Sample records for immune cells macrophages

  1. The use of macrophages stimulated by immune interferon as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Wiener, E; Garner, S F

    1987-01-01

    Macrophages obtained from human monocytes by monolayer culture were stimulated with recombinant immune interferon. They were compared with unstimulated macrophages and monocytes as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay, using both IgG anti-Rh(D)-coated complement-coated red cells. The presence of the interferon in the culture medium improved the adherence of macrophages in monolayers. The interferon markedly augmented the number of IgG-coated red cells which became attached to the macrophages and reduced the amount of antibody needed for red cell-macrophage interaction. This stimulatory effect occurred regardless of the IgG subclass composition of the anti-Rh(D) antibody. The activity of the stimulated macrophages to interact with IgG- or complement-coated red cells was considerably greater than that of monocytes. The results imply that macrophages treated with recombinant immune interferon are more sensitive than monocytes as indicator cells in the mononuclear phagocyte assay. PMID:3127106

  2. Monocytes and Macrophages Regulate Immunity through Dynamic Networks of Survival and Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arti Parihar; Timothy D. Eubank; Andrea I. Doseff

    2010-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are central cells of the innate immune system, responsible for defending against diverse pathogens. While they originate from a common myeloid precursor and share functions in innate immunity, each has a very distinct life span finely tuned by the apoptotic caspases. Normally, circulating monocytes are short-lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis on a daily basis. Macrophages, however, have

  3. Sequestration from Immune CD4^+ T Cells of Mycobacteria Growing in Human Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Pancholi; Asra Mirza; Nina Bhardwaj; Ralph M. Steinman

    1993-01-01

    CD4^+ helper T cells mediate resistance to tuberculosis, presumably by enhancing the antimicrobial activity of macrophages within which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism grows. A first step in resistance should be the presentation of mycobacterial antigens by macrophages to CD4^+ T cells. However, when the antigenic stimulus is limited to organisms growing in human monocytes, the organisms become sequestered from immune

  4. Sequestration from Immune CD4^+ T Cells of Mycobacteria Growing in Human Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancholi, Preeti; Mirza, Asra; Bhardwaj, Nina; Steinman, Ralph M.

    1993-05-01

    CD4^+ helper T cells mediate resistance to tuberculosis, presumably by enhancing the antimicrobial activity of macrophages within which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism grows. A first step in resistance should be the presentation of mycobacterial antigens by macrophages to CD4^+ T cells. However, when the antigenic stimulus is limited to organisms growing in human monocytes, the organisms become sequestered from immune CD4^+ T cells. This block in presentation is selective for growing mycobacteria and not for other stimuli. Sequestration would allow replicating organisms to persist in infected individuals and may contribute to virulence.

  5. Switching on the macrophage-mediated suppressor mechanism by tumor cells to evade host immune surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Ting, C C; Rodrigues, D

    1980-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a unique mechanism for tumor cell-induced immunosuppression. In the presence of a nonsuppressive dose of tumor cells, generation of cytotoxic T cells in the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) is completely suppressed by adding exogenous (peritoneal) macrophages (PM phi) after the initiation of the MLC. This indicates that tumor cells can switch on a suppressor mechanism through host macrophages. It has further been determined that suppression can be induced only if resident (splenic) macrophages (SM phi) are exposed to tumor cells prior to addition of PM phi. If SM phi and PM phi are simultaneously present with the tumor cells, induction of suppression is completely precluded. These findings indicate that switching on of the suppressor mechanism by tumor cells has a critical requirement for the collaboration of two populations of macrophages, SM phi and PM phi, and their presence in a specific sequence (SM phi preceding PM phi). This may represent one of the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade host immune surveillance. PMID:6449005

  6. In vitro immune toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptosis and immune cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia; Yang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are often detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, presenting potential threats to ecosystem and human health. PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, data on PBDE immunotoxicity are limited, and the toxicity mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both immune cell death and dysfunction can modulate the responses of the immune system. This study examined the toxic effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the immune system by using peritoneal macrophages as the model. The macrophages were exposed to PBDEs, and cell death was determined through flow cytometry and immunochemical blot. The results showed that after 24h of exposure, BDE-47 (>5 ?M) and BDE-209 (>20 ?M) induced cell apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and depleted glutathione. BDE-47 was more potent than BDE-209; the cytotoxic concentrations for BDE-47 and BDE-209 were determined to be 5 ?M and 20 ?M, respectively, during 24h of exposure. However, pretreatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) partially reversed the cytotoxic effects. Further gene expression analyses on Caspase-3,-8,-9, TNFR1, and Bax revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. More importantly, non-cytotoxic concentrations BDE-47 (<2 ?M) and BDE-209 (<10 ?M) could impair macrophage accessory cell function in a concentration-dependent manner, but no effects were observed on phagocytic responses. These revealed effects of PBDEs on macrophages may shed light on the toxicity mechanisms of PBDEs and suggest the necessity of evaluating cellular functionality during the risk assessment of PBDE immunotoxicity. PMID:25462306

