Science.gov

Sample records for immigrant women compared

  1. Postpartum Contraception: a Comparative Study of Berlin Women with and without Immigration Background

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Brenne, S.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.; Borde, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research Questions: Are there differences in postpartum contraceptive use between women with and without immigration background? Do women more commonly use contraception following a high-risk pregnancy or caesarean section? What role does current breastfeeding play and, amongst immigrants, what is the effect of acculturation level on the frequency of contraceptive use? Study Population and Methods: Data collection was carried out as part of a larger study in three Berlin delivery units using standardised interviews (questionnaires covering e.g. sociodemographics, immigration history/acculturation and use of antenatal care); telephone interviews comprising 6 questions on postpartum contraception, breastfeeding and postpartum complications were conducted on a sample of the study population six months after delivery. Results: 247 women with, and 358 women without a background of immigration were included in the study (total study population n = 605, response rate 81.1 %). 68 % of 1st generation immigrants, 87 % of 2nd/3rd generation women and 73 % of women without immigration background (non-immigrants) used contraception. In the logistical regression analysis 1st generation immigrants were less likely than non-immigrants to be using contraception six months postpartum, and 1st generation immigrants with low acculturation level were significantly less likely to use contraception than 2nd/3rd generation women with low acculturation level. Conclusion: In the extended postpartum period there was no major difference in contraceptive use between immigrants in general and non-immigrants. It remains unclear whether the differing contraceptive behaviour of 1st generation immigrants is the result of less access to information, sociocultural factors or differing contraceptive requirements and further targeted, qualitative study is required. PMID:26500367

  2. A comparative and exploratory analysis of socio-cultural factors and immigrant women's mental health within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Shahid; Zaidi, Arshia; Ammar, Nawal; Culbert, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of macro-level factors on immigrant and non-immigrant women's mental health status in a Canadian context. This study was part of a larger study examining women's quality of life in south eastern Ontario. Using survey research methods, data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 91 women of whom 66 identified their country of origin as "other" than Canada. Descriptive, bivariate and regression analysis of this data revealed that immigrant and non-immigrant women's macro-level predictors of mental health status vary. Overall, for immigrant women's perceptions of neighbourhood social cohesion was a stronger predictor influencing mental health status, while for non-immigrant women social support was more influential. Research with larger, representative samples should explore the findings to ascertain generalizability. PMID:22223121

  3. Canadian Immigrant Women in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebrood, Gerda; Robertson, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Canadian immigrant women as they move from one culture to another. Explores the barriers they encounter adapting to their new homeland and the coping strategies they use to deal with these barriers. Also examines the usefulness of different forms of support systems and the role of the counselor as part of the adaptation…

  4. Comparing written and oral measures of comprehension of cancer information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-09-01

    The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations. PMID:21445682

  5. Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women - Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin.

    PubMed

    David, M; Borde, T; Brenne, S; Ramsauer, B; Henrich, W; Breckenkamp, J; Razum, O

    2014-05-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6 %; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The

  6. Pregnancy outcome in immigrant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Masin, Michela; Bonsembiante, Barbara; Cosma, Chiara; Barison, Antonella; Toniato, Rosanna; Fedele, Domenico; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies show adverse outcomes of pregnancy among immigrant women from countries with high diabetes rates. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes in immigrant and Italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed up at our center. Maternal characteristics considered were age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, frequency of insulin treatment, timing and mode of delivery, and hypertensive disorders; and, for fetal outcome, infants large or small for gestational age, and fetal complications. Pre-pregnancy BMI and HbA1c were higher in immigrant GDM women than in Italians, and more of them were on insulin. No differences in maternal outcome emerged between the two groups. More large for gestational age (LGA) babies were born to immigrant women than to Italians, but no other differences emerged. Apart from newborn LGA, maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in our immigrant and Italian GDM women. Immigrant GDM women have favourable outcomes if given access to health care and language and cultural barriers are removed. PMID:20528567

  7. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care. PMID:24108090

  8. Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Immigrant and Later Generation Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, M. Jean

    1987-01-01

    Immigrant Mexican women's drinking patterns were compared with those of Mexican women in Mexico, other United States Latinas, later-generation Mexican-American women, and male immigrants. Changes in the direction of greater permissiveness and rationalization of alcohol use among later-generation Mexican-American women are demonstrated. (JMM)

  9. Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Irma Morales

    2010-03-01

    This study examined sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farmworking women (n = 150) employed on California farms. Of the estimated one million California farmworkers, 78% are Latino, mostly from Mexico, and 28% are women. Unlike gender-segregated worksites of Mexico, women farmworkers in the United States labor alongside men, facilitating harassment from coworkers and supervisors. Simultaneous sexist, racist, and economic discrimination are comparable to converging lanes of automobile traffic (Crenshaw, 2000) that women, standing at the intersections, manage to avoid harm. Findings highlight how discrimination shapes women's experiences and demonstrate the need for institutional policies to protect them. PMID:20093433

  10. Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women – Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Borde, T.; Brenne, S.; Ramsauer, B.; Henrich, W.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6 %; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The

  11. Mexican Immigrant Women: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Salgado de Snyder, V. Nelly

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six documents dealing with Hispanic immigrant women are included in this bibliography compiled from the Hispanic Health and Mental Health Data Base. Entires include author, title, source, date, index terms, and an abstract. A brief methodological description of the bibliography's development and analysis of pertinent research literature…

  12. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed. PMID:26424425

  13. Help-seeking rates for intimate partner violence (IPV) among Canadian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Forte, Tonia; Mont, Janice Du; Romans, Sarah; Cohen, Marsha M

    2006-09-01

    We examined rates of help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent (0-9 years in Canada) and non-recent (10+ years in Canada) immigrant women. Data from a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey were used. Help-seeking variables included disclosure of IPV, reporting IPV to police, use of social services subsequent to IPV, and barriers to social service use. Recent immigrant women, compared with non-recent immigrant women, were significantly more likely to report IPV to police and less likely to use social services. Findings have important implications for prevention and detection of IPV in immigrant communities and in future research. PMID:16893805

  14. [Health conditions of immigrant women in Italy].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lispi, L; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    The number of immigrant women in Italy has increased from 260,000 in 1991 to at least 750,000 in 2003. This article describes the health situation of these women, in particular it deals with reproductive health. Immigrant women are generally young, in good health and they go to the health services mainly for pregnancy, delivery, spontaneous and induced abortion. Forty-eight per cent of acute hospital admissions and 56 per cent of day hospital admissions in 2002 were related to reproduction. Among foreign citizens, the induced abortion rate is three times higher than that reported among Italians, while the risk of spontaneous abortion is similar (97 per thousand and 101 per thousand, respectively). In general, the data show that immigrant women in Italy live in deprived social conditions, which can influence their reproductive choices and their access to health services. In order to take account of their particular needs, it is necessary to modify the health services and plan public health interventions especially for the prevention of induced abortion. PMID:16041925

  15. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  16. Immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care: a systematic and comparative review of studies in five countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care is critical if receiving country care systems are to respond appropriately to increasing global migration. This systematic review aimed to compare what we know about immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care. Methods Medline, CINAHL, Health Star, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for the period 1989–2012. First, we retrieved population-based studies of women’s experiences of maternity care (n = 12). For countries with identified population studies, studies focused specifically on immigrant women’s experiences of care were also retrieved (n = 22). For all included studies, we extracted available data on experiences of care and undertook a descriptive comparison. Results What immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care proved similar: safe, high quality, attentive and individualised care, with adequate information and support. Immigrant women were less positive about their care than non-immigrant women. Communication problems and lack of familiarity with care systems impacted negatively on immigrant women’s experiences, as did perceptions of discrimination and care which was not kind or respectful. Conclusion Few differences were found in what immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care. The challenge for health systems is to address the barriers immigrant women face by improving communication, increasing women’s understanding of care provision and reducing discrimination. PMID:24773762

  17. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life. PMID:25096026

  18. Participation of immigrant women family caregivers in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, A; Harrison, M J; Hughes, K D; Spitzer, D; Stewart, M J

    2001-10-01

    The recruitment of articulate, expressive participants is an essential part of methodology in qualitative research. This article presents the authors' experience in the recruitment of immigrant women of Chinese and South Asian origin in an ethnographic study. The study included women caring for an adult or child family member who had a chronic health problem. Knowledge of women family caregivers' health is restricted by the failure to include diverse groups of women in research. In this article, the authors discuss issues related to recruitment and participation of immigrant women in research, including establishing access to diverse groups of women, benefits for immigrant women, and placing the researcher and research process on the same level. Practical research strategies to address these issues and engage the women in research that portrays their perspectives are presented. The authors' discussion concludes with reflection on their experience and that of other researchers. PMID:11569331

  19. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success. PMID:26251953

  20. In America and in Need: Immigrant, Refugee, and Entrant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Abby

    This report presents analysis, findings, and recommendations from a study of certain members of the "new wave" immigrant population, specifically Southeast Asian women, Haitian women, and Hispanic women. After an executive summary of the study's objectives, background, and findings, the two phases of the project are described: (1) the collection…

  1. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women. PMID:26605954

  2. Intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country’s formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the “victimhood of women from conservative developing countries” and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families. PMID:23984223

  3. Caesarean Section Frequency among Immigrants, Second- and Third-Generation Women, and Non-Immigrants: Prospective Study in Berlin/Germany

    PubMed Central

    David, Matthias; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; Henrich, Wolfgang; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Razum, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objective The frequency of caesarean section delivery varies between countries and social groups. Among other factors, it is determined by the quality of obstetrics care. Rates of elective (planned) and emergency (in-labor) caesareans may also vary between immigrants (first generation), their offspring (second- and third-generation women), and non-immigrants because of access and language barriers. Other important points to be considered are whether caesarean section indications and the neonatal outcomes differ in babies delivered by caesarean between immigrants, their offspring, and non-immigrants. Methods A standardized interview on admission to delivery wards at three Berlin obstetric hospitals was performed in a 12-month period in 2011/2012. Questions on socio-demographic and care aspects and on migration (immigrated herself vs. second- and third-generation women vs. non-immigrant) and acculturation status were included. Data was linked with information from the expectant mothers’ antenatal records and with perinatal data routinely documented in the hospital. Regression modeling was used to adjust for age, parity and socio-economic status. Results The caesarean section rates for immigrants, second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrant women were similar. Neither indications for caesarean section delivery nor neonatal outcomes showed statistically significant differences. The only difference found was a somewhat higher rate of crash caesarean sections per 100 births among first generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants. Conclusion Unlike earlier German studies and current studies from other European countries, this study did not find an increased rate of caesarean sections among immigrants, as well as second- and third-generation women, with the possible exception of a small high-risk group. This indicates an equally high quality of perinatal care for women with and without a migration history. PMID:25985437

  4. Disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women giving birth in six industrialised countries

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, ML; Glazier, RH; Gagnon, AJ; Mortensen, LH; Nybo Andersen, A-M; Janevic, T; Guendelman, S; Thornton, D; Bolumar, F; Río Sánchez, I; Small, R; Davey, M-A; Hjern, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women from various world regions giving birth in six industrialised countries. Design Cross-country comparative study of linked population-based databases. Setting Provincial or regional obstetric delivery data from Australia, Canada, Spain and the USA and national data from Denmark and Sweden. Population All immigrant and non-immigrant women delivering in the six industrialised countries within the most recent 10-year period available to each participating centre (1995–2010). Methods Data was collected using standardised definitions of the outcomes and maternal regions of birth. Pooled data were analysed with multilevel models. Within-country analyses used stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcome measures Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and pre-eclampsia with prolonged hospitalisation (cases per 1000 deliveries). Results There were 9 028 802 deliveries (3 031 399 to immigrant women). Compared with immigrants from Western Europe, immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America & the Caribbean were at higher risk of pre-eclampsia (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.63, 1.80 and 1.63; 95% CI: 1.57, 1.69) and eclampsia (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.61, 2.79 and 1.55; 95% CI: 1.26, 1. 91), respectively, after adjustment for parity, maternal age and destination country. Compared with native-born women, European and East Asian immigrants were at lower risk in most industrialised countries. Spain exhibited the largest disparities and Australia the smallest. Conclusion Immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America & the Caribbean require increased surveillance due to a consistently high risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. PMID:24758368

  5. Women's Learning and Development Across Borders: Insights from Anglophone Caribbean Immigrant Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    The learning and development experiences of English-speaking Caribbean immigrant women in the United States were examined in a transcultural study. A heuristic phenomenological approach was used to explore how a sample of 15 Anglophone women from the British Caribbean islands who had immigrated to the midwestern, southwestern, and eastern United…

  6. NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL ALIENATION IN FORMER SOVIET IMMIGRANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2010-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44–80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the US fewer than 13 years. Participants resided in 65 census tracts in the Chicago area with varying concentrations of Russian-speaking and diverse immigrants. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that the effect of acculturation on alienation varies depending on neighborhood characteristics. The study also demonstrates the complexity of individual and contextual influences on immigrant adoption. Understanding these relationships is important for developing community-based and neighborhood-level interventions to enhance the mental health of immigrants. PMID:21127738

  7. Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Women in Breast Health Education.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Erwin, Deborah O; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C

    2015-09-01

    This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693

  8. Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Women in Breast Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G.; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Erwin, Deborah O.; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693

  9. Immigrant Women and Counseling the Invisible Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana; Chronister, Krista M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 10.4% of the U.S. population, or approximately 28 million individuals, are immigrants (Schmidley, 2001). The amount of information on recent immigrants in psychological literature is sparse (Hovey, 2000; Pernice, 1994; Yoshihama & Horrucks, 2002), however, and there is even less information about the impact of…

  10. Comparing disability amongst immigrants and native-born in Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Simone, Dylan

    2015-11-01

    Given high levels of immigration into Canada and the associated requirement to understand the health needs of new arrivals, an extensive literature has developed over the past decade that has explored immigrant health issues, including the 'healthy immigrant effect'. Surprisingly, however, issues of disability within the immigrant population have received much less attention. Using data from Statistics Canada, 2006a, 2006b Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS), this paper examines disability and its covariates amongst immigrants relative to non-immigrants in Canada. Compared with their native-born counterparts, recent immigrant arrivals (within the past 10 years) were less likely to report disability and less likely to report a severe disability than the native-born. However, differences in the rates and covariates of disabilities between males and female immigrants were observed, which are partially explained by socioeconomic and sociodemographic effects. The conclusion explores potential reasons why differentials in disability rates are observed, and points to future research directions. PMID:26448165

  11. Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in Catalonia for the Period 2008–2011 among Immigrants and Spanish-Born Women

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Roura, Esther; Ibañez, Raquel; Peris, Mercè; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Sanjosé, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female immigration in Catalonia, Spain, increased dramatically in the last 10 years. The Public Health system in the Region, provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status. Methods: The study analyzes the cytologies registered among women aged 25–65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC) for any reason (n = 1,242,230) during 2008–2011. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP) that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center, and cytology results. Results: During the period 2008–2011, 642,643 smears were performed in a total of 506,189 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2 and 39% respectively). Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.5 and 2.9% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia had a high access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers. PMID:24392348

  12. Contraceptive practices and attitudes among immigrant and nonimmigrant women in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare experiences, attitudes, and beliefs of immigrant and nonimmigrant women presenting for abortion with regard to contraception, and to identify difficulties involved in accessing contraception in Canada. Design A survey of immigrant and nonimmigrant women asking about women’s experiences with and attitudes toward contraceptives and any barriers to contraceptive access they have encountered. Demographic data including ethnicity, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada were collected. Setting Two urban abortion clinics. Participants Women presenting for first-trimester abortion. Main outcome measures Type of contraception used when the unwanted pregnancy was conceived, attitudes to contraceptives, and barriers to access of contraceptives. Results A total of 999 women completed questionnaires during the study period (75.9% response rate); 466 of them (46.6%) were born in Canada. Immigrant women presenting for abortion were less likely to be using hormonal contraception when they got pregnant (12.5% vs 23.5%, P < .001) and had more negative attitudes toward hormonal contraception (62.6% vs 51.6%, P < .003). They reported having more difficulties accessing contraception before the abortion (24.8% vs 15.3%, P < .001) than nonimmigrant women did. About half of all the women expressed fear about intrauterine device use. The longer immigrant women had lived in Canada, the more likely they were to have similar responses to those of Canadian-born women. Conclusion The information provided by this study might be valuable for family doctors and other clinicians to improve contraceptive information resources for immigrants to address existing knowledge gaps and other culturally relevant concerns. As about half of all women presenting for abortion expressed negative attitudes toward the more effective methods of contraception, it is important that family doctors educate all women at risk for unintended pregnancies. PMID:24130299

  13. Cardiovascular Interventions for Immigrant Women: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to identify cardiovascular interventions that are designed to address the needs of immigrant women across North America and Europe. The articles retrieved were reviewed independently by both the first author and a trained research assistant. Although the search revealed many articles and resources related to supporting cardiovascular self-management behaviors among individuals, few focused on interventions designed for immigrant women who were diagnosed and living with cardiovascular disease. Also, it was difficult to determine the quality of the literature retrieved, as the main goal of this scoping review was to assess the body of literature and categorize materials by common themes and topics. A more in-depth structured systematic review is needed to determine the quality of evidence being presented and to serve as a rationale for the design and implementation of future culturally sensitive interventions delivered to immigrant women diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. PMID:27112912

  14. Asian American Women: Stereotyping Asian Women; Chinese Immigrants; Issei--the First Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…

  15. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women’s lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women’s homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Results All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked

  16. Social support and happiness in immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women. PMID:22897099

  17. The Role of Ethnic Loyalty among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado de Snyder, V. Nelly

    1987-01-01

    Ethnic loyalty in 140 Mexican women who immigrated to the United States at age 14 or older, and have lived there for an average of 7.5 years, was examined. Those remaining strongly attached to their traditional culture have a higher risk of psychological conflicts than those with lower ethnic loyalty scores. (JMM)

  18. Breast Self-Examination among Chinese Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wang, Caroline C.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly among the fast-growing demographic group of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). In this study, the authors assessed the awareness of breast self-exam (BSE) and factors predicting practice of BSE among Chinese immigrant women living in San Francisco. Three hundred and ninety-seven women…

  19. Transgressive vs Conformative: Immigrant Women Learning at Contingent Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Srabani; Shan, Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The paper seeks to explore workers' learning in relation to the racialized and gendered organization of contingent work. Design/methodology/approach--This paper is informed by Marxist theorization of labour power and learning. It draws on the interview data of 24 highly educated immigrant women from the research project "Skilled In…

  20. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  1. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  2. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    PubMed

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291896

  3. Mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption in immigrated middle-aged women. The Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

    PubMed

    Rundberg, Jenny; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Nerbrand, Christina; Samsioe, Göran; Romelsjö, Anders; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption, in immigrant women born in Finland, the other Nordic countries, Eastern Europe, Western Europe and countries outside Europe, compared with Swedish-born women, and furthermore, to study if age at immigration may have an influence. All women (n=10,766) aged 50-59 years and living in the Lund area of southern Sweden received a postal invitation to a health survey named the Women's Health in Lund Area; 64.2% (n=6917) participated. The participants answered a questionnaire including prevalence of mental symptoms during the past 3 months, regular use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol consumption during an average week, country of birth and age at immigration. Severe mental symptoms were more common among most immigrant groups compared with native Swedes, but the association to country of birth was not significant after adjustment for possible confounders. Regular use of hypnotics was more common among Nordic immigrants only (odds ration, OR = 4.4). East European and non-European immigrants less often were alcohol consumers (OR = 1.6 and OR = 3.8). Heavy drinking was more common among non-Nordic immigrants who immigrated at a younger age than at an older age. Furthermore, it was found that although East European and non-European immigrants had a higher educational level, they were less often gainfully employed compared with native Swedes. In middle-aged women, country of birth as well as age at immigration are important factors to consider in relation to alcohol consumption, but these factors may be of less importance considering mental health. PMID:17162456

  4. Immigrant Latino neighborhoods and mortality among infants born to Mexican-origin Latina women.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002-2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1,000 live births vs. 4.6, p = .002). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 1.01-1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 0.99-1.67). In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos. PMID:25430802

  5. Immigrant Latino Neighborhoods and Mortality among Infants Born to Mexican-Origin Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Methods Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002–2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 Census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Results Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1000 live births vs. 4.6, p=.002)). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.01–1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.99–1.67). Conclusions In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos. PMID:25430802

  6. Undocumented and unprotected immigrant women and children in harm's way.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Barbara; Gaboury, Mario Thomas; Onken, Kasie J

    2008-01-01

    The status of undocumented immigrants and current immigration legislative proposals are the subject of heated debate with both political and economic implications often overshadowing the needs of undocumented victims of abuse. This article will focus on the plight of undocumented women and children who are victims of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse perpetrated by their spouse or parent who is a citizen of the United States (by birth or naturalization). We will review the magnitude of this problem, provide a brief history of current legal protections and the potential for the U-Visa as a tool for obtaining citizenship for these victims, note the particular barriers to reporting abuse and seeking help for undocumented battered women, and suggest both nursing practices and broader advocacy to aid on overcoming the significant obstacles to accessing services faced by this vulnerable population. Although men are also victims of similar abuses and circumstance, this article will focus on victimized women and children. PMID:18798878

  7. Use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway: data from the Norwegian Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Omland, G; Ruths, S; Diaz, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway. Design Nationwide registry-based study based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database, the Norwegian Population Registry, the Regular General Practitioner Database and the Medical Birth Registry. Setting Norway. Sample All women born abroad to two foreign-born parents (immigrants), or born in Norway to two Norwegian-born parents (natives) aged 16–45 years, who lived in Norway in 2008. Methods Data on all collected supplies of hormonal contraceptives in 2008 were merged with demographic, socio-economic and immigration data, information on any delivery and women's general practitioners. Main outcome measures User rates of hormonal contraception and predictors of contraceptive use. Results A total of 893 073 women were included, of whom 130 080 were immigrants. More native women (38%) used hormonal contraceptives compared with all immigrant groups (15–24%). The odds ratios for any use of hormonal contraceptives for immigrants compared with Norwegian-born women were; Nordic countries 0.53, South and Central America 0.53, Western countries 0.39, Asia 0.30, Eastern Europe 0.29, Africa 0.29. Work, education, long stay in Norway and young age of immigration predicted the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrants. Conclusions The use of hormonal contraceptives varies between natives and immigrant groups. Further work is needed to ascertain whether these differences can be explained by higher desires for fertility, preferential use of non-hormonal contraceptives or other reasons identified through qualitative research. PMID:24931487

  8. Health experiences of Korean immigrant women in retirement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-01-01

    In this focused ethnographic study, we explored the health experiences of 15 Korean immigrant women after retirement in an urban center in Western Canada. Almost all women began their lives in Canada without adequate personal finances, making their employment essential for supporting their families financially. Most women lived with more than two chronic diseases, attributed to long hours and difficult work conditions. They experienced improved psychological health after retiring, irrespective of positive or negative changes in their physical health. Spiritual faith and exercise were important strategies to maintain and enhance their health and to postpone and manage chronic diseases. PMID:25186924

  9. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  10. Fertility Responses of High-Skilled Native Women to Immigrant Inflows.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Delia

    2016-02-01

    Despite debate regarding the magnitude of the impact, immigrant inflows are generally understood to depress wages and increase employment in immigrant-intensive sectors. In light of the overrepresentation of the foreign-born in the childcare industry, this article examines whether college-educated native women respond to immigrant-induced lower cost and potentially more convenient childcare options with increased fertility. An analysis of U.S. Census data between 1980 and 2000 suggests that immigrant inflows are indeed associated with native women's increased likelihoods of having a baby, and responses are strongest among women who are most likely to consider childcare costs when making fertility decisions-namely, married women and women with a graduate degree. Given that native women also respond to immigrant inflows by working long hours, this article concludes with an analysis of the types of women who have stronger fertility responses versus labor supply responses to immigration. PMID:26660353

  11. Immigrant women in Australia: resources, family and work.

    PubMed

    Evans, M D

    1984-01-01

    Using the 1% public use sample of individual records from the 1981 census and adopting direct standardization for age and sex regression techniques, this paper describes differences among native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking countries, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Third World, in areas of labor participation, unemployment, occupational status, entrepreneurship, and income. While Eastern European women are the most likely to be in the labor force, are the most likely to be unemployed and are the highest paid, Mediterranean women are the least likely to be in the labor force, have fairly low unemployment rates and occupy the lowest status positions and receive the lowest wages. Native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking and Third World countries and Northwestern Europe are intermediate between these 2 extremes on most dimensions. Some of the differences are not large. In particular, labor force participation only ranges from 49% to 59% and self employment from 9% to 14%. The most apparent differences in work patterns of the various groups of immigrants stem from differences in their own resources and constranits, or from different modes of adaptation to the Australian society, rather than from differential treatment in the labor market. Although family roles affect aspects of work differently, in general, marriage reduces labor force participation by more than 10% among all groups, except for East Europeans and the Mediterraneans, among whom it has no effect. While East European women hold on to their jobs as a potential source of livelihood in the event of divorce which is common among this group, the Mediterraneans view jobs as a means of achieving a measure of economic security. The effect of length of stay in Australia on labor market participation is somewhat larger for women from non-English speaking countries, whose adaptation process includes a slow improvement in language

  12. Cultural Beliefs and Understandings of Cervical Cancer Among Mexican Immigrant Women in Southeast Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Maupin, Jonathan N.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Watson, Lisa C.; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Ferris, Daron G.

    2014-01-01

    Rural Mexican immigrant women in the U.S. are infrequently screened and experience health disparities from cervical cancer. We explored cancer-related cultural beliefs in this population. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 39 Mexican immigrant women due for screening. We conducted univariate and bivariate analyses of participants’ characteristics, Pap test history, cancer-related knowledge and beliefs, and cultural consensus analysis about causes of cervical cancer and barriers to screening. For all the cultural consensus tasks, there was consensus (Eigenratios >3:1) among survey participants. Comparing the rankings of risk factor clusters, clusters related to sexual behaviors were ranked more severely than clusters related to genetic or other behavioral factors. There was agreement on ideas of cervical cancer causation and barriers to screening among these women. Hence, improved methods of disseminating important health information and greater access to care are needed, particularly in relationship to stigma about sex and birth control practices. PMID:25274023

  13. Promoting Immigrant Women's Cardiovascular Health Redesigning Patient Education Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among women from low- to middle-income countries. The most common cardiovascular nursing intervention is that of patient education. However, the applicability of this intervention is questionable, as these educational initiatives are typically designed and evaluated using samples of "white" homogeneous males. Using the social determinants of health framework, this discursive article identifies specific strategies for redesigning existing cardiovascular education interventions to enhance their applicability to immigrant women. The recommendations will allow nurses to enhance the educational support offered resulting in the reduction and/or prevention of cardiovascular-related symptoms and/or complications. PMID:26517345

  14. Psychosocial and sociocultural aspects of infertility--a comparison between Austrian women and immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Julia; Kirchengast, Sylvia; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Huber, Johannes

    2004-09-01

    The polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting female fertility. In this study we examined psychosocial parameters caused by infertility in PCOS women with different socio-cultural background. Symptomatology of PCOS, body composition characteristics as well as psychosocial parameters were examined in 49 PCOS infertility patients of the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Vienna, who originated from two different socio-cultural subgroups--Austrian women and Moslem immigrant women. In the appearance of the symptoms the typical heterogeneity of PCOS could be found in both subgroups with no differences. However, differences in the psychosocial aspects were impressive. Women from Islamic background do have a very high reproductive pressure. The Moslem immigrant PCOS women suffer more from infertility than Austrian women do. PMID:15509089

  15. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    PubMed

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers. PMID:10379459

  16. Cervical cancer screening in immigrant women in Italy: a survey on participation, cytology and histology results.

    PubMed

    Campari, Cinzia; Fedato, Chiara; Iossa, Anna; Petrelli, Alessio; Zorzi, Manuel; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Bietta, Carla; Brachini, Angela; Brezzi, Silvia; Cogo, Carla; Giordano, Livia; Giorgi, Daniela; Palazzi, Mauro; Petrella, Marco; Schivardi, Maria R; Visioli, Carmen B; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening programmes in Italy actively invite all 25-64-year-old resident women for the Pap test every 3 years irrespective of their citizenship. Immigrant women come from countries where screening is absent or poorly implemented and the prevalence of human papillomavirus is often high. These women therefore have significant risk factors for cervical cancer. The Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening promoted a survey of all the screening programmes on the participation and the positivity and detection rates in Italian and foreign women in 2009-2011. Aggregated data for participation, cytology results, compliance with colposcopy and histology results were collected, distinguishing between women born in Italy and abroad. All comparisons were age adjusted. Forty-eight programmes out of 120 participated in the immigrant survey, with 3 147 428 invited and 1 427 412 screened Italian women and 516 291 invited and 205 948 screened foreign women. Foreign women had a slightly lower participation rate compared with Italians (39.9 vs. 45.4%), whereas compliance with colposcopy was similar (90%). Foreigners showed a higher risk of pathological findings than Italians: cytology positivity [relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.27] and detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.47), CIN3 (RR=2.07, 95% CI 1.96-2.18) and cancer (RR=2.68, 95% CI 2.24-3.22). The ratio between cancer and CIN was higher in immigrants (0.06 vs. 0.04, P<0.01). Foreign women had a higher risk of cervical precancer and cancer. Because of their high risk and because opportunistic screening does not cover this often disadvantaged group, achieving high participation in screening programmes for foreigners is critical to further reducing the cervical cancer burden in Italy. PMID:26207563

  17. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes. PMID:12321472

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Milla, Afredo; Rodríguez, Juan C; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2011-11-01

    In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. For each immigrant woman, one Spanish pregnant woman of the same age cared for in the same day was recruited (Spanish control group). A total of 1,627 migrant pregnant women participated in this study. The adherence to screening among migrants was 91.9% (95% CI, 90.5-93.1%), similar than that found in Spaniards (92.2%; 95% CI, 90.8-93-4%). Among migrant women, 619 were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (41.4%; 95% CI, 38.9-43.9%), compared with 12.0% (95% CI, 10.5-13.8%) among Spaniards (odds ratio (OR), 5.2 (95% CI, 4.3-6.3). Seroprevalence in pregnant women from Latin America, northern Africa, Eastern Europe, Africa Sub-Saharan and Western Europe was higher than in the Spanish control group (OR, 5.4, 5.8, 6.5, 5.4, and 2.4, respectively; p < 0.001). No Asian pregnant woman was immune. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in migrant pregnant women: 15-25 years, 38.2%; 26-35 years, 40.7%; and 36-45 years, 52.8%. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in migrant pregnant women living in Spain was higher than in the native population. However, no cases were found in Asian immigrants, highlighting the importance of primary prevention of this infection in pregnant women coming from that geographic region. PMID:21541753

  19. Opportunities and challenges associated with engaging immigrant women in participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Ganann, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    With increasing recognition of the importance of knowledge exchange between researchers and research stakeholders, community member involvement remains poorly accessed. A promising community-based research methodology for knowledge exchange is participatory action research (PAR). This review examines opportunities and challenges associated with using PAR to examine issues related to community health, specifically that of immigrant women. The literature search included published and grey literature relevant to immigrant women and PAR. PAR actively engages community members of the study population throughout the research process. The involvement of immigrant women in research that explores issues pertinent to their health is essential to conducting relevant research to subsequently inform policies and programs. There are numerous advantages to using a PAR approach, including enhanced research relevance and utilization; notwithstanding, there are challenges to overcome in order to engage community based immigrant women in research. Ultimately, policies that have contextual grounding through PAR have better likelihood of effectively addressing priority issues for immigrant women. PMID:22491996

  20. Afghan immigrant women's knowledge and behaviors around breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehra; Bloom, Joan; Shirazi, Aida; Popal, Rona

    2013-01-01

    Background This community-based participatory research was conducted to provide a preliminary understanding of how Afghan women in Northern California view their breast health. Methods Results were based on demographics and in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 53 non-English-speaking first-generation immigrant Muslim Afghan women 40 years and older. Results Findings showed low levels of knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and low utilization of early-detection examinations for breast cancer among participants. Conclusions The findings also suggest a significant need for a community-based breast health education program that recognizes the unique social, cultural, and religious dynamics of the Muslim Afghan community. PMID:23225210

  1. IndoChinese women's breastfeeding practices following immigration to Sydney: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, J C; Ledwidge, H; Coulon, L

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, most IndoChinese women breastfeed their children for a prolonged period. Recent studies indicate that there is a reduction in the rate and duration of breastfeeding by IndoChinese women following immigration to Western countries. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare pre- and post-migration attitudes of 20 IndoChinese women towards infant feeding. Triangulated methodology was used for data collection and frequency distribution and measures of association were used to analyse the quantitative data. Content analysis identified patterns and themes in the qualitative results. Findings revealed that following migration to Australia the women experienced significant sociocultural problems. Recommendations include in-depth studies of ethnic groups and 'tailor-made' education to promote breastfeeding. PMID:8240763

