.S. minority, the protective value of Latino cultural maintenance, and the need for services to reach out to Anglo acculturated Latino women. PMID:23148902

  6. Health at the margins of migration: culture-centered co-constructions among Bangladeshi immigrants.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mohan J; Jamil, Raihan

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, health scholars have been paying attention to the health experiences of immigrant communities, particularly in the backdrop of the increasing global flows of goods, services, and people across borders. In spite of the increasing public health emphasis on health outcomes of immigrants within the United States, immigrant communities are often constructed as monoliths and the voices of immigrant communities are traditionally absent from mainstream health policy and program discourses. The health experiences of immigrants, their access to resources, and the health trajectories through the life course followed by them and their descendants influence the deep-seated patterns of ethnic health disparities documented in the United States. It is against this backdrop then that the co-constructions of experiences of health among immigrants offer an entry point for understanding the intersections of migration and health, particularly as these intersections offer guidance for the development of culturally situated policies and programs. Based on the culture-centered approach, we seek to understand how low-income Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City, who live at the borders of mainstream American society, define, construct, and negotiate health issues through co-constructions of their localized experiences of health. PMID:22548461

  7. Intimate partner violence and immigration laws in Canada: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Rishchynski, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant women face numerous, and sometimes insurmountable, barriers in reporting and seeking services for intimate partner violence (IPV). A number of these obstacles relate to immigration laws, policies and legal processes they encounter due to their immigration status and sponsorship relationship. The present study was conducted in Canada, in an urban centre that boasts one of the largest immigrant populations in the world. Using a focus group methodology within a participatory action research framework, this investigation sought to identify factors that facilitate or impede women from coming forward and disclosing IPV, and traced their help-seeking actions. Qualitative data from helping professionals and women reveal that in cases of sponsorship breakdown due to IPV, the criteria required for a viable immigration application are unrealistic, and in many cases impossible to meet in situations of domestic abuse. These data indicate that despite claims to the contrary, laws and policies related to immigration have remained stable for over a decade. Systemic and structural barriers that these create for abused women are still clearly present in immigration laws and policies. The result is that many women stay in abusive relationships, often with their children, for prolonged periods of time accruing serious negative mental health effects. Implications are discussed to help inform policy and practice. PMID:19804906

  8. [Tuberculosis and immigration: criticality and possible remedial actions].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Alessio; Renzi, Simone; Napoli, Pier Angela; Franco, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The conditions of social and environmental degradation of immigrants in the host country cause an increase of tuberculosis disease and infectivity risk. Without an effective vaccine, difficulties in accessing treatment and diagnosis services represent the emergency to face. Present world situation imposes a revision of the guidelines for disease control, looking at the critical aspects, by implementing surveillance systems, with the aim of identifying and treating tuberculosis cases in order to reduce the risk of spreading. PMID:22508649

  9. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12346372

  10. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  11. Risk as Social Context: Immigration Policy and Autism in California*

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Christine; Bearman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the dramatic increase in autism diagnoses in recent years, research into risk factors has uncovered substantial variation in autism prevalence by race/ethnicity, SES, and geography. Less studied is the connection between autism diagnosis rates and the social and political context. In this article, we link the temporal pattern of autism diagnosis for Hispanic children in California to state and federal anti-immigrant policy, particularly ballot initiative Proposition 187, limiting access to public services for undocumented immigrants and their families. Using a population-level dataset of 1992–2003 California births linked to 1992–2006 autism case records, we show that the effects of state and federal policies toward immigrants are visible in the rise and fall of autism risk over time. The common epidemiological practice of estimating risk on pooled samples is thereby shown to obscure patterns and mis-estimate effect sizes. Finally, we illustrate how spatial variation in Hispanic autism rates reflects differential vulnerability to these policies. This study reveals not only the spillover effects of immigration policy on children’s health, but also the hazards of treating individual attributes like ethnicity as risk factors without regard to the social and political environments that give them salience. PMID:21643443

  12. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  13. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  14. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  15. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  16. Making Psychology a Household Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  17. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  18. Parental Immigration Status is Associated with Children’s Health Care Utilization: Findings from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey of US Legal Permanent Residents