  7. Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and non-cognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tri Giang; Green, Jesse A.; Gray, Elizabeth E.; Xu, Ying; Cyster, Jason G.

    2009-01-01

    Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-?1?2 and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, non-cognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular sinus to the germinal center and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity. PMID:19503106

  8. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells in mucosal immune homeostasis: Crosstalk between dendritic cells, macrophages and B-cells

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Li, Xuhang

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance of the commensal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in tolerance towards the microbiota. Dendritic cells (DC), macrophages (M?) and B-cells are known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) due to their specialization in presenting processed antigen to T-cells, and in turn shaping types of T-cell responses generated. Intestinal DC are migratory cells, unique in their ability to generate primary T-cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, whilst M? and B-cells contribute to polarization and differentiation of secondary T-cell responses in the gut lamina propria. The antigen-sampling function of gut DC and M? enables them to sample bacterial antigens from the gut lumen to determine types of T-cell responses generated. The primary function of intestinal B-cells involves their secretion of large amounts of immunoglobulin A, which in turn contributes to epithelial barrier function and limits immune responses towards to microbiota. Here, we review the role of all three types of APC in intestinal immunity, both in the steady state and in inflammation, and how these cells interact with one another, as well as with the intestinal microenvironment, to shape mucosal immune responses. We describe mechanisms of maintaining intestinal immune tolerance in the steady state but also inappropriate responses of APC to components of the gut microbiota that contribute to pathology in IBD. PMID:25110405

  9. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  10. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z Y; Packialakshmi, B; Makkar, S K; Dridi, S; Rath, N C

    2014-11-15

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA), produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation, that has beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on avian macrophage, we treated a naturally transformed line of chicken macrophage cells named HTC with Na-butyrate in the absence or presence of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a metabolic activator, evaluating its various functional parameters. The results demonstrate that, butyrate by itself had no significant effect on variables such as nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of genes associated with various inflammatory cytokines but it inhibited NO production, and reduced the expression of cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Butyrate decreased the expression of TGF-?3 in the presence or absence of LPS, while it had no effect on IL-4, T?4, and MMP2 gene expression. In addition, butyrate augmented PMA induced oxidative burst indicated by DCF-DA oxidation and restored LPS induced attenuation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Although butyrate had no significant effect on phagocytosis or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities of resting macrophages, it significantly suppressed the effects induced by their respective stimulants such as LPS induced phagocytosis and PMA induced MMP expression. These results suggest that butyrate has immunomodulatory property in the presence of agents that incite the cells thus, has potential to control inflammation and restore immune homeostasis. PMID:25278494

  11. MANGANESE CHLORIDE ENHANCES NATURAL CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE EFFECTOR CELL FUNCTION: EFFECTS ON MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single intramuscular injection of MnCl2 in mice caused an increase in macrophage functional activity. Spleen cell antibody-dependent cellmediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against both chicken erythrocytes and P815 tumor cell targets was enhanced 24 hours following a single injection...

  12. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells as Actors in the Immune Reaction of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Christiane Silke; Bruns, Heiko; Daniel, Christoph; Distel, Luitpold Valentin; Hartmann, Arndt; Gerbitz, Armin; Buettner, Maike Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The inflammatory infiltrate plays a pivotal role in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here, we focussed on the role of macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DC). Methods M? and DC infiltration was investigated in 106 cHL specimens using immunohistochemistry and cytokine expression was analyzed in a subset by real-time PCR. Human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, DC, M? stimulated with GM-CSF (M?GM-CSF, pro-inflammatory M?-1-model) or M-CSF (M?M-CSF, immunomodulatory M?-2-model) were incubated with cHL cell line (L1236, HDLM2) supernatants (SN). DC maturation or M? polarization were investigated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the impact of DC or M? on cHL cell proliferation was analyzed by BrdU/CFSE assay. Results In cHL tissues mature myeloid (m)DC and M? predominated. High numbers of CD83+ mDC and low numbers of CD163+ M? were associated with improved disease specific survival. In numerous cHL specimens increased levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of IL13 and GM-CSF were observed compared to reactive lymphadenopathies. Maturation of DC and induction and maintenance of an immunomodulatory M? phenotype were promoted by SN derived from cHL cell lines. TNF? neutralization in SN resulted in a significant inhibition of mDC maturation. DC and pro-inflammatory M? inhibited the proliferation of cHL cells. Conclusion Adopting an immunomodulatory phenotype is a potential mechanism for how M? promote immune evasion in cHL. Mature DC, in contrast, might participate in antitumoral immunity. PMID:25470820