  2. The effect of immigration and acculturation on victimization among a national sample of Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of immigrant status, acculturation, and the interaction of acculturation and immigrant status on self-reported victimization in the United States among Latino women, including physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatened violence. In addition, immigrant status, acculturation, gender role ideology, and religious intensity were examined as predictors of the count of victimization among the victimized subsample. The Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study surveyed 2,000 adult Latino women who lived in high-density Latino neighborhoods in 2008. The present study reports findings for a subsample of women who were victimized in the United States (n = 568). Immigrant women reported significantly less victimization than U.S.-born Latino women in bivariate analyses. Multivariate models showed that Anglo orientation was associated with greater odds of all forms of victimization, whereas both Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with lower odds of all forms of victimization. Latino orientation was more protective for immigrant women than for U.S.-born Latino women with regard to sexual victimization. Among the victimized subsample, being an immigrant, Anglo acculturation, and masculine gender role were associated with a higher victimization count, whereas Latino orientation and religious intensity were associated with a lower victimization count. The findings point to the risk associated with being a U.S. minority, the protective value of Latino cultural maintenance, and the need for services to reach out to Anglo acculturated Latino women. PMID:23148902

  3. Contextualizing the Trauma Experience of Women Immigrants From Central America, South America, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kaltman, Stacey; de Mendoza, Alejandra Hurtado; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women. PMID:22144133

  4. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the global smoking epidemic model in the women's countries of origin, or not. Methods Delivery data on pregnancies in Sweden from 1982 to 2001 was collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. From a total of 2,224,469 pregnant women during this period, all immigrant pregnant women (n = 234,731) were selected to this study. A logistic regression analysis and attributable fraction were used to investigate the association between smoking during pregnancy and the socioeconomic differences among immigrant women. Results Overall, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant immigrant women decreased from 30.3% in 1982 to 11.0% in 2001, albeit with remarkable differences between educational levels and country of origin. The greatest decline of absolute prevalence was recorded among low educated women (27,9%) and among other Nordic countries (17,9%). In relative terms, smoking inequalities increased between educational levels regardless of country of origin. The odds ratios for low educational level for women from other Nordic countries increased from 4.9 (95% CI 4.4-5.4) in 1982 to 13.4 (95% CI 11.2-16.2) in 2001, as compared to women with high education in the same group. Further, the total attributable fraction for educational difference increased from 55% in 1982 to 62% in 2001, demonstrating the strong effect of educational attainment. Conclusions Our hypothesis that the socioeconomic time trend of smoking based on the stage of the world wide tobacco epidemic model related to country of origin

  5. Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Arab immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen; Templin, Thomas N; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2010-02-01

    We adapted the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for use with Arab immigrant women (MSPSS-AW) and estimated the psychometric properties of the adapted version with a sample of 539 Arab immigrant women living in the United States. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the proposed three-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the three subscales ranged from good to very good. Additional evidence for construct validity of the MSPSS-AW subscales was demonstrated through relationships with theoretically related measures. We conclude that the MSPSS-AW is reliable and valid for use with Arab immigrant women. PMID:20390643

  6. A postcolonial feminist perspective inquiry into immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Maureen O'Mahony, Joyce; Truong Donnelly, Tam

    2010-07-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. As a result, there is greater emphasis on health care providers and the health care system to provide culturally appropriate and equitable care. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems and experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. In this paper we advocate for new ways of research inquiry in exploring immigrant women's mental health care experiences, ones that move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness toward recognition that the health of immigrant women must be addressed within the social, cultural, economic, historical, and political context of their lives. Drawing on past research we demonstrate how the postcolonial feminist perspective can be used to illuminate the ways in which race, gender, and class relations influence social, cultural, political, and economic factors, which, in turn, shape the lives of immigrant women. We suggest that postcolonial feminism provides an analytic lens to (a) generate transformative knowledge about immigrant women's mental health care experiences; (b) improve equitable health care; and (c) increase understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the immigrant women's health care needs. PMID:20521913

  7. How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

    2013-10-01

    The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

  8. Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrant Women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Examines differences in a wide array of labor market outcomes between U.S.-born and immigrant women, and among immigrants born in different regions of the world. Wage gaps among different groups are discussed. Disparities in completed years of schooling explain a substantial part of the differences in labor market outcomes. (SLD)

  9. Are there differences in injury mortality among refugees and immigrants compared with native-born?

    PubMed Central

    Olsbjerg, Maja; Petersen, Jorgen H; Laursen, Bjarne; Krasnik, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors studied injury mortality in Denmark among refugees and immigrants compared with that among native Danes. Method A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. All refugees (n=29 139) and family reunited immigrants (n=27 134) who between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1999 received residence permission were included and matched 1:4 on age and sex with native Danes. Civil registration numbers were cross-linked to the Register of Causes of Death, and fatalities due to unintentional and intentional injuries were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis. Sex-specific mortality ratios were estimated by migrant status and region of birth, adjusting for age and income and using a Cox regression model after a median follow-up of 11–12 years. Results Compared with native Danes, both female (RR=0.44; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and male (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.56) refugees as well as female (RR=0.40; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.76) and male (RR=0.22; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.42) immigrants had significantly lower mortality from unintentional injuries. Suicide rates were significantly lower for male refugees (RR=0.38; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.61) and male immigrants (RR=0.24; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.59), whereas their female counterparts showed no significant differences. Only immigrant women had a significantly higher homicide rate (RR=3.09; 95% CI 1.11 to 8.60) compared with native Danes. Conclusions Overall results were advantageous to migrant groups. Research efforts should concentrate on investigating protective factors among migrants, which may benefit injury prevention in the majority population. PMID:22627779

  10. Puerto Rican-Born Women in the United States: Contextual Approach to Immigration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Venera; Van Hook, Mary; Matthew, Lenore

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on how acculturative stress and psychological distress affect Puerto Rican-born women residing in the United States. Mediation path analysis was used to estimate relationships between contextual factors, acculturative stress, and psychological distress. The fit of the data to the final model was adequate as estimated using chi-square analysis, comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis Index, and root-mean-square error of approximation. Racial discrimination (b = 0.38, p = .01), difficulties visiting family abroad (b = 0.26, p = .03), and age at immigration (b = 0.19, p = .03) were positively associated with acculturative stress. The factor English skills (b = -0.31, p = .02) was negatively associated with acculturative stress. Racial discrimination had the strongest effect on acculturative stress, followed by English skills, difficulties visiting family abroad, and age at immigration. Racial discrimination (b = 0.39, p = .01) and financial constraints (b = 0.30, p = .01) were positively associated with psychological distress. Racial discrimination affected the women's psychological distress the most, followed by economic contexts (financial constraints). This study informs practitioners in considering the significant contextual factors relevant to the psychological distress of Puerto Rican-born women. PMID:26638506

  11. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Azerkan, Fatima; Widmark, Catarina; Sparén, Pär; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women’s perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Methods Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme was “Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders”. Investigation of women’s rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. Conclusions The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women

  12. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health. PMID:23475348

  13. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector.

    PubMed

    Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker's needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers. PMID:26600083

  14. Professionals' perceptions of support resources for battered immigrant women: chronicle of an anticipated failure.

    PubMed

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Goicolea, Isabel; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby M; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of service providers in Spain regarding their daily professional encounters with battered immigrant women and their perception of this group's help-seeking process and the eventual abandonment of the same. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 43 professionals involved in providing support to battered immigrant women. We interviewed social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, and public health professionals from Spain. Through qualitative content analysis, four categories emerged: (a) frustration with the victim's decision to abandon the help-seeking process, (b) ambivalent positions regarding differences between immigrant and Spanish women, (c) difficulties in the migratory process that may hinder the help-seeking process, and (d) criticisms regarding the inefficiency of existing resources. The four categories were cross-cut by an overarching theme: helping immigrant women not to abandon the help-seeking process as a chronicle of anticipated failure. The main reasons that emerged for abandoning the help-seeking process involved structural factors such as economic dependence, loss of social support after leaving their country of origin, and limited knowledge about available resources. The professionals perceived their encounters with battered immigrant women to be frustrating and unproductive because they felt that they had few resources to back them up. They felt that despite the existence of public policies targeting intimate partner violence (IPV) and immigration in Spain, the resources dedicated to tackling gender-based violence were insufficient to meet battered immigrant women's needs. Professionals should be trained both in the problem of IPV and in providing support to the immigrant population. PMID:24288189

  15. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  16. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans' self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture's values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  17. Immigration distress and associated factors among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Anderson, Debra

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the types and predictors of immigration distress among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews was conducted for data collection. A convenient sample of 203 Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in southern Taiwan was recruited. The Demographic Inventory measured the participants' age, education, employment status, religion, length of residency and number of children, as well as their spouse's age, education, employment status and religion. The Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale measured the level of distress and had six subscales: loss, novelty, occupational adjustment, language accommodation, discrimination and alienation. Among the 203 participants, 6.4% had a high level of immigration distress; 91.1% had moderate distress; and 2.5% had minor distress. Higher mean scores were found for the loss, novelty and language accommodation subscales of the Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale. Participant's (r = 0.321, p < 0.01) and spouse's (r = 0.375, p < 0.01) unemployment, and more children (r = 0.129, p < 0.05) led to greater immigration distress. Length of residency in Taiwan (r = 0.576, p < 0.001) was an effective predictor of immigration distress. It indicated that the participants who had stayed fewer years in Taiwan had a higher level of immigrant distress. Health care professionals need to be aware that the female newcomers in transnational marriages are highly susceptible to immigration distress. The study suggests that healthcare professionals need to provide a comprehensive assessment of immigration distress to detect health problems early and administer culturally appropriate healthcare for immigrant women in transnational marriages. PMID:21186013

  18. Social Service Utilization, Sense of Community, Family Functioning and the Mental Health of New Immigrant Women in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiaobing; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 296 new immigrant women in Hong Kong, this study investigated how social service utilization, family functioning, and sense of community influenced the depressive symptoms of new immigrant women. Results of the structural equation modeling suggested that family functioning and sense of community were both significantly and negatively associated with the depression of new immigrant women. Utilization of community services also influenced the depression of immigrant women indirectly through the mediating effect of sense of community. Implications of the research findings for mental health intervention were discussed. PMID:23629592

  19. Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Lien, Mei-Huei; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in immigrant women. A total of 239 immigrant women were selected from four administrative regions in Central Taiwan. Questionnaires concerning perceived discrimination, family functioning (including family cohesion and family adaptability), depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics were completed by either women themselves (N = 120) or their husbands (N = 119). The moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression symptoms was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that a higher level of perceived discrimination among immigrant women is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Family functioning serves as a moderator between the relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, but the moderating effect of family adaptability was evident only in data reported by immigrant women. The results indicate that perceived discrimination has negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family functioning for depression. Findings suggest that providers should consider addressing immigrant women's mental health needs through declining their psychosocial distress at multiple ecological levels. PMID:24414300

  20. Shaping the Re-Training and Re-Education Experiences of Immigrant Women: The Credential and Certificate Regime in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia

    2009-01-01

    Research has extensively documented the employment barriers facing immigrants in Canada. Less attention is paid to the employment strategies that immigrants deploy in the host labour market. To address this gap in the literature, two projects are conducted to examine how immigrant women learn to optimize their labour market outcomes. Both projects…

  1. [Contraception in immigrant women: influence of sociocultural aspects on the choice of contraceptive method].

    PubMed

    Paraíso Torras, B; Maldonado Del Valle, M D; López Muñoz, A; Cañete Palomo, M L

    2013-01-01

    There are currently 6 million immigrants living in Spain. Half of them are women, the majority of whom are of childbearing age. These women, who suffer high rates of induced abortion, form a special group who require a special approach to their reproductive health. In order to study the use of contraceptive methods in this population, a review was made of 1100 clinical histories from our Sexual Health and Reproduction Clinic. Latin American women were the most prevalent group who came to seek information about contraception, followed by Eastern Europeans and Moroccans. Fewer Asian and Sub-Saharan women sought these services. The contraceptives most frequently used were the intrauterine device (used mostly by Latin American and Eastern European women), and combined oral contraception, most used by Moroccan women. It is important to advise the immigrant women about contraceptive methods, taking into account their preferences, in order to improve adherence to the method. PMID:23583187

  2. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  3. Complicating the Entrepreneurial Self: Professional Chinese Immigrant Women Negotiating Occupations in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    A core mode of governance in the era of neoliberalism is through the production of "entrepreneurial self". This paper explores how the "entrepreneurial self" is produced for 21 Chinese immigrant women in Canada. The women displayed extraordinary entrepreneurialism by investing in Canadian education. Becoming entrepreneurial,…

  4. [Colombian, Greek, Haitian, and Portuguese women immigrants in Quebec: socio-demographic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, D

    1983-10-01

    The socio-demographic characteristics of four groups of immigrant women in Quebec province are examined. The data are from official Canadian sources and from 76 interviews carried out in 1981 with women from Colombia, Greece, Haiti, and Portugal. Factors considered include spatial distribution, age distribution, marital status, educational status, language, employment and unemployment, occupation, and income. PMID:12340139

  5. Barriers to health care for abused Latina and Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Bauer, H M; Rodriguez, M A; Quiroga, S S; Flores-Ortiz, Y G

    2000-02-01

    This study identifies social, political, and cultural barriers to help seeking from health care organizations faced by abused Latina and Asian immigrant women. Qualitative data were collected through four semistructured ethnic-specific focus group interviews with 28 abused Latina and Asian immigrant women. Participants who had suffered intimate partner abuse were recruited through urban community-based organizations in San Francisco, California. Sociopolitical barriers to help seeking and patient-provider communication included social isolation, language barriers, and, for some, discrimination and fears of deportation. Sociocultural barriers included dedication to the children and family unity, shame related to the abuse, and the cultural stigma of divorce. Abused Latina and Asian immigrant women face significant social, cultural, and political barriers to patient-provider communication and help seeking. Medical and social service providers and policy makers may improve the quality of care for these women by understanding and addressing these barriers. PMID:10778041

  6. Employment Satisfaction and Health Outcomes among Professional Iraqi refugees as compared to Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Aldhalimi, Abir; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the U.S. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic Regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment per se. PMID:24683383

  7. A Participatory Photonovel as a Linguistic Tool for Educating ESL-Speaking Immigrant Women about Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmon, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Issues such as the linguistic and informational barriers to health care must be addressed if immigrant women are to achieve optimum health status for themselves and their families. This study used a participatory photonovel as a tool to educate ESL-speaking immigrant women about health information. This research illustrates five ESL-speaking…

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion toward Immigrants and Immigration Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Rita J.; Lynch, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Studied public attitudes toward immigration in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States) for 1970 through 1995 as part of a larger, ongoing study. Countries with major differences in statutes, policies, and practices related to immigration nevertheless share many attitudes and beliefs about…

  9. Hands That Shape the World: Report on the Conditions of Immigrant Women in the U.S. Five Years after the Beijing Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights, Oakland, CA.

    This report details the challenges that immigrant women in the United States have faced since the 1995 United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. It presents a compilation of research and synthesis by immigrants' rights activists and organizations. Data come from immigrant women's testimony. The following topics are featured:…

  10. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  11. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. PMID:23537853

  12. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  13. The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001). PMID:25012470

  14. Converting to Belong: Immigration, Education and Nationalization among Young "Russian" Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiterman, Elena; Rapoport, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines religious conversion to Judaism among young "Russian" immigrant girls in Israel. Looking into the process of conversion in religious boarding schools for girls only ("Ulpana") and in the broader context of the Israeli nation-state, we examine the strategies the educators contrive in inculcating religiosity among the girls, how…

  15. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  16. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  17. Women's Networks and the Social Needs of Mexican Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary I.

    1990-01-01

    Reports on the persistence of a two-tiered economic and political system that routinely excludes Mexican immigrants. Focuses on the predominantly female employees of a wholesale nursery in Carpinteria (California), who have adapted the Mexican tradition of "confianza"-based relationships to form networks that facilitate communication and coping…

  18. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  19. Perceptions of factors contributing to intimate partner violence among Sri Lankan Tamil immigrant women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Mason, Robin; Guruge, Sepali; Berman, Helene; Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Manuel, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    In this article we explore Sri Lankan Tamil immigrant women's views on factors contributing to intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted eight focus groups with young, midlife, and senior women and women who experienced IPV. Three main themes emerged: postmigration sources of stress and conflict, patriarchal social norms that dictated gendered behavior, and individual male attributes and behaviors. Study participants recognized gender inequality and financial dependence as contributing factors and the role of women in promoting marital harmony. Findings suggest that pre- and postmigration factors need to be considered in the prevention of IPV in newcomer communities. PMID:21834718

  20. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  1. Sociocultural Contexts and Learning: Anglophone Caribbean Immigrant Women in U.S. Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2003-01-01

    A study framed by sociocultural theory involved 15 British Caribbean women immigrants in the United States. Home country culture and early schooling involved learning experiences in the host country. They faced challenges in negotiating language and identity. Length of time in the new culture, level of social support, and sociocultural environment…

  2. Moving across Borders: Immigrant Women's Encounters with Globalization, the Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara; Hamdon, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The (un)reality of open/porous borders is starkly represented/manifested in the experiences of immigrant women in lifelong learning contexts. While globalization effectively destroys some borders, it simultaneously creates new ones. State institutions respond to global reconfigurations of borders at local levels by establishing policies that…

  3. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Birpreet, Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women's health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studies on the topic. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were divided into six areas of focus: physical health; mental health; abuse; health promotion and chronic disease prevention; barriers to healthcare access and utilization; and health beliefs, behaviours, and practices. Our results show that the health of older immigrant women is affected by the interplay of various social determinants of health including the physical and social environment; economic conditions; cultural beliefs; gendered norms; and the healthcare delivery system. Our results also revealed that older immigrant women tend to have more health problems, underutilize preventive services, such as cancer screening, and experience more difficulties in accessing healthcare services. PMID:26273480

  4. The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintron, Alexander Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…

  5. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  6. Community-Based Language Training for Immigrant Women and Seniors in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Marilyn; Cap, Ihor

    Canada's Community-Based Language Training (CBLT) program was designed as a part-time, flexible language training response for non-confident, isolated immigrant women who required adult English-as-a-Second-Language (A/ESL) training to assist them in their daily lives. It addressed barriers to their participation in classes housed in educational…

  7. Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

  8. Sex Education and Cultural Values: Experiences and Attitudes of Latina Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…

  9. Russian and Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel--A Comparative Perspective on Educational Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iram, Yaacov

    Israeli educational policies have changed over the last 40 years in response to the backgrounds and needs of various immigrant groups. This study compares two recent waves of immigration, from the Soviet Union in the 1970's and 1980's, and from Ethiopia in the 1980's. Both groups arrived during a period when Israel's social and educational policy…

  10. Predictors of low cervical cancer screening among immigrant women in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disparities in cervical cancer screening are known to exist in Ontario, Canada for foreign-born women. The relative importance of various barriers to screening may vary across ethnic groups. This study aimed to determine how predictors of low cervical cancer screening, reflective of sociodemographics, the health care system, and migration, varied by region of origin for Ontario's immigrant women. Methods Using a validated billing code algorithm, we determined the proportion of women who were not screened during the three-year period of 2006-2008 among 455 864 identified immigrant women living in Ontario's urban centres. We created eight identical multivariate Poisson models, stratified by eight regions of origin for immigrant women. In these models, we adjusted for various sociodemographic, health care-related and migration-related variables. We then used the resulting adjusted relative risks to calculate population-attributable fractions for each variable by region of origin. Results Region of origin was not a significant source of effect modification for lack of recent cervical cancer screening. Certain variables were significantly associated with lack of screening across all or nearly all world regions. These consisted of not being in the 35-49 year age group, residence in the lowest-income neighbourhoods, not being in a primary care patient enrolment model, a provider from the same region, and not having a female provider. For all women, the highest population-attributable risk was seen for not having a female provider, with values ranging from 16.8% [95% CI 14.6-19.1%] among women from the Middle East and North Africa to 27.4% [95% CI 26.2-28.6%] for women from East Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions To increase screening rates across immigrant groups, efforts should be made to ensure that women have access to a regular source of primary care, and ideally access to a female health professional. Efforts should also be made to increase the enrolment of

  11. Community Health Advocate-Identified Enablers of HIV Testing for Latina Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Massengale, Kelley E; Morrison, Sharon D; Sudha, S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to identify enablers or facilitators of HIV testing among Latina immigrant women through qualitative interviews with five community health advocates (CHAs). CHAs act as cultural bridges between Latinos and service providers. We employed a single case-study design using the PEN-3 model as a conceptual framework for situating HIV testing behaviors within cultural and structural contexts of Latina immigrant women's lives. A cross-case analysis of themes revealed that intrinsic enablers of HIV testing included individual trust, confidentiality, intergenerational family participation, and peers. The extrinsic enablers were local community outreach, bicultural/bilingual testing staff, service location and mass media outlets. These results have implications for the cultural competency of health and social service providers, instituting and revising HIV testing outreach interventions, and the earlier identification of women who may have been infected. They offer important insights for promoting other health behaviors among the Latino communities. PMID:27427927

  12. Violence reported by the immigrant population is high as compared with the native population in southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Colorado-Yohar, S; Tormo, M J; Salmerón, D; Dios, S; Ballesta, M; Navarro, C

    2012-11-01

    Immigrants constitute a population vulnerable to the problem of violence. This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of violence reported by the immigrant population in the Murcian Region of Spain and characterize the related factors, taking the country population as reference. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a representative population sample of Latin American (n = 672; 48% women), Moroccan (n = 361; 25% women), and Spanish origin (n = 1,303; 66% women), aged 16 to 64 years. Using a specific questionnaire, the prevalence of violence in the preceding year was assessed. The results were compared with the Spaniards using the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the factors associated with violence having been reported in each group, both separately and in immigrants versus Spaniards. Finally, the cause and place of last aggression were studied. The prevalence of violence was 6.5% in Latin Americans, 12.0% in Moroccans, and 2.7% in Spaniards. Discrimination was the principal violence-related factor in all three groups. Among Latin Americans, low educational level was also associated with violence. Among Moroccans, those who had perceived discrimination showed the greatest differences in prevalence of violence compared with natives. Intimate partner violence (IPV) registered a prevalence of below 2%. As a conclusion, in this study, violence was little reported and higher among immigrants. The principal violence-related factor was discrimination. More studies of this type are called for to characterize the problem in other population-representative samples. PMID:22809817

  13. Unwalkable Neighborhoods, Poverty, and the Risk of Diabetes Among Recent Immigrants to Canada Compared With Long-Term Residents

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gillian L.; Creatore, Maria I.; Moineddin, Rahim; Gozdyra, Peter; Weyman, Jonathan T.; Matheson, Flora I.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine whether residents living in neighborhoods that are less conducive to walking or other physical activities are more likely to develop diabetes and, if so, whether recent immigrants are particularly susceptible to such effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on diabetes incidence among recent immigrants (n = 214,882) relative to long-term residents (n = 1,024,380). Adults aged 30–64 years who were free of diabetes and living in Toronto, Canada, on 31 March 2005 were identified from administrative health databases and followed until 31 March 2010 for the development of diabetes, using a validated algorithm. Neighborhood characteristics, including walkability and income, were derived from the Canadian Census and other sources. RESULTS Neighborhood walkability was a strong predictor of diabetes incidence independent of age and area income, particularly among recent immigrants (lowest [quintile 1 {Q1}] vs. highest [quintile 5 {Q5}] walkability quintile: relative risk [RR] 1.58 [95% CI 1.42–1.75] for men; 1.67 [1.48–1.88] for women) compared with long-term residents (Q1 to Q5) 1.32 [1.26–1.38] for men; 1.24 [1.18–1.31] for women). Coexisting poverty accentuated these effects; diabetes incidence varied threefold between recent immigrants living in low-income/low walkability areas (16.2 per 1,000) and those living in high-income/high walkability areas (5.1 per 1,000). CONCLUSIONS Neighborhood walkability was inversely associated with the development of diabetes in our setting, particularly among recent immigrants living in low-income areas. PMID:22988302

  14. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  15. Essential Qualitative Inquiry in the Development of a Cancer Literacy Measure for Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Buki, Lydia P; Yee, Barbara W K; Weiterschan, Kari A; Lehardy, Emaan N

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a comprehensive measure of breast and cervical cancer literacy for immigrant populations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use a health literacy framework in this endeavor. Using qualitative strategies, we (a) developed an understanding of the experiences of Mexican and Filipina immigrant women with low health literacy through individual interviews, (b) conducted focus groups to obtain feedback from experts and participants to determine the adequacy of items included in the measure, and (c) refined the set of items to create an empirically based measure. The final measure included 129 items that assess beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, emotions, and contextual factors related to breast and cervical cancer. Processes for adapting the measure for use with other immigrant groups are discussed. PMID:26631677

  16. Oral health disparities of children among Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C; Yen, Y Y; Chang, C S; Ting, C C; Chen, P H; Chen, C C; Peng, W D; Chen, F L; Hu, C Y; Huang, H L

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the oral health disparities and oral health care needs of children whose parents are Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages. We used the baseline data of the Lay Health Advisor Approach to Promote Oral Health Program (LHA-POHP) to explore the disparities in oral health between immigrant and native children, and the factors associated with their oral health. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted to collect data from mothers and their preschool children in Southern Taiwan in 2011. A total of 590 (440 natives, 150 immigrants) children aged 4-6 years and their mothers completed the questionnaire and oral examination. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the association between children's oral health and their related factors. The caries index was 6.05 in immigrant children and 3.88 in native children (p < 0.001). The caries prevalence of maxillary anterior teeth in the labial surfaces was higher among immigrants, ranging from 14.7 to 22%. The factor associated with children's caries index was maternal tooth brushing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-41.05). When the mothers did not direct children to brush teeth after eating sweets, their children were more likely to have decayed teeth (aOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.04-12.03). Children's filled teeth were related to their dental regular check-ups (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.10). Disparities in oral health among immigrant and native children were observed. The findings suggest that culturally adequate oral health promotion intervention programs should be implemented for immigrants. PMID:25073858

  17. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems. PMID:25784144

  18. "The Moon in Foreign Countries Is Particularly Round and Bright"--Narratives of Chinese Immigrant Women in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Jenny K. S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to unfold the unheard stories of Chinese women immigrants and to explore the effects of their cultural values on their adjustment needs during their migration process in Britain. According to Chinese tradition, Chinese women are to be submissive and they are neglected in the Chinese community. For Chinese women migrants, their…

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Weight Status Among Women Recently Immigrating to the US.

    PubMed

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D; Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Depressive symptoms have been associated with obesity. Little is known about this relationship among immigrants. We examined relationships between depressive symptoms and weight status in immigrant women from three ethnic groups. Methods Participants were Brazilian, Haitian, and Latina women (n = 345) enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, randomized intervention designed to prevent weight gain in recent immigrants. Study data are from baseline when participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale, a physical activity questionnaire, and socio-demographic questions; BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. Results Forty-four percent of participants (36 % of Brazilians, 66 % of Haitians, 30 % of Latinas) had high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), and 38 % (26 % of Brazilians, 49 % of Haitians, 42 % of Latinas) were obese (BMI ≥ 30.0). Those reporting more depressive symptoms were more likely to be obese (Wald Chi square = 4.82, p < .05). An interaction between depressive symptoms, ethnic group, and income was revealed (F(4,340) = 2.91, p < .05), such that higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI among Brazilians earning ≥$30,000 per year and with lower BMI among Brazilians earning <$30,000. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity did not differ by income among Haitians or Latinas. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and obesity were highly prevalent among these recently-immigrated women. Positive relationships between these variables were consistent across ethnic and income groups, with the exception of lower-income Brazilians. While these findings suggest similar patterns and health needs across several groups of immigrants, cultural differences should be considered when addressing these health conditions. PMID:27010552

  20. Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Machen, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe. PMID:22145183

  1. Immigration Transition and Depressive Symptoms: Four Major Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell Endowed, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of and less severe symptoms than non-immigrants (p < .01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R2=.01, p<.05). PMID:24875592

  2. Vietnamese women immigrants' life adaptation, social support, and depression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Hua; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between life adaptation, social support, and depression among migrant Vietnamese women living in Meinong Township, Kaohsiung County. With a cross-sectional study design, 143 participants were recruited by purposive sampling. Structured questionnaires including Demographic Inventory Scale, Life Adaptation Scale, Social Support Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory Scale were used. Data were analyzed with Pearson's correlation and One-way ANOVA. The results showed that Vietnamese women's social support was significantly correlated with the length of time living in Taiwan, the length of marriage, and their husbands' age. Women's social support was significantly different with languages in common, the way of acquaintance with her husband, and family members living together. Depression was significantly different with family income. Life adaptation was also significantly different with family income. Moreover, there was a significantly positive correlation between Vietnamese women's social support and life adaptation, and significantly negative correlations between Vietnamese women's social support and depression, and between their life adaptation and depression. The study findings could be used as references for health professionals and government agencies to institute strategies and policies for promoting migrant Vietnamese women's life adaptation. PMID:18080969

  3. Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

    2009-09-01

    Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support. PMID:19831055

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  5. Interpersonal abuse and depression among mexican immigrant women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for a bi-directional relationship of depression and type 2 diabetes suggests that social distress plays a role in depression among people with diabetes. In this study, we examine the relationship between subjective distress and depression in 121 first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant women seeking diabetes care at a safety-net hospital in Chicago. We used a mixed-methods approach including narrative interview, survey, and finger-stick blood HbA1c data. Using grounded theory analysis, we identified seven life stressors from narrative interviews: interpersonal abuse, stress related to health, family, neighborhood violence, immigration status, and work, and feeling socially detached. Women reported unusually high rates of interpersonal abuse (65%) and disaggregated physical abuse (54%) and sexual abuse (23%). We evaluated depression using CES-D cut-off points of 16 and 24 and assessed rates to be 49 and 34%, respectively. We found that interpersonal abuse was a significant predictor of depression (CESD ≥ 24) in bivariate (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-10.0) and multivariate (OR 5.51; 95% CI 1.85, 16.4) logistic regression analyses. These findings suggest that interpersonal abuse functions as an important contributor to depression among low-income Mexican immigrant women and should be recognized and addressed in diabetes care. PMID:22173630

  6. Risk factors, cross-cultural stressors and postpartum depression among immigrant Chinese women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiongai; Mori, Emi; Sakajo, Akiko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method design study was to examine factors contributing to depression among immigrant Chinese women (primipara and multipara) (n = 22) delivering a child for the first time in Japan. Data were obtained just after hospital discharge by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Social Support Scale, a new scale to measure cross-cultural stressors in the postpartum setting and a visual analogue scale for stress and a demographic survey. The average EPDS score was 9.0 (SD ± 3.7) at 1-3 weeks postpartum; yet, more than half of the subjects (n = 12; 54.5%) were high risk for depression (EPDS ≥ 10). Low household income and primiparous status were associated with depression scores. New mothers with depression also reported more general stress and more cross-cultural stress in the postpartum setting, although social support appeared to mediate cross-cultural stressors. Semi-structured interviews were held with two immigrant women at high risk for depression; these new mothers described additional stress because they could not follow Zuoyuezi, an important postpartum Chinese tradition, in the Japanese hospital. These findings suggest that immigrant Chinese women are at higher risk for postpartum depression when they give birth for the first time in Japan. PMID:27184701

  7. Stressful life events are associated with insulin resistance among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Boden, Guenther; Siu, Philip T.; Tseng, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese immigrants experience increased chronic disease risk following migration to the US. Although the impact of lifestyle changes (e.g., diet) on disease risk has been extensively studied, associations of psychosocial stress and disease risk have attracted less attention. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine associations between stress and insulin resistance in foreign-born Chinese American women. Methods From October, 2005 to April, 2008, 423 women recruited from southeastern Pennsylvania completed questionnaires reporting stressful life events. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting insulin and fasting glucose levels, which were used to estimate insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR). Results In logistic regression analyses, a greater number of negative life events were associated with insulin resistance (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.02–1.34), controlling for age, level of acculturation, marital status, body mass index, and waist circumference. Similarly, greater negative life event impact ratings were also associated with insulin resistance (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01–1.16) controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions This is one of the first studies to examine the associations between psychosocial stress and insulin resistance in Chinese immigrant women. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature on stress and diabetes risk in an immigrant population. PMID:26346575

  8. Maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among immigrant women to the United States from Eastern Europe: a test of the healthy migrant hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Savitz, D A; Janevic, M

    2011-08-01

    Immigrant women to the U.S. often have more favorable birth outcomes than their native-born counterparts, including lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight, a phenomenon commonly attributed to a healthy migrant effect. However, this effect varies by ethnicity and country of origin. No previous study has examined birth outcomes among immigrants from the post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe, a group which includes both economic migrants and conflict refugees. Using data on 253,363 singletons births from New York City during 1995-2003 we examined the risk of preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks) or delivering a term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant among immigrants from Russia and Ukraine (RU), Poland, and former Yugoslavia Republics (FYR) relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Women in all three Eastern European groups had significantly later entry into prenatal care, were more likely to be Medicaid recipients, and had lower educational attainment than US-born NHW. In binomial regression analyses adjusting for age, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy weight, women from RU and FYR had lower risk of PTB than US-born NHW, whereas women from Poland had similar risk. Lower SGA risk was found among women from Poland and FYR, but not RU. When stratified by education, women with <12 years of education from all Eastern European groups had a reduced risk of PTB relative to US-born NHW. An educational gradient in PTB and SGA risk was less pronounced in all Eastern European groups compared to US-born NHW. The healthy migrant effect is present among immigrants from Eastern Europe to the U.S., especially among women with less education and those from the former Yugoslavia, a group that included many conflict refugees. PMID:21724312