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents’ immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures. PMID:23329165

  19. Communicable and non-communicable diseases among recent immigrants with implications for primary care; a comprehensive immigrant health approach.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Naderi, Ramesh; Swedish, Kristin A; Smith, Clyde L; Sckell, Blanca; Doorley, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Data on health status of immigrants and practice recommendations for providers are scarce. We evaluated 99 recent immigrants from developing nations in an immigrant clinic in New York City to assess epidemiology of diseases and to recommend potential screening. Providers received ongoing training. Majority patient was from West Africa and Central America with a mean of 2.1 years in the US. Two thirds were uninsured. Half had positive PPD. Half had prior hepatitis B infection, which was higher in Africans. One quarter had intestinal parasites. Two thirds were overweight; 33% had hypercholesterolemia, 26% were hypertensive, and 25% of women had a Pap smear previously. Eosinophila was higher in African and males (P < 0.05) but didn't predict stool O&P. Recent immigrants were at risk for chronic non-communicable diseases, similar to the US population. Providers should balance their focus on communicable and non-communicable diseases. We recommend practice-based training and on-site comprehensive health services. PMID:21573748

  20. Service Utilization for Latino Children in Mixed-Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qingwen; Brabeck, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of 1996 welfare and immigration reforms, service utilization is particularly challenging for mixed-status families in which U.S.-born children live with undocumented parents. This study used both qualitative interview data and quantitative survey data to document Latino immigrant parents' service utilization for their U.S.-born…

  1. Recent Refrigeration Cycle Technologies for Household Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    The household refrigerator is one of the most important and the biggest energy-consuming home appliances. This paper summarize recent refrigeration cycle developments in the field of domestic household refrigerators based on a survey of publications.

  2. 78 FR 71725 - Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ..., Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements. See 78 FR 18421-01 (Mar. 26, 2013). This collection has been... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements AGENCY: Surface...

  3. Religious Barriers to Health for Members of the Bronx Ghanaian Immigrant Muslim Community in New York City.

    PubMed

    Musah, Adam A; Hudak, Ronald P

    2016-04-01

    This research investigated the influence of religious beliefs, as well as education, immigration status, and health insurance status, on the perceived access and willingness to use healthcare services by the Bronx Ghanaian Immigrant Muslim Community (BGIMC) in New York City. A survey was administered to 156 male and female BGIMC members. Members with insurance were nine times more likely to report access to health care and almost seven times more likely to use healthcare services in the past 12 months. Immigration status, health insurance status, and education did not predict willingness to use health care for a broken arm nor for a severe fever but did predict willingness to use health care when experiencing dizziness. Understanding the social and religious factors related to the use of healthcare services should lead to tailored health insurance and access initiatives for the BGIMC and serve as a model for other immigrant communities in the USA. PMID:26183382

  4. The adaptation of non-western and Muslim immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands: An immigrant paradox?

    PubMed

    Van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the possible existence of an immigrant paradox in a sample of immigrant adolescents attending vocational schools in the Netherlands. An immigrant paradox is the finding that first generation immigrants show a more positive pattern of adaptation than nationals despite poorer economic conditions. Second generation immigrants regress to the nationals in terms of adaptation. A sample of 152 first generation immigrant adolescents, 285 second generation immigrant adolescents and 406 national adolescents completed self-reports about socio-economic status, psychological problems, behavioral problems and self-esteem. The results supported the existence of an immigrant paradox in this sample. This indicates that further assimilation among immigrant adolescents does not necessarily lead to increased well being. PMID:20602739

  5. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  6. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  7. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  8. Factors Associated with Healthcare Utilization Among Arab Immigrants and Iraqi Refugees.