  13. Distinct Innate Immune Responses in Human Macrophages and Endothelial Cells Infected with Shrew-borne Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2013-01-01

    Although hantaviruses have been previously considered as rodent-borne pathogens, recent studies demonstrate genetically distinct hantaviruses in evolutionarily distant non-rodent reservoirs, including shrews, moles and bats. The immunological responses to these newfound hantaviruses in humans are unknown. We compared the innate immune responses to Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), two shrew-borne hantaviruses, with that toward two rodent-borne hantaviruses, pathogenic Hantann virus (HTNV) and nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV). Infection of human macrophages and endothelial cells with either HTNV or MJNV triggered productive viral replication and up-regulation of anti-viral responsive gene expression from day 1 to day 3 postinfection, compared with PHV and TPMV. Furthermore, HTNV, MJNV and TPMV infection led to prolonged increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from days 3 to 7 postinfection. By contrast, PHV infection failed to induce pro-inflammatory responses. Distinct patterns of innate immune activation caused by MJNV suggest that it might be pathogenic to humans. PMID:22944108

  14. Macrophages in homeostatic immune function

    PubMed Central

    Jantsch, Jonathan; Binger, Katrina J.; Müller, Dominik N.; Titze, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are not only involved in inflammatory and anti-infective processes, but also play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent evidence investigating the role of macrophages in controlling angiogenesis, metabolism as well as salt and water balance. Particularly, we summarize the importance of macrophage tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP, also termed nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) expression in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis. Further understanding of homeostatic macrophage function may lead to new therapeutic approaches to treat ischemia, hypertension and metabolic disorders. PMID:24847274

  15. Porcine macrophage Cdelta2+ and Cdelta2- cell lines support influenza virus infection and replication and Cdelta2+ cells mount innate immune responses to influenza virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory epithelial cells are the first cells which are infected with influenza virus and these cells play a major role in influenza pathogenesis. However, many studies have shown that alveolar macrophages also play a very important role in the pathogenesis and immunity to influenza infection. Un...

  16. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  17. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Galli; Niels Borregaard; Thomas A Wynn

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired

  18. Variable Processing and Cross-presentation of HIV by Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Shapes CTL Immunodominance and Immune Escape

    PubMed Central

    Dinter, Jens; Duong, Ellen; Lai, Nicole Y.; Berberich, Matthew J.; Kourjian, Georgio; Bracho-Sanchez, Edith; Chu, Duong; Su, Hang; Zhang, Shao Chong; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Møs) internalize and process exogenous HIV-derived antigens for cross-presentation by MHC-I to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL). However, how degradation patterns of HIV antigens in the cross-presentation pathways affect immunodominance and immune escape is poorly defined. Here, we studied the processing and cross-presentation of dominant and subdominant HIV-1 Gag-derived epitopes and HLA-restricted mutants by monocyte-derived DCs and Møs. The cross-presentation of HIV proteins by both DCs and Møs led to higher CTL responses specific for immunodominant epitopes. The low CTL responses to subdominant epitopes were increased by pretreatment of target cells with peptidase inhibitors, suggestive of higher intracellular degradation of the corresponding peptides. Using DC and Mø cell extracts as a source of cytosolic, endosomal or lysosomal proteases to degrade long HIV peptides, we identified by mass spectrometry cell-specific and compartment-specific degradation patterns, which favored the production of peptides containing immunodominant epitopes in all compartments. The intracellular stability of optimal HIV-1 epitopes prior to loading onto MHC was highly variable and sequence-dependent in all compartments, and followed CTL hierarchy with immunodominant epitopes presenting higher stability rates. Common HLA-associated mutations in a dominant epitope appearing during acute HIV infection modified the degradation patterns of long HIV peptides, reduced intracellular stability and epitope production in cross-presentation-competent cell compartments, showing that impaired epitope production in the cross-presentation pathway contributes to immune escape. These findings highlight the contribution of degradation patterns in the cross-presentation pathway to HIV immunodominance and provide the first demonstration of immune escape affecting epitope cross-presentation. PMID:25781895