  9. Barriers and facilitators of social supports for immigrant and refugee women coping with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Joyce Maureen; Donnelly, Tam Truong; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Este, David

    2012-01-01

    An emerging concern for health care providers is how to assist immigrant and refugee women adapt to a new milieu and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD). Thirty women were interviewed to find out their perspective on what factors influence their help-seeking behavior and decision making about postpartum care and what strategies would be helpful in PPD prevention and treatment. Findings reveal that (a) social support networks can be supportive or nonsupportive with widespread effects on physical and psychological health and well-being; (b) cultural background and socioeconomic factors influence seeking support; (c) health care relationship was viewed a critical determinant to seek and accept help for PPD. PMID:22869217

  10. “They See Us As Machines:” The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker’s needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers. PMID:26600083

  11. Depression and Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L

    2010-04-01

    This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population. PMID:20465767

  12. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy. PMID:17219750

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Practices Among First-Generation Immigrant Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Results: Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. Conclusions: This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers. PMID:24865517

  14. Health Behaviors, Disparities and Deterring Factors for Breast Cancer Screening of Immigrant Women - A Challenge to Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Bejerano, Ivy Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background This literature review was made to provide comprehensive to provide comprehensive understanding of health disparities as well as factors and barriers to cancer screening of immigrant women in multicultural societies. Methods: Published articles from 1990–2013 were searched using databases such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Science Direct showing evidence of contributing factors and barriers to breast cancer screening practices of immigrant women in developed and developing countries. Based on the inclusion criteria, a total of 45 qualified articles were included in the review process. Results: Articles included were quantitative and qualitative, written in English for publication, and subjects were middle-aged, married immigrant women. The identified influential factors and barriers that prevent immigrant women from cancer screening were categorized as individual, socio-cultural and behavioral factors. Socioeconomic status, education level and knowledge, availability of health insurance and acculturation were among the individual factors. Presence of social support and recommendation from health care professionals were strongly associated with compliance with cancer screening. Cultural beliefs and practices as well as behavioral factors were among the barriers that deter women from participating in cancer screening. Conclusion: To alleviate the negative factors and barriers that affect the participation of high-risk immigrant women, a client-centered assessment and intervention approach with specific regard to cultural beliefs and practices should be considered by health care professionals. Joint effort of individuals, community, health care professionals and government institutions are recommended to further address the continuous rise of breast cancer mortality worldwide. PMID:26064855

  15. Ethnic enclaves and gestational diabetes among immigrant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined. PMID:25259656

  16. Migration Patterns and Characteristics of Sexual Partners Associated with Unprotected Sexual Intercourse Among Hispanic Immigrant and Migrant Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Eduardo E; Painter, Thomas; Heffelfinger, James D; Schulden, Jeffrey D; Chavez, Pollyanna; DiNenno, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, Hispanic immigrant women comprised 44% of HIV diagnoses among Hispanic women in the United States but little is known about factors that may place these women at risk for infection with HIV or sexually transmitted diseases. From March 2005 to February 2007, women were recruited at community-based organizations offering services to immigrant and migrant communities in five U.S. states. We report factors independently associated with unprotected anal and vaginal sex in the past 12 months among Hispanic immigrant and migrant women. Greater work-related mobility was associated with unprotected anal sex, while recency of immigration and prior refusal of HIV testing were associated with women's reports of unprotected vaginal sex. Prior sex with an injection drug user was associated with reports of both unprotected anal and vaginal sex. Findings highlight the need for HIV/STD risk reduction interventions designed specifically for Hispanic immigrant and migrant women. PMID:25403987

  17. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  18. Educational and Mothering Discourses and Learner Goals: Mexican Immigrant Women Enacting Agency in a Family Literacy Program. Research Brief #8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    Family literacy programs promote certain ideas about literacy and parenting. This study examined how Mexican immigrant women in a family literacy program used mainstream ideas, or discourses, of mothering and parent involvement in education to pursue their own personal and academic goals. The findings revealed that women were at times faced with…

  19. Non-English Speaking Background Immigrant Women in the Workforce. Working Papers on Multiculturalism Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorso, Caroline

    This report presents the findings of a study into the experiences of non-English speaking background (NESB) migrant women in the Australian workforce. The fieldwork, which involved interviewing over 100 immigrant women living and working in Sydney, was carried out in 1988 and 1989. The study also involved an extensive review of Australian and…

  20. Getting Things Done in the L1 and L2: Bilingual Immigrant Women's Use of Communication Strategies in Entrepreneurial Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Shartriya

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the communication strategies of four bilingual, immigrant women entrepreneurs within the context of their businesses. The analysis revealed that L1 and L2 use is crucial to the business success of the participants. L1 conversations consisted of largely private speech and directives. The women positioned themselves as…

  1. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia. PMID:23879460

  2. Mental health problems and acculturative issues among married immigrant women in Korea: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Through this research the author explored immigrant women's mental health problems with the goal of deepening understanding to develop a framework for preventing mental disorders and improving their mental health. A qualitative research design was used to examine the women's lived experiences. The data were collected from February 2014 to October 2014. Twenty women were recruited from multicultural community service centers. Inclusion criteria were the ability to communicate and the absence of acute physical or psychological problems; participants were excluded if they were under 18 years old or separated. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with participants regarding their experiences of living in Korean society. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. A conceptual framework-Embracing Cultural Conflict Model-was constructed based on the personal-family-community context as well as the paradigm of the immigrant woman using eleven concepts. The conceptual framework suggests that multicultural programs and services should take into account a historical understanding of Korean society and family, address problem-solving strategies including improving mental health literacy, build support from both the Korean family and family of origin, and offer multicultural activities to satisfy homeland-related cultural needs. PMID:26605910

  3. "Women Must Endure According to Their Karma." Cambodian Immigrant Women Talk About Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Mell, Molly; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne

    2005-01-01

    Asian populations living in the United States share similar cultural values that influence their experiences with domestic violence. However, it is critical to recognize how differential cultural beliefs in the context of immigration and adjustment to life in the United States affect attitudes, interpretations, and response to domestic violence.…

  4. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  5. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse. PMID:22071095

  6. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  7. Violence against Women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Roche, Brenda; Catallo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women is a serious health and social problem for women worldwide. Researchers have investigated the broad physical and mental health consequences of violence against women but few have focused on immigrant and refugee women. We assessed the history of violence and the impairment of physical and mental health among 60 women participants from the Iranian and Sri Lankan Tamil communities in Toronto, Canada. Our survey findings revealed that the participants had experienced various types of violence throughout their lifespan, with psychological abuse by a spouse/partner occurring most frequently in the past 12 months. Commonly reported types of abuse included insulting, criticizing, and intimidation by partner (psychological abuse); slapping, hitting, and shoving (physical abuse); and forced sexual intercourse and sexually degrading acts (sexual abuse) by a partner/spouse. We found that a substantial proportion of the participants also had experienced physical and mental health impairment, which could be a result of the various types of violence they had experienced throughout their lifespan. Research and practice implications are provided. PMID:22685644

  8. Acculturation and dietary change among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Wright, David J.; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2014-01-01

    Background US Chinese immigrants undergo a transition to increased chronic disease risk commonly attributed to acculturative and dietary changes. Longitudinal data to confirm this are lacking. Methods We examined acculturation and diet over time in 312 Chinese immigrant women in Philadelphia, recruited October 2005 to April 2008 and followed with interviews and dietary recalls until April 2010. Associations were modeled using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures over time. Results Increasing length of US residence was associated with a small (~1%/year) but significant increase in acculturation score (p<0.0001), which in turn was significantly associated with increased energy density of the diet, percent of energy from fat, and sugar intake, and lower dietary moderation score. Discussion These findings provide longitudinal evidence that acculturation increases with length of US residence and is accompanied by dietary changes. However, the changes were small enough that their health impact is unclear. Factors besides acculturation that affect immigrant health and that affect the acculturation trajectory itself warrant investigation. PMID:25281323

  9. Becoming Resilient: Promoting the Mental Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Women in a Canadian Context

    PubMed Central

    MacDonnell, Judith A.; Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Bokore, Nimo; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for “becoming resilient” as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5), Asia (5), and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5). Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women's empowerment. Findings foreground women's agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed. PMID:22754696

  10. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

  11. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  12. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  13. The 2005 reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act: why congress acted to expand protections to immigrant victims.

    PubMed

    Conyers, John

    2007-05-01

    The author provides an overview of the history of congressional involvement with the Violence Against Women Act's (VAWA) provisions to protect immigrant victims of domestic violence and other forms of violence against women. He also outlines the reasoning behind, and purpose of, the most recent enhancements in legal protections for immigrant victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, and foreign fiancés and spouses that were included in the recently reauthorized VAWA 2005, also describing the bipartisan work that resulted in this newest piece of legislation. PMID:17478671

  14. Imagined Anatomy and Other Lessons from Learner Verification Interviews with Mexican Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify clearer, learner-preferred, educational approaches for aspects of cervical cancer education found to be difficult to understand for low literacy, Mexican, immigrant women. Setting Kansas City, Kansas; Garden City, Kansas; San Antonio, Texas. Participants Forty-five Mexican immigrant women in the United States for five years or less, ninth grade education or less, and predominantly Spanish speaking. Methods Interviews were conducted to evaluate preference and best comprehension among options for specific cervical cancer educational elements, including reproductive system terminology, the purpose of Pap tests and meaning of results, Human Papilloma Virus, and illustrations of anatomy and PAP procedure. Results We identified terminology, translation, content, and illustrations preferred by participants and areas of inadequate existing knowledge needed for comprehension of concepts being taught. Analogies, illustrations, and introduction of medical terms in conjunction with equivalent common Spanish terms were effective ways of building bridges from existing knowledge to new knowledge. Participants desired detailed information and shared new information with others Conclusion We learned the importance of assessing patients’ existing body knowledge. The detail desired by participants challenged common simplification approaches to teaching low literacy learners. Participant willingness to share information challenged ideas of cultural taboo. Results provide evidence for more effective delivery of women’s health education and call for further research on best approaches to teaching low literacy learners. PMID:23030624

  15. [Older immigrants' health compared with that of native Swedes. Greatest differences are subjective in nature].

    PubMed

    Waern, E; Steen, B

    1995-02-01

    Within the framework of the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Gothenburg, Sweden, the health of immigrants of non-Nordic origin was compared with that of native Swedes in a cohort of 70-year-olds born in 1922. Of the sample examined, 11.4 per cent were of non-Nordic origin, among whom the non-response rate was relatively high (48%). Although there were few differences in "objective" health criteria between the Swedish and immigrant subgroups, there were manifest differences in "subjective" criteria and quality of life. In view of the increasing proportion of elderly immigrants in the Swedish community, these findings need to be borne in mind. PMID:7853931

  16. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. PMID:26567382

  17. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  18. Life-course predictors of ultrasonic heel measurement in a cross-sectional study of immigrant women from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, D S; Salant, T; Han, K L; Tran, P L

    2001-03-15

    Few studies address chronic disease risk for Southeast Asians in the United States. In 1999, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mineral density (BMD) estimated from ultrasonic calcaneal measurements in women born in Southeast Asia who then lived in Chicago, Illinois. The study addressed three questions: Do Southeast-Asian women have relatively low BMD? What factors before and after immigration are associated with BMD? Are factors that reflect the childhood/adolescent environment equally associated with BMD for postmenopausal and premenopausal women? An interviewer-administered bilingual questionnaire collected immigration, reproductive, and lifestyle data from 213 women (aged 20--80 years) born in Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos. The authors found that the estimated mean BMD of postmenopausal Southeast-Asian women was lower than the reference values for White women. Four summary indicators of childhood/adolescent environment were predictive of higher BMD: more years of education, earlier age at menarche, lower height, and coastal birth; these indicators were more strongly associated with BMD for premenopausal (multiple-partial R(2) = 0.21) than postmenopausal (R(2) = 0.06) women. Young-adult exposures (e.g., early first pregnancy and age at immigration) and proximal lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, vegetarian diet, and betel nut use) were also assessed as potential predictors of BMD. PMID:11257066

  19. Promoters and barriers to work: a comparative study of refugees versus immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Kanno, Samer S.; Abo-Shasha, Rami; AlSaqa, Mazen M.; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immigrants in general and refugees in specific are at risk for unemployment with detrimental effects on health and social well-being. Prior work has identified a series of barriers preventing employment among immigrants and refugees. However, these studies either fail to have a comparison group, or it is improper. The objective of this study is to compare unemployment determinants among culturally comparable Iraqi immigrants and refugees. Method A convenience sample of Iraqis residing in Michigan, who came to US after 2003, were surveyed covering socio-demographic aspects, prior and current job history, perceived barriers and facilitators to get a job, discrimination, and health. Results results show that refugees were twice as likely to be unemployed. Lack of language skills was a bigger barrier among refugees. The results indicate that immigrants are more successful than refugees in securing a job, even after taking their pre-migration and professional experiences into consideration. Conclusion This comparative study showed that refugees were more likely to have a difficult time in successfully finding a job. More attention is needed to help minimize the barriers that refugees face in the employment process. PMID:25745518

  20. Perception of spousal abuse expressed by married Bangladeshi immigrant women in Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Rianon, Nahid J; Shelton, A J

    2003-01-01

    Relocating from a homogeneous ethnic country into one that is heterogeneous may threaten one's self-identity, cause isolation, and trigger tension between a couple making the journey together. Most spousal abuse cannot be separated from the cultural, social, and economic contexts in which it occurs. An assessment of abuse in an immigrant community is impacted by stereotypes, cultural stigmas, and lack of knowledge or trust of available resources and services. A prevalence rate of 10% for spousal abuse was revealed in this study of 23 married female immigrants from Bangladesh residing in Houston, Texas. Using both a quantitative and qualitative design, women reported both mental/verbal and physical abuse, most frequently committed by the husband and in-laws. Commonalities exist with other immigrant groups, but characteristics unique to those from Bangladesh must be considered to effectively address abuse against women in this community. PMID:14512757

  1. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  2. Determinants of mammography screening participation among Turkish immigrant women in Germany--a qualitative study reflecting key informants' and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Berens, E-M; Yilmaz-Aslan, Y; Spallek, J; Razum, O

    2016-01-01

    Mammography screening programmes aiming to reduce mortality from breast cancer are implemented in most European countries. Immigrant women are less likely to participate than women of the respective autochthonous populations in several European countries but not in Germany. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 key informants and 10 Turkish immigrant women aged 50-69 years to analyse the factors influencing their screening participation in Germany. Interviews were analysed using summarising content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used for structuring the results. Key informants stated poor German language skills and insufficient knowledge about breast cancer and screening as factors influencing screening participation. Immigrant women demonstrated basic knowledge about screening, but their attitudes towards screening varied. Information from the invitation letter of the screening programme was often filtered by family members. Key informants tended to emphasise barriers and system-related factors while the Turkish women focused more on factors on the individual level. Contrasting both perspectives is helpful for health professionals to critically assess their own views. Measures to improve screening participation need to address not only barriers but also take women's attitudes and norms into account, thus helping women to make an informed decision. PMID:26052964

  3. Developing a Sociological Imagination by Doing Sociology: A Methods-Based Service-Learning Course on Women and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The author addresses the development and implementation of a service-learning project for an undergraduate course in which students interview immigrant women, incorporate the interviewees' experiences into an analytical paper, and present the findings at the end of the semester. Students are required to use C. Wright Mills's concepts of history…

  4. Issues Relating to Women's Immigration Status. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 8. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on issues related to women's immigration status. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  5. Findings from Focus Groups Indicating what Chinese American immigrant women think about breast cancer and breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. Design Qualitative description with semi-structured focus groups. Setting Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. Participants Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. Methods Focus group discussions in Chinese were audio taped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. Results Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally-related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, while erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider-client interactions should involve more discussion about women’s breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and non-threatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to

  6. Dietary changes in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women: The KoGES follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778

  7. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the U.S. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the US may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Data come from the Asian American sample (n=44,002) from the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation, but underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health. PMID:25879262

  8. Comparative Acculturation of Southeast Asian and Hispanic Immigrants and Sojourners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Quintana, Diana

    1987-01-01

    The acculturation of two ethnic groups in Oklahoma was compared. Hispanics seemed to be more assimilated than Southeast Asians. Both groups were more assimilated in their work places and residences than in friendships. Ethnic networking reduced assimilation. Biculturalism was the most satisfactory form of acculturation, followed by assimilation,…

  9. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian immigrants organizing to promote environmental and social justice.

    PubMed

    Gute, David M; Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-11-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries. PMID:19890146

  10. Avoidance Symptoms and Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Arab Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Aroian, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether the avoidance symptom criterion required for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overly conservative. Arab immigrant women (N = 453), many of whom reported experiencing multiple traumatic events, completed the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale in Arabic as part of a face to face interview. Analyses indicated all but one avoidance symptom was reported less frequently than reexperiencing and arousal symptoms. However, those who fully met reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptom criteria had worse symptom severity and functioning than those who fully met reexperiencing and arousal symptom criteria, but only partially met avoidance symptom criterion. Study findings support importance of the PTSD avoidance symptom criterion. PMID:18956451

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Acculturation for Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura A.; Sorokin, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Most research on immigrant acculturation has been conducted with cross-sectional samples, using statistical designs that may not capture different trajectories for the components that contribute to this complex concept. The purpose of this study was to examine change over time in acculturation for 226 women from the former Soviet Union who had lived in the US fewer than eight years when recruited. Using self-report data from four annual waves, growth trajectories were examined in four components of acculturation (American behavior, Russian behavior, English language proficiency, and cultural generativity). Results indicate that these components changed at varying rates. Acculturation is a process with multiple distinct components which should be measured separately to obtain a full profile of change over time. PMID:22180661

  12. Breastfeeding offers protection against obesity in children of recently immigrated Latina women.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Sofia G; Heyman, Melvin B; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-06-01

    Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relatively unacculturated Latina mothers. Maternal characteristics at birth, including length of stay in the United States, breastfeeding habits at 4-6 weeks of age, 6 months, and 1 year, and anthropometric measurements were obtained for a cohort of 196 children participating in a prospective study. At 1 year of age 39.0% of infants were being breastfed. Being breastfed at 1 year of age was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in both univariate (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.83) and multivariate models (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.93) adjusting for maternal BMI, marital status, education level, country of origin, age, years of living in the United States, and child's birth weight at 3 years of age, regardless of mother's acculturation status using length of stay in the United States as a proxy for acculturation. The association with breastfeeding persisted at 4 years of age as a protective factor for obesity (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.80). Breastfeeding for longer than 12 months provides a significant protective effect on the development of obesity in early childhood in a cohort of children of high-risk recently immigrated Latina women in San Francisco who were relatively unacculturated to the United States. PMID:24249439

  13. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  14. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  15. Daily and cultural issues of postnatal depression in african women immigrants in South East london: tips for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion "that you have to get on with it." The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  16. Daily and Cultural Issues of Postnatal Depression in African Women Immigrants in South East London: Tips for Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion “that you have to get on with it.” The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  17. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  18. Women Students at Coeducational and Women's Colleges: How Do Their Experiences Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian L.; Thomas, Auden D.; Palmer, Megan M.; Umbach, Paul D.; Kuh, George D.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the experiences of women attending women's colleges with those of women attending coeducational institutions. Analyses of data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) from random samples of female first-year and senior students from 26 women's colleges and 264 other four-year institutions were conducted. Women at…

  19. Application of the health literacy framework to diet-related cancer prevention conversations of older immigrant women to Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M D; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2012-03-01

    Health literacy, conceptualized as a framework involving basic (functional), interactive and critical skill sets, is a key determinant of health. Application of the health literacy framework (HLF) to immigrant populations has been limited. Our objective was to apply the HLF to discourses about diet-related colon cancer prevention among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) immigrant women. We also explored whether these discussions could inform the development of culturally appropriate information and potentially increase health literacy. Interviews were conducted with 64 older Spanish-speaking ESL immigrant women. Directed content analysis guided by the HLF was used to identify themes. Diet-related conversations were initiated by 43 (67%) participants. Four themes were identified: general information requests-low functional health literacy (FHL) (n = 23/43), specific nutrition inquiries-high FHL (n = 17/43), actions for healthy eating-low interactive health literacy (IHL) (n = 8/43) and community communication issues-high IHL (n = 3/43). No conversations representing critical health literacy were identified. Five women discussed both FHL and IHL themes. Women's diet-related conversations followed a continuum of increasing information needs supporting the HLF. PMID:21421578

  20. Bonds to the homeland: Patterns and determinants of women's transnational travel frequency among three immigrant groups in Germany.

    PubMed

    Iarmolenko, Svitlana; Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-04-01

    Technology developments have changed immigrants' adaptation patterns in modern societies, allowing immigrants to sustain dense, complex connections with homeland while adjusting in the host country, a new phenomenon termed transnationalism. As empirical studies on immigrant transnationalism are still scarce, the purpose of this study was to investigate mean levels and determinants of a core component of transnationalism-transnational travel. Hypotheses were based on context of exiting homeland, living conditions in Germany and demographic and sociocultural variables. Transnational travel behaviour was assessed as frequency of return trips in three immigrant groups in Germany: ethnic Germans, Russian Jews and Turks. Interviews were conducted with 894 women participants from these groups. Results showed substantial transnational travel behaviour in all groups with Turks reporting higher levels than ethnic Germans and Russian Jews. Interindividual differences in transnational travel within groups were also examined. Results indicated similarities (e.g. network size in home country related positively to transnational travel frequency in all groups) and group-specific associations (e.g. co-ethnic identifying related positively to transnational travel frequency among Turks, but negatively for the other groups). Our study highlights the need for a new understanding of immigration and emphasises the consideration of group-specific mechanisms in transnational travel behaviour. PMID:25620296

  1. A Cross-Cultural Change of Gender Roles: The Case of Pilipino Women Immigrants in Midwest City, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pido, Antonio J. A.

    This paper examines the social status of women in Filipino culture and the way this is affected by exposure to American culture when they immigrate. First, the status of women in the Philippine social structure is discussed. Perceptions of the role of education are analyzed and statistics given for the enrollment of women in colleges. The results…

  2. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-12-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently little information about how the combined effects of the refugee experience and the U.S. health environment are related to health practices of refugees in the years and decades after resettlement. We examined cross-sectional survey data for Cambodian refugee and immigrant women 35 to 60 years old (n = 160) from an established refugee community in Lowell, Massachusetts, to examine the potential contributors to health behaviors and outcomes among refugees and immigrants postresettlement. In our representative sample, we found that smoking and betel nut use were very low (4% each). Fewer than 50% of respondents walked for at least 10 minutes on 2 or more days/week. Using World Health Organization standards for overweight/obese for Asians, 73% of respondents were overweight/obese and 56% were obese, indicating increased risk of chronic disease. Depression was also high in this sample (41%). In multivariate models, higher acculturation and age were associated with walking more often; lower education and higher acculturation were related to higher weight; and being divorced/separated or widowed and being older were related to higher risk of depression. The interrelated complex of characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes of refugees merits a multifaceted approach to health education and health promotion for long-term refugee health. PMID:26157042

  3. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and

  4. Beyond a Cross-Cultural Definition of Child Maltreatment: Comparing Immigrants from the Caucasus and European Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Compared knowledge and attitudes regarding inappropriate parenting among immigrant parents from European and Caucasus countries of the former Soviet Union residing in Israel. Found that immigrants from the Caucasus related inappropriate parental behaviors to what is normative, whereas European immigrants were concerned with potential harm to the…

  5. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Immigrant Boys and Girls: Comparing Native Dutch and Moroccan Immigrant Adolescents across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paalman, Carmen; van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; van de Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and externalizing problems in 159 Moroccan and 159…

  6. Work Organization and Health Among Immigrant Women: Latina Manual Workers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009–2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Results. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor’s power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Conclusions. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers. PMID:24432938

  7. Societal Context and the Production of Immigrant Status Based Health Inequalities: A Comparative Study of the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Ornelas, India J.; Quinn, Kelly; Zuberi, Dan; Nguyen, Quynh C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We compare disparities in health status between first generation immigrants and others in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We used data from the Joint Canada-United States Survey of Health. Regression models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health insurance (U.S.). Results In both nations, the health advantage belonged to immigrants. Fewer disparities between immigrants and those native-born were seen in Canada versus the U.S. Canadians of every immigrant/race group fared better than American native-born whites. Discussion Fewer disparities in Canada and better overall health of all Canadians suggest societal context may create differences in access to the resources, environments and experiences that shape health and health behaviors. PMID:23447028

  8. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  9. Intervention Tailoring for Chinese American Women: Comparing the Effects of Two Videos on Knowledge, Attitudes and Intentions to Obtain a Mammogram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Schwartz, Marc D.; Luta, George; Maxwell, Annette E.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial to compare a culturally tailored video promoting positive attitudes toward mammography among Chinese immigrant women to a linguistically appropriate generic video and print media. Intervention development was guided by the Health Belief Model. Five hundred and ninety-two…

  10. Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared to private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women but not acculturation. PMID:21058091

  11. Community-based, culturally appropriate oral health promotion program for immigrant pregnant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gustavo D; Roldós, Isabel; Puerta, Diva I; Salazar, Christian R

    2005-12-01

    Pre- and postnatal prevention programs may significantly improve the oral health of mother and child. The overall aim of this project was to assess the need for and develop an oral health promotion program for low-income immigrant pregnant women in New York City. Results from the baseline survey showed very low awareness of the importance of maternal oral health and its relationship to an infant's general and oral health among the participants. Based on these results, we developed culturally appropriate educational materials and workshops to promote oral health among pregnant women. As of September 2005, we had conducted more than 500 workshops, distributed educational packages to close to 10,000 women and disseminated about 20,000 brochures in four languages to health care centers and maternal health centers across New York State. PMID:16514876

  12. Comparative analysis of premature mortality among urban immigrants in Bremen, Germany: a retrospective register-based linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Nataliya; Brand, Tilman; Brünings-Kuppe, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Luttmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. Design This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004–2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for premature deaths (immigrants from Turkey, those from the FSU and the general population. Results The SDRs for premature deaths of the two immigrant groups were lower compared to those of the general population. The SMRs remained under 1. Using the indicator of YPLL, we observed higher age-standardised YPLL rates among immigrant populations, particularly among males from the FSU compared to females and population groups 4238/100 000, 95% CI (4119 to 4358). Regarding main causes of premature death, we found larger contributions of infant mortality and diseases of the respiratory system among Turkish immigrants, and of injuries and poisonings, and mental and behavioural disorders among immigrants from the FSU. Conclusions While the overall trends favour the immigrant populations, the indicator of YPLL and cause-specific results indicate areas where the healthcare systems responsiveness may need to be improved, including preventive services. Further work with broader databases providing a similar level of differentiation is necessary to substantiate these findings. PMID:27000782

  13. Comparing the Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Becker, Selwyn W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Definitions and Omissions of Heroism" by Jeffery W. Martens which is a comment on the original article "The Heroism of Women and Men" by Selwyn W. Becker and Alice H. Eagly. Becker and Eagly welcome the opportunity to discuss the questions about defining heroism that Martens raised in his comment on their…

  14. Examining breast cancer screening barriers among Central American and Mexican immigrant women: fatalistic beliefs or structural factors?

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Miller, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined "cancer fatalism" (the belief that cancer is predetermined, beyond individual control, and necessarily fatal) as a major barrier to breast cancer screening among Latinas. The authors examine perceptions of breast cancer, its causes, and experiences with screening among Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Mexican, and Bolivian immigrant women in Washington, DC. Two salient themes emerged: (a) perceptions of breast cancer causes and breast cancer screening; and (b) structural factors are the real barriers to breast cancer screening. Findings demonstrate participants' awareness and motivation to get screened and elucidate structural barriers that are obscured by the discourse of fatalism and hinder breast cancer screening. PMID:25383565

  15. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  16. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being. PMID:23546616

  17. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  18. Trabecular bone deficits among Vietnamese immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, M. A.; McCready, L. K.; Achenbach, S. J.; Riggs, B. L.; Amin, S.; Khosla, S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Compared to white women, lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in middle-aged Vietnamese immigrants is due to reduced trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which in turn is associated with greater trabecular separation along with lower estrogen levels. Introduction The epidemiology of osteoporosis in Asian populations is still poorly known, but we previously found a deficit in lumbar spine aBMD among postmenopausal Southeast Asian women, compared to white women, that persisted after correction for bone size. This issue was revisited using more sophisticated imaging techniques. Methods Twenty Vietnamese immigrants (age, 44–79 years) were compared to 162 same-aged white women with respect to aBMD at the hip, spine and wrist, vBMD at the hip and spine by quantitative computed tomography and vBMD and bone microstructure at the ultradistal radius by high-resolution pQCT. Bone turnover and sex steroid levels were assessed in a subset (20 Vietnamese and 40 white women). Results The aBMD was lower at all sites among the Vietnamese women, but femoral neck vBMD did not differ from middle-aged white women. Significant differences in lumbar spine and ultradistal radius vBMD in the Vietnamese immigrants were due to lower trabecular vBMD, which was associated with increased trabecular separation. Bone resorption was elevated and bone formation depressed among the Vietnamese immigrants, although trends were not statistically significant. Serum estradiol was positively associated with trabecular vBMD in the Vietnamese women, but their estrogen levels were dramatically lower compared to white women. Conclusions Although reported discrepancies in aBMD among Asian women are mainly an artifact of smaller bone size, we identified a specific deficit in the trabecular bone among a sample of Vietnamese immigrants that may be related to low estrogen levels and which needs further study. PMID:20658128

  19. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with…

  20. Provision for the Development of the Linguistic Proficiency of Young Immigrants in England and Wales and France: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenberg, Monica; Wass, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Compares educational policies and practices related to developing the linguistic competence of young immigrants in France and England, with particular reference to Toulouse and the London borough of Brent. Discusses segregationist versus integrationist approaches, effectiveness of second-language instruction, and provision of mother-tongue…

  1. Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, K L; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2012-12-01

    Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted. PMID:22594552

  2. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E.; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile. PMID:23211607

  3. Comparing patterns and predictors of immigrant offending among a sample of adjudicated youth.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Bianca E; Loughran, Thomas A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-11-01

    Research on immigration and crime has only recently started to consider potential heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of immigrant offending. Guided by segmented assimilation and life course criminology frameworks, this article advances prior research on the immigration-crime nexus in three ways: using a large sample of high-risk adjudicated youth containing first and second generation immigrants; examining longitudinal trajectories of official and self-reported offending; and merging segmented assimilation and life course theories to distinguish between offending patterns. Data come from the Pathways to Desistance study containing detailed offending and socio-demographic background information on 1,354 adolescents (13.6 % female; n = 1,061 native-born; n = 210 second generation immigrants; n = 83 first generation immigrants) as they transition to young adulthood (aged 14-17 at baseline). Over 84 months we observe whether patterns of offending, and the correlates that may distinguish them, operate differently across immigrant generations. Collectively, this study offers the first investigation of whether immigrants, conditioned on being adjudicated, are characterized by persistent offending. Results show that first generation immigrants are less likely to be involved in serious offending and to evidence persistence in offending, and appear to be on a path toward desistance much more quickly than their peers. Further, assimilation and neighborhood disadvantage operate in unique ways across generational status and relate to different offending styles. The findings show that the risk for persistent offending is greatest among those with high levels of assimilation who reside in disadvantaged contexts, particularly among the second generation youth in the sample. PMID:24150541

  4. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  5. The Comparative Experiences of Women in Control

    PubMed Central

    Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C.; Wiecha, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants’ experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

  6. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

  7. Differences in Attitudes towards Women among Three Groups of Filipinos: Filipinos in the Philippines, Filipino American Immigrants, and U.S. Born Filipino Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enrile, Annalisa; Agbayani, Pauline T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation and attitudes towards women. The study focuses on 390 native Filipino, immigrant Filipino, and U.S. born Filipino American undergraduate students. Early research on acculturation has assumed that as people become acculturated to their host cultures, their own culture of origin weakens.…

  8. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  9. "Yes, I Feel Stronger with More Confidence and Strength:" Examining the Experiences of Immigrant Latina Women (ILW) Participating in the Si, Yo Puedo Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs Fuchsel, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011-2013, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted to examine the experiences of 36 immigrant Latina women who participated in a culturally specific 11-week curriculum--Sí Yo Puedo--in a psycho-educational group format. Using action research as a research design, four groups were conducted over a 2-year period at a community health clinic…

  10. Immigrant Women, English Literacy Programs, and Work in the United States: A Look at How Ideology and Funding Are Shaping Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mira-Lisa