    PubMed

    Elsouhag, D; Arnetz, B; Jamil, H; Lumley, M A; Broadbridge, C L; Arnetz, J

    2015-10-01

    Arab migrants-both immigrants and refugees-are exposed to pre- and post- migration stressors increasing their risk for health problems. Little is known, however, about rates of, or factors associated with, healthcare utilization among these two groups. A sample of 590 participants were interviewed approximately 1 year post-migration to the United States. Factors associated with healthcare utilization, including active and passive coping strategies, were examined using logistic regressions. Compared to national healthcare utilization data, immigrants had significantly lower, and refugees had significantly higher rates of healthcare utilization. Being a refugee, being married, and having health insurance were significantly associated with medical service utilization. Among refugees, less use of psychological services was associated with the use of medications and having problem-focused (active) strategies for dealing with stress. Healthcare utilization was significantly higher among refugees, who also reported a greater need for services than did immigrants. PMID:25331684

  9. Perceptions of Depression and Access to Mental Health Care Among Latino Immigrants: Looking Beyond One Size Fits All.

    PubMed

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Arriola, Nora B; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Compared with non-Latino Whites, Latino immigrants have a lower prevalence of depression. However, they are also less likely to seek professional mental health services. Our objective was to compare and contrast perceptions of depression and access to mental health care among four of the largest Latino immigrant subgroups in Florida (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and Colombian). We conducted a total of 120 interviews (30 men and women from each subgroup). Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that participants across the four groups were aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and had similar perceptions of depression. However, notable differences by subgroup emerged with regard to perceptions of access to mental health care. We suggest that the variation stems from differences in life experiences and the immigration context. Understanding the variances and nuances of Latino immigrants' cultural construction of depression and immigration experience will enable practitioners to better serve this community. PMID:26035855

  10. Appliance Ownership and Household Work Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; McCullough, Jane L.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 2,100 two-parent, two-child households were analyzed to determine the relationships of demographic variables, ownership of 11 appliances, and time spent in four categories of household tasks. Little evidence was found that appliance ownership is related to less time being spent in household tasks. (Author/CT)

  11. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  12. Canadian Immigrant Women in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebrood, Gerda; Robertson, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Canadian immigrant women as they move from one culture to another. Explores the barriers they encounter adapting to their new homeland and the coping strategies they use to deal with these barriers. Also examines the usefulness of different forms of support systems and the role of the counselor as part of the adaptation…

  13. Immigrant Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old immigrants by nativity status, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, country of origin, year of arrival, marital status, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1994-2006. These numbers are based on Current Population Survey data. An appendix presents: 2006 At a…

  14. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  15. Students Sound Off on Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of students nationwide marched in the streets or rallied in public parks, at state capitols, and in other locations in response to the legislation pending in Congress that would significantly tighten enforcement of immigration laws. Some of the largest demonstrations were in California and Texas, but students have also rallied in…

  16. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination. PMID:26706907

  17. Sociodemographic determinants of language transitions among the children of French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrants in the US

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, language transitions among the children of Caribbean immigrants in the US are examined from two main perspectives. First, speeds of language transitions among children in French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrant families are compared. Second, the mediating roles of sociodemographic factors and sibling characteristics in language transitions are also examined. The results reveal that with increasing assimilation, children in French-Caribbean families experience a faster transition to English monolingualism than their counterparts with Spanish-Caribbean parents. Transitions to English monolingualism are also negatively associated with the number of first generation siblings within households. However, increases in the number of second and first generation English-monolingual siblings, significantly shift children’s language use towards complete Anglicization. Instructively, this impact offsets the influence ethnically-endogamous parents have on the retention of mother tongues within immigrant families. PMID:25097451

  18. Sociodemographic determinants of language transitions among the children of French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrants in the US.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-04-01

    In this study, language transitions among the children of Caribbean immigrants in the US are examined from two main perspectives. First, speeds of language transitions among children in French and Spanish-Caribbean immigrant families are compared. Second, the mediating roles of sociodemographic factors and sibling characteristics in language transitions are also examined. The results reveal that with increasing assimilation, children in French-Caribbean families experience a faster transition to English monolingualism than their counterparts with Spanish-Caribbean parents. Transitions to English monolingualism are also negatively associated with the number of first generation siblings within households. However, increases in the number of second and first generation English-monolingual siblings, significantly shift children's language use towards complete Anglicization. Instructively, this impact offsets the influence ethnically-endogamous parents have on the retention of mother tongues within immigrant families. PMID:25097451