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: a regulator of innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Roger; Thierry Calandra

    2003-01-01

    For more than a quarter of a century, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been a mysterious cytokine. In recent years, MIF has assumed an important role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. MIF is an integral component of the host antimicrobial alarm system and stress response that promotes the pro-inflammatory functions of immune cells. A rapidly increasing amount

  20. Macrophage Cytokines: Involvement in Immunity and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arango Duque, Guillermo; Descoteaux, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of macrophages has made them primordial for both development and immunity. Their functions range from the shaping of body plans to the ingestion and elimination of apoptotic cells and pathogens. Cytokines are small soluble proteins that confer instructions and mediate communication among immune and non-immune cells. A portfolio of cytokines is central to the role of macrophages as sentries of the innate immune system that mediate the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In concert with other mediators, cytokines bias the fate of macrophages into a spectrum of inflammation-promoting “classically activated,” to anti-inflammatory or “alternatively activated” macrophages. Deregulated cytokine secretion is implicated in several disease states ranging from chronic inflammation to allergy. Macrophages release cytokines via a series of beautifully orchestrated pathways that are spatiotemporally regulated. At the molecular level, these exocytic cytokine secretion pathways are coordinated by multi-protein complexes that guide cytokines from their point of synthesis to their ports of exit into the extracellular milieu. These trafficking proteins, many of which were discovered in yeast and commemorated in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, coordinate the organelle fusion steps that are responsible for cytokine release. This review discusses the functions of cytokines secreted by macrophages, and summarizes what is known about their release mechanisms. This information will be used to delve into how selected pathogens subvert cytokine release for their own survival. PMID:25339958

  1. Astragalus embranaceus extract activates immune response in macrophages via heparanase.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiaojing; Niu, Jianying; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xu, Wangjie; Qiao, Zhongdong; Gu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has immunoregulatory properties in many diseases. We investigated the effects and mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) in the macrophage migration and immune response mediator release. The viability of Ana-1 macrophages treated with AME was evaluated by the MTT method. The secretion and mRNA levels of IL-1? and TNF-a were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Macrophage migration was assayed by transwell assay. The activity of heparanase (HPA) was determined by a heparin-degrading enzyme assay. Our results didn't show any toxicity of AME in macrophages. AME increased the activity of HPA, cell migration, mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1? and TNF-a in macrophages. Pretreatment with anti-HPA antibody reduced cell migration, secretion of IL-1? and TNF-a did not change the mRNA levels of IL-1? and TNF-a significantly in AME-treated macrophages. This suggests that AME may increase the release of immune response mediator and cell migration via HPA to activate immune response in macrophages. PMID:22695229

  2. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, E.

    2015-01-01

    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population.

  3. Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors by mast cells alone, but not lymphocytes, macrophages or other immune cells in human upper airways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, X; McKerr, G; Dong, Z; Higgins, C; Carson, J; Yang, Z; Hannigan, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nasal polyposis often coexists with asthma in airway inflammatory conditions characterised by the infiltration of a range of immune cells. A potentially important role for ovarian hormones has been implicated in airway inflammation but the cellular target for such action is not known.?METHODS—Expression of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) was examined using immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed nasal polyp tissues from 47 subjects. The cells positive for ER or PR were confirmed by spatial location, dual immunolabelling, and histochemical staining.?RESULTS—Consistent with the known features of nasal polyps, CD4+ (T helper/inducer), CD8+ (cytotoxic/supressor), CD68+ (macrophages), mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils were all clearly detected by their relevant monoclonal antibodies or appropriate histochemical staining, but only mast cells tested positive for ER/PR labelling with their polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The frequencies for expression were 61.7% for ER positive and 59.6% for PR positive cells. The expression of ER/PR was independent of patient sex and age but was highly correlated with the numbers of mast cells (r = 0.973, p<0.001 for ER; r = 0.955, p<0.001 for PR). Fewer than 5% of mast cells were found to be negative for ER/PR expression.?CONCLUSIONS—Mast cells alone, but not lymphocytes, macrophages, or other immune cells, express ER/PR in human upper airways. Numerous ER/PR positive mast cells exist in nasal polyps, indicating that this may be a major route for the involvement of sex hormones in airway inflammation when exposed to the higher and varying concentration of oestrogen and progesterone characteristic of females.?? PMID:11182013