    The effects of ideological assumptions about teaching, learning, and the labor market and the impact of differing funding sources on community-based organizations' efforts to prepare immigrant/refugee women for jobs in the United States were examined through a study of programs sponsored by two San Francisco Bay area community organizations--the…

  11. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  12. An Interactional Perspective on the Relationship of Immigration to Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative Sample of Help-Seeking Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…

  13. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  14. Stressors, coping resources, functioning, and role limitations among older korean immigrants: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea Flynn

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the differential impacts of stressors and coping resources on the functioning and roles of 246 older Korean immigrant men and women. Older Korean immigrant women were significantly more likely than men to have acculturation and socioeconomic stressors, physical/social functioning problems, and role limitations. English-language barriers and lack of transportation were significantly related to lower functioning and higher role limitations of older Korean women compared to those of older men. Providing social and health care services with bilingual and transportation services to older Korean immigrant women is recommended to increase their physical/social functioning and role performance. PMID:24483283

  15. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  16. Comparing Psychiatric Service Use among Low-Income Women and Women in a General Household Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel; Warner, Lynn A.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of outpatient mental health services in a sample of low-income women (Mothers' Well-Being Study [MWS]) and compares the findings with a sample of similar-aged women in the general population (National Comorbidity Survey [NCS]). Overall, the prevalence of any 12-month mental health disorder was significantly greater…

  17. Influence of Culture and Community Perceptions on Birth and Perinatal Care of Immigrant Women: Doulas’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the perceptions of doulas practicing in Washington State regarding the influence of cultural and community beliefs on immigrant women’s birth and perinatal care, as well as their own cultural beliefs and values that may affect their ability to work interculturally. The findings suggest that doulas can greatly aid immigrant mothers in gaining access to effective care by acting as advocates, cultural brokers, and emotional and social support. Also, doulas share a consistent set of professional values, including empowerment, informed choice, cultural relativism, and scientific/evidence-based practice, but do not always recognize these values as culturally based. More emphasis on cultural self-awareness in doula training, expanding community doula programs, and more integration of doula services in health-care settings are recommended. PMID:24453465

  18. Community Health Worker Perspectives on Recruitment and Retention of Recent Immigrant Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsuk; Heo, Grace Jeongim; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the recruitment and retention strategies used by community health workers who enrolled Korean Americans in a church-based, randomized trial to promote mammogram and Papanicolaou tests and retained them for 6 months. We conducted 4 focus groups with 23 community health workers. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Themes were identified in relation to recruitment: personal networks, formal networks at churches, building on trust and respect, and facilitating a nonthreatening environment. Themes were identified for retention: trust and peer support. Qualified, well-trained community health workers can recruit and retain hard-to-reach immigrant women in a randomized trial by using multiple culturally sensitive strategies. PMID:26605955

  19. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  20. Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term Jewish residents, immigrants, and Arab women in midlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

  1. Attitudes toward breast-feeding and infant feeding among Iranian, Afghan, and Southeast Asian immigrant women in the United States: implications for health and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi-Ahmadi, S

    1992-03-01

    A nutritionist analyzed data on 150 immigrant mothers living in California but from Iran, Afghanistan, Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who had participated in or were eligible for WIC (Women, Infants, and Children), a US supplemental food program, to examine cultural and socioeconomic factors linked with breast feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had exclusively breast fed their infants in their countries compared to 32% after they arrived in the US In fact, 85% exclusively breast fed for at least 5 months in their countries whereas only 14% did so after coming to the US Further, after immigrating to the US, 38% fed their infants both breast milk and formula. Moreover 30% only offered their infants formula. In the US, 82% of Iranian mothers exclusively breast fed their infants compared to 42% of Afghan mothers, 14% of Vietnamese mothers, 19% of Laotian mothers, and 9% of Cambodian mothers (p.00001). Iranian mothers noted societal support for breast feeding in Iran by the postrevolutionary government, by the Moslem religion, and by support groups they formed in the US Mothers who exclusively breast fed their infants reported breast feeding to be more advantageous than the other groups (p.05). The cited advantages included bonding, best food for infant, protection against infection, and successful breast feeding in the past. Mothers who partially or exclusively used formula were more likely to have returned to school, had problems with the infant's presence, consider bottle feeding to be convenient, received free formula, and state economic reasons. Further those who exclusively breast fed were more likely to 1st breast feed their infant in the delivery room than were the other mothers (p.01). These results indicated that economic reasons were the main reason for not breast feeding. Besides US health care providers in the hospital or those involved in WIC did not provide substantial support for breast feeding. Sound recommendations concluded this report. PMID:1552139

  2. Mother–Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions. PMID:23275761

  3. Where Immigrant Students Succeed: A Comparative Review of Performance and Engagement in PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This report examines how immigrant students performed, mainly in mathematics and reading, but also in science and problem-solving skills in the PISA 2003 assessment, both in comparison with native students in their adopted country and relative to other students across all countries covered in the report (the "case countries"). In addition, the…

  4. Mother-Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother-infant person- and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother-infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother-infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers…

  5. Women, Violence and Informal Learning. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad; McDonald, Susan

    A comparative study of the impact of violence on immigrant women's learning was conducted among immigrant women of two communities in the Toronto area: the Spanish-speaking community and the Kurds. The two authors of the study each worked with one of the communities in which they had knowledge of the language. An in-depth, non-structured,…

  6. Ameliorating the Stress of Immigrant Women's Poverty: Coping Using Children's School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between gender, race, and poverty and its effect on children's education is multidimensional and complex, but there are certain generalizations that can be made. The first is that women worldwide are known to be poorer than men (Buvinic and Gupta, 1997). Women in the US are 25-30% more likely to be poorer than men (U.S. Bureau of…

  7. If I was going to kill myself, I wouldn't be calling you. I am asking for help: challenges influencing immigrant and refugee women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jihye Jasmine; Este, Dave; Ewashen, Carol; Adair, Carol; Clinton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that 37% of Canadians experience some types of mental health problem. As a result of the migration process, many immigrant and refugee women suffer serious mental illness such as depression, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide, and psychosis. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study, informed by the ecological conceptual framework and postcolonial feminist perspectives, was to increase understanding of the mental health care experiences of immigrant and refugee women by acquiring information regarding factors that either support or inhibit coping. Ten women (five born in China and five born in Sudan) who were living with mental illness were interviewed. Analysis revealed that (a) women's personal experience with biomedicine, fear, and lack of awareness about mental health issues influences how they seek help to manage mental illness; (b) lack of appropriate services that suit their needs are barriers for these women to access mental health care; and (c) the women often draw upon informal support systems and practices and self-care strategies to cope with their mental illnesses and its related problems. The authors discuss implications for practice and make recommendations for intervention strategies that will facilitate women's mental health care and future research. PMID:21574842

  8. Participation and risk of high grade cytological lesions among immigrants and Italian-born women in an organized cervical cancer screening program in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Bulgaresi, Paolo; Alfieri, Antonia; Amunni, Gianni

    2015-06-01

    Few studies analyzed the risk for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) among immigrants and natives attending organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs (SP). We evaluated participation and diagnosis of HSIL+ by country of birth with logistic models. Overall 540,779 invitation letters were delivered to target women of Florence SP in three screening rounds (years 2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008). The probability of attending screening was lower for immigrants than natives, but the difference decreased from 35% (1st round) to 20% (2nd-3rd round) for women born in high migration pressure (HMP) countries. The risk of HSIL+ was double than natives for HMP-born women from countries with high prevalence of human papillomavirus, even adjusting for age and previous history of Pap test. This is an important public health problem due to an increasing proportion over time of immigrant women with a lower attendance and greater risk for CC. PMID:24917238

  9. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  10. Drug use and suicidality among Asian American women who are children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and family communication. These findings highlight the importance of addressing hard drug use when designing suicide prevention programs for Asian American women. PMID:23848381

  11. Drug use and suicidality among Asian American women who are children of immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L. Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and family communication. These findings highlight the importance of addressing hard drug use when designing suicide prevention programs for Asian American women. PMID:23848381

  12. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    PubMed

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants. PMID:12282409

  13. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  14. [The U.S. census: source for an international history of immigrant women, family, and gender?].

    PubMed

    Gabaccia, D R

    1996-08-01

    "The author discusses the fruitful use of nominal lists for a gendered analysis of international migration. [U.S.] studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s produced interesting information as to female work for wages outside the home, but found the census a flawed source for work done by women within their homes. Combination with other nominal sources [has revealed] the role played by women in the organization and maintenance of kin and neighborhood networks. The approach to the Italian diaspora abroad requires the linkage of different nominal sources at origin and in the different places of destination." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348148

  15. Birth Experiences of Immigrant Latina Women in a New Growth Community.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Meagan; Documét, Patricia I; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    A woman's birth experience can impact the physical and mental well-being of mothers long after the birth of their child. Little is known about the experiences of Latina women in areas with small, yet growing Latino populations. To understand Latina's perceptions of their childbirth experience and to see how insurance status impacts that experience, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a non-proportional quota sampling of ten Latina women, five with and five without health insurance. Most women reported a positive global experience; the birth of a healthy child was the most important factor influencing birth experiences for all of them. Locus of control and support from medical providers and loved ones also shaped experiences. Uninsured women reported lower levels of perceived control and support, which did impact their birthing experience. These differences could be influenced by social status and position. Medical provider, hospital, and policy recommendations are made which could lead to improvements in uninsured Latinas' childbirth experiences. PMID:27294734

  16. Somali immigrant women and the American health care system: discordant beliefs, divergent expectations, and silent worries.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol Lynn; Noor, Sahra; Brandt, Joan

    2010-07-01

    The civil war in Somalia resulted in massive resettlement of Somali refugees. The largest diaspora of Somali refugees in the United States currently reside in Minnesota. Partnering with three community organizations in 2007-8, we implemented the Community Connections and Collaboration Project to address health disparities that Somali refugees experienced. Specifically, we examined factors that influenced Somali women's health experiences. Utilizing a socio-ecological perspective and a social action research design, we conducted six community-based focus groups with 57 Somali women and interviewed 11 key informants including Somali healthcare professionals. Inductively coding, sorting and reducing data into categories, we analyzed each category for specific patterns. The categorical findings on healthcare experiences are reported here. We found that Somali women's health beliefs related closely to situational factors and contrasted sharply with the biological model that drives Western medicine. These discordant health beliefs resulted in divergent expectations regarding treatment and healthcare interactions. Experiencing unmet expectations, Somali women and their healthcare providers reported multiple frustrations which often diminished perceived quality of health care. Moreover, silent worries about mental health and reproductive decision making surfaced. To provide high quality, transcultural health care, providers must encourage patients to voice their own health explanations, expectations, and worries. PMID:20494500

  17. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  18. Conflict sources and responses in mother-daughter relationships: perspectives of adult daughters of aging immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Usita, Paul M; Du Bois, Barbara C

    2005-01-01

    Mother-daughter conflict sources and responses among immigrant families are not well understood. In the research reported here, in-depth interview data about conflict were collected from 11 adult daughters of Japanese immigrant mothers. Conflict sources were mothers' unsolicited advice, daughters and mothers not living up to expectations of the other, and daughters' independence of mothers. Responses to conflict included voicing concerns, displaying loyalty, and utilizing the assistance of family. Comparisons between immigrant and nonimmigrant mother-daughter dyads' conflict experiences are discussed, and suggestions for future research on mother-daughter conflict within the immigrant context are provided. PMID:15914425

  19. Immigrants, Labor Markets, and the State, a Comparative Approach: France and the United States, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collomp, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a comparison of immigration to France and the United States during the period (1880-1930) when industrialization called for a mass working-class migration. Reports that collective immigration in France led to treating foreigners as individuals, while U.S. immigration was understood as an individual act but led to the collective expression…

  20. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  1. Risk of cervical cancer among immigrants by age at immigration and follow-up time in Sweden, from 1968 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Azerkan, Fatima; Zendehdel, Kazem; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sparén, Pär

    2008-12-01

    Because of great variation in the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection and other risk factors of cervical cancer worldwide, migrant studies may help further the understanding of the aetiology and improve prevention of cervical cancer. Our aim was to study the risk of invasive cervical cancer among immigrant women. We followed 758,002 immigrants from different countries who resided in Sweden between 1968 and 2004. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) of immigrants were compared with that in their countries of origin. Poisson regression models estimated the relative risks of cervical cancer among immigrants, overall and stratified by age at migration and follow-up time, compared to Swedish-born women. Overall 1,991 of 19,542 observed cases of cervical cancer occurred among immigrants. Generally they had lower ASRs than in their countries of origin, with the exception of Nordic immigrants. Compared to Swedish-born women, we observed a higher relative risk of cervical cancer among immigrants overall (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18), and particularly among women from Denmark (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.1), Norway (RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9) and Central America (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9), while the relative risks were lower in immigrants from Eastern Africa (RR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.6), South Central Asia (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) and South Western Asia (RR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7). Follow-up time and age at migration were important effect modifiers for cervical cancer risks. We suggest targeted prevention toward high-risk immigrants, specifically older women, in the first 10 years after arrival into their new homeland. PMID:18770518

  2. Immigrant Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study between Different Immigrant Groups and a Sample of Swedish Students. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Horst

    A study sought information about the success of the Swedish 9-year compulsory comprehensive school for students with home language other than Swedish. Immigrant adolescents and a sample of Swedish students answered a questionnaire discussing their lines of study after comprehensive school and the students' views on the home language instruction…

  3. The demographic and socio-economic characteristics of post-1965 immigrants to New York City: a comparative analysis by national origin.

    PubMed

    Cordero-guzman, H; Grosfoguel, R

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes and compares the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of persons born abroad who immigrated to New York City after 1965 and still lived in the City in 1990. Using data from the 1990 Census, the authors classify persons into the 24 largest national origin groups and compare their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (sex, age, educational attainment, labor force participation, unemployment, occupation, income, and poverty). The authors pose and answer three empirical questions. The first question is: What are some of the main differences by national origin in the composition of persons immigrating to New York City after 1965? The second question is: What are some of the main differences in the location of post-1965 immigrants in New York's socioeconomic structure? The third question is: What are some of the differences in the economic rewards received by persons who immigrated to New York City since 1965? The authors find that immigrants with less than a high school education have higher labor force participation rates than the US-born population in the same educational category and also have slightly higher earnings. Immigrants with a high school degree have labor force participation rates close to (or slightly higher than) the average for the US-born population but their incomes are slightly lower than the average income for the US-born population. Immigrants with a college degree have participation rates similar or slightly lower than those of the US-born population while their earnings are significantly lower than those of US-born college graduates. PMID:12349807

  4. Factors shaping workplace segregation between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Strömgren, Magnus; Tammaru, Tiit; Danzer, Alexander M; van Ham, Maarten; Marcińczak, Szymon; Stjernström, Olof; Lindgren, Urban

    2014-04-01

    Research on segregation of immigrant groups is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas toward other important places, such as the workplace, where immigrants can meet and interact with members of the native population. This article examines workplace segregation of immigrants. We use longitudinal, georeferenced Swedish population register data, which enables us to observe all immigrants in Sweden for the period 1990-2005 on an annual basis. We compare estimates from ordinary least squares with fixed-effects regressions to quantify the extent of immigrants' self-selection into specific workplaces, neighborhoods, and partnerships, which may bias more naïve ordinary least squares results. In line with previous research, we find lower levels of workplace segregation than residential segregation. The main finding is that low levels of residential segregation reduce workplace segregation, even after we take into account intermarriage with natives as well as unobserved characteristics of immigrants' such as willingness and ability to integrate into the host society. Being intermarried with a native reduces workplace segregation for immigrant men but not for immigrant women. PMID:24399142

  5. Violence Reported by the Immigrant Population Is High as Compared with the Native Population in Southeast Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado-Yohar, S.; Tormo, M. J.; Salmeron, D.; Dios, S.; Ballesta, M.; Navarro, C.

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants constitute a population vulnerable to the problem of violence. This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of violence reported by the immigrant population in the Murcian Region of Spain and characterize the related factors, taking the country population as reference. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a representative…

  6. Welcome to America, welcome to college: Comparing the effects of immigrant generation and college generation on physical science and engineering career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Students enter college with social, cultural, and economic resources (well described Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital) that significantly impact their goals, actions, and successes. Two important determinants of the amount and type of resources available to students are their immigrant generation and college generation status. Drawing on a national sample of 6860 freshmen enrolled in college English, we compare and contrast the effects of immigrant generation with those of college generation status on physical science and engineering career intentions to explore some of the challenges faced by the first in the family to become an American and/or go to college.

  7. Health workers' perceptions of access to care for children and pregnant women with precarious immigration status: health as a right or a privilege?

    PubMed

    Vanthuyne, Karine; Meloni, Francesca; Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Rousseau, Cécile; Ricard-Guay, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian government's recent cuts to healthcare coverage for refugee claimants has rekindled the debate in Canada about what medical services should be provided to individuals with precarious immigration status, and who should pay for these services. This article further explores this debate, focussing on the perceptions of healthcare workers in Montreal, a large multiethnic Canadian city. In April-June 2010, an online survey was conducted to assess how clinicians, administrators, and support staff in Montreal contend with the ethical and professional dilemmas raised by the issue of access to healthcare services for pregnant women and children who are partially or completely uninsured. Drawing on qualitative analysis of answers (n = 237) to three open-ended survey questions, we identify the discursive frameworks that our respondents mobilized when arguing for, or against, universal access to healthcare for uninsured patients. In doing so, we highlight how their positions relate to their self-evaluations of Canada's socioeconomic situation, as well as their ideological representations of, and sense of social connection to, precarious status immigrants. Interestingly, while abstract values lead some healthcare workers to perceive uninsured immigrants as "deserving" of universal access to healthcare, negative perceptions of these migrants, coupled with pragmatic considerations, pushed most workers to view the uninsured as "underserving" of free care. For a majority of our respondents, the right to healthcare of precarious status immigrants has become a "privilege", that as taxpayers, they are increasingly less willing to contribute to. We conclude by arguing for a reconsideration of access to healthcare as a right, and offer recommendations to move in this direction. PMID:23906124

  8. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  9. Healthy Immigrant Effect: Preterm Births Among Immigrants and Refugees in Syracuse, NY.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lauren S; Robinson, Jonnell Allen; Cibula, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    Objectives The healthy immigrant effect is the phenomenon by which immigrants experience more positive health outcomes than the native-born population in developed countries. The strength of this effect appears to be related to country of origin, health outcome, healthcare and integration policies of receiving countries, as well as immigration class. This secondary analysis of birth records examines whether immigrants and mothers from refugee countries have lower adjusted risk of preterm births than US-born mothers in Syracuse, NY, a preferred refugee resettlement area. Methods This secondary analysis included 6354 electronic birth records for residents in the city of Syracuse, NY who gave birth to singleton infants between 2009 and 2011. Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to calculate the adjusted relative risk for preterm birth among foreign-born mothers and mothers from refugee countries, compared to US-born mothers. Results Infants born to both foreign-born women and to women from refugee countries had decreased risks of being born preterm compared to infants born to US mothers, controlling for race, late/no prenatal care, maternal age less than 18 years and smoking. Conclusion Our findings support a healthy immigrant effect for preterm births both among all foreign-born immigrants and among the subsample of women from refugee countries. Mother's nativity is likely a proxy for unmeasured factors (e.g., prenatal stress, maternal diet, etc.) that may explain the relationship between mother's nativity and preterm births. Additional research is needed to better understand the underlying factors. PMID:26525555

  10. African American Women's Perception of Their Own Weight Status Compared to Measured Weight Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates that African American (AA) women may be more accepting of larger body sizes compared with women of other races. This study assessed whether AA women perceived their own weight status accurately, when compared with their actual weight classification. Participants were 528 ...

  11. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  12. [Antenatal care in immigrants].

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Coll, C; Coloma, M; Martín, J I; Padrón, E; González González, N L

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of immigration has had an impact on the health care of the population. The immigrant population in Spain today represents approximately 8% of the total population. The majority of this population proceeds from countries with low income, and its origin and distribution is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups. PMID:16721417

  13. “Being Flexible and Creative”: A Qualitative Study on Maternity Care Assistants' Experiences with Non-Western Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Boerleider, Agatha W.; Francke, Anneke L.; van de Reep, Merle; Manniën, Judith; Wiegers, Therese A.; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the baby's grandmother as care-giver in the postnatal period. However, not much attention has been paid in existing literature to postnatal care professionals' approaches to these issues. Our main objective was to gain insight into how Dutch postnatal care providers - ‘maternity care assistants’ (MCA) - address issues encountered when providing care for non-western women. Methods A generic qualitative research approach was used. Two researchers interviewed fifteen MCAs individually, analysing the interview material separately and then comparing and discussing their results. Analytical codes were organised into main themes and subthemes. Results MCAs perceive caring for non-western women as interesting and challenging, but sometimes difficult too. To guarantee the health and safety of mother and baby, they have adopted flexible and creative approaches to address issues concerning traditional practices, socioeconomic status and communication. Furthermore, they employ several other strategies to establish relationships with non-western clients and their families, improve women's knowledge of the maternity care system and give health education. Conclusion Provision of postnatal care to non-western clients may require special skills and measures. The quality of care for non-western clients might be improved by including these skills in education and retraining programmes for postnatal care providers on top of factual knowledge about traditional practices. PMID:24622576

  14. The Structure of Women's Employment in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Becky; Hook, Jennifer Lynn

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze social survey data from 19 countries using multi-level modeling methods in an effort to synthesize structural and institutional accounts for variation in women's employment. Observed demographic characteristics show much consistency in their relationship to women's employment across countries, yet there is significant…

  15. Power, Resistance, and Emotional Economies in Women's Relationships with Mothers-in-Law in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Kristy Y.; Pyke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This interview study interrogates how cultural values of filial piety inform Chinese American daughters-in-law's understanding of their relationship and power dynamics with immigrant Chinese American mothers-in-law. Ideals of filial respect accord limited authority to mothers-in-law, who engage other mechanisms of power, such as their domestic…

  16. Revisiting the immigrant paradox in reproductive health: the roles of duration of residence and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; O'Campo, Patricia J; Heaman, Maureen I

    2012-05-01

    The immigrant paradox refers to the contrasting observations that immigrants usually experience similar or better health outcomes than the native-born population despite socioeconomic disadvantage and barriers to health care use. This paradox, however, has not been examined simultaneously in relation to varying degrees of exposure to the receiving society and across multiple outcomes and risk factors. To advance knowledge on these issues, we analysed data of the Maternity Experiences Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6421 Canadian women who delivered singleton infants in 2006-07. We compared the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and related risk factors according to women's ethnicity and time since migration to Canada. We calculated prevalences and prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals. Compared to Canadian-born women of European descent, recent immigrants were at lower risk of preterm delivery and morbidity during pregnancy despite having the highest prevalence of low income and low support during pregnancy among all groups, but the paradox was not observed among immigrants with a longer stay in Canada. In contrast, recent immigrants were at higher risk of postpartum depression. Immigrants of non-European origin also had higher prevalence of postpartum depression, irrespective of their length of residence in Canada, but immigrants from European-origin countries did not. Exposure to Canada was also positively associated with higher alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index. Canadian-born women of non-European descent were at higher risk of preterm birth and hospitalisation during pregnancy than their European-origin counterparts. Our findings suggest that the healthy migrant hypothesis and the immigrant paradox have limited generalisability. These hypotheses may be better conceptualised as outcome-specific and dependent on immigrants' ethnicity and length of stay in the receiving country. PMID:22464222

  17. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991

  18. A Comparative View of the Roles of Women. Experimental Unit, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara; Johnson, Jacquelyn

    This unit explores the roles of women today and the possible effects of social, political, and economic equality for women on students' personal lives, the nation, and the world. Thirteen activities are designed to help secondary students develop an understanding of the status of women in U.S. society as compared with other cultures. These…

  19. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  20. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism

    PubMed Central

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G. T.; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals’ sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile—as measured with benevolent sexism items—related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions—that is, more positive attitudes—among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters. PMID:26283985

  1. Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116

  2. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health. PMID:25808761

  3. Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada.

    PubMed

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Adlard, Bryan; Foster, Warren G; Donaldson, Shawn G; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-05-01

    The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990 μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population. PMID:24576741

  4. Cardiovascular disease in relation to diabetes status in immigrants from the Middle East compared to native Swedes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in immigrants to Sweden from Iraq, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors are not known. In this survey we aimed to compare the prevalence of CVD and CVD-associated risk factors between a population born in Iraq and individuals born in Sweden. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study comprised 1,365 Iraqi immigrants and 739 Swedes (age 30-75 years) residing in the same socioeconomic area in Malmö, Sweden. Blood tests were performed and socio-demography and lifestyles were characterized. To investigate potential differences in CVD, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for metabolic, lifestyle and psychosocial risk factors for CVD. Outcome measures were odds of CVD. Results There were no differences in self-reported prevalence of CVD between Iraqi- and Swedish-born individuals (4.0 vs. 5.5%, OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-1.8). However, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher in Iraqi compared to Swedish participants (8.4 vs. 3.3%, OR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.6-6.7). Moreover, among individuals with type 2 diabetes, Iraqis had a higher prevalence of CVD (22.8 vs. 8.0%, OR = 4.2, 95% CI 0.9-20.0), after adjustment for age and sex. By contrast, among those without diabetes, immigrants from Iraq had a lower prevalence of CVD than Swedes (2.2 vs. 5.5%, OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Type 2 diabetes was an independent risk factor for CVD in Iraqis only (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 2.8-16.2). This was confirmed by an interaction between country of birth and diabetes (p = 0.010). In addition, in Iraqis, type 2 diabetes contributed to CVD risk to a higher extent than history of hypertension (standardized OR 1.5 vs. 1.4). Conclusions This survey indicates that the odds of CVD in immigrants from Iraq are highly dependent on the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and that type 2 diabetes contributes

  5. Vitamin D status is associated with sun exposure, vitamin D and calcium intake, acculturation and attitudes in immigrant East Asian women living in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye E; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Clemson, Lindy; Koo, Fung K; Jang, Haeyoung; Seibel, Markus J; Mpofu, Elias; Fraser, David R; Mason, Rebecca S

    2013-07-01

    Known determinants of vitamin D status (measured in serum as 25(OH)Dnmol/L) are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D, either from foods or vitamin supplements. Recently, low vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrants has been reported. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate associations with vitamin D status in East Asian Australian immigrant women. In this cross-sectional study of women (n=152 aged 18-92), 25(OH)D levels were measured from serum samples (radio-immuno assay). Demographics, sun exposure patterns, dietary intake and acculturation factors were obtained by questionnaire. In spring, 53% of the study population had serum 25(OH)D levels <50nmol/L (deficiency); whereas in summer only 19% were deficient. Associations with vitamin D deficiency were younger age, higher education, more sun protection behavior, fewer minutes of sun exposure on weekends, low vitamin D and calcium intake through foods or supplements and less acculturation to Australian lifestyle. After multivariate adjustment, those who had no intake of vitamin D supplements (OR=5.6, CI=1.4-22), less sunlight exposure on weekends (OR=2.7, CI=1.0-7.3) and lower acculturation to Australian lifestyle (OR=2.5, CI=1.0-6.3) had increased risk of being deficient in vitamin D. Thus there is a need for vitamin D education in this "at-risk" population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23262263

  6. [Hysteria and psychosomatic disorders in Portuguese immigrants].

    PubMed

    de Barros-Ferreira, M

    1976-01-01

    Seventy patients presenting symptoms of hysteria (49 women and 21 men) were selected among patients observed at the Institute Minkowska during the year. This work is part of a research work on socio-cultural and environmental factors which can change mental status of immigrants. These are all portugese workers presenting for the first time atypical mental troubles called by the author: "bastard hysterical syndrome of the immigrant" and characterized partly or totally by the following symptoms: fatigue, anxiety, sense of suffocation, dyspnea, coughing, unilateral chills or generalized chil, abdominal or gastric pains, headaches and "diffused pains", paresthesia, aching back, tears and sorrow, fear of dying or having a cancer, asthenia, leg paresthesia and contractions, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac pains, palpitations, dizziness and collapsing. These troubles appear sometimes without apparent motives but they are almost always due to a precipitating cause expressed by the patient: a delivery, a familial death, a homosexual proposition, a trauma without importance, a working conflict etc... But the most frequent cause invoked is "the french climate" without knowing precisely what the word "climate" means: atmospheric conditions, athmosphere or reception milieu? This latest interpretation seems more likely after months of psychotherapy. Most patients are not french speaking and cannot write; their origin is rural (familial villages well structured regarding their food and sexual economy), and people well "armed" by a system of defense mechanisms and well adopted conditioned reflexes. In this work, hysteria of the portugese immigrant is compared to childhood hysteria. As the hysterical burst of the child is aimed at calling attention, love of the mother, at finding a solution to a familial or social conflict, the hysterical burst of the immigrant is aimed at the absent family or at its substitutes, the bos, social security, the doctor. Furthermore, the attitude of the

  7. Poverty relief and development by way of out-immigration: new opportunities for women's participation in development.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Bai, J

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses patterns of female migration out of Gansu province in China and the causes of women's problems in migration. China is initiating a relocation project for moving 200,000 people from poverty areas in central south Gansu province to the Shule River Basin in Jiuquan Prefecture of Gansu. The study provides findings from a migrant survey. Destination and origin areas differed in educational attainment. Occupations varied by gender. The ratio of men to women in all salaried occupations varied between origin and destination areas. 96.41% in the origin areas and 55.31% in the destination areas were women farmers. During 1985-90, 50,902 persons moved to destination areas, of which 24,181 (47.51%) were female. Women's movements were related to marriage and family reunification. Men migrated due to job transfers or employment and business opportunities. About 610,000 people were interested in migrating to the Shule River Valley. 46.67% of female migrants in the destination area indicated that they had no say in decision making concerning the move; in the origin areas only 32.02% had no say. Female migrants in the destination area arrived 3-9 years ago. Women in the destination area had more skills than women in origin areas. "Finding a way out" was the major reason for migration in both destination and origin areas. Origin areas had more migrants who moved due to landlessness. 26.67% of women returned for visits to the origin areas. Few men or women participated in premigration programs; but, following migration, 63% of women and 86% of men were attracted to education programs. Most desired technical programs. Many women suffered from low educational status, low employment, premature marriage, and early childbearing. These problems were due to a backward economy, traditional values, women's personal characteristics, excessive childbearing, reforms, and the market economy. PMID:12320981

  8. Female immigrants and labor in colonial Malaya: 1860-1947.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M

    1989-01-01

    "The role of Chinese and Indian women as immigrants and workers in colonial Malaya is examined using data from censuses, immigration records, official reports and secondary sources. The article discusses the main types of work of female immigrants and their contribution to the economic development of colonial Malaya during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in an attempt to redress the neglect of female immigrants' economic role in Malaya's history. Comparisons between male and female immigrants' labor and between Chinese and Indian immigrants, are drawn to highlight the different conditions of migration and labor for the different groups of immigrants." PMID:12315959

  9. The Effect of Acculturation and Immigration on the Victimization and Psychological Distress Link in a National Sample of Latino Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…

  10. Perceptions of Depression and Access to Mental Health Care Among Latino Immigrants: Looking Beyond One Size Fits All.

    PubMed

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Arriola, Nora B; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Compared with non-Latino Whites, Latino immigrants have a lower prevalence of depression. However, they are also less likely to seek professional mental health services. Our objective was to compare and contrast perceptions of depression and access to mental health care among four of the largest Latino immigrant subgroups in Florida (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and Colombian). We conducted a total of 120 interviews (30 men and women from each subgroup). Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that participants across the four groups were aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and had similar perceptions of depression. However, notable differences by subgroup emerged with regard to perceptions of access to mental health care. We suggest that the variation stems from differences in life experiences and the immigration context. Understanding the variances and nuances of Latino immigrants' cultural construction of depression and immigration experience will enable practitioners to better serve this community. PMID:26035855

  11. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. PMID:24803539

  12. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  13. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  14. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  15. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Immigrants in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Do, H. Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Chinese American women have high rates of invasive cervical cancer, compared to the general population. However, little is known about the Pap testing behavior of ethnic Chinese immigrants. Methods We conducted a community-based survey of Chinese immigrants living in Seattle, Washington, during 1999. Two indicators of cervical cancer screening participation were examined: at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing in the last 2 years. Results The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample for this analysis included 647 women. Nearly one quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and only 60% had been screened recently. Factors independently associated with cervical cancer screening use included marital status, housing type, and age at immigration. Conclusion Our findings confirm low levels of cervical cancer screening among Chinese immigrants to North America. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Pap testing intervention programs for less acculturated Chinese women should be developed, implemented, and evaluated. PMID:16228798

  17. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  18. The encounters that rupture the myth: contradictions in midwives' descriptions and explanations of circumcised women immigrants' sexuality.