  19. Is the use of maternal healthcare among prospective mothers higher in households that have experienced maternal death? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Essential maternity care services include providing antenatal, delivery and postnatal care in a continuum to avert excess maternal deaths. This study assesses whether there is any significant difference in the utilization of maternal healthcare services between women from households that experienced any maternal death and women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Data from India's District Level Households and Facility Survey, 2007-08 were used. A sample of 321 women (unweighted) aged 15-49 years residing in households that had experienced maternal death, and 217 737 women (unweighted) of the same age group living in households that did not experience any maternal death were found eligible for the analysis. Results indicate that women belonging to households that experienced maternal deaths were less likely to opt for full antenatal care [odds ratio (OR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.88] and postnatal care (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) compared with women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Conversely, women belonging to households experiencing maternal deaths were more likely to utilize skilled birth attendants (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) for their last delivery. This study hopes to draw the attention of program and policy makers to improve the reach of antenatal and postnatal care services, which are considered to be a supply side barrier compared with institutional delivery even by households that have reported maternal death. PMID:26864163

  20. [The influence of excess weight and obesity on health spending in Brazilian households].

    PubMed

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of excess weight and obesity on health spending in Brazilian households. Data from the Household Budget Survey 2008-2009 were used to estimate monetary health spending, corresponding to out-of-pocket spending, including purchase of medicines and payment for healthcare services, and to evaluate the nutritional status of the 55,970 household residents. Monthly spending on health and its components were analyzed according to the number of excess weight and obese individuals in households (none, one, two, or three or more individuals). The presence and increasing number of excess weight and obese individuals has resulted in greater spending on health, especially on medicines and health insurance. The results were maintained after adjusting for income, region, area, and presence of elderly and number of residents in the household. Excess weight and obesity had a direct impact on out-of-pocket health spending by Brazilian families. PMID:26840813

  1. Immigration, social integration and mental health in Norway, with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that social integration may have a positive as well as a negative effect on the mental health of immigrants, depending on the social circumstances. Aims of the study To investigate the relationship between social integration and psychological distress in immigrants in Oslo, Norway, with focus on gender differences. Methods The study was based on data from a community survey in Oslo (N = 15899), and included 1448 immigrants from non-Western and 1059 immigrants from Western countries. Psychological distress was measured by a 10 items version of Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10), and social integration was measured by an index based on four items: Knowledge of the Norwegian language, reading Norwegian newspapers, visits by Norwegians and receiving help from Norwegians. Information on paid employment, household income, marital status, social support and conflicts in intimate relationships was also included in the study. Results The non-western immigrants showed a higher level of psychological distress than the immigrants from western countries. In men this could be explained by the combination of less social integration, less employment, lower income, less social support and more conflicts in intimate relationships among non-western compared to western immigrants. In women the difference in level of psychological stress could not be explained by these variables, even if it was reduced. A reason for this seemed to be that social integration in non-western immigrants had a different effect on mental health in men and women. In men, social integration showed a positive effect through employment and income, as well as a positive effect in other areas. Also in non-western women social integration showed a positive effect through greater access to employment and income, but this effect was levelled out by integration causing problems in other areas. Conclusion Unexpectedly, social integration in non-western immigrants was associated with good

  2. Challenging Preservice Teacher Perspectives: Immigration, Equitable Opportunity, and Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article, I use five questions that were posed in 1936 about immigration and the education of immigrant children as a lens to examine contemporary perspectives on immigration and the education of immigrant children. Dispelling myths about immigrant students and English learners has been a consistent concern in our country. These…

  3. Dialogue on Immigration: Should the Golden Door be Closed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, David, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Papers presented by panelists at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference for the Social Studies are reprinted. Titles are: "Why the Focus on Immigration,""The Historical Process of Immigration,""Major Areas of Immigration Concern,""Human Implications of Immigration Law and Policies,""Refugee vs. Immigrant," and "How Educational Agencies Serve…

  4. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  5. The Politics of U.S. Immigration Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Alan K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counter-proposals for U.S. immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform. Also addresses the pressures for outmigration in the Third World, American public opinion on immigration reform, and increases in…

  6. 22 CFR 42.32 - Employment-based preference immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment-based preference immigrants. 42.32 Section 42.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.32 Employment-based preference immigrants....