  4. The cellular and proteomic response of primary and immortalized murine Kupffer cells following immune stimulation diverges from that of monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tweedell, Rebecca; Tao, Dingyin; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2015-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are the first line of defense in the liver against pathogens, yet several microbes successfully target the liver, bypass immune surveillance, and effectively develop in this tissue. Our current, albeit poor, understanding of KC-pathogen interactions has been largely achieved through the study of primary cells, requiring isolation from large numbers of animals. To facilitate the study of KC biology, an immortalized rat KC line 1, RKC1, was developed. We performed a comparative global proteomic analysis of RKC1 and primary rat KCs (PRKC) to characterize their respective responses to lipopolysaccharide-mediated immune stimulation. We identified patent differences in the proteomic response profile of RKC1 and PRKC to lipopolysaccharide. We observed that PRKC upregulated more immune function pathways and exhibited marked changes in cellular morphology following stimulation. We consequently analyzed the cytoskeletal signaling pathways of these cells in light of the fact that macrophages are known to induce cytoskeletal changes in response to pathogens. Our findings suggest that KCs respond differently to inflammatory stimulus than do monocyte-derived macrophages, and such data may provide insight into how pathogens, such as the malaria parasite, may have evolved mechanisms of liver entry through KCs without detection. PMID:25266554

  5. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Th2 immunity is essential for the host protection against nematode infection, while detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. Although many of the details regarding the cellular and molecular events in Th2 immunity have been described, the specific cell types and effector molecules involved i...

  6. TLR3 Signaling in Macrophages Is Indispensable for the Protective Immunity of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells against Enterovirus 71 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kai; Yang, Juhao; Luo, Kaiming; Yang, Chunhui; Zhang, Na; Xu, Ruifeng; Chen, Jianxia; Jin, Mingfei; Xu, Bin; Guo, Nining; Wang, Jianrong; Chen, Zuolong; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yan; Deng, Chaoyang; Bai, Li; Ge, Baoxue; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Shen, Hao; Yang, Chun-Fu; Leng, Qibin

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent pathogen among enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease in children but rarely in adults. The mechanisms that determine the age-dependent susceptibility remain largely unclear. Here, we found that the paucity of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells together with immaturity of the immune system was related to the susceptibility of neonatal mice to EV71 infection. iNKT cells were crucial antiviral effector cells to protect young mice from EV71 infection before their adaptive immune systems were fully mature. EV71 infection led to activation of iNKT cells depending on signaling through TLR3 but not other TLRs. Surprisingly, iNKT cell activation during EV71 infection required TLR3 signaling in macrophages, but not in dendritic cells (DCs). Mechanistically, interleukin (IL)-12 and endogenous CD1d-restricted antigens were both required for full activation of iNKT cells. Furthermore, CD1d-deficiency led to dramatically increased viral loads in central nervous system and more severe disease in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, our results suggest that iNKT cells may be involved in controlling EV71 infection in children when their adaptive immune systems are not fully developed, and also imply that iNKT cells might be an intervention target for treating EV71-infected patients. PMID:25615690

  7. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  8. Absence of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Mice Leads to Decreased Local Macrophage Recruitment and Antigen-specific T Helper Cell Type 1 Immune Response in

    E-print Network

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plays a critical role in innate immunity by directing the migration of monocytes into inflammatory sites. Recent data indicated a function for this chemokine in adaptive immunity as a regulator of T cell commitment to T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector function. Studies in a Th1-dependent animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), showed that MCP-1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of affected rodents, and MCP-1 antibodies could block relapses of the disease. Mice deficient for the major MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2, did not develop EAE after active immunization but generated effector cells that could transfer the disease to naive wild-type recipients. We analyzed EAE in mice deficient for MCP-1 to define the relevant ligand for CCR2, which responds to murine MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-5. We found that C57BL/6 MCP-1–null mice were markedly resistant to EAE after active immunization, with drastically impaired recruitment of macrophages to the CNS, yet able to generate effector T cells that transferred severe disease to naive wild-type recipients. By contrast, adoptive transfer of primed T cells from wild-type mice into naive MCP-1–null recipients

  9. Tumor-associated macrophages in clear cell renal cell carcinoma express both gastrin-releasing peptide and its receptor: a possible modulatory role of immune effectors cells