    PubMed

    Leval, Amy; Widmark, Catarina; Tishelman, Carol; Maina Ahlberg, Beth

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze how Swedish midwives (n = 26) discuss sexuality in circumcised African women patients. In focus groups and interviews, discussions concentrated on care provided to circumcised women, training received for this care, and midwives' perceptions of female circumcision. An analytic expansion was performed for discussions pertaining to sexuality and gender roles. Results from the analysis show the following: (1) ethnocentric projections of sexuality; (2) a knowledge paradox regarding circumcision and sexuality; (3) the view of the powerless circumcised women; and (4) the fact that maternity wards function as meeting places between gender and culture where the encounters with men allow masculine hegemonic norms to be ruptured. We conclude that an increased understanding of cultural epistemology is needed to ensure quality care. The encounters that take place in obstetrical care situations can provide a space where gender and culture as prescribed norms can be questioned. PMID:15371079

  19. Molecular characteristics and prognostic features of breast cancer in Nigerian compared with UK women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A J; Musa, A A; Wanangwa, N; Abdel-Fatah, T; Nolan, C C; Ayoade, B A; Oyebadejo, T Y; Banjo, A A; Deji-Agboola, A M; Rakha, E A; Green, A R; Ellis, I O

    2012-09-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) incidence is lower in African-American women compared with White-American, in African countries such as Nigeria, BC is a common disease. Nigerian women have a higher risk for early-onset, with a high mortality rate from BC, prompting speculation that risk factors could be genetic and the molecular portrait of these tumours are different to those of western women. In this study, 308 BC samples from Nigerian women with complete clinical history and tumour characteristics were included and compared with a large series of BC from the UK as a control group. Immunoprofile of these tumours was characterised using a panel of 11 biomarkers of known relevance to BC. The immunoprofile and patients' outcome were compared with tumour grade-matched UK control group. Nigerian women presenting with BC were more frequently premenopausal, and their tumours were characterised by large primary tumour size, high tumour grade, advanced lymph node stage, and a higher rate of vascular invasion compared with UK women. In the grade-matched groups, Nigerian BC showed over representation of triple-negative and basal phenotypes and BRCA1 deficiency BC compared with UK women, but no difference was found regarding HER2 expression between the two series. Nigerian women showed significantly poorer outcome after development of BC compared with UK women. This study demonstrates that there are possible genetic and molecular differences between an indigenous Black population and a UK-based series. The basal-like, triple negative and BRCA1 dysfunction groups of tumours identified in this study may have implications in the development of screening programs and therapies for African patients and families that are likely to have a BRCA1 dysfunction, basal like and triple negative. PMID:22842985

  20. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  1. Economic impact of HIV infection and coronary heart disease in immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Zowall, H; Coupal, L; Fraser, R D; Gilmore, N; Deutsch, A; Grover, S A

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the direct health care costs of illnesses associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of coronary heart disease (CHD) in immigrants to Canada. DESIGN: Comparative cost analysis. PARTICIPANTS: All people who immigrated to Canada in 1988. The numbers with HIV infection and CHD were estimated from country-specific HIV seroprevalence data and national CHD mortality statistics and data from the Framingham study. Health care costs, projected over the 10 years after immigration, were calculated on the basis of data from the Hospital Medical Records Institute and provincial fee schedules. RESULTS: Of the 161,929 immigrants in 1988, 484 were estimated to be HIV positive. The total cost of treatment of HIV-related illnesses from 1989 to 1998 (discounted at 3%) would be $18.5 million: $17.1 million would be spent on the outpatient and inpatient care of the HIV-positive immigrants, $1.0 million on care of the subsequently infected sexual partners and $0.4 million on care of the HIV-positive children born to seropositive immigrant women. In comparison, CHD would develop in 2558 immigrants during the same 10-year period. The total CHD costs would be $21.6 million: $8.4 million would be spent on treating myocardial infarction, $3.2 million on coronary artery bypass grafting, $1.6 million on pacemaker insertion and $8.4 million on treating other CHD events. CONCLUSIONS: The economic impact of HIV infection in immigrants to Canada is similar to that of CHD. This comparison identifies an important shortcoming in current immigration policy: economic considerations can be arbitrarily applied to certain diseases, thereby discriminating against specific groups of immigrants. PMID:1393930

  2. Comparing Violence against Women with and Without an Addicted Spouse in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Karimi, Rouhangiz; Karbasi, Hassan; Haji-Rezaei, Mostafa; Aminolroayaee, Efat

    2015-01-01

    Background Although some studies have been conducted on violence against women, but all these studies were conducted in the general population and not the wives of addicts. This study was aimed to compare the violence against women with and without an addicted spouse. Methods This comparative study was conducted on 200 married women in Kashan, Iran. 100 cases were females with addicted spouse and 100 were women with non-addict husbands. Data collected using Haj-Yahia violence questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics and chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, odds ratio (OR) and Kendall's correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Findings The overall mean score of violence was 69.29 ± 14.84 for the women with addicted husbands and 40.02 ± 9.26 in women with non-addicted spouses (P < 0.001). The mean score of psychological violence was 39.03 ± 7.60 in women with addicted spouses and 21.86 ± 6.11 in those with non-addicted husbands (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean score of physical violence was 20.98 ± 6.50 in women with addicted spouses and 12.2 ± 2.55 in those with non-addicted husbands (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean scores of sexual violence were 4.52 ± 2.21 and 3.28 ± 0.75 in women with and without addicted spouses, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion The overall rate of violence was significantly higher among women with addicted spouse and especially if the spouse abused more than one type of substances. Further investigations are suggested on the effects of opium withdrawal or changes in the substance abused on the rate of violence against women. PMID:26322214

  3. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  4. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  5. Acculturation and Sleep among a Multiethnic Sample of Women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Hall, Martica H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Mexican immigrants to the United States report longer sleep duration and fewer sleep complaints than their US-born counterparts. To investigate whether this effect extends to other immigrant groups, we examined whether the prevalence of self-reported sleep complaints is higher among US-born Hispanic/Latina, Chinese, and Japanese immigrant women compared to their first-generation immigrant ethnic counterparts as well as to US-born whites. We examined whether these associations persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics and whether acculturation mediated the effects. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Multisite study in Oakland, CA; Los Angeles, CA; and Newark, NJ. Participants: Hispanic/Latina (n = 196), Chinese (n = 228), Japanese (n = 271) and non-Hispanic white (n = 485) women (mean age = 46 y, range 42-52 y) participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN); 410 or 59.0% of the nonwhites were first-generation immigrants. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, race/ethnicity, immigrant status, language acculturation (use of English language), and sociodemographic and health variables. Approximately 25% of first-generation immigrant women reported sleep complaints compared to 37% of those who were US-born nonwhites and 42% of US-born whites. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that US-born nonwhites had higher odds of reporting any sleep complaints (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0), compared to first-generation immigrants. Women with higher levels of language acculturation had greater odds of reporting any sleep complaint compared to those with less language acculturation. Adjustment for language acculturation mediated 40.4% (95% CI 28.5-69.8) of the association between immigrant status and any sleep complaint. When results were stratified by race/ethnicity, significant

  6. Testosterone and mood dysfunction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome compared to subfertile controls.

    PubMed

    Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out. PMID:21473679

  7. Depressive symptomatology in single women heads of households in Puerto Rico: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Burgos, N M; Lennon, M C; Bravo, M; Guzman, J

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines depressive symptomatology among women in Puerto Rico, using data from an island wide population-based sample. We focus on single women heads of households (SWHH) defined as divorced, separated, widowed and never married women with no permanent mate who have the main economic responsibility for their households. The study aims to identify social factors such as family responsibilities, stressful life events, and reduced levels of social support, that may contribute to the risk for depressive symptoms in these women. This is a growing population: the 1990 Census reported that 23% of all households in Puerto Rico were headed by women, an increase from 14% in 1970. The present study was based on a probability sample of adults (17-68 years), interviewed using a structured schedule, from which we analyzed the female subjects. Women were classified in three mutually exclusive groups: single women heads of households (SWHH, n = 138), single women not heads of households (SWNHH, n = 104), and married women not heads of households (MW, n = 275). Our finding that single women heads of households were especially vulnerable to depressive symptomatology is consistent with that of other studies in the United States. Also consistent with previous research, SWHH were found to be older, poorer, have less education and more often lived in urban areas, as compared to other women. Having children at home was associated with more depressive symptoms among both groups of single women, but not among married women. And the availability of emotional supporters had a weaker effect for SWHH. Furthermore, quality of support was found to be more important for these women than number of persons available for emotional support. The study has several implications for family policy and mental health prevention. Since SWHH are vulnerable for depressive symptomatology and their number is increasing, programs should be developed to attend the special needs of these women

  8. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity. PMID:26502554

  9. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-10-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5-7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies. PMID:26392533

  10. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable

    PubMed Central

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5–7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies. PMID:26392533

  11. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS. PMID:26133743

  12. A comparison of risk factors for women seeking labiaplasty compared to those not seeking labiaplasty.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491

  13. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: A nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Design, setting and subjects. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). Main outcome measures. FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Results. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09–1.17) and 1.15 (1.12–1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78–1.89) and 1.66 (1.63–1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67–1.89) and 1.65 (1.57–1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Conclusion. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care. PMID:25421090

  14. Awareness and Attitude towards Breastfeeding among Two Generations of Indian Women: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deeksha; Sardana, Parnita; Saxena, Aashish; Dogra, Luvdeep; Coondoo, Ambika; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Present study was aimed to analyze the impact of education, employment and financial independence in breastfeeding practices among Indian women. Methodology Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 256 women (128 pairs) in the final analysis. A pair means – a) pregnant lady (in her third trimester) representing younger generation and b) her mother/mother in law representing the elder generation. Results We found that the overall awareness regarding ‘breast milk’ being the best food for baby was excellent (overall 97.3%; younger generation: 96.9%; elder generation: 97.7%). Overall knowledge regarding the correct technique (28.9% younger generation and 21.9% elder generation) and frequency of breastfeeding (20.3% of younger generation and 34.4% of elder generation) was very poor. Less than 60% (younger generation: 57.8%; elder generation: 58.6%) were aware that the only major contraindication for breastfeeding is a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On comparing responses obtained from the two generations of women, difference was not statistically significant among most of the issues related to breastfeeding. With regards to the attitude, despite better awareness, only 94.5% women in younger generation and 89.1% women in elder generation were planning to give mother’s milk as the first feed to the newborn. Similarly, less than 75% of women were ready to breast-feed the newborn immediately after birth. This was contradictory to the fact that 86% of pregnant women were aware that the baby should be breast-fed within an hour of birth. Conclusion Awareness with regards to breastfeeding issues had not changed significantly with the educational progress of Indian women. Despite the good level of awareness in the society regarding breastfeeding, attitude to practice the same is lacking. PMID:25993040

  15. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  16. Personality Traits and Identity Styles in Methamphetamine-Dependent Women: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Bayazi, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi, Razieh; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies over the past two decades have shown that various personality traits of substance-dependent men measure differently than compared to normal individuals. However fewer studies have addressed the role of identity as an influential factor in the onset and continuation of drug dependency. Methods: The objective of this study was to compare the Big Five personality factors and identity styles in methamphetamine dependent women and non-user group. Forty eight methamphetamine dependent women under treatment in Welfare Organization’s residential centers filled out the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Berzonsky’s Identity Style Inventory. They were compared with 48 non-dependent women who were matched in terms of age, education, marital status, and occupation. Data was analyzed with t student test. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS V.16 software. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: Results found that methamphetamine dependent woman had significantly higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to experience compared to normative sample of female respondents. In addition, mean scores of diffuse/avoidant identity style in methamphetamine user women was significantly higher than non-user group. This is while non-user women had a significantly higher mean in normative identity style. Conclusion: Identity styles along with personality traits can be a key role in drug use in women in this study. Therefore, enhancing understanding about the role of identity can be helpful in treatment programs especially in harm reduction approaches. PMID:26234975

  17. Incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Kavita; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Tansa, K A; Aravind Raj, E; Bhowmick, Paramita

    2015-12-01

    Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p<0.05). On overall abuse, there was a trend to significance in women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26118353

  18. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. METHODS A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus–positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. RESULTS There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (P<.001). Among women who underwent anoscopy, no anal dysplasia was detected in the low-risk group, whereas 13.4% in the high-risk group had anal dysplasia with 4.2% having anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (P<.001). CONCLUSION Human immunodeficiency virus–negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. PMID:26551180

  19. Review of comparative responses of men and women to heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most of their present knowledge regarding human responses to thermal stress is primarily a result of research conducted on male subjects. Recently, as women have moved into the industrial workplace and forefront of athletic activity, attention has turned to comparative responses of men and women. Very limited research on preadolescent children suggests no physiological thermoregulatory sex differences except for a slightly higher sweat rate in lean boys as compared to lean girls of a similar age. Boys also tended to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Current beliefs regarding men and women are: (1) women, as a population, are less tolerant to a given imposed heat stress however, if cardiovascular fitness level, body size, and acclimation state are standardized, the differences tend to disappear; (2) women have a lower sweat rate than men of equal fitness, size, and acclimation which is disadvantageous in hot-dry environments, but advantageous in hot-wet environments; and (3) menstrual cycle effects are minimal. It is concluded that aerobic capacity, surface area-to-mass ratio, and state of acclimation are more important than sex in determining physiological responses to heat stress.

  20. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  1. Report on Comparative Salaries for Men and Women at Washburn University of Topeka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, C. Robert

    This document reports on comparative salaries for men and women at Washburn University of Topeka, Kansas. A standard multiple linear regression equation was developed from data supplied. Using the factors of years at Washburn, degree, and rank, a "line of best fit" formula was developed which would predict a salary that could be anticipated based…

  2. Immigration Policies and Ethnic Relations in Australia and Australian Multicultural Education in a Comparative Perspective. Occasional Papers, New Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Laksiri

    This publication contains two papers that describe Australian immigration policies, ethnic relations, and multicultural educational practices. Australia contains people from over 100 countries who speak approximately 50 different languages. The first paper, "Immigration Policies and Ethnic Relations in Australia," presents a historical overview of…

  3. Did the decline continue? Comparing the labor-market quality of United States immigrants from the late 1970s and late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A

    1996-02-01

    "The issue addressed in this paper is whether or not the decline in immigrant labor-market quality in the U.S. observed in the late 1960s and 1970s continued in the 1980s." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and are provided for the years 1979-1980 and 1989-1990. "Given the rise in earnings inequality that has occurred in the United States over the 1980s, the returns to immigration for the more highly skilled will have increased relative to the low skilled, ceteris paribus. For this reason, it is possible that the skill decline of immigrants may have halted in the 1980s as immigrants of differing skill levels respond to the altered circumstances they would face in the United States. The empirical results show that the skill decline did indeed halt...." PMID:12291406

  4. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  5. Comparative Study of the Dynamics of Follicular Waves in Mares and Women1

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, O. J.; Gastal, E. L.; Gastal, M. O.; Bergfelt, D. R.; Baerwald, A. R.; Pierson, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Deviation in growth rates of the follicles of the ovulatory wave begins at the end of a common growth phase and is characterized by continued growth of the developing dominant follicle (F1) and regression of the largest subordinate follicle (F2). Follicle diameters during an interovulatory interval were compared between 30 mares and 30 women, using similar methods for collecting and analyzing data. Follicles were tracked and measured daily by ultrasonography. Diameter at follicle emergence (mares, 13 mm; women, 6 mm) and the required minimal attained diameter for assessment of follicles (mares, 17 mm; women, 8 mm) were chosen to simulate the reported ratio between the two species in mean diameter of F1 at the beginning of deviation (mares, 22.5 mm; women, 10.5 mm). F1 emerged before F2 (P < 0.02) in each species, and the interval between emergence of the two follicles was similar (not significantly different) between species. Growth rate for F1 and F2 during the common growth phase was similar within species, and the percentage of diameter increase was similar between species. Proportionality between species in diameter of F1 at deviation (2.2 times larger for mares than for women) and at maximum preovulatory diameter (2.1 times larger) indicated that relative growth of F1 after deviation was similar between species. A predeviation follicle was identified in 33% of mares and 40% of women and was characterized by growth to a diameter similar to F1 at deviation but with regression beginning an average of 1 day before the beginning of deviation. The incidence of a major anovulatory wave preceding the ovulatory wave was not different between species (combined, 25%). Results indicated that mares and women have comparable follicle interrelationships during the ovulatory wave, including 1) emergence of F1 before F2, 2) similar length of intervals between sequential emergence of follicles within a wave, 3) similar percentage growth of follicles during the common growth

  6. Comparative study of the dynamics of follicular waves in mares and women.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Bergfelt, D R; Baerwald, A R; Pierson, R A

    2004-10-01

    Deviation in growth rates of the follicles of the ovulatory wave begins at the end of a common growth phase and is characterized by continued growth of the developing dominant follicle (F1) and regression of the largest subordinate follicle (F2). Follicle diameters during an interovulatory interval were compared between 30 mares and 30 women, using similar methods for collecting and analyzing data. Follicles were tracked and measured daily by ultrasonography. Diameter at follicle emergence (mares, 13 mm; women, 6 mm) and the required minimal attained diameter for assessment of follicles (mares, 17 mm; women, 8 mm) were chosen to simulate the reported ratio between the two species in mean diameter of F1 at the beginning of deviation (mares, 22.5 mm; women, 10.5 mm). F1 emerged before F2 (P < 0.02) in each species, and the interval between emergence of the two follicles was similar (not significantly different) between species. Growth rate for F1 and F2 during the common growth phase was similar within species, and the percentage of diameter increase was similar between species. Proportionality between species in diameter of F1 at deviation (2.2 times larger for mares than for women) and at maximum preovulatory diameter (2.1 times larger) indicated that relative growth of F1 after deviation was similar between species. A predeviation follicle was identified in 33% of mares and 40% of women and was characterized by growth to a diameter similar to F1 at deviation but with regression beginning an average of 1 day before the beginning of deviation. The incidence of a major anovulatory wave preceding the ovulatory wave was not different between species (combined, 25%). Results indicated that mares and women have comparable follicle interrelationships during the ovulatory wave, including 1) emergence of F1 before F2, 2) similar length of intervals between sequential emergence of follicles within a wave, 3) similar percentage growth of follicles during the common growth

  7. Earnings Mobility of First and "1.5" Generation Mexican-Origin Women and Men: A Comparison with U.S.-Born Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine M.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses whether Mexican immigrants are closing the earnings gap with greater time in the United States compared with U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. It also examines the factors that determine their earnings, how these determinants differ for women versus men, and the differences between those immigrating as children versus…

  8. A Comparative Study on Knowledge about Reproductive Health among Urban and Rural Women of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Monoarul; Hossain, Sharmin; Rumana Ahmed, Kazi; Sultana, Taslima; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of knowledge on reproductive health among urban and rural women of selected area of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 women selected purposively from different rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire by face to face interview. Knowledge level was analyzed according to poor, moderate and good knowledge by pre-defined knowledge scoring. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 26 years and majority (66%) of them was housewives. Most of them (61%) had completed their primary level education. Around three-fourth of them belongs to lower-middle income group. Overall level of reproductive health knowledge was more evident among urban reproductive aged women than rural counterparts (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant knowledge gap was found regarding family planning (p = 0.005), care during pregnancy (p < 0.001), safe motherhood (p = 0.002), newborn care (p = 0.009) and birth spacing (p <0.001) between urban and rural women. Family members were the major source of information in both groups. Conclusion: A wide knowledge gap was found between Bangladeshi urban and rural respondents regarding their reproductive behaviors. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on reproductive health, especially among reproductive aged women in rural area. PMID:25904966

  9. Nursing Practice With Incarcerated Women: A Focused Comparative Review of the Nursing and Feminist Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Nurses who practice with criminalized women will recognize this group as profoundly marginalized through multiple, intersecting mechanisms. The number of women imprisoned in North America, Latin America, Australia, and Western Europe continues to rise as it has for the past 20 years or more. As a nurse who has practiced almost exclusively with marginalized people, I have met and cared for many women whose health is made vulnerable by race, poverty, homelessness, mental health issues, and other factors. Many of them have been repeatedly incarcerated, experiencing chronically destabilizing cycles of getting arrested, going to jail, getting out, being homeless, getting arrested again, and repeating the cycle. To better understand the implications for nursing with respect to criminalized women, a focused review of the nursing and feminist scholarly literature on incarcerated women was conducted. The predominant themes and trends from both bodies of literature are presented and cross-compared. An analysis of what each body of scholarly work can offer to the other, including implications for nursing practice, concludes the literature review. PMID:26204484

  10. Emergency hospital services utilization in Lleida (Spain): A cross-sectional study of immigrant and Spanish-born populations

    PubMed Central

    Rué, Montserrat; Cabré, Xavier; Soler-González, Jorge; Bosch, Anna; Almirall, Mercè; Serna, Maria Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of emergency hospital services (EHS) has increased steadily in Spain in the last decade while the number of immigrants has increased dramatically. Studies show that immigrants use EHS differently than native-born individuals, and this work investigates demographics, diagnoses and utilization rates of EHS in Lleida (Spain). Methods Cross-sectional study of all the 96,916 EHS visits by patients 15 to 64 years old, attended during the years 2004 and 2005 in a public teaching hospital. Demographic data, diagnoses of the EHS visits, frequency of hospital admissions, mortality and diagnoses at hospital discharge were obtained. Utilization rates were estimated by group of origin. Poisson regression was used to estimate the rate ratios of being visited in the EHS with respect to the Spanish-born population. Results Immigrants from low-income countries use EHS services more than the Spanish-born population. Differences in utilization patterns are particularly marked for Maghrebi men and women and sub-Saharan women. Immigrant males are at lower risk of being admitted to the hospital, as compared with Spanish-born males. On the other hand, immigrant women are at higher risk of being admitted. After excluding the visits with gynecologic and obstetric diagnoses, women from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb are still at a higher risk of being admitted than their Spanish-born counterparts. Conclusion In Lleida (Spain), immigrants use more EHS than the Spanish born population. Future research should indicate whether the same pattern is found in other areas of Spain and whether EHS use is attributable to health needs, barriers to access to the primary care services or similarities in the way immigrants access health care in their countries of origin. PMID:18402704

  11. Immigration, social integration and mental health in Norway, with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that social integration may have a positive as well as a negative effect on the mental health of immigrants, depending on the social circumstances. Aims of the study To investigate the relationship between social integration and psychological distress in immigrants in Oslo, Norway, with focus on gender differences. Methods The study was based on data from a community survey in Oslo (N = 15899), and included 1448 immigrants from non-Western and 1059 immigrants from Western countries. Psychological distress was measured by a 10 items version of Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10), and social integration was measured by an index based on four items: Knowledge of the Norwegian language, reading Norwegian newspapers, visits by Norwegians and receiving help from Norwegians. Information on paid employment, household income, marital status, social support and conflicts in intimate relationships was also included in the study. Results The non-western immigrants showed a higher level of psychological distress than the immigrants from western countries. In men this could be explained by the combination of less social integration, less employment, lower income, less social support and more conflicts in intimate relationships among non-western compared to western immigrants. In women the difference in level of psychological stress could not be explained by these variables, even if it was reduced. A reason for this seemed to be that social integration in non-western immigrants had a different effect on mental health in men and women. In men, social integration showed a positive effect through employment and income, as well as a positive effect in other areas. Also in non-western women social integration showed a positive effect through greater access to employment and income, but this effect was levelled out by integration causing problems in other areas. Conclusion Unexpectedly, social integration in non-western immigrants was associated with good

  12. CHANGES IN PRE- TO POST- IMMIGRATION HIV RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG RECENT LATINO IMMIGRANTS

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined pre- to post-immigration HIV risk behavior trajectories among recent Latino immigrants in Miami-Dade County (Florida). We identified socio-demographic factors associated with these trajectories and collected retrospective pre-immigration HTV risk behavior data at baseline from a sample of 527 Caribbean, South American, and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on participants' post-immigration HIV risk behaviors. Results indicated overall decreases in pre- to post-immigration condom use. In the sample, recent Latino immigrants with lower education, younger age, and higher incomes had steeper decreases in pre- to post-immigration condom use. We also found differences in the risk behavior trajectories of males and females. Latino women reported significant increases in the number of sexual partners post immigration, while men reported decreases in the number of sexual partners after immigrating to the U.S. PMID:25646729

  13. Domestic violence in the Chinese and South Asian immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Venkataramani-Kothari, Anitha; Plante, Maura

    2006-11-01

    Although the Chinese and South Asian immigrant populations are largely silent on this issue, domestic violence is a fact of life in many families. In this article, we discuss cultural factors that may cause and prolong abuse in Asian immigrant homes, and review similarities and differences between the two Asian cultures in this regard. This article also addresses the psychological trauma experienced by abused Asian immigrant women and the coping strategies that they are likely to employ. Culturally sensitive intervention strategies are presented that may be appropriately used in working with Chinese and South Asian immigrant women for whom abuse is a terrifying and demeaning fact of life. PMID:17189511

  14. Lower hamstring extensibility in men compared to women is explained by differences in stretch tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether passive hamstring tissue stiffness and/or stretch tolerance explain the relationship between sex and hamstring extensibility. Methods Ninety healthy participants, 45 men and 45 women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 5.9 years, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m, weight 74.6 ± 14.1 kg) volunteered for this study. The instrumented straight leg raise was used to determine hamstring extensibility and allow measurement of stiffness and stretch tolerance (visual analog pain score, VAS). Results Hamstring extensibility was 9.9° greater in women compared to men (p = 0.003). VAS scores were 16 mm lower in women (p = 0.001). Maximal stiffness (maximal applied torque) was not different between men and women (p = 0.42). Passive stiffness (slope from 20-50° hip flexion) was 0.09 Nm.°-1 lower in women (p = 0.025). For women, linear and stepwise regression showed that no predictor variables were associated with hamstring extensibility (adjusted r2 = -0.03, p = 0.61). For men, 44% of the variance in hamstring extensibility was explained by VAS and maximal applied torque (adjusted r2 = 0.44, p < 0.001), with 41% of the model accounted for by the relationship between higher VAS scores and lower extensibility (standardized β coefficient = -0.64, p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that stretch tolerance and not passive stiffness explains hamstring extensibility, but this relationship is only manifest in men. PMID:25000977

  15. Pre- to Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Trajectories among Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario; Blackson, Timothy C.; Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Li, Tan; Dillon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well-documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants prior to immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to post-immigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective pre-immigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on their post-immigration alcohol use in the past 90 days. We hypothesized (a) overall declines in pre- to post-immigration alcohol among recent Latino immigrants and (b) gender/documentation specific effects, with higher rates of alcohol use among males and undocumented participants compared to their female and documented counterparts. Growth curve analyses revealed males had higher levels of pre-immigration alcohol use with steeper declines in post-immigration alcohol use compared to females. Declines in alcohol use frequency were observed for documented, but not undocumented males. No changes in pre- to post-immigration alcohol use were found for documented or undocumented females. This study contributes to the limited knowledge of pre- to post-immigration alcohol use patterns among Latinos in the United States. Future research is needed to identify social determinants associated with the alcohol use trajectories of recent Latino immigrants, as it may inform prediction, prevention, and treatment of problem-drinking behaviors among the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. PMID:25243834

  16. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. PMID:25604971

  17. Breast cancer incidence and case fatality among 4.7 million women in relation to social and ethnic background: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Incidence of breast cancer is increasing around the world and it is still the leading cause of cancer mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We utilized Swedish nationwide registers to study breast cancer incidence and case fatality to disentangle the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) and immigration from the trends in native Swedes. Methods A nation-wide cohort of women in Sweden was followed between 1961 and 2007 and incidence rate ratio (IRR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson and Cox proportional regression models, respectively. Results Incidence continued to increase; however, it remained lower among immigrants (IRR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.90) but not among immigrants' daughters (IRR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.01) compared to native Swedes. Case fatality decreased over the last decades and was similar in native Swedes and immigrants. However, case fatality was significantly 14% higher if cancer was diagnosed after age 50 and 20% higher if cancer was diagnosed in the most recent years among immigrants compared with native Swedes. Women with the highest SEP had significantly 20% to 30% higher incidence but had 30% to 40% lower case fatality compared with women with the lowest SEP irrespective of country of birth. Age at immigration and duration of residence significantly modified the incidence and case fatality. Conclusions Disparities found in case fatality among immigrants by age, duration of residence, age at immigration and country of birth emphasize the importance of targeting interventions on women that are not likely to attend screenings or are not likely to adhere to the therapy suggested by physicians. The lower risk of breast cancer among immigrant women calls for more knowledge about how the lifestyle factors in these women differ from those with high risk, so that preventative measures may be implemented. PMID:22225950

  18. Cell Proliferation (KI-67) Expression Is Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Nigerian Compared to British Breast Cancer Women.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Ayodeji O J; Banjo, Adekumbiola A F; Anunobi, Charles C; Salami, Babatunde; Agboola, Mopelola Deji; Musa, Adewale A; Nolan, Christopher C; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Background. Black women with breast cancer (BC) in Nigeria have higher mortality rate compared with British women. This study investigated prognostic features of cell proliferation biomarker (Ki-67) in Nigerian breast cancer women. Materials and Methods. The protein expression of Ki-67 was investigated in series of 308 Nigerian women, prepared as a tissue microarray (TMA), using immunohistochemistry. Clinic-pathological parameters, biomarkers, and patient outcome of tumours expressing Ki-67 in Nigerian women were correlated with UK grade-matched series. Results. A significantly larger proportion of breast tumours from Nigerian women showed high Ki-67 expression. Those tumours were significantly correlated with negative expression of the steroid hormone receptors (ER and PgR), p21, p27, E-cadherin, BRCA-1, and Bcl-2 (all P < 0.001), but positively associated with EGFR (P = 0.003), p53, basal cytokeratins: CK56, CK14, triple negative, and basal phenotype using Nielsen's classification (all P < 0.001) compared to UK women. Multivariate analyses showed that race was also associated with BCSS independent of tumour size, lymph node status, and ER status. Conclusion. Ki-67 expression was observed to have contributed to the difference in the BCSS in Nigerian compared with British BC women. Therefore, targeting Ki-67 in the indigenous black women with BC might improve the patient outcome in the black women with BC. PMID:23691362

  19. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best

  20. "And They Let You Know You're Not Alone and That's What They're Here For": Persistence Narratives of Women Immigrants in Public Library Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra

    This study examines persistence narratives of female immigrants in three public library literacy programs. The narrative analysis method was used. Transcripts of student interviews and biographical portraits were read, and incidents, images, events, and statements concerning persistence supports and barriers, literacy, and language learning were…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Associated Factors in a Sample of Colombian Immigrant Population in Spain.

    PubMed

    Colorado-Yohar, Sandra Milena; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Huerta, José M; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2016-08-01

    Immigrants are vulnerable to Intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aims at characterising IPV among Colombian immigrants, and to identify its associated factors. Cross-sectional study on 336 Colombian immigrants (46 % women), aged 15-70 years, living in Spain. Self-reported questionnaire information on IPV suffered throughout the last year was collected face-to-face. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with IPV. Almost 30 % of participants reported IPV, without differences by gender (p = 0.339). Partner's alcohol consumption was associated with a higher frequency of being victim of IPV in both sexes. In women, low educational level, and discrimination were further associated to IPV. Younger age, and poorer self-perceived health in Spain as compared to Colombia were factors associated in men. Results showed similarly high levels of IPV among immigrant men and women. Alcohol consumption, education, discrimination, age, and poor self-perceived health were factors associated to IPV. PMID:26670923

  2. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  3. Adolescent Participation in Preventive Health Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Nutrition: Differences Across Immigrant Generations for Asians and Latinos Compared With Whites

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michele L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Morales, Leo S.; Diamant, Allison L.; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Schuster, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated preventive health behaviors (bicycle helmet, seat belt, and sunscreen use), physical activity, television viewing or video game playing, and nutrition (fruit, vegetable, milk, and soda consumption) among Asian and Latino adolescents living in the United States; assessed trends across generations (first-, second-, and third-generation immigrants or later); and compared each generation with White adolescents. Methods. We used data from 5801 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the representative 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results. In multivariate analysis, first-generation Asians measured worse than Whites for preventive health behaviors (lower participation), physical activity (less activity), and television viewing or video game playing (more hours), but improved across generations. For these same behaviors, Latinos were similar to or worse than Whites, and generally showed no improvement across generations. First-generation Asians and Latinos had healthier diets than Whites (higher fruit and vegetable consumption, lower soda consumption). With succeeding generations, Asians’ fruit, vegetable, and soda consumption remained stable, but Latinos’ fruit and vegetable consumption decreased and their soda consumption increased, so that by the third generation Latinos’ nutrition was poorer than Whites’. Conclusions. For the health behaviors we examined, Asian adolescents’ health behaviors either improved with each generation or remained better than that of Whites. Latino adolescents demonstrated generally worse preventive health behaviors than did Whites and, in the case of nutrition, a worsening across generations. Targeted interventions may be needed to address behavioral disparities. PMID:17138919

  4. Immigration and Status Exchange in Australia and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta; Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Sinning, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admission regimes place different emphases on skills. Using log-linear methods, we demonstrate that foreign-born spouses trade educational credentials via marriage with natives in both Australian and U.S. marriage markets and, moreover, that nativity is a more salient marriage barrier for men than for women. With some exceptions, immigrant spouses in mixed nativity couples are better educated than native spouses in same nativity couples, but status exchange is more prevalent among the less-educated spouses in both countries. Support for the status exchange hypothesis is somewhat weaker in Australia partly because of lower average levels of education compared with the United States and partly because of less sharply defined educational hierarchy at the postsecondary level. PMID:23226914

  5. Mexican immigrant mothers' expectations for children's health services.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Redman, Richard W

    2007-10-01

    Women of Mexican descent living in the United States raise children who use health care services. What do immigrant Mexican mothers expect from children's health care services? And how do their expectations for children's health services compare to acculturated Mexican American mothers' expectations? This focused ethnographic study, based on repeated interviews with 28 mothers of varying acculturation levels, describes their expectations and experiences with children's health care services in the United States. Findings support a shared core of expectations for both Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers, and differences in health care access and financing, time spent in health care encounters, and cultural and linguistic expectations for care. Health care providers can use this information to approach Mexican-descent mothers and children with their expectations in mind, and craft a negotiated plan of care congruent with their expectations. PMID:17557932

  6. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  7. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  8. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PMID:23148903

  9. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    women. This is the first longitudinal study to investigate neural and humoral responses during pregnancy in Asians and Caucasians. The key finding was that Asians had attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responsiveness during pregnancy compared to Caucasians. These results may provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms for racial differences in the prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  10. Exploring Female Genital Cutting Among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.