  7. Safe return to homeland of an illegal immigrant with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Weder, Natalie D; Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Dominguez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    The disposition of illegal immigrants who lack social support and wish to return to their homeland is a frequent and difficult challenge for many mental health facilities in the United States. This case involved an undocumented Mexican patient with severe psychosis who was safely transferred to his hometown according to his and his family's wishes through the use of specific services provided by the Mexican Consulate. We hope that publication of this case will make the medical community more aware of the availability of these underused services, which can make a major difference in the prognosis of some undocumented patients who would otherwise be left without resources or appropriate care. PMID:19182568

  8. Householder factorizations of unitary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urías, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    A method to construct all representations of finite dimensional unitary matrices as the product of Householder reflections is given. By arbitrarily severing the state space into orthogonal subspaces, the method may, e.g., identify the entangling and single-component quantum operations that are required in the engineering of quantum states of composite (multipartite) systems. Earlier constructions are shown to be extreme cases of the unifying scheme that is presented here.

  9. New Immigration Requirements for Students in U.S. Who Are Not U.S. Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily; Jacobs, Judy

    The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service has delayed the date by which students in the United States who are not U.S. citizens, and who hold non-immigrant visas, must provide-through their schools-certain information to the INS that will be entered in the service's new Student and Exchange Visitor Information System. The new deadline is 15 February. The initial deadline for providing this information was 30 January. However, it has been delayed two weeks ``to accommodate schools and visitors centers that are new users'' of the Internet-based SEVIS system, according to a statement released by the INS.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service counsel. 1240.2 Section 1240.2... Service counsel. (a) Authority. Service counsel shall present on behalf of the government evidence... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  11. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa Aberg, Helena; Lagerkvist, Anders; Berg, Per E.O.

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  14. Neurological diseases and health care utilization among first-generation immigrants.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Nembrini, Stefano; Concoreggi, Carlo; Magoni, Mauro; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Migrants may constitute a risk group and should have specific targets for health policy. To identify their health needs, it is important to investigate their epidemiological profile and their access to health services. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of hospital and neurological services use among immigrants living in Brescia (Italy). The analysis took into account the records of 45,645 immigrants admitted to the ER (Emergency Room) as well as the discharge data of 6419 patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurology of the Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia, over a 3.5 years period. To take confounding factors into account, immigrant patients admitted to the department of Neurology were compared to a selection of Italian patients matched by age and sex. The main objectives were to explore causes of admission of the immigrant population-along with socio-demographic characteristics-to the Emergency Room and to the Neurology Units. Immigrants showed a similar pattern of hospital use to the Italian patients, although with a higher frequency of infective diseases and traumatic injuries. They also showed a higher mean Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) weight than the Italians. Average length of hospitalization was longer in immigrant population. However, the use of neurological services by migrants is less than their demographic share. Poorer economic and social conditions, as well as a worse labor market experienced by immigrants may expose them to risk factors for injuries and infective diseases. Reducing the language and bureaucratic barriers, as well as enhancing cross-cultural skills of physicians, might be crucial in decreasing the length and the cost of hospitalization. PMID:26872665

  15. Modeling household behavior in developing countries: discussion.

    PubMed

    Quisumbing, A R

    1996-12-01

    A large and growing body of literature has examined how agricultural households cope with risk. Much of the work has focused on which types of households are better able to smooth consumption, testing whether households with more resources and greater access to income-smoothing institutions, such as credit markets or well-functioning labor markets exhibit greater consumption smoothing. However, income shocks may have different effects upon different individuals within households, and differences in individual ability to smooth income or consumption may have welfare consequences which go beyond foregone income. The development of collective household models challenges the assumption that individuals within households maximize a single utility function. The assumption of income pooling has also been rejected in a growing body of empirical research on intrahousehold resource allocation. However, research on risk-pooling within households and differences in individual abilities to smooth consumption is relatively new. Selected papers are discussed. PMID:12292622

  16. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  17. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  18. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  19. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  20. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...