    PubMed Central

    Bedke, Jens; Hemmerlein, Bernhard; Perske, Christina; Gross, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) stimulates tumor cell proliferation and neoangiogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) comprise an important cellular component of these tumors. We analyzed the GRP/GRP-R network in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) with special regard to its expression by macrophages, tumor cells and microvessels. Methods Gastrin-releasing peptide and GRP-R expression in 17 ccRCC and 9 non-ccRCC were analyzed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence staining. Results Tumor-associated macrophages expressed GRP and GRP receptor in ccRCC. Tumor cells and microvessels showed low to intermediate GRP-R expression in nearly all cases. In 12 ccRCC tumor epithelia also expressed low levels of GRP. Microvascular GRP expression was found in nine cases of ccRCC. For non-RCC, the expression of GRP and GRP receptor expression pattern was similar. Conclusions Tumor-associated macrophages are the main source of GRP in RCC. GRP receptor on TAM, tumor epithelia and microvessels might be a molecular base of a GRP/GRP receptor network, potentially acting as a paracrine/autocrine modulator of TAM recruitment, tumor growth and neoangiogenesis. PMID:20012906

  10. The role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3 in regulation of T cell-mediated immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, M A; Huffnagle, G B; McDonald, R A; Lindell, D M; Moore, B B; Cook, D N; Toews, G B

    2000-12-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha/CCL3) is a CC chemokine required for optimal recruitment of leukocytes in response to cryptococcal Ags. MIP-1alpha is expressed in the lungs by day 6 post Cryptococcus neoformans infection and could play a role in the development of cell-mediated immunity. To address this possibility, wild-type (MIP-1alpha(+/+)) mice and MIP-1alpha knockout (MIP-1alpha(-/-)) mice were infected intratracheally with a highly virulent strain of C. neoformans (145A). MIP-1alpha message was detected in the lungs on days 3, 7, and 14 in MIP-1alpha(+/+) mice, but it was undetectable in MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice. On day 16, MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice had a 7-fold increase in C. neoformans burden in the lungs, but no decrease in pulmonary leukocyte recruitment. MIP-1alpha(+/+) and MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice had similar numbers of recruited lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Notably, MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice had a significantly greater number of eosinophils. MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice had extremely high levels of serum IgE. This switch of immune response to a T(2) phenotype was associated with enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 expression in the lungs of MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice compared with MIP-1alpha (+/+) mice. Progression of pulmonary cryptococcosis in the presence of nonprotective T(2) immunity resulted in profound lung damage in MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice (eosinophilic crystal deposition, destruction of lung parenchyma, and pulmonary hemorrhage). Twelve-week survival was dramatically decreased in MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice. These studies, together with our previous studies, demonstrate that MIP-1alpha plays a role in both the afferent (T(1)/T(2) development) and efferent (T(1)-mediated leukocyte recruitment) phases of cell-mediated immunity to C. neoformans. PMID:11086082

  11. Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Onore, Charity E.; Schwartzer, Jared J.; Careaga, Milo; Bennan, Robert F.; Ashwood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation (MIA) models. More recently, permanent changes in T cell cytokine responses were reported in children with autism and in offspring of MIA mice; however, the cytokine responses of other immune cell populations have not been thoroughly investigated in these MIA models. Similar to changes in T cell function, we hypothesized that following MIA, offspring will have long-term changes in macrophage function. To test this theory, we utilized the poly (I:C) MIA mouse model in C57BL/6J mice and examined macrophage cytokine production in adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given either a single injection of 20 mg/kg polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid, poly (I:C), or saline delivered intraperitoneally on gestational day 12.5. When offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams reached 10 weeks of age, femurs were collected and bone marrow-derived macrophages were generated. Cytokine production was measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated for 24 h in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/LPS, or IFN-?/LPS. Following stimulation with LPS alone, or the combination of IFN-?/LPS, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams produced higher levels of IL-12(p40) (p < 0.04) suggesting an increased M1 polarization. In addition, even without the presence of a polarizing cytokine or LPS stimulus, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams exhibited a higher production of CCL3 (p = 0.05). Moreover, CCL3 levels were further increased when stimulated with LPS, or polarized with either IL-4/LPS or IFN-?/LPS (p < 0.05) suggesting a general increase in production of this chemokine. Collectively, these data suggest that MIA can produce lasting changes in macrophage function that are sustained into adulthood. PMID:24566386