    2013-01-01

    Although many African women immigrate to the United States from countries with high prevalence rates for Female Genital Cutting (FGC), there has been limited research exploring the incidence and impact of FGC among this growing immigrant population. This pilot study sought to examine the experiences of FGC among West African immigrant women in the US. Of the 23 participants, 7 reported a history of FGC, with Muslim participants reporting significantly higher rates of FGC than Christians (Fisher’s Exact=.045). Most of the women who had experienced FGC were from Sierra Leone (Fisher’s Exact=.027). Limitations of the study are discussed along with suggestions for future research aimed at understanding the impact of FGC, reducing the prevalence and demand for FGC among African immigrant women and improving the health and quality of life of women who have undergone the procedure. PMID:23264203

  11. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  12. PORTRAYALS OF COLOMBIAN AND VENEZUELAN IMMIGRANT ORGANISATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-R, Magaly; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2013-10-01

    This article compares the public images of Colombian and Venezuelan immigrant organisations in the United States. Immigrant organisations' webpages and the expression of their main aims and goals serve to identify their major concerns as they create public images not only for the organisation but for the immigrant community itself. To interpret the immigrant organisations' public images and their goals, we offer a multilevel study that considers immigrants' contexts of exit, which are related to the motivation of migrate and the particular sociodemographic makeup of immigrant groups. This paper adds the Venezuelan immigrant experience to the literature on immigrant organisations. PMID:25324586

  13. Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Safar; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls. PMID:23875163

  14. Feminized Intergenerational Mobility Without Assimilation? Post-1965 U.S. Immigrants and the Gender Revolution.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Nawyn, Stephanie J; Benetsky, Megan J

    2015-10-01

    Women in the United States have made significant socioeconomic advances over the last generation. The second generation of post-1965 immigrants came of age during this "gender revolution." However, assimilation theories focus mainly on racial/ethnic trajectories. Do gendered trajectories between and within groups better capture mobility patterns? Using the 1980 decennial census and the 2003-2007 Current Population Survey (CPS), we observe the socioeconomic status of Latino and Asian immigrant parents and their second-generation children 25 years later. We compare the educational, occupational, and earnings attainment of second-generation daughters and sons with that of their immigrant mothers and fathers. We simultaneously compare those socioeconomic trajectories with a U.S.-born white, non-Latino reference group. We find that second-generation women experience greater status attainment than both their mothers and their male counterparts, but the earnings of second-generation women lag behind those of men. However, because white mainstream women experienced similar intergenerational mobility, many gaps between the second generation and the mainstream remain. These patterns remain even after we control for parenthood status. With feminized intergenerational mobility occurring similarly across race, the racial/ethnic gaps observed in 1980 narrow but persist into the next generation for many outcomes. Both gender and race shape mobility trajectories, so ignoring either leads to an incomplete picture of assimilation. PMID:26358700

  15. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  16. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  17. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community. PMID:26678912

  18. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared to inactive obese women

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Todd Cade, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive ((OBI) age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3kg/m2, body fat percentage in late gestation: 37.7 ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active ((OBA) age: 28.9 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 34.0±3.7kg/m2, body fat in late gestation: 36.6 ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Results Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared to OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 6.3 ±2.5mg/L, p=0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r=0.43, p=0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r=0.39, p=0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r=0.36, p=0.04). Conclusions Maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  19. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    PubMed

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  20. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Poblador-Pou, Beatriz; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Kumar, Bernadette N.; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations. Methodology This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i) to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii) to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique. Results Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37–0.39) for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57–0.59) for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66–0.68) for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages. Conclusions Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of

  1. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude. PMID:22865022

  2. Alcohol Use among Recent Latino Immigrants Before and After Immigration to the United States

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Mario; Dillon, Frank R.; Sastre, Francisco; Babino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background US-born Latinos have higher rates of alcohol use than Latinos who have immigrated to the United States. However, little is known about the pre-immigration drinking patterns of Latino immigrants or about the changes in their drinking behaviors in the 2 years post-immigration. Objectives This article reports findings of a longitudinal study that compared rates of regular, binge, and heavy drinking among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants, ages 18–34, prior to immigration to the United States and in the 2 years post-immigration. Methods Baseline data were collected on the drinking patterns of 405 Latino immigrants living in the United States for 12 months or less. A follow-up assessment occurred during their second year in the United States. Results Findings indicate that number of days of drinking declined significantly post-immigration. Binge alcohol use (five or more drinks on the same occasion during the past 90 days) significantly declined during the post-immigration period. Heavy alcohol use (five or more drinks on the same occasion on five or more days during the past 90 days) also significantly decreased. Conclusions Results suggest a need for continued exploration of pre-immigration drinking patterns and research to uncover underlying factors associated with declines in rates of problematic alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants. Scientific Significance The results of this study can aid in furthering our understanding of the alcohol use of Latino immigrants ages 18–34 prior to and post immigration to the United States to guide future research and the development of culturally tailored clinical interventions. (Am J Addict 2013;22:162–168) PMID:23414503

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of a Faith-Based HIV Intervention for African American Women: Importance of Enhancing Religious Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, LaShun R.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Er, Deja L.; Conner, Anita C.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Rubtsova, Anna A.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of P4 for Women, a faith-based HIV intervention. Methods. We used a 2-arm comparative effectiveness trial involving 134 African American women aged 18 to 34 years to compare the effectiveness of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined evidence-based Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA) HIV intervention with P4 for Women, an adapted faith-based version of SISTA. Participants were recruited from a large black church in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments at baseline and follow-up. Results. Both SISTA and P4 for Women had statistically significant effects on this study’s primary outcome—consistent condom use in the past 90 days—as well as other sexual behaviors. However, P4 for Women also had statistically significant effects on the number of weeks women were abstinent, on all psychosocial mediators, and most noteworthy, on all measures of religious social capital. Results were achieved by enhancing structural social capital through ministry participation, religious values and norms, linking trust and by reducing negative religious coping. High intervention attendance may indicate the feasibility of conducting faith-based HIV prevention research for African American women. Conclusions. P4 for Women enhanced abstinence and safer sex practices as well as religious social capital, and was more acceptable than SISTA. Such efforts may assist faith leaders in responding to the HIV epidemic in African American women. PMID:24134367

  4. Race, Class, and Gender: Reformulating the Push and Pull Factors Explanation of Hispanic Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Stephanie Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Examines the "push and pull factors" model in Hispanic immigration, and argues that women's immigration experiences, being widely different from those of men, are not readily reducible to a simple poverty/jobs equation. Further, the push/pull thesis of jobs and poverty only reinforces negative stereotypes of hordes of immigrants fleeing poverty…

  5. Art Therapy and Experiences of Acculturation and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linesch, Debra; Ojeda, Angelica; Fuster, Maria Elena; Moreno, Stephanie; Solis, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an expanded case study methodology that was used to explore the value that art therapy processes have in expression and understanding of the complications of immigration and acculturation. Data collected from two art therapy groups of Hispanic/Latino youth and immigrant women at an urban parish were analyzed to develop an…

  6. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…

  7. Work, Immigration, Gender: New Subjects of Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the construction of Asian immigrant women's work in the context of the "racialized feminization of labor" in the global restructuring of capitalism. Illustrates the intersection of work, immigration, and gender through a discussion of Asian female garment workers in the United States. (SLD)

  8. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  9. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    PubMed

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized. PMID:25808718

  10. Voices of Korean American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Hastick, Eda F.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses issues of race, gender, and the immigrant experience, focusing on Korean-American women. Highlights myths and stereotypes surrounding Asian Americans and issues of immigrant adaptation and survival. Presents excerpts from a conversation among three Korean-American women, discussing issues related to race relations and the traditional…

  11. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  12. Asymmetrical Role-Taking: Comparing Battered and Non-battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, James A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests Frank's model of oppressive situations and asymmetric role-taking in a survey of 66 battered women and 80 nonbattered women. Battered women's social situations were characterized by powerlessness, social isolation, and economic dependency. Develops the value of this theoretical approach with its emphasis on enhancing women's power base and…

  13. [Immigration and tuberculosis. Five year experience].

    PubMed

    Rifes, Graça; Villar, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Immigrants are a tuberculosis risk group. In Portugal, in 2000, they had an incidence rate 3.6 times higher than the global incidence, and were native, predominantly, from Angola and Cabo Verde. Being the Chest Disease Center of Venda Nova located in a residential area with a great number of immigrants, most of them living in slums, we decided to evaluate the tuberculosis cases in this group, between 1996/2000, comparing the data obtained with some data of the tuberculosis cases in the non-immigrants. Immigrants with tuberculosis corresponded to 24.5% of all cases, 71.4% male, 93.9% black and mostly native from Cabo Verde and Angola. 73% lived in Portugal for more than 5 years, 86.7% were new cases and 13.3% relapses. 174 were pulmonary forms, 70.7% of which were D+ and 81% confirmed (against 75% in the non-immigrants). Of the 91 drug susceptibility tests done in the pulmonary forms, 9.9% revealed multidrug resistance, against 5% in the non-immigrants. Twenty six point six percent had AIDS against 18% in the non-immigrants. Some conclusions: important percentage of immigrants with tuberculosis in the Chest Disease Center of Venda Nova; immigrants have a higher confirmation rate of pulmonary tuberculosis, more multidrug resistance and AIDS cases. PMID:14685630

  14. Colorectal cancer screening among Chinese American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen; Chapman, Christopher; Vallina, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors determining fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake in Chinese American immigrants. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design with convenience sampling. An educational session on colorectal cancer screening (CRS) was provided to the participants during a health fair, and each participant was offered a no-cost FOBT kit. Data was collected over two consecutive years during three different health fairs. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. A total of 113 participants were recruited and 72% of them returned the FOBT kit. There was a significant association between having a primary-care physician (PCP) and having CRS in the past, even after controlling for age, gender and the length of time in the US (P = .009). Participants who visited a doctor for health maintenance were less likely to participate in the FOBT, compared to participants who never visited a doctor or who only visited a doctor when they were sick (P = .001). The length of time in the US had a significant effect on having a PCP (P = .002). However, having a PCP or having CRS in the past was not associated with participating in the screening and so was feeling at risk for CRC. In fact, 49% of Chinese women and 45% of Chinese men felt no risk of CRC. Future research and interventions that address knowledge deficits and focus on recent immigrants and their access to health care may have the potential to increase CRS among Chinese American immigrants. PMID:22187109

  15. Divorce and immigration: the social integration of immigrant divorcees in Israel.

    PubMed

    Damian, N

    1985-12-01

    This paper attempts to supply information on what motivated some 7000 Jewish divorcees to leave their countries of origin in the last decade and settle in Israel. The study also examines the differences in social integration of immigrant divorcees who came to Israel from different political systems--authoritarian or democratic regimes. Finally, the study examines the extent to which immigrant divorcees, who generally arrive in Israel with children, are to be considered as a "high risk" social group requiring special attention and particular aid. Of the 287,487 immigrants aged 15 years and over who arrived in Israel between 1970-1980, 53.7% were women (sex ratio: 860 males per 1000 females), and 3.6% were divorced. The findings indicate that there are significant differences between divorcees from Anglophone and Eastern European countries in their motivation for immigrating to Israel. The former decide to immigrate primarily for individual reasons--generally after divorce--expecting that immigration will increase chances of remarriage. In contrast, those who came from Eastern Europe are motivated by political, economic, and ideological reasons; the issue of immigration often sparks the divorce crisis. Divorcees from Anglophone countries are less socially isolated, more likely to meet veteran Israelis, and more satisfied with their life in Israel. Eastern European divorcees usually restrict their social contact to encounters with other immigrants from their country of origin, are less satisfied with their life in Israel, and feel themselves more isolated and frustrated. Despite the difficulties encountered by this group, it was found that there are no marked differences between divorcees and married immigrant women in social integration. In Israel, immigrant divorcees cannot be considered as a "high risk" social group. PMID:12314714

  16. Evidence of Subclinical mtDNA Alterations in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Compared to HIV-Negative Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Money, Deborah M.; Wagner, Emily C.; Maan, Evelyn J.; Chaworth-Musters, Tessa; Gadawski, Izabelle; van Schalkwyk, Julie E.; Forbes, John C.; Burdge, David R.; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Lohn, Zoe; Côté, Hélène C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively prevent vertical transmission of HIV but there is potential risk of adverse maternal, foetal or infant effects. Specifically, the effect of cART use during pregnancy on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV-positive (HIV+) women is unclear. We sought to characterize subclinical alterations in peripheral blood mtDNA levels in cART-treated HIV+ women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Methods This prospective longitudinal observational cohort study enrolled both HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) pregnant women. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at three time points in pregnancy (13-<23 weeks, 23-<30 weeks, 30–40 weeks), and at delivery and six weeks post-partum in HIV+ women. Peripheral blood mtDNA to nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio was measured by qPCR. Results Over a four year period, 63 HIV+ and 42 HIV- women were enrolled. HIV+ women showed significantly lower mtDNA/nDNA ratios compared to HIV- women during pregnancy (p = 0.003), after controlling for platelet count and repeated measurements using a multivariable mixed-effects model. Ethnicity, gestational age (GA) and substance use were also significantly associated with mtDNA/nDNA ratio (p≤0.02). Among HIV+ women, higher CD4 nadir was associated with higher mtDNA/nDNA ratios (p<0.0001), and these ratio were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the postpartum period (p<0.0001). Conclusions In the context of this study, it was not possible to distinguish between mtDNA effects related to HIV infection versus cART therapy. Nevertheless, while mtDNA levels were relatively stable over time in both groups during pregnancy, they were significantly lower in HIV+ women compared to HIV- women. Although no immediate clinical impact was observed on maternal or infant health, lower maternal mtDNA levels may exert long-term effects on women and children and remain a concern. Improved knowledge of such subclinical alterations is

  17. Context and Culture in the Socialization and Development of Personal Achievement Values: Comparing Latino Immigrant Families, European American Families, and Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.; Quiroz, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    We documented cross-cultural similarities and differences in values concerning personal achievement between Latino immigrant parents, a group of multiethnic teachers, and European American parents. We also explored intergenerational similarities and differences between parents and their fifth-grade children. The theoretical premise was that…

  18. Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Alberer, Martin; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Schunk, Mirjam; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Beissner, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of imported infectious diseases (IDs) among patients consulting the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2014 after being in the sub-/tropics. The analysis investigated complete data sets of 16,817 diseased German travelers (2,318 business travelers, 4,029 all-inclusive travelers, and 10,470 backpackers) returning from Latin America (3,225), Africa (4,865), or Asia (8,727), and 977 diseased immigrants, originating from the same regions (112, 654 and 211 respectively). The most frequent symptoms assessed were diarrhea (38%), fever (29%), and skin disorder (22%). The most frequent IDs detected were intestinal infections with species of Blastocystis(900),Giardia(730),Campylobacter(556),Shigella(209), and Salmonella(183). Also frequently observed were cutaneous larva migrans (379), dengue (257), and malaria (160). The number of IDs with significantly elevated proportions was higher among backpackers (18) and immigrants (17), especially among those from Africa (18) and Asia (17), whereas it was lower for business travelers (5), all-inclusive travelers (1), and those from Latin America (5). This study demonstrates a large spectrum of imported IDs among returning German travelers and immigrants, which varies greatly based not only on travel destination and origin of immigrants, but also on type of travel. PMID:26903611

  19. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

  20. Comparative evaluation of sonographic ovarian morphology of Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus those of normal women

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sanjeed; Pahwa, Shivani; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Mir, Farooq A; Nisar, Sobia; Jehangir, Majid; Parveen, Shameem; Rashid, Aafia; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study ovarian morphology by ultrasound in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to establish cut-off values of these parameters in Indian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 consecutive women diagnosed PCOS and 77 apparently healthy women were enrolled. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was carried out to assess ovarian volume, stromal echogenecity, follicle number and size. Cut-off values of the above ovarian parameters with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of 79.49% and specificity of 90.67% was achieved with a cut-off of 8 mL as ovarian volume. A cut-off value of 9 follicles to distinguish between PCOS and control women yielded a sensitivity of 82.35% and specificity of 92.0% while as a follicular size of 5 mm yielded sensitivity and specificity of 74.67% and 78.15% respectively. With all the three parameters sensitivity was 87.39% and specificity 87.84% with 92.04% PPV and 81.25% NPV. Conclusion: Using two or three sonographic criteria in combination improves sensitivity and helps diagnose additional patients with PCOS. Our results are at variance with the established cut-off values highlighting the fact that American Society for Reproductive Medicine consensus cut-off values are not reproducible in Indian context. PMID:24741513

  1. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. METHOD African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). CONCLUSIONS Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. PMID:21071167

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Upfront Treatment Strategies in Elderly Women with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Ananth, Cande V.; Tsui, Jennifer; Glied, Sherry A.; Burke, William M.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy to primary surgery for advanced-stage ovarian cancer are limited by strong selection bias. We used multiple methods to control for confounding and selection bias to estimate the effect of primary tretment on survival for ovarian cancer. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to identify women ≥65 years of age with stage II-IV epithelial ovarian cancer who survived >6 months from the date of diagnosis and received treatment from 1991-2007. Traditional regression analysis, propensity score-based analysis, and an instrumental variable analysis (IVA) using geographic location as an instrument were used to compare survival between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and primary surgery. Results A total of 9587 patients with stage II-IV ovarian cancer were identified. Use of primary surgery decreased from 63.2% in 1991 to 49.5% by 2007, while primary chemotherapy increased from 19.7% in 1991 to 31.8% in 2007 (P<0.0001). In the observational cohort survival (HR=1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.35) was inferior for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy; both median survival (15.8 vs. 28.8 months) and two-year survival (36% vs. 56%) were lower in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group compared to those who underwent surgery. In the IVA, primary treatment had minimal effect on overall survival (HR=1.04; 95% CI, 0.67-1.60). The median survival for patients with a value of the instrument less than the median (24.0 months, 95% CI, 23.0-25.0) and ≥median value of the IV (24.0 months, 95% CI 23.0-26.0) were similar. Conclusion Use of neoadjuvant therapy has increased over time. Survival with neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not differ significantly from primary surgery in elderly women in the U.S. PMID:24443159

  3. Long-term consequences of female genital mutilation in a European context: self perceived health of FGM women compared to non-FGM women.

    PubMed

    Andro, Armelle; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Lesclingand, Marie

    2014-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) concerns an estimated half a million women in Europe. The studies based in countries where migrant women have settled highlight the need for more accurate information on FGM health consequences, in a European health care context. Excision and Handicap (ExH) is a multi-centric survey based on case-control methodology and conducted in France to assess the long-term consequences of FGM, sampling both FGM and non-FGM adult women. The interviews were conducted in 74 mother-and-child health centres and hospital departments providing gynaecological and family planning services in five French regions. The two groups were compared on health indicators (self-perceived health, illnesses, symptoms) and functioning indicators (daily, sexual and reproductive life) for cases (n = 678) and controls (n = 1706). Multivariate logistic models highlighted FGM-related health problems. Among women living in France, FGM was significantly associated with poor health indicators: gynaecological and urinary infections (OR = 2.0), sleep disorders (OR = 1.4), intense pain (OR = 1.5), difficulties in daily life (OR = 1.5) and in sexual life (OR = 1.7) or tearing during childbirth (OR = 1.6). Our results suggest that, even in a favourable healthcare context, FGM exposes women to long-term health problems, including in areas neglected in previous research. They confirm the need to establish recommendations to help physicians understand these women's needs. PMID:24565761

  4. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  5. Brief Communication: Adrenal Androgens and Aging: Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Compared With Women

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James K.; Coxworth, James E.; Herndon, James G.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cycling continues to similar ages in women and chimpanzees yet our nearest living cousins become decrepit during their fertile years and rarely outlive them. Given the importance of estrogen in maintaining physiological systems aside from fertility, similar ovarian aging in humans and chimpanzees combined with somatic aging differences indicates an important role for nonovarian estrogen. Consistent with this framework, researchers have nominated the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS), which can be peripherally converted to estrogen, as a biomarker of aging in humans and other primates. Faster decline in production of this steroid with age in chimpanzees could help explain somatic aging differences. Here, we report circulating levels of DHEAS in captive female chimpanzees and compare them with published levels in women. Instead of faster, the decline is slower in chimpanzees, but from a much lower peak. Levels reported for other great apes are lower still. These results point away from slowed decline but toward increased DHEAS production as one of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of human longevity. PMID:23818143

  6. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent wage disparity between documented and undocumented Mexican immigrant men, and a 9 percent documented-undocumented wage disparity for Mexican immigrant women. We also find that in comparison to authorized Mexicans, undocumented Mexican immigrants have lower returns to human capital and slower wage growth. PMID:25414526

  7. Comparability of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Between Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Boerner, Laura M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers studying eating disorders in men often use eating-disorder risk and symptom measures that have been validated only on women. Using a sample of 215 college women and 214 college men, this article reports on the validity the Eating Disorder Inventory2 (EDI-2), one of the best-validated among women and the most widely used risk and…

  8. Greater Sustained Anxiety but Not Phasic Fear in Women Compared to Men

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Startle reflex studies in rodents indicate that female are more reactive than rats in experimental models of sustained anxiety but not in models of phasic fear (Toufexis, 2007). This study examined evidence for a similar effect in humans. Participants were exposed to three conditions, (1) predictable aversive shocks signaled by a cue, (2) unpredictable shocks, and (3) no shocks. Acoustic startle stimuli were delivered regularly across conditions. Phasic startle potential to the threat cue in the predictable condition was not affected by sex. In contrast, and consistent with basic research, the sustained increase in startle in the predictable and unpredictable conditions was greater in women compared to men. Animal studies suggest that such an effect may be mediated by the effects of sexual dimorphism in limbic structures, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. However, psychosocial factors may also contribute to this effect. PMID:18540756

  9. A prospective, randomized study on hepatotoxicity of anastrozole compared with tamoxifen in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Jianlun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Li; Hu, Rui; Liu, Jian; Deng, Yongchuan; Chen, Dedian; Zhao, Yangbing; Sun, Shengrong; Ma, Rong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Jinping; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xijing; Li, Yafen; He, Pingqing; Li, Enxiao; Xu, Zheli; Wu, Yaqun; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xiaojia; Huang, Tao; Liang, Zhongxiao; Wang, Shui; Su, Fengxi; Lu, Yunfei; Zhang, Helong; Feng, Guosheng; Wang, Shenming

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen and anastrozole are widely used as adjuvant treatment for early stage breast cancer, but their hepatotoxicity is not fully defined. We aimed to compare hepatotoxicity of anastrozole with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Three hundred and fifty-three Chinese postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer were randomized to anastrozole or tamoxifen after optimal primary therapy. The primary end-point was fatty liver disease, defined as a liver–spleen ratio <0.9 as determined using a computed tomography scan. The secondary end-points included abnormal liver function and treatment failure during the 3-year follow up. The cumulative incidence of fatty liver disease after 3 years was lower in the anastrozole arm than that of tamoxifen (14.6% vs 41.1%, P < 0.0001; relative risk, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21–0.45). However, there was no difference in the cumulative incidence of abnormal liver function (24.6% vs 24.7%, P = 0.61). Interestingly, a higher treatment failure rate was observed in the tamoxifen arm compared with anastrozole and median times to treatment failure were 15.1 months and 37.1 months, respectively (P < 0.0001; HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20–0.37). The most commonly reported adverse events were ‘reproductive system disorders’ in the tamoxifen group (17.1%), and ‘musculoskeletal disorders’ in the anastrozole group (14.6%). Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole displayed less fatty liver disease, suggesting that this drug had a more favorable hepatic safety profile than tamoxifen and may be preferred for patients with potential hepatic dysfunction. PMID:24975596

  10. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  11. Ethnic Enclaves and the Earnings of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Gough, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A large literature in sociology concerns the implications of immigrants’ participation in ethnic enclaves for their economic and social well-being. The “enclave thesis” speculates that immigrants benefit from working in ethnic enclaves. Previous research concerning the effects of enclave participation on immigrants’ economic outcomes has come to mixed conclusions as to whether enclave effects are positive or negative. In this article, we seek to extend and improve upon past work by formulating testable hypotheses based on the enclave thesis and testing them with data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS), employing both residence-based and workplace-based measures of the ethnic enclave. We compare the economic outcomes of immigrants working in ethnic enclaves with those of immigrants working in the mainstream economy. Our research yields minimal support for the enclave thesis. Our results further indicate that for some immigrant groups, ethnic enclave participation actually has a negative effect on economic outcomes. PMID:21863367

  12. Immigrant Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old immigrants by nativity status, gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, country of origin, year of arrival, marital status, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1994-2006. These numbers are based on Current Population Survey data. An appendix presents: 2006 At a…

  13. Within the Bounds: The Role of Relocation on Intimate Partner Violence Help-Seeking for Immigrant and Native Women With Histories of Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Crisafi, Denise N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-07-01

    Our study examines the effects of abused women's relocation and recentness to an area on informal and formal help-seeking, and how access to personal and social resources affect these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using a sample of 572 women with histories of abuse and homelessness who were interviewed at shelters in the state of Florida. Findings from nested linear regressions demonstrate that relocation affects formal help-seeking while recentness to an area affects informal help-seeking. Access to personal resources also predicts women's use of both informal and formal resources. Implications for intimate partner violence help-seeking are discussed. PMID:26612273

  14. Pre- to post-immigration sexual risk behaviour and alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants in Miami.

    PubMed

    Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840

  15. Differences in mortality by immigrant status in Italy. Results of the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Barbara; Zengarini, Nicolás; Broccoli, Serena; Caranci, Nicola; Spadea, Teresa; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Cacciani, Laura; Petrelli, Alessio; Ballotari, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Grisotto, Laura; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Despite a rapid increase in immigration from low-income countries, studies on immigrants' mortality in Italy are scarce. We aimed to describe differences in all and cause-specific mortality among immigrants and Italians residing in Turin and Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy), two cities participating in the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS). We used individual data from the municipal population registers linked to the cause of death registers. All people aged 1-64 years residing between 2001 and 2010 were enrolled (open cohort) and followed up until 2013. The mortality of citizens from high migratory pressure countries (as a whole, and for each macro-area group) was compared with that of Italians; differences were estimated by Poisson regression adjusted by age and calendar year mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and by age-standardized mortality ratios for the analysis of cause-specific mortality. Compared with Italians, immigrants had lower overall mortality (MRR for men: 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.75-0.90; for women: 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.81). Sub-Saharan Africans experienced a significant higher mortality than Italians (MRR for men 1.29, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.61; for women: 1.70, 95 % CI: 1.22-2.36). Higher mortality for immigrants compared to Italians was observed for infectious diseases, congenital anomalies, some site-specific tumours and homicide mortality. Our study showed heterogeneity in mortality across the macro-areas of origin, and in particular Sub-Saharan Africans seemed to be a vulnerable population. The extension to other cohorts of IN-LiMeS will allow the health status of immigrants and vulnerable groups to be studied and monitored in more depth. PMID:27461270

  16. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  17. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  18. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The Background," is comprised of…

  19. Response to antiretroviral therapy (ART): comparing women with previous use of zidovudine monotherapy (ZDVm) in pregnancy with ART naïve women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term zidovudine monotherapy (ZDVm) remains an option for some pregnant HIV-positive women not requiring treatment for their own health but may affect treatment responses once antiretroviral therapy (ART) is subsequently started. Methods Data were obtained by linking two UK studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Treatment responses were assessed for 2028 women initiating ART at least one year after HIV-diagnosis. Outcomes were compared using logistic regression, proportional hazards regression or linear regression. Results In adjusted analyses, ART-naïve (n = 1937) and ZDVm-experienced (n = 91) women had similar increases in CD4 count and a similar proportion achieving virological suppression; both groups had a low risk of AIDS. Conclusions In this setting, antenatal ZDVm exposure did not adversely impact on outcomes once ART was initiated for the woman’s health. PMID:24593018

  20. PORTRAYALS OF COLOMBIAN AND VENEZUELAN IMMIGRANT ORGANISATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    SANCHEZ-R, MAGALY; AYSA-LASTRA, MARIA

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the public images of Colombian and Venezuelan immigrant organisations in the United States. Immigrant organisations’ webpages and the expression of their main aims and goals serve to identify their major concerns as they create public images not only for the organisation but for the immigrant community itself. To interpret the immigrant organisations’ public images and their goals, we offer a multilevel study that considers immigrants’ contexts of exit, which are related to the motivation of migrate and the particular sociodemographic makeup of immigrant groups. This paper adds the Venezuelan immigrant experience to the literature on immigrant organisations. PMID:25324586

  1. Infant feeding practices among Sudanese women now living in regional south east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lee; Kirby, Rosemarie; Rogers, Cath

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to highlight and compare immigrant Sudanese women's infant feeding choices and patterns before and after moving to a regional city in Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Sudanese mothers who had birthed and breastfed babies both in Africa and Toowoomba. This qualitative research project supported previous research indicating a trend for immigrant women's breastfeeding duration to decline when they moved to another country. The outcomes of this research suggest that the reasons for this decline are complex. The authors conclude that a lack of social support, language difficulties and wanting to fit in with particular Western practices are contributing factors. PMID:25522458

  2. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  3. Portuguese immigrant families: the impact of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Marie; James, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Portuguese immigrants to North America represent a large ethnic group with unique family therapy needs. The present study investigates acculturation and the family lives of Portuguese (Azorean) immigrants in Canada. Methods of analytic induction and constant comparison from grounded theory were used to examine transcripts of interviews with 21 Azorean immigrant women and 28 Azorean immigrant men. A model emerged wherein (a) immigration and acculturation act as stressors on the family unit, as described by the categories Process of Change and Family Relationships; (b) family members adopt generation- and gender-specific acculturative strategies, as illustrated by the categories Duas Culturas (Two Cultures) and Falando Portuges (Speaking Portuguese); and (c) as family members acculturate, discords arise and are resolved according to the cultural traits different members have adopted. The categories Discord Resolution and Preocupação (Preoccupations) illustrate this last dynamic. Implications for family therapy with immigrant families include an indication for community-level interventions, emphasis on confidentiality, awareness of acculturation stress and different acculturative strategies within the family, and aiding the family in the negotiation and integration of a new bicultural reality. PMID:19378651

  4. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations. PMID:26350421

  5. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  6. Diabetes among Ethiopian Immigrants to Israel: Exploring the Effects of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Freedman, Laurence; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes prevalence among ethnic minorities and immigrants often differs from the majority indigenous population. We compared diabetes prevalence, incidence and risk among Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian Jews. Within these main groups, we controlled for the effect of migration on diabetes risk by comparing the subgroups of Ethiopian and former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants, and compared both with Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews. Methods The study cohort included adult Ethiopian (n = 8,398) and age-matched non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 15,977) and subgroups: Ethiopian immigrants (n = 7,994), FSU immigrants (n = 1,541) and Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 10,828). Diabetes prevalence, annual incidence, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sex and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-components, were determined in three age groups (<50yrs, 50-59yrs, and ≥60yrs). Comparisons of body mass index (BMI) at diabetes incidence were made. Results Younger (<50yrs) Ethiopians had higher prevalence rates, 3.6% (95%CI: 3.1–4.1) and annual incidence, 0.9% (95%CI: 0.8–1.0) than non-Ethiopians, 2.7% (95%CI: 2.3–3.0) and 0.5% (95%CI: 0.4–0.6), respectively. These differences were particularly pronounced among Ethiopian women. Diabetes risk among Ethiopians was higher and adjustment for MetS-components was important only for BMI, which further increased hazard ratio (HR) estimates associated with Ethiopian ethnicity from 1.81 (95% CI:1.50–2.17) to 2.31 (95% CI:1.91–2.79). The same differences were seen when comparing Ethiopian to FSU immigrants. BMI before incident diabetes was lower among younger Ethiopian immigrants than younger FSU immigrants and Israeli-born. Conclusions Ethiopian ethnicity is associated with increased diabetes risk, which is age and BMI dependent. Young Ethiopians<50yrs, particularly women, had the greatest increase in risk. Lower BMI cut-offs should be defined to reflect diabetes risk among Ethiopians. PMID:27300299

  7. Prognostic factors and disease-specific survival among immigrants diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Simberg-Danell, Caroline; Lyth, Johan; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Frohm-Nilsson, Margareta; Carstensen, John; Hansson, Johan; Eriksson, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) among immigrants in Europe. We aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and disease-specific survival among first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden. This nationwide population-based study included 27,235 patients from the Swedish Melanoma Register diagnosed with primary invasive CMM, 1990-2007. Data were linked to nationwide, population-based registers followed up through 2013. Logistic regression and Cox regression models were used to determine the association between immigrant status, stage and CMM prognosis, respectively. After adjustments for confounders, first generation immigrants from Southern Europe were associated with significantly more advanced stages of disease compared to Swedish-born patients [Stage II vs. I: Odds ratio (OR) = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.61-3.50. Stage III-IV vs I: OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.08-5.37]. The ORs of stage II-IV versus stage I disease were increased among men (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.3; p = 0.020), and women (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.6-9.1; p < 0.001) in a subgroup of immigrants from former Yugoslavia compared to Swedish-born patients. The CMM-specific survival was significantly decreased among women from former Yugoslavia versus Swedish-born women [hazard ratio (HR)=2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.2; p = 0.043]. After additional adjustments including stage, the survival difference was no longer significant. No survival difference between the second generation immigrant group and Swedish-born patients were observed. In conclusion, a worse CMM-specific survival in women from former Yugoslavia was associated with more advanced stages of CMM at diagnosis. Secondary prevention efforts focusing on specific groups may be needed to further improve the CMM prognosis. PMID:27004457

  8. Comparative accuracy of mammography and ultrasound in women with breast symptoms according to age and breast density.

    PubMed

    Devolli-Disha, Emine; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Ymeri, Halit; Kutllovci, Arben

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women.The aim of this studywas to determine which is more accurate imaging test mammography or ultrasound for diagnosis of breast cancer based on the women's age and breast density. We examined 546 patients with breast symptoms, by clinical breast examination, mammography and ultrasound. A total of 546 breast lesions were examined by histopathology analyses. Histopathology results revealed the presence of 259 invasive cancers, and 287 benign lesions. Sensitivity varied significantly with age and breast density. In the 259 women who had both tests, ultrasound had a higher sensitivity than mammography in women younger than 45 years, whereas mammography had a higher sensitivity than ultrasound in women older than 60 years. The sensitivity according to age was 52,1% for mammography and 72,6% for ultrasound. The specificity according to age was 88, 5% for ultrasound and 73, 9% for mammography. Comparing the sensitivity of mammography and ultrasound according to the breast density indicates that mammographic sensitivity was 82,2% among women with predominantly fatty breast, but 23.7% in women with heterogeneous dense breasts, with the increase of fibro glandular density the level of sensitivity with mammography decreases, while ultrasonographic sensitivity was 71,1% among women with predominantly fatty breast and 57,0% for heterogeneous dense breasts. Our data indicate that sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound was statistically significantly greater than mammography in patients with breast symptoms for the detection of breast cancer and benign lesions particularly in dense breast and in young women. PMID:19485945

  9. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  10. Preventive control of breast and cervical cancer in immigrant and native women in Spain: the role of country of origin and social class.

    PubMed

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Puigpinós-Riera, Rosa; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Serral, Gemma; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the periodic use of cervical and breast cancer screening by women residing in Spain, according to their country of origin, and analyzes whether the observed associations are modified by social class. A cross-sectional design was used, with the study population consisting of women residing in Spain in 2006, ages 25-65 years (N = 10,093) and 40-69 years (N = 6674) in the cervical and breast cancer screening groups, respectively. The information source was Spain's National Health Survey of 2006. The dependent variables were: undergoing periodic cervical cancer screening (every 5 years or less) and breast cancer screening (every 2 years or less). The independent variables were: country of origin, social class, health care coverage, cohabitation, and age. A descriptive analysis was carried out, and robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women from low-income countries underwent fewer periodic screening exams for cervical cancer and breast cancer. Independent of country of origin, women from the manual classes underwent fewer screening exams than those from the non-manual classes. In the 50-69 years age group, it was mainly women from the manual classes from low-income countries who underwent fewer periodic mammograms. Having only public health care coverage and not cohabiting with a partner were also associated with lower prevalences of use. PMID:21842574

  11. Personality Antecedents of Career Orientation and Stability among Women Compared to Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Ohranen, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko

    1999-01-01

    In Finland, 151 women and 160 men were followed from age 8 to 36. High career orientation was explained by high self-control. Social activity was related to female career orientation. Both stable and unstable careers were more strongly related to personality traits in women than men. (63 references) (SK)

  12. Adult Women Students Compared with Younger Students on Selected Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marple, Betty Lou N.

    1976-01-01

    This study explores personality differences between adult women students in an undergraduate college and women of the usual undergraduate age. Seven of the 18 California Personality Inventory (CPI) scale comparisons showed significant differences, and eight of the 14 Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scale comparisons showed significant…

  13. Comparing health inequality in men and women: prospective study of mortality 1986-96

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda; Firth, David; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Lynch, Kevin; Bartley, Mel

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To study prospectively the differences in health inequality in men and women from 1986-96 using the Office for National Statistics' longitudinal study and new socioeconomic classification. To assess the relative importance of social class (based on employment characteristics) and social position according to the general social advantage of the household to mortality risk in men and women. Design Prospective study. Setting England and Wales. Subjects Men and women of working age at the time of the 1981 census, with a recorded occupation. Main outcome measures Mortality. Results In men, social class based on employment relations, measured according to the Office for National Statistics' socioeconomic classification, was the most important influence on mortality. In women, social class based on individual employment relations and conditions showed only a weak gradient. Large differences in risk of mortality in women were found, however, when social position was measured according to the general social advantage in the household. Conclusions Comparisons of the extent of health inequality in men and women are affected by the measures of social inequality used. For women, even those in paid work, classifications based on characteristics of the employment situation may give a considerable underestimate. The Office for National Statistics' new measure of socioeconomic position is useful for assessing health inequality in men, but in women a more important predictor of mortality is inequality in general social advantage of the household. PMID:10807620

  14. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school. PMID:26048254

  15. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  16. Rectal Visceral Sensitivity in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome without Psychiatric Comorbidity Compared with Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. Aim. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. Methods. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. Results. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Conclusions. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone. PMID:19789637

  17. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  18. A comparative study on women's employment in Beijing, Guangzhou and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, X

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the female population in different social systems and different socioeconomic levels was conducted for Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong between September 1988 and October 1990. The women's federations in Beijing and Guangzhou and the University of Hong Kong performed the sample survey of 12 occupations in China and Hong Kong. The assumption was that the process of women's emancipation was accelerated when material conditions and culture were well-developed. The differences in employment patterns in the three cities are presented followed by a discussion of the motives for employment. Differences in their attachment to the traditional role of women were evident; most expressed the importance of work and family and the desire to be successful in life and career. Differences were also evident in women's expectation of the role of government in having responsibility for women's employment and priorities. The reports from women in Beijing and Guangzhou expressed difficulty in locating a job and lack of information on job availabilities. Hong Kong is different from the other cities in that the supply of workers is less than the demand. Only through productivity increases can women have a brighter prospect for employment. There was a high level of agreement that the reasons for employment are increased income and economic independence. The third factor of importance was "self-realization", and over 90% in all three cities reported that employment would continue if other family members could support the family. Women strongly agreed that success was achieved through extra effort, and wished for the same opportunity for promotion which the men enjoyed. The traditional role of women giving priority to their families was strongest in Hong Kong. 45% of women in Hong Kong agreed that women should avoid being more successful in work than their husbands, while only 13.4% in Beijing agreed. Women in Beijing and Guangzhou expected government to other relevant

  19. Neonatal outcomes for immigrant vs. native-born mothers in Taiwan: an epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Fu, Jung-Chung; Liu, Jihong; Probst, Janice C; Lin, Duey-Perng

    2011-02-01

    In Taiwan, immigrant women by marriage face social discrimination due to widespread impressions that they give birth to low birth weight, high-risk, high cost babies due to their lower socioeconomic status, shorter stature, and lower pre-pregnant weight than native-born Taiwanese women. This study compared crude and adjusted birth outcomes of immigrant mothers (Chinese and Vietnamese) relative to native-born Taiwanese, and tested for the phenomenon of an epidemiological paradox of favorable neonatal outcomes among immigrants. Data from patient charts of all singleton live births during 2002-2007, weighing ≥500 and <4,000 g, and ≥20 weeks gestational age at a regional hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, were used. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis controlling for maternal characteristics (demographics, national origin, obstetric and prenatal factors) and neonatal characteristics (birth weight, gestational age). Of 3,267 births satisfying the inclusion criteria, 19.0% were to Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Crude birth weight was lowest for Taiwanese mothers, who also had the highest rate of preterm delivery (<37 weeks). The adjusted birth weight for Chinese and Vietnamese mothers was 87.7 and 74.7 g higher, respectively than native-born Taiwanese (both P < 0.001). Chinese and Vietnamese mothers also had lower odds of preterm birth (ORs 0.46 and 0.47, respectively). Findings support paradoxically better neonatal outcomes among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Findings can be used to initiate public education to reverse the widespread negative perceptions and attitudes towards immigrant spouses in Taiwan. PMID:20432059

  20. Differences within: A comparative analysis of women in the physical sciences --- Motivation and background factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine Patricia Traudel

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical focus in the United States due to economic concerns and public policy (National Academy of Sciences, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). Part of this focus has been an emphasis on encouraging and evaluating career choice and persistence factors among underrepresented groups such as females in the physical sciences (Hill et al., 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The majority of existing STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following questions: 1. On average, do females who select chemistry or physics doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? 2. Do such variables as racial and ethnic background, age, highest level of education completed by guardians/parents, citizenship status, family interest in science, first interest in general science, first interest in the physical sciences, average grades in high school and undergraduate studies in the physical sciences, and experiences in undergraduate physical science courses explain a significant amount of variance in female physical scientists' years to Ph.D. completion? These questions are analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey dataset through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists. Logistic regression analyses are performed to uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their background, interest, academic achievement, and experiences ranging prior to elementary school through postsecondary education. Significant variables that positively predict a career choice in chemistry or physics include content specific high school and undergraduate academic achievement and positive

  1. Validity of Self-Reported Medication Use Compared With Pharmacy Records in a Cohort of Older Women: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Drieling, Rebecca L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Beresford, Shirley A A; Boudreau, Denise M; Kooperberg, Charles; Heckbert, Susan R

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate self-reported data on medication exposure lead to less reliable study findings. From 2013 to 2015, we assessed the validity of information on medication use collected via a mailed medication inventory among 223 Women's Health Initiative participants who were members of a health-care delivery system. Self-reported information on medication use was compared with pharmacy records for statins, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers, and bisphosphonates. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) for current medication use. We assessed agreement on duration of use (<2, 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 years) by means of the weighted κ statistic. The mean age of participants was 77 years. Statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers were each reported by over 15% of women, and bisphosphonates were reported by 4.5%. Compared with pharmacy records, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV for self-reported use of statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers were all 95% or greater. The sensitivity and PPV for bisphosphonate use were both 80% (95% confidence interval: 44, 97), and specificity was 99% (95% confidence interval: 97, 100). The κ statistic for duration of use was 0.87 or greater for all 4 medication classes. Compared with pharmacy records, self-reported information on current medication use and duration of use collected via mailed medication inventory among older women had almost perfect agreement for use of statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers. PMID:27402774

  2. Comparative study of stretching modalities in healthy women: heating and application time.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Jose Luis; Foletto, Álexis

    2015-01-01

    A lack of muscle flexibility affects the functionality of the human body, making it difficult to carry out certain activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to compare the technique of passive static stretching on hamstring muscles in isolation, or combined with heating techniques and different application times. Fifty women were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 10 each): The Microwave Diathermy Group had the hamstrings heated by microwave before stretching; Treadmill Group, in which warm-up walking was performed before stretching; 30-Second Group, in which 30 s of stretching was performed; 10-Minute Group, which involved stretching for 10 min and Control Group. In all groups, the leg extension range of motion was assessed, and the flexibility by the third finger-ground test was performed before and after application. The individuals in the experimental groups performed three stretching sessions on three consecutive days. All statistical analysis was performed with p ≤ 0.05. The results showed that all treatments were effective compared to the control group. The Treadmill Group and the 10-Minute group were superior for an acute effect (soon after the stretch--related to a decreased muscular viscoelasticity). The 10-Minute Group was the most effective for the chronic effect (long lasting--related to increased numbers of sarcomeres). A 10-minute stretch, when performed over four subsequent days, is suggested for faster increase in flexibility. The results could suggest a systemic warming (such as the one provided by a treadmill workout) before stretching for an acute gain of flexibility in the same day. It was possible to identify the inefficiencies associated with the use of microwaves in terms of stretching to gain flexibility. In fact, the values recorded were similar to stretching without any heat at all. PMID:25603738

  3. Breast Health Intervention Effects on Knowledge and Beliefs Over Time Among Chinese American Immigrants--a Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Nguyen, Thuan; Menon, Usha

    2015-09-01

    Chinese American immigrant women, nonadherent with mammography in the past 12 months, (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to change knowledge and beliefs and increase mammogram use. This report describes intervention effects on changes in knowledge and beliefs between the control and educational groups over four time points (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months). Variables measured included knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived general barriers to mammography, perceived benefits to mammography, and four cultural barriers to mammography (crisis orientation, modesty, use of Eastern medicine, reliance on others). At all three post-intervention time points, women in the education group had significantly higher knowledge scores than those in the control group, regardless of whether they had completed a mammogram during the study. Women in the education group reported higher perceived susceptibility to breast cancer at 3-month post-intervention. At 3- and 6-month post-intervention, regardless of mammogram screening completion, women reported lower concerns about modesty related to mammography when compared to the control group. By the 12-month post-intervention, women in the education group reported significantly fewer perceived barriers than the control group. A targeted breast health program successfully changed breast health knowledge and beliefs that were sustained for up to 6-12 months. Education targeted to women's knowledge and beliefs has significant potential for decreasing disparity in mammogram use among Chinese American immigrant women. PMID:25200949

  4. Randomized controlled trial comparing letrozole with laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI; DONG, SHENGNAN; LI, YUMEI; SHI, LIHONG; ZHOU, WEI; LIU, YINGLING; LIU, JIE; JI, YAZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the reproductive outcomes of letrozole and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 141 women with CC-resistant PCOS were enrolled and randomly allocated into groups A and B. Group A (n=71) received 2.5 mg letrozole from days 5 to 10 of menses for up to six cycles, and group B (n=70) underwent LOD. A 6-month follow-up was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the baseline clinical characteristics and the major serum hormone profiles, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and free testosterone, between the two groups. Women receiving letrozole had a lower rate of spontaneous abortion (6.9 vs. 15.8%) and higher clinical pregnancy (40.8 vs. 27.1%) and live birth (38.0 vs. 22.9%) rates; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Letrozole had superior reproductive outcomes compared with LOD in women with CC-resistant PCOS; therefore, letrozole could be used as the first-line treatment for women with CC-resistant PCOS. PMID:26622481

  5. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  6. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  7. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    PubMed Central

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  8. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. PMID:26245767

  9. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  10. Bone mineral density of recent African immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Haynatzka, Vera; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Howell, Ryan; Fu, Yun-Xin; Gallagher, John C.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic difference in bone mineral density (BMD) exists. The underlying mechanism is unclear and needs investigation. PURPOSE: To determine BMD and its relation to environmental exposure in recent African immigrants. METHODS: BMD in recent sub-Saharan Sudanese immigrants (55 men and 88 premenopausal women) in the United States was measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model was performed, with total body, spine and hip BMD as dependent variables; and sex, age, body weight, the length of stay in the United States, and milk intake as independent variables. RESULTS: BMD Z score in the spine but not total body or hip in the Sudanese immigrants was significantly lower compared with the normative values of African Americans and Caucasians. Total body and hip BMD was positively correlated (p < 0.015) with their length of stay in the United States. Hip BMD was significantly correlated with milk intake (p < 0.02) and marginally (p = 0.052) with their length of stay in the United States, independent of body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal BMD was significantly lower in recent Sudanese immigrants than in African Americans or Caucasians. Their hip and total body BMD was associated with their length of stay in the United States, suggesting a potential environmental factors in the ethnic diversity of BMD. PMID:16749650

  11. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in

  12. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  13. [Comparative evaluation of bone mineral density in Mexican women using x-ray bone densitometry and ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Llaca Rodríguez, V; Aguilera Pérez, R; Ahued Ahued, R; Rio de la Loza, F; Mendoza Torres, L J; Coria Soto, I; Zambrana Castañeda, M M

    2000-03-01

    With lifestyle changes in women, smoking and use of beverages with caffeine, and sedentarism increasing, so the risk factors for decalcification, increase; which is a public health problem by the higher incidence of osteoporotic fractures, as the age advances, specially in the postmenopause woman, which means a greater secondary morbidity-mortality; an important cause of physical disability, which directly affects psychoemotional wellbeing in women. In this study two methods of bone densitometry, were used; one of x ray, and other with ultrasound in 138 women during postmenopause with an average index of corporal mass of 29. Both results were compared of bone density, T measurement with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Double densitometry, was done in the 138 patients of lumbar spine with DEXA equipment, and of calcaneum with DTU-one equipment, by the same technician, finding the difference of T punctuation in this double study. PMID:10808616

  14. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26405382

  15. Comparative study between nalbuphine and ondansetron in prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus in women undergoing cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed A. M.; Baaror, Amr Samir; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intrathecal morphine provides effective postoperative analgesia, but their use is associated with numerous side effects, including pruritus, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, and respiratory depression. Pruritus is the most common side effect with a reported incidence of 58–85%. Objectives: This prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study was performed for women scheduled for cesarean delivery using spinal anesthesia to compare nalbuphine and ondansetron in the prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus. Patients and Methods: Ninety women after spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine patients randomly divided into three groups. Women in placebo group (P group) received 4 ml of normal saline intravenous (IV) injection, nalbuphine group (N group) received 4 ml of a 4 mg nalbuphine IV injection, and ondansetron 4 group (O group) received 4 ml of a 4 mg ondansetron IV injection, immediately after delivery of the baby. Studied women observed in postanesthesia care unit for 4 h. The primary outcome measures success of the treatment, defined as a pruritus score 1 (no pruritus) or 2 (mild pruritus - no treatment required) at 20 min after treatment. Results: Although, three was no significant difference between the three studied groups regarding; score 1 pruritus, while, score 2 pruritus (mild pruritus - no treatment requested) was significantly high in N and O groups compared to placebo group. Pruritus score 1 (no pruritus) plus pruritus score 2 were significantly high in N and O groups compared to placebo group (20 cases, 20 cases, 5 cases; respectively, P = 0.008). In addition; score 3 pruritus (moderate - treatment requested) was significantly less in N and O groups compared to placebo group. Conclusion: Nalbuphine and ondansetron were found to be more effective than placebo for prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus in women undergoing cesarean delivery and nalbuphine is preferred than

  16. Intergenerational Mobility in the Post-1965 Immigration Era: Estimates By An Immigrant Generation Cohort Method

    PubMed Central

    PARK, JULIE; MYERS, DOWELL

    2010-01-01

    The new second generation of the post-1965 immigration era is observed as children with their parents in 1980 and again as adults 25 years later. Intergenerational mobility is assessed for both men and women in four major racial/ethnic groups, both in regard to children’s status attainment relative to parents and with regard to the rising societal standards proxied by native-born non-Hispanic whites. A profile of intergenerational mobility is prepared using multiple indicators of status attainment: high school and college completion, upper white-collar occupation, poverty, and homeownership. The immigrant generation cohort method we introduce accounts for four distinct temporal dimensions of immigrant progress, clarifying inconsistencies in the literature and highlighting differences in mobility between racial/ethnic groups and with respect to different outcome measures. The immigrant generation cohort method consistently finds greater intergenerational mobility than suggested by alternative approaches. Our analysis also shows that the intergenerational progress of women is greater than that of men and provides a more complete record of immigrant mobility overall. Findings for individual racial/ethnic groups accord with some expectations in the literature and contradict others. PMID:20608102

  17. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  18. Immigrants and refugees: the psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, J David

    2006-12-01

    Psychiatric studies of immigrants have yielded contradictory findings regarding rates of mental illness. Current evidence suggests that rates of schizophrenia (and probably other disorders) among immigrant groups are low compared with native-born populations when sending and receiving countries are socially and culturally similar. The rates for immigrants are higher when sending and receiving countries are dissimilar, probably because of multiple social problems faced by immigrants in the receiving country. Refugees who flee their own country because of fears of violence or starvation often have had extremely traumatic experiences, which may result in PTSD and sometimes chronic impairment. Asylum seekers who arrive illegally to seek refuge in a foreign country also may have multiple traumas and experience further distress from their uncertain residency and legal status. Although much is known about the effects of migration, competent culturally sensitive services for migrants remain inadequate to meet the need. PMID:17166947

  19. Leaving no children or families outside: the challenges of immigration.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andres J; Rothe, Eugenio

    2010-10-01

    This study addresses potentially stressful events that accompany the process of immigration for children and their families. Acculturation stress, combined with service disparities, may contribute to a higher risk for psychopathology among immigrant children and youth, as compared to their parents. Culturally informed, evidence-based treatment and preventive interventions that meet the mental health and cultural needs of immigrant children and families have the potential to minimize this higher risk of adverse mental health consequences. PMID:20950291

  20. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse. PMID:22618354

  1. Systemic concentrations of hormones during the development of follicular waves in mares and women: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, O J; Beg, M A; Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Baerwald, A R; Pierson, R A

    2010-01-01

    Changes in systemic concentrations of FSH, LH, oestradiol and progesterone during the ovulatory follicular wave were compared between 30 mares and 30 women. Based on a previous study, the emergence of the future ovulatory follicle was defined as occurring at 13.0 mm in mares and 6.0 mm in women, and deviation in diameter between the two largest follicles was expected to begin at 22.7 mm in mares and 10.3 mm in women. Mean FSH concentrations were high in mares during the luteal phase, resulting from statistically identified FSH surges occurring in individuals on different days and in different numbers (mean, 1.5 ± 0.2 surges/mare); the internadir interval was 3.9 ± 0.3 days. In contrast, mean FSH in women was low during the luteal phase and increased to a prolonged elevation during the follicular phase. The prolonged elevation was apparent in each individual (internadir interval, 15.2 ± 0.4 days). Changes in LH or oestradiol concentrations encompassing deviation were not detected in mares, but both hormones increased slightly but significantly between emergence and deviation in women. The hypothesis that a greater number of growing follicles causes a greater predeviation decrease in FSH was supported for mares (r, −0.39; P < 0.04), but a similar negative correlation (r, −0.36) was not significant in women. The hypothesis that the increase in oestradiol during the luteal phase in women was at least partly attributable to luteal-phase anovulatory follicular waves was not supported. Normalization of FSH concentrations to the day of emergence showed maximum value on the day of emergence with a significant increase and decrease on each side of emergence in both species. The day of expected deviation occurred 3 days after emergence during the decline in FSH in both species. These results indicated that the previously reported striking similarities in emergence and deviation between mares and women during the ovulatory follicular wave are associated with species

  2. Exploring potential use of internet, E-mail, and instant text messaging to promote breast health and mammogram use among immigrant Hispanic women in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Dang, Catherine M; Estrada, Sylvia; Bresee, Catherine; Phillips, Edward H

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of death in Hispanic women (HW). Internet, e-mail, and instant text messaging may be cost-effective in educating HW about breast health and in reducing breast cancer mortality. We surveyed 905 HW women attending a free health fair about their technology use, acculturation, insurance status, mammography use, and breast cancer knowledge. Data were analyzed by t test or χ(2) tests. Mean age was 51.9 ± 14.2 years (range, 18 to 88 years). Ninety-two per cent were foreign-born. Most had completed some high school (39%) or elementary (38%) education. Most (62%) were uninsured. The majority spoke (67%) and read (66%) only Spanish. Only 60 per cent of HW older than 40 years had a recent mammogram. HW older than 40 years who had not had a recent mammogram were younger (mean 54.9 ± 10.8 vs 58 ± 10.4 years) and less likely to have health insurance (25 vs 44%; P < 0.001). Most HW never use the Internet (58%) or e-mail (64%). However, 70 per cent have mobile phones (66% older than 40 years), and 65 per cent use text messaging daily (58% older than 40 years, P = 0.001). In fact, 45 per cent wish to receive a mammogram reminder by text. Text messaging may be an inexpensive way to promote breast health and screening mammography use among uninsured HW. PMID:24160786

  3. Stress, Place, and Allostatic Load Among Mexican Immigrant Farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    McClure, Heather H; Josh Snodgrass, J; Martinez, Charles R; Squires, Erica C; Jiménez, Roberto A; Isiordia, Laura E; Eddy, J Mark; McDade, Thomas W; Small, Jeon

    2015-10-01

    Cumulative exposure to chronic stressors has been shown to contribute to immigrants' deteriorating health with more time in US residence. Few studies, however, have examined links among common psychosocial stressors for immigrants (e.g., acculturation-related) and contexts of immigrant settlement for physical health. The study investigated relationships among social stressors, stress buffers (e.g., family support), and allostatic load (AL)--a summary measure of physiological "wear and tear"--among 126 adult Mexican immigrant farm workers. Analyses examined social contributors to AL in two locales: (1) White, English-speaking majority sites, and (2) a Mexican immigrant enclave. Our six-point AL scale incorporated immune, cardiovascular, and metabolic measures. Among men and women, older age predicted higher AL. Among women, lower family support related to higher AL in White majority communities only. Findings suggest that Latino immigrants' cumulative experiences in the US significantly compromise their health, with important differences by community context. PMID:25724150

  4. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. Methods. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. Results. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and “Other African” countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. Conclusions. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (<50 years) than in natives of Sweden (>50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:21266400

  5. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors and Beliefs Among Black West Indian Immigrants and US-Born Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene T.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Wallace, Scyatta A.; Augenbraun, Michael; Hogben, Matthew; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M.; Rubin, Steve; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We compared Black West Indian immigrants' and US-born Blacks' sexual and drug-use risk behaviors and their beliefs related to using condoms and informing partners of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to identify possible differences in risk. Methods. We drew data from the baseline assessment of a clinic-based intervention designed to increase partner STI notification. Results. Black West Indian men were less likely than were US-born Black men to report nonregular partners. There were no differences in condom use. US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident that they could convince their regular partners to use condoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 4.76), whereas there were no differences between Black West Indian and US-born Black men on this measure (interaction P = .06). US-born Black women were more likely than were Black West Indian women to be extremely confident in their ability to discuss STI screening with their regular partners (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.47). Conclusions. Black West Indian women's lower levels of confidence that they can discuss STI screening with their regular partners and convince these partners to use condoms may increase their infection risk. Gender-sensitive interventions are warranted for Black West Indian immigrants, especially women. PMID:18309140

  6. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Women Superintendents in Rural and Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Grady, Marilyn L.

    This paper reports on the leadership qualities of rural and urban women superintendents. Telephone interviews with 51 randomly selected female superintendents in 29 states examined perceived sources of job satisfaction, the benefits accrued on the job, sense of self-fulfillment in the workplace, and personal strengths. The most frequent responses…

  8. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  9. A Comparative Examination of Personality Prototypes Across Two Time Samples of Japanese American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanagida, Evelyn H.; And Others

    Japanese Americans experience acculturative change while retaining some elements of cultural identity. Differences in the patterning of personality needs among Japanese American women over time illustrate the balance of these two elements. Japanese American female undergraduates completed the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) in 1971…

  10. The impact of men's and women's retirement on marital relations: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kulik, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined whether men's and women's retirement have a differential impact on several aspects of marital life: Power relations (as reflected in decision-making), spousal resources, division of household tasks, and quality of marriage. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 519 pre-retired and retired Israelis. The findings indicate that in general, both men's and women's retirement have a similar impact on marital relations in all of the areas examined. No appreciable change in spousal resources was found after retirement, but there was evidence of change in decision-making patterns about spending time and carrying out feminine and general tasks. Retired respondents of both sexes reported fewer marital complaints than the pre-retired respondents, but also expressed less marital enjoyment. It was also found that men's retirement has a different impact than women's retirement on decisions about house-hold affairs and performance of feminine tasks. In addition, gender-based differences were found in several areas, irrespective of employment status. The women reported higher quality of marriage than did the men, and more resources for strengthening the family, whereas the men perceived themselves as making more decisions in the important areas of life, as more hardy, and as controlling the family's financial resources. PMID:11569591

  11. Some Issues in Comparing Women and Men as Leaders. Technical Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Edwin P.; Yoder, Jan

    The document reviews literature relevant to male/female leadership effectiveness and outlines research needs in this area. Three factors which contribute to successful leadership include leadership role, leadership style, and situational characteristics. Literature concerning leadership role reveals that in mixed-sex groups, women are less likely…

  12. The Comparative Functionality of Formal and Non-Formal Education for Women: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Vivian Lowery

    This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…

  13. The Image of Women in the American and Indian TV Commercials: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    Sexual harassment and exploitation exist in every culture no matter how advanced and civilized that culture is. The difference is only in degree rather than in kind. One example of such fulmination and exploitation can be found in the media. In order to see to what extent the abuse of women persists in the media of two very large and very…

  14. CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

  15. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  16. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  17. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  18. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They Come,"…

  19. Immigrants and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    The ways in which educators and schools in the United States have responded to the children of immigrants are explored, and the patterns, causes, and consequences of educational outcomes on immigrants are reviewed. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of historians and social scientists. Results of scholarship…

  20. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  1. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of Mexican-American…

  2. Immigrants in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suarez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and…

  3. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  4. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  5. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  6. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  7. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for over 2 years. Half of the HIV-infected subjects were obese, and these were matched with 30 obese HIV-negative controls. All subjects had no history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P < 0.05 for both) compared with men but had similar CD4+ count (median 701 cells/μL), smoking and hepatic C prevalence, and body mass index (BMI) (median 30.3 kg/m). However, women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not

  8. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Sterling, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART. We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for over 2 years. Half of the HIV-infected subjects were obese, and these were matched with 30 obese HIV-negative controls. All subjects had no history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism. HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P < 0.05 for both) compared with men but had similar CD4+ count (median 701 cells/μL), smoking and hepatic C prevalence, and body mass index (BMI) (median 30.3 kg/m2). However, women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite

  9. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  10. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  11. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says. "The hot-button issue became…

  12. Educational Achievement Gaps between Immigrant and Native Students in Two “New Immigration Countries”: Italy and Spain in comparison

    PubMed Central

    Azzolini, Davide; Schnell, Philipp; Palmer, John

    2013-01-01

    We use PISA 2009 data to determine how immigrant children in Italy and Spain compare with native students in reading and mathematics skills. Drawing on the vast empirical literature in traditional immigration countries, we test the extent to which the most well-established patterns and hypotheses of immigrant/native educational achievement gaps also apply to these new immigration countries. Findings show that both first- and second-generation immigrant students underperform natives in both countries. Although socioeconomic background and language skills contribute to the explanation of achievement gaps, significant differences remain within countries. While modeling socioeconomic background reduces the observed gaps to a very similar extent in the two countries, language spoken at home is more strongly associated with achievement in Italy. School-type differentiation, such as tracking in Italy and school ownership in Spain, do not reduce immigrant/native gaps, although in Italy tracking is strongly associated with students’ test scores. PMID:23493944

  13. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  14. Foot Loading Characteristics of Chinese Bound Feet Women: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yaodong; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Jianshe; Ren, Xuejun; Feng, Neng

    2015-01-01

    The custom of bound feet among Chinese women has existed for almost a century. This practice has influenced the daily life of Chinese women, especially during everyday locomotion. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the loading patterns of bound feet. Specifically, the plantar pressure and center of pressure were analyzed for peak pressure, contact area, force time integral, center of pressure displacement velocity and trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction via a comparison with normal feet. The key outcomes from this work were that the forefoot and rearfoot of bound feet bear the whole loading during stance phase. The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories. This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability. A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders. PMID:25884982

  15. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C; van Engen, Marloes L

    2003-07-01

    A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness. PMID:12848221

  16. Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S J

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the legal systems in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and the protection of migrant domestic workers who are vulnerable to domestic violence and abuse. Migration in the last 10 years in Asia has increasingly included female migrants who are usually employed in domestic services, the entertainment industry, and health care services. This work places women migrants in a vulnerable position in the isolation of households, away from public oversight. Labor laws are not applied to domestic workers, who are considered of low societal value. In Hong Kong, domestic work is covered under the labor laws, but the societal perception is that housework is not really work. Employer-employee relationships are more clear cut in institutional settings. Most domestic workers live with their employers. They are outsiders to families and must maintain professional relationships within an intimate environment. The isolation within a household discourages development of support systems and contacts with women doing similar work. There is a power struggle between women of unequal stature concerning the operation of the household and the interrelationships with family members. The power dynamic, the nature of the family structure, and culture are all interrelated. The first year's income covers the cost of securing foreign employment, and workers are vulnerable in this first year due to their debts. Employers protect their investment by working them to capacity or using fear and physical confinement to secure obedience. Workers are humiliated and immobilized. The comparison between the three countries illustrates the potential for protecting migrant domestic workers. Singapore and Taiwan lack sufficient legal and social support for migrant women, and Hong Kong must use a more comprehensive approach for integrating power dynamics, employment, work regulations, and labor status. PMID:12291761

  17. Chronic morbidity in women, namely in pregnancy. (Comparative study between West, Central and East European centres).