  12. Crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum stimulates immune responses in normal mice by increasing the percentage of Mac-3-positive cells and enhancing macrophage phagocytic activity and natural killer cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    CHUEH, FU-SHIN; LIN, JEN-JYH; LIN, JU-HWA; WENG, SHU-WEN; HUANG, YI-PING; CHUNG, JING-GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is a natural plant that is used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (CEPC) has numerous biological effects; however, there is a lack of studies on the effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. CEPC (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to BALB/c mice for three weeks, following which blood, liver, and spleen samples were collected. CEPC did not significantly affect the total body weight, or tissue weights of the liver or spleen, as compared with the control mice. CEPC increased the percentages of CD3 (T-cell marker), 11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) positive-cells, and reduced the percentage of CD19-positive cells (B-cell marker), as compared with the control mice. CEPC (100 mg/kg) stimulated macrophage phagocytosis of blood samples but did not affect macrophage phagocytosis in the peritoneum. Activity of the splenic natural killer cells was increased in response to CEPC (50 mg/kg) treatment. Furthermore, CEPC inhibited T- and B-cell proliferation when the cells were stimulated with concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. PMID:25338846

  13. Crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum stimulates immune responses in normal mice by increasing the percentage of Mac-3-positive cells and enhancing macrophage phagocytic activity and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Weng, Shu-Wen; Huang, Yi-Ping; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is a natural plant that is used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (CEPC) has numerous biological effects; however, there is a lack of studies on the effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo effects of CEPC on immune responses in normal mice. CEPC (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to BALB/c mice for three weeks, following which blood, liver, and spleen samples were collected. CEPC did not significantly affect the total body weight, or tissue weights of the liver or spleen, as compared with the control mice. CEPC increased the percentages of CD3 (T-cell marker), 11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) positive-cells, and reduced the percentage of CD19-positive cells (B-cell marker), as compared with the control mice. CEPC (100 mg/kg) stimulated macrophage phagocytosis of blood samples but did not affect macrophage phagocytosis in the peritoneum. Activity of the splenic natural killer cells was increased in response to CEPC (50 mg/kg) treatment. Furthermore, CEPC inhibited T- and B-cell proliferation when the cells were stimulated with concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. PMID:25338846

  14. Innate immune response to a H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus in newborn porcine trachea cells, alveolar macrophages, and precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Viral respiratory diseases remain of major importance in swine breeding units. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the main known contributors to infectious respiratory diseases. The innate immune response to swine influenza viruses has been assessed in many previous studies. However most of these studies were carried out in a single-cell population or directly in the live animal, in all its complexity. In the current study we report the use of a trachea epithelial cell line (newborn pig trachea cells – NPTr) in comparison with alveolar macrophages and lung slices for the characterization of innate immune response to an infection by a European SIV of the H3N2 subtype. The expression pattern of transcripts involved in the recognition of the virus, interferon type I and III responses, and the host-response regulation were assessed by quantitative PCR in response to infection. Some significant differences were observed between the three systems, notably in the expression of type III interferon mRNA. Then, results show a clear induction of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways in infected NPTr cells. Conversely, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways was not activated. The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway clearly reduced interferon type I and III responses and the induction of SOCS1 at the transcript level in infected NPTr cells. Similarly, the inhibition of MAPK pathway reduced viral replication and interferon response. All together, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the innate immune response to H3N2 SIV and may help identify strategies to effectively control SIV infection. PMID:24712747

  15. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a Critical Mediator of the Activation of Immune Cells by Exotoxins of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Calandra; Lori A. Spiegel; Christine N. Metz; Richard Bucala

    1998-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1960s as a T cell cytokine, the protein mediator known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been found recently to be a pituitary peptide released during the physiological stress response, a proinflammatory macrophage cytokine secreted after LPS stimulation, and a T cell product expressed as part of the antigen-dependent activation response. We report herein that

  16. Dendritic cells and macrophages in kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Matsumoto; Noboru Fukuda; Masanori Abe; Takayuki Fujita

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages have greatly advanced our knowledge of glomerular immunopathology.\\u000a This rapidly developing field most likely has considerable impact on our understanding of the major mediators of tissue injury\\u000a and repair in kidney disease. The pivotal role of cytokine in the initiation, differentiation, and amplification of local\\u000a immune response production by antigen-presenting cells (APC;

  17. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  18. Regulation of the immune response by macrophage migration inhibitory factor: biological and structural features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Bernhagen; Thierry Calandra; Richard Bucala