    PubMed

    Kukla, L; Bouchalova, M; Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Z; Chyslovska, N; Golding, J; Goodfellow, S; Ignatjeva, R

    2008-01-01

    18 chronic diseases were investigated in a population of 13,115 women living in six settings of West- (Avon UK, the Isle of Man), Central- (the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) and East-Europe (the Ukraine and Russia), that collaborate in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC project). In prenatal questionnaires filled in after the first half of pregnancy, women reported 25,795 chronic diseases they ever suffered, out of them 11,188 having in present pregnancies. In the whole sample, lifelong prevalence was 11,2%, and prevalence in pregnancy 4,8% which means that 43,4% of all chronic diseases recurred in pregnancy. Up to mean age of 255 years in the whole sample, 39,6% women reported ever having indigestion, 29% back pains, 22,6% migraine, about 16% haemorrhoids, hay fever and eczema, about 10% varicose veins, anorexia nervosa, heavy depression and kidney diseases, over 5% rheumatism and 4% asthma. Less prevalent were infections of pelvic organs, febrile convulsions, joint inflammations, stomach ulcers, psoriasis and epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of chronic diseases and their prevalence in pregnancy were the highest in the western zone and decreased eastwards, but recurrence grew in the opposite direction, being the highest in the eastern zone. The variation of each morbidity indicator is followed in all diseases between geographical zones as well as between individual study centres. PMID:18822844

  18. Family obligations and individuation among immigrant youth: Do generational status and age at immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant children and adolescents often assume parental roles in their families and may feel guilty about psychologically separating and individuating from the family. However, little is known about this phenomenon and youth' generational status and age at immigration. We investigated various aspects of family obligations (instrumental and emotional roles, language and culture brokering, perceived unfairness) and individuation among 302 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel: first-generation (n = 44) and second-generation immigrant adolescents (n = 56); young adults who had arrived in Israel before the age of nine (n = 72) and from this age onward (n = 130). Immigrants who had arrived at age nine and older reported adopting more family obligations than other groups. Among the second-generation immigrants, family obligations were related to lower individuation compared to the first-generation immigrants. Possible explanations for the relations between family obligations and individuation according to generational status are suggested. PMID:27348550

  19. Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994–2001. Study Design Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9–10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their

  20. Immigrants' Pathways to Outpatient Mental Health: Are there Differences with the Native Population?

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Gambaro, Eleonora; Rossi, Annalisa; Toso, Alessandra; Feggi, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Castignoli, Giorgio; Mainini, Piera; Tarricone, Ilaria; Torre, Eugenio; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    A poor use of mental health services has been described in immigrants. We compared the sociodemographic, clinical and treatment features of immigrants and natives attending a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC). 191 immigrants and 191 randomly selected natives applying to the Borgomanero CMHC between 1 January 2003 and 31 August 2013 were compared. Our sample consisted mainly of the so-called "economic" immigrant. Adjustment disorders and reaction to stress were the most frequent diagnoses; in most cases symptoms onset occurred after migration. Although treatment features overlapped in the two groups (duration, number of contacts), immigrants showed a higher frequency of treatment dropout. While it is necessary to improve access to mental health services for immigrants, for the "economic" immigrant it may be more important to focus on establishing a therapeutic relationship that can be experienced as reliable and trustworthy. The finding of similar pathways to access the CMHC in natives and immigrants is encouraging. PMID:26705107

  1. Women Have Significantly Greater Difference Between Central and Peripheral Arterial Pressure Compared to Men: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca Clark; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral BP are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. Methods This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 2007–2010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Results Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age 43.5 years ± 4.4). Mean (SD) for cSBP-pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (p<0.001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men: 70.8±14 vs. women: 85.5±13; p<0.01), as well as augmentation index standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75) (men: 68.5±13 vs. women: 84.4±11.8; p<0.01). Conclusions Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that given similar peripheral BP females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared to males. PMID:23850194

  2. Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women - 12 Countries, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Auld, Andrew F; Shiraishi, Ray W; Mbofana, Francisco; Couto, Aleny; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Pilatwe, Pilatwe Tlhagiso; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Okello, Velephi; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Mugurungi, Owen; Murungu, Joseph; Dzangare, Janet; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mohamed, Fayama; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nhan, Do Thi; Hai, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Huu; Van Onacker, Joelle Deas; Francois, Kesner; Robin, Ermane G; Desforges, Gracia; Farahani, Mansour; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Denison, Julie A; Koole, Olivier; Tsui, Sharon; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy D; Hamilton, Carol Dukes; Abiri, Oseni Omomo; Griswold, Mark; Pierre, Edna; Xavier, Carla; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Letebele, Mpho; Agolory, Simon; Baughman, Andrew L; Mutandi, Gram; Preko, Peter; Ryan, Caroline; Ao, Trong; Gonese, Elizabeth; Herman-Roloff, Amy; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Debem, Henry H; Nguyen, Duc B; Yen, Le Ngoc; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Pelletier, Valerie; Williams, Seymour G; Behel, Stephanie; Bicego, George; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Adjorlolo-Johnson, Georgette; Marlink, Richard; Lowrance, David; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2015-11-27

    Equitable access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a principle endorsed by most countries and funding bodies, including the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Relief (PEPFAR) (1). To evaluate gender equity in ART access among adults (defined for this report as persons aged ≥15 years), 765,087 adult ART patient medical records from 12 countries in five geographic regions* were analyzed to estimate the ratio of women to men among new ART enrollees for each calendar year during 2002-2013. This annual ratio was compared with estimates from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)(†) of the ratio of HIV-infected adult women to men in the general population. In all 10 African countries and Haiti, the most recent estimates of the ratio of adult women to men among new ART enrollees significantly exceeded the UNAIDS estimates for the female-to-male ratio among HIV-infected adults by 23%-83%. In six African countries and Haiti, the ratio of women to men among new adult ART enrollees increased more sharply over time than the estimated UNAIDS female-to-male ratio among adults with HIV in the general population. Increased ART coverage among men is needed to decrease their morbidity and mortality and to reduce HIV incidence among their sexual partners. Reaching more men with HIV testing and linkage-to-care services and adoption of test-and-treat ART eligibility guidelines (i.e., regular testing of adults, and offering treatment to all infected persons with ART, regardless of CD4 cell test results) could reduce gender inequity in ART coverage. PMID:26605861

  3. Diagnostic Usefulness of Transrectal Ultrasound Compared with Transvaginal Ultrasound Assessment in Young Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of transrectal ultrasound in virgin patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, compared with conventional transvaginal ultrasound assessment. Methods Ultrasound examinations were performed in 963 Korean women, with transvaginal transducers in 677 women and transrectal transducers in 286 women at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. Transvaginal ultrasound examinations were performed in 494 normal control women and 183 PCOS patients according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) PCOS diagnostic criteria. In virgin patients, transrectal ultrasound examinations were performed in 141 normal control women and 145 PCOS patients. ROC curves were calculated for ovarian volume and follicle number. Results By transvaginal ultrasound examination, the ovarian volume showed an area under the ROC curve (AURC) of 0.838. An ovarian volume decision threshold > 7 cm3 had a sensitivity of 73.0% and a specificity of 84.2% for the diagnosis of PCOS. The follicle number showed an AURC of 0.886. A follicle number decision threshold ≥ 9 had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 87.2% for the diagnosis of PCOS. By transrectal ultrasound examination, the ovarian volume and the follicle number showed AURCs of 0.815 as same thresholds with a sensitivity of 67.2% and 66.4%, respectively and a specificity of 86.8% each. Ovarian volume and follicle number by transvaginal and transrectal ultrasound assessment had a high diagnostic power for PCOS screening. Conclusion Transrectal ultrasound assessment is as effective as conventional transvaginal ultrasound for the detection of PCOS in virgin patients. PMID:26793680

  4. Educational Progress and Parenting among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood…

  5. Exploring the Meaning of Civic Engagement in the United States: Mexican Immigrants in Central Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores how Mexican immigrants in a small central Texas town understand their roles and/or responsibilities as citizens in a democratic society regardless of their immigration status in the country. The author interviewed two men and four women about what they thought it meant to be civically engaged, and what--if any--they thought…

  6. Family Dynamics and the Teenage Immigrant: Creating the Self through the Parents' Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fran

    1994-01-01

    Assessed role played by Soviet Jewish emigre family in exacerbating dual disjunctures of immigration and adolescents. Results, based on life history interviews with five women who came from United Soviet Socialist Republic to United States as teenagers in 1970s, challenge bipolar model of adolescent immigrants and raise questions about previous…

  7. Do Performance-based Health Measures Reflect Differences in Frailty Among Immigrants Age 50+ in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Thomas D.; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background Life course influences, including country of residence and country of birth, are associated with frailty index scores. We investigated these associations using performance-based health measures. Methods Among 33,745 participants age 50+ (mean age 64.8 ± 10.1; 55% women) in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, grip strength, delayed word recall, and semantic verbal fluency were assessed. Participants were grouped by country of residence (Northern/Western Europe or Southern/Eastern Europe), and by country of birth (native-born, immigrants born in low- and middle-income countries [LMICs], or immigrants born in high-income countries [HICs]). Results Participants in Southern/Eastern Europe had lower mean test scores than those in Northern/Western Europe, and their scores did not differ by country of birth group. In Northern/Western Europe, compared with native-born participants, LMIC-born immigrants demonstrated lower mean grip strength (32.8 ± 7.6 kg vs. 35.7 ± 7.7 kg), delayed recall (2.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.9), and verbal fluency scores (16.0 ± 6.9 vs. 20.3 ± 7.0). HIC-born immigrants had mean scores higher than LMIC-born immigrants, but lower than native-born participants (all p<.001). Conclusions Cognitive and motor performance, measured from late middle age, were associated with national income levels of both country of residence and country of birth. This was similar to previously observed differences in frailty index scores. PMID:25232369

  8. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants. PMID:15693224

  9. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently. PMID:22101890

  10. Literacy and Capital in Immigrant Youths' Online Networks across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva

    2014-01-01

    Communication technologies are playing an increasingly prominent role in facilitating immigrants' social networks across countries and the transnational positioning of immigrant youth in their online language and literacy practices. Drawing from a comparative case study of the digital literacy practices of immigrant youth of Chinese descent,…

  11. Immigrant Parents' Investments in Their Children's Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…

  12. Experiences of Finnish Teachers Working with Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Compared with many European countries, Finland has a shorter history of immigration. During the last 20?years, Finland has become a more multicultural society. Together with rising levels of immigration, teachers' concerns regarding how to manage an increasingly diverse school population have arisen. There are an increasing number of students…

  13. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. PMID:12289341

  14. Immigration and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D T

    1986-05-01

    "This paper aims to provide an overview of immigration and ageing, and to highlight some implications of the numbers and characteristics of the immigrant elderly for the development of policies for aged care [in Australia]. Particular attention is given to the issues of demographic ageing, family support and institutionalisation." The author uses data from recent official and other published sources to examine the elderly immigrant population by birthplace and racial origin, sex, proportion institutionalized, and proportion handicapped. It is found that "insufficient recognition of the widespread lack of fluency in English among the ethnic minority aged is the greatest obstacle to achieving adequate provision for their needs." PMID:12268076

  15. Comparative study analysing women's childbirth satisfaction and obstetric outcomes across two different models of maternity care

    PubMed Central

    Conesa Ferrer, Ma Belén; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo García, César; Martínez Roche, M Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the differences in obstetrical results and women's childbirth satisfaction across 2 different models of maternity care (biomedical model and humanised birth). Setting 2 university hospitals in south-eastern Spain from April to October 2013. Design A correlational descriptive study. Participants A convenience sample of 406 women participated in the study, 204 of the biomedical model and 202 of the humanised model. Results The differences in obstetrical results were (biomedical model/humanised model): onset of labour (spontaneous 66/137, augmentation 70/1, p=0.0005), pain relief (epidural 172/132, no pain relief 9/40, p=0.0005), mode of delivery (normal vaginal 140/165, instrumental 48/23, p=0.004), length of labour (0–4 hours 69/93, >4 hours 133/108, p=0.011), condition of perineum (intact perineum or tear 94/178, episiotomy 100/24, p=0.0005). The total questionnaire score (100) gave a mean (M) of 78.33 and SD of 8.46 in the biomedical model of care and an M of 82.01 and SD of 7.97 in the humanised model of care (p=0.0005). In the analysis of the results per items, statistical differences were found in 8 of the 9 subscales. The highest scores were reached in the humanised model of maternity care. Conclusions The humanised model of maternity care offers better obstetrical outcomes and women's satisfaction scores during the labour, birth and immediate postnatal period than does the biomedical model. PMID:27566632

  16. Immigration data and national population estimates for the United States.

    PubMed

    Akers, D S

    1967-03-01

    The immigration component in national population estimates is comparatively small, but it is not insignificant and may indeed be an important source of error. Therefore, it warrants the considera-tion of those concerned with population estimates. The paper considers alternative methods for deriving estimates of immigration from the raw data and presents estimates of net immigration from 1950 to 1965. They are developed from estimates previously published by the Bureau of the Census, but they differ at some points where new data have become available or where a review of the data has led to a change in judgment on how best to use them. The paper also presents suggestions on how immigration statistics might be altered for purposes of improving the estimates.Census data may be used to estimate net immigration by three different methods, but upon analysis each method proves to be inadequate. Hence, data based on visas surrendered at the port of entry must be the principal source of immigration estimates. These data have their limitations because (1) they do not cover net arrivals of citizens from abroad and from Puerto Rico, (2) they do not report departures of aliens, and (3) they do not allocate all immigrants to year of entry. Alien registration and passenger data offer possible alternative estimates.The paper attempts to measure unrecorded immigration, discusses how net arrivals of citizens from abroad and from Puerto Rico may be estimated, and how the age, sex, and race of immigrants may be treated. PMID:21279778

  17. A Comparative Study of Serum and Follicular Fluid Leptin Concentrations among Explained Infertile, Unexplained Infertile and Fertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Kamyabi, Zahra; Gholamalizade, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between metabolism and reproduction has been always considered as an important topic in female endocrinology. It seems that leptin is one of the involved factors in infertility. Leptin, in addition to regulating body weight plays an important role in regulation of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems. The aim of this stduy is to compare serum and follicular fluid leptin concentrations in order to find the role of leptin level in infertility. Materials and Methods This case-control study was performed from September 2010 to March 2013. A total of 90 women referred to the Infertility Center of Afzalipour Hos- pital, Kerman, Iran, and divided into three equal groups (n=30/per group) of explained infertile (including 4 subgroups), unexplained infertile and normal fertile (control group). The three groups were matched in regard to demographic features [age: 20-40 years and body mass index (BMI): 20-25]. In order to determine leptin level, blood sample and fol- licular fluid were taken one hour prior and at the time of follicular puncture, respectively. Serum and follicular fluid leptin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytic tests, like Mann- Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results In explained infertile and fertile groups, as opposed to unexplained infertile group, mean leptin level was lower in follicular fluid than in serum. Mean follicular fluid leptin concentration in women with unexplained infertility was higher com- pared to the other two groups. Women with unexplained infertility had lower level of serum leptin in comparison to the other two groups. Follicular fluid leptin level in all subgroups of explained infertile group was lower as compared to unexplained and fertile women. Conclusion The results suggested that high leptin level of follicular fluid is one of the main factors

  18. Intergenerational transmission of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) through birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Pulver, Ariel; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-12-01

    This review examines intergenerational differences in birth weight among children born to first-generation and second-generation immigrant mothers and the extent to which they vary by country of origin and receiving country. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest from inception to October 2014 for articles that recorded the mean birth weight (in grams) or odds of low birth weight (LBW) of children born to immigrant mothers and one subsequent generation. Studies were analyzed descriptively and meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. We identified 10 studies (8 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies) including 158,843 first and second-generation immigrant women. The United States and the United Kingdom represented the receiving countries with the majority of immigrants originating from Mexico and South Asia. Six studies were meta-analyzed for mean birth weight and seven for low birth weight. Across all studies, there was found to be no statistically significant difference in mean birth weight between first and second-generation children. However, the odds of being LBW were 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15, 1.27] times greater among second-generation children. Second-generation children of Mexican descent in particular were at increased odds of LBW (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28, 1.69]). In the United States, second-generation children were at 34% higher odds of being LBW (OR = 1.34 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.58]) when compared to their first-generation counterparts. This effect was slightly smaller in the United Kingdom (OR = 1.18 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.23]). In conclusion, immigration to a new country may differentially influence low birth weight over generations, depending on the mother's nativity and the country she immigrates to. PMID:26492459

  19. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  20. From Morocco to Italy: How Women's Bodies Reflect their Change of Residence.

    PubMed

    Maqoud, Fatima; Vacca, Eligio; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila

    2016-04-01

    The body structure and nutritional status of Moroccan women who have immigrated to Italy are examined here in relation to changes in their alimentary behaviors and life-styles, and compared with those of women living in Morocco, who still retain a traditional rural life-style. It is known that the choice to migrate to a foreign country may not only lead to conflicting situations, when the people involved encounter socio-cultural contexts which are very different from those of their original countries, but such choices may also involve severe consequences for health and nutritional status, following changes in alimentary behaviors and life-styles. Among groups recently migrated to Italy, the Moroccan-community is an appropriate reference to highlight these effects. The choice to examine women as the focus of this survey allows extension of observations of their nutritional behavior to the whole family group. According to the bio-indicators examined here, groups of immigrant women are quite different from those remaining at home. The former show a considerable increase in weight, as assessed by both anthropometric and impedentiometric parameters. More than one-third of Moroccan immigrant women are obese, to an extent well beyond that of women in Morocco. The cause of this difference is ascribed to quantitative and qualitative changes induced after migration. Migrant women tend to adopt a mixed diet, which includes both traditional food and that typical of the host country. However, there is a considerable increase in the use of prepared foods, such as pasta, among farinaceous products, and meat, although vegetables and fruit are also consumed. Moroccan women consider both their socio-economic status and alimentary behavior as very private matters--an attitude which makes it difficult to recruit them for this kind of research. Future interventions require their preliminary acceptance and involvement in research aims, to demonstrate its great importance in improving

  1. Intimate partner violence and immigration laws in Canada: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Rishchynski, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant women face numerous, and sometimes insurmountable, barriers in reporting and seeking services for intimate partner violence (IPV). A number of these obstacles relate to immigration laws, policies and legal processes they encounter due to their immigration status and sponsorship relationship. The present study was conducted in Canada, in an urban centre that boasts one of the largest immigrant populations in the world. Using a focus group methodology within a participatory action research framework, this investigation sought to identify factors that facilitate or impede women from coming forward and disclosing IPV, and traced their help-seeking actions. Qualitative data from helping professionals and women reveal that in cases of sponsorship breakdown due to IPV, the criteria required for a viable immigration application are unrealistic, and in many cases impossible to meet in situations of domestic abuse. These data indicate that despite claims to the contrary, laws and policies related to immigration have remained stable for over a decade. Systemic and structural barriers that these create for abused women are still clearly present in immigration laws and policies. The result is that many women stay in abusive relationships, often with their children, for prolonged periods of time accruing serious negative mental health effects. Implications are discussed to help inform policy and practice. PMID:19804906

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Population Screening for BRCA Mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish Women Compared With Family History–Based Testing

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Legood, Rosa; Burnell, Matthew; McGuire, Alistair; Raikou, Maria; Loggenberg, Kelly; Wardle, Jane; Sanderson, Saskia; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Population-based testing for BRCA1/2 mutations detects the high proportion of carriers not identified by cancer family history (FH)–based testing. We compared the cost-effectiveness of population-based BRCA testing with the standard FH-based approach in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) women. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed to compare lifetime costs and effects amongst AJ women in the UK of BRCA founder-mutation testing amongst: 1) all women in the population age 30 years or older and 2) just those with a strong FH (≥10% mutation risk). The model assumes that BRCA carriers are offered risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and annual MRI/mammography screening or risk-reducing mastectomy. Model probabilities utilize the Genetic Cancer Prediction through Population Screening trial/published literature to estimate total costs, effects in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), cancer incidence, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and population impact. Costs are reported at 2010 prices. Costs/outcomes were discounted at 3.5%. We used deterministic/probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to evaluate model uncertainty. Results: Compared with FH-based testing, population-screening saved 0.090 more life-years and 0.101 more QALYs resulting in 33 days’ gain in life expectancy. Population screening was found to be cost saving with a baseline-discounted ICER of -£2079/QALY. Population-based screening lowered ovarian and breast cancer incidence by 0.34% and 0.62%. Assuming 71% testing uptake, this leads to 276 fewer ovarian and 508 fewer breast cancer cases. Overall, reduction in treatment costs led to a discounted cost savings of £3.7 million. Deterministic sensitivity analysis and 94% of simulations on PSA (threshold £20000) indicated that population screening is cost-effective, compared with current NHS policy. Conclusion: Population-based screening for BRCA mutations is highly cost-effective compared with an FH-based approach in AJ

  3. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  4. Does Islam play a role in anti-immigrant sentiment? An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Mathew J; Jamal, Amaney

    2015-09-01

    Are Muslim immigrants subjected to targeted opposition (i.e., Islamophobia) on their pathway to US citizenship? Using a list experiment and a representative sample of the US population, we compare explicit and implicit opposition to Muslim and Christian immigrants. We find that Muslim immigrants, relative to Christian immigrants, experience greater explicit resistance. However, when social desirability bias is taken into account via the list experiment, we find that opposition to Christian and Muslim immigrants is the same. The explanation is that respondents conceal a significant amount of opposition to Christian immigrants. Muslim immigrants, on the other hand, are afforded no such protection. We find that religiosity or denomination do not play a significant role in determining implicit or explicit opposition. We conclude that Islamophobia, which is only explicitly expressed, is best understood as reflective of social desirability bias from which Muslim immigrants do not benefit. PMID:26188440

  5. A Scoping Review of Immigrant Experience of Health Care Access Barriers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalich, Angela; Heinemann, Lyn; Ghahari, Setareh

    2016-06-01

    Canadian population-based surveys report comparable access to health care services between immigrant and non-immigrant populations, yet other research reports immigrant-specific access barriers. A scoping review was conducted to explore research regarding Canadian immigrants' unique experiences in accessing health care, and was guided by the research question: "What is currently known about the barriers that adult immigrants face when accessing Canadian health care services?" The findings of this study suggest that there are unmet health care access needs specific to immigrants to Canada. In reviewing research of immigrants' health care experiences, the most common access barriers were found to be language barriers, barriers to information, and cultural differences. These findings, in addition to low cultural competency reported by interviewed health care workers in the reviewed articles, indicate inequities in access to Canadian health care services for immigrant populations. Suggestions for future research and programming are discussed. PMID:26093784

  6. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. PMID:26600287

  7. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). PMID:25456622

  8. Gender Differences in Human Development: A Comparative Discussion of "Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Voice, Self and Mind" and "Iron John: A Book about Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Brenda J.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    This article is a comparative discussion of women's and men's development through an analysis of two current influential works. The discussion focuses upon the themes found in "Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind" (Belenkv, Clinchy, Goldberger & Tarule, 1986) and "Iron John: A Book about Men" (Bly, 1990). The…

  9. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  10. A multi-centre randomised trial comparing ultrasound vs mammography for screening breast cancer in high-risk Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, S; Zhou, Y; Xu, Y; Zhang, B; Duan, X; Huang, R; Li, B; Shi, Y; Shao, Z; Liao, H; Jiang, J; Shen, N; Zhang, J; Yu, C; Jiang, H; Li, S; Han, S; Ma, J; Sun, Q

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chinese women tend to have small and dense breasts and ultrasound is a common method for breast cancer screening in China. However, its efficacy and cost comparing with mammography has not been evaluated in randomised trials. Methods: At 14 breast centres across China during 2008–2010, 13 339 high-risk women aged 30–65 years were randomised to be screened by mammography alone, ultrasound alone, or by both methods at enrolment and 1-year follow-up. Results: A total of 12 519 and 8692 women underwent the initial and second screenings, respectively. Among the 30 cancers (of which 15 were stage 0/I) detected, 5 (0.72/1000) were in the mammography group, 11 (1.51/1000) in the ultrasound group, and 14 (2.02/1000) in the combined group (P=0.12). In the combined group, ultrasound detected all the 14 cancers, whereas mammography detected 8, making ultrasound more sensitive (100 vs 57.1%, P=0.04) with a better diagnostic accuracy (0.999 vs 0.766, P=0.01). There was no difference between mammography and ultrasound in specificity (100 vs 99.9%, P=0.51) and positive predictive value (72.7 vs 70.0% P=0.87). To detect one cancer, the costs of ultrasound, mammography, and combined modality were $7876, $45 253, and $21 599, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound is superior to mammography for breast cancer screening in high-risk Chinese women. PMID:25668012

  11. Bleeding patterns of women using Lunelle monthly contraceptive injections (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) compared with those of women using Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) or other oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Garceau, R J; Wajszczuk, C J; Kaunitz, A M

    2000-12-01

    Persistent and/or unpredictable bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive methods. An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of the new, highly efficacious monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) (MPA/E(2)C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of the frequently used norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). This report directly compares the bleeding patterns of women on MPA/E(2)C to those of women on NET/EE and untreated women. Overall, breakthrough bleeding occurred less frequently in women using MPA/E(2)C than in women using NET/EE (p < or =0.01). However, more women using MPA/E(2)C experienced amenorrhea/missed periods than those on NET/EE (p < or =0.01). In addition, the percentage of women experiencing breakthrough bleeding or amenorrhea while using other oral contraceptives is compared to that of women using MPA/E(2)C. A rapidly reversible method, MPA/E(2)C, combines the high contraceptive efficacy of surgical sterilization with the convenience of monthly administration. These data suggest that, for a large proportion of women, MPA/E(2)C offers predictability in bleeding patterns comparable to or greater than that experienced by ovulatory untreated women or those using combination oral contraceptives. PMID:11239615

  12. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  13. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  14. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Hairston, Ilana S.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of disorder. Although the mechanisms for their sleep disturbances are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD vs. healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. Methods Fifty-two AD participants (mean age 36.0 ± 11.0 years, 10 women) who were 3–12 weeks since their last drink (mean abstinence 57.9 ± 19.3 days) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (mean age 34.4 ± 10.6 years, 5 women) participated. Following a 23:00 – 06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 days, and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-hr extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 minutes beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. Results There was a slower rate of rise and a lower maximal amplitude in the AD group. DLMO varied by methodology used. Using 3 pg/ml as a threshold, no significant differences between the AD and HC groups were found. Using two standard deviations above the mean of the first 3 samples, AD DLMO occurred later 21:02 (SD=0:41) than HC 20:44 (SD=0:21) t=-2.4, (p=.02). Conclusions While melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in ADs. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats PMID:22217099

  15. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  16. Integrating Cervical Cancer Screening with HIV Care in Cameroon: Comparative Risk Analysis of Cervical Disease in HIV-Infected Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy to Women in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; O’Bryan, Gillian; Tchago, François Edmond; Nangue, Charlette; Bekoule, Patrick Sylvestre; Kollo, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background While the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on natural history of cervical lesions remains controversial, resource limited countries need to understand the relevance of their own data to their settings. We compared the risk of cervical disease in HAART-experienced women with that in women in the general population of Cameroon. Methods A retrospective cross sectional survey of women aged 35 years and above, attending a voluntary screening campaign for cervical cancer at the Nkongsamba Regional Hospital in Cameroon between February and May 2014. Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) were determined by Pap smear. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare the odds of SIL in women on HAART to women from the community with unknown HIV status. Results Included were 302 women of whom 131(43.4%) were HIV-infected and receiving HAART on the site while 171 (56.6%) were women from the community. Cervical disease was observed in 51(16.9%) persons of whom 15 (11.5%) cases in the HAART group and 36 (21.1%) cases in the general group (p = 0.027). After controlling for age and other covariates, women in the HAART group had a 67% reduction in the odds of cervical lesions compared with the community group [adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 0.33, 95%CI: 0.15–0.73, p = 0.006). Conclusion HIV-infected women receiving HAART have a lower risk of cancer than women in the general population. This finding may not be attributed to HAART alone but to all the health benefits derived from receiving a comprehensive HIV care. PMID:26866371

  17. Segmented assimilation, neighborhood disadvantage, and Hispanic immigrant health.

    PubMed

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne

    2016-01-01

    We use a subset of Hispanics from the New Immigrant Survey, a nationally representative data set on immigrants recently granted legal permanent residency (n = 2245), to examine whether the relationship between assimilation and health is modified by neighborhood disadvantage and, in doing so, carry out an empirical test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis. Results indicate that assimilation in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods can be protective against poor health. Specifically, more assimilated men and women in the lowest disadvantage neighborhoods have a lower likelihood of self-reported poorer health and being overweight, respectively; no link was found in higher disadvantage neighborhoods. Assimilation was not found to be associated with self-reported health for women or BMI for men, regardless of neighborhood disadvantage level. Overall, we find some evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of assimilation on health depend on the context in which immigrants experience it. PMID:26708247

  18. Incidence of Major Cardiovascular Events in Immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anna; Rezai, Mohammad R.; Guo, Helen; Maclagan, Laura C.; Austin, Peter C.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Chiu, Maria; Ko, Dennis T.; Lee, Douglas S.; Shah, Baiju R.; Donovan, Linda R.; Sohail, Qazi Zain; Alter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries, but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Methods and Results— We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant Study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Permanent Resident database to 9 population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from 8 major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared with a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants than among long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years), but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana, had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate the differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. Conclusions— Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain a part but not all of these differences. PMID:26324719

  19. A Comparative Study of Perceived Social Support and Self-Efficacy among Women with Wanted and Unwanted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shahry, Parvin; Kalhori, Sharareh R. Niakan; Esfandiyari, Azar; Zamani-Alavijeh, Feresteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unwanted pregnancy induces adverse attitudes regarding pregnancy which is a natural event by increasing mental and socio-economic difficulties. Insufficient maternal care and low adjustment to parental role are known as consequences of unwanted pregnancy. Perceived social support and self-efficacy in pregnancy influence health related behaviors and may play a crucial role in adaptation to pregnancy; this study was conducted to examine and compare the self-efficacy and social support among two groups of women with wanted and unwanted pregnancy. Methods: This analytical descriptive research was conducted on 315 women referred to 13 health centers in the east and west of Ahvaz in 2011. Data were collected via random stratified sampling method through interview. The instrument of this study was a questionnaire in three distinct parts including demographic, modified Persian version of Vaux General social support (Chronbach`s alpha =0.80) and Persian version of self-efficacy scale (Chronbach`s alpha =0.80). Data were analyzed through independent t-test and ANOVA. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 25.8±5.6; unwanted pregnancy occurred in 135 women (42.2%). The mean scores of social support in the two given groups with wanted and unwanted pregnancy were 26.62±4.16 and 22.28±7.57, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, the mean scores of self-efficacy for the wanted pregnancy group was 37.77±6.66 and for unwanted pregnancy group it was 31.03±6.31 (P<0.001). Women and their husbands’ age, the number of male offspring in family and marriage years were significantly different in the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that unwanted pregnant women are more likely to be exposed to low level of perceived social support and self-efficacy. Therefore more studies and interventions are recommended to be conducted to analyze the effect of family and friends’ supports on unwanted pregnant women’s perceived

  20. Behavioral and Environmental Explanations of Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Stan A; Perlstadt, Harry; Dziura, James D; Post, Lori A

    2016-10-01

    Immigrant/refugee children sometimes have substantially higher blood lead levels (BLLs) than US-born children in similar environments. We try to understand why, by exploring the relationship between immigration status of mother and the BLLs of US-born children. We compared BLLs of children born in Michigan to immigrant and non-immigrant parents, using the Michigan database of BLL tests for 2002-2005, which includes the child's race, Medicaid eligibility and address. We added census data on socio-demographic/housing characteristics of the child's block group, and information about parents. Low parental education, single parent households, mothers' smoking and drinking, all increase the child's BLL. However, immigrant parents had fewer characteristics associated with high BLL than US born parents, and their children had lower BLLs than children of US-born mothers. Our findings suggest that prior findings of higher BLLs among immigrant/refugee children probably result from them starting life in high-lead environments. PMID:26163335