    1998-01-01

    The classical T cell cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has reemerged recently as a critical mediator\\u000a of the host immune and stress response. MIF has been found to be a mediator of several diseases including gram-negative septic\\u000a shock and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Its immunological functions include the modulation of the host macrophage\\u000a and T and B cell response. In

  19. Beta-adrenoceptor-effector system of the human macrophage U937 cell line.

    PubMed

    Liggett, S B

    1989-04-12

    Like animal peritoneal macrophages, cells of the U937 human macrophage cell line were found to possess beta-adrenoceptors with a density of approximately 1400 sites/cell of the beta 2-subtype. Agonist occupancy increased adenylate cyclase activity and lead to rapid sequestration of cell surface receptors, functional desensitization, and receptor downregulation. Thus human macrophages possess beta-adrenoceptors and the U937 cell provides a system for studying the interactions of this receptor with macrophage immune function. PMID:2545462

  20. Innate immune cells in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spahn, Jessica H.; Li, Wenjun; Kreisel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review examines the recent literature on the role of innate cells in immunity to transplanted tissue. It specifically addresses the impact of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, and platelets. Recent findings Current research indicates that innate immunity plays a dual role in response to transplanted tissue with the ability to either facilitate rejection or promote tolerance. Intriguingly, some of these cells are even capable of reacting to allogeneic cells, a feature usually only attributed to cells of the adaptive immune system. Summary This review highlights new therapeutic targets in the innate immune system that may be useful in the treatment of transplant recipients. It also emphasizes the need to use caution in exploring these new therapeutics. PMID:24316757

  1. Immune dynamics following infection of avian macrophages and epithelial cells with typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars; bacterial invasion and persistence, nitric oxide and oxygen production, differential host gene expression, NF-?B signalling and cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Setta, Ahmed; Barrow, Paul A; Kaiser, Pete; Jones, Michael A

    2012-05-15

    Poultry-derived food is a common source of infection of human with the non-host-adapted salmonellae while fowl typhoid and pullorum disease are serious diseases in poultry. Development of novel immune-based control strategies against Salmonella infection necessitates a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. Intestinal epithelial cells are the first line of defence against enteric infections and the role of macrophages is crucial in Salmonella infection and pathogenesis. While gene expression following Salmonella infection has been investigated, a comparison between different serovars has not been, as yet, extensively studied in poultry. In this study, chicken macrophage-like cells (HD11) and chick kidney epithelial cells (CKC) were used to study and compare the immune responses and mechanisms that develop after infection with different Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Hadar and Infantis showed a greater level of invasion and/or uptake characters when compared with S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum. Nitrate and reactive oxygen species were greater in Salmonella-infected HD11 cells with the expression of iNOS and nuclear factor-?B by chicken macrophages infected with both systemic and broad host range serovars. HD11 cells revealed higher mRNA gene expression for CXCLi2, IL-6 and iNOS genes in response to S. Enteritidis infection when compared to S. Pullorum-infected cells. S. Typhimurium- and S. Hadar-infected HD11 showed higher gene expression for CXCLi2 versus S. Pullorum-infected cells. Higher mRNA gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, chemokines CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 and iNOS genes were detected in S. Typhimurium- and S. Enteritidis-infected CKC followed by S. Hadar and S. Infantis while no significant changes were observed in S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum-infected CKC. PMID:22475571

  2. Role of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure in innate immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Yang, Ivana V; Hui, Lucy; Patel, Jay A; Evans, Christopher M; Prikeris, Rytis; Kobzik, Lester; O'Connor, Brian P; Schwartz, David A

    2013-06-15

    Macrophages play a key role in host defense against microbes, in part, through phagocytosis. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a scavenger receptor on the cell surface of macrophages that mediates opsonin-independent phagocytosis. The goal of our study is to investigate the role of MARCO in LPS or lipotechoic acid-induced macrophage tolerance. Although it has been established that expression of MARCO and phagocytosis is increased in tolerant macrophages, the transcriptional regulation and biological role of MARCO in tolerant macrophages have not been investigated. In this study, we confirm that tolerized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) selectively increase expression of MARCO (both transcript and cell surface receptor) and increase phagocytosis. We found that H3K4me3 dynamic modification of a promoter site of MARCO was increased in tolerized BMDM. Blocking methylation by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in reduced H3K4me3 binding in the promoter of MARCO, decreased expression of MARCO, and impaired phagocytosis in tolerized BMDM. However, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine had no effect on the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance. In aggregate, we found that histone methylation was critical to MARCO expression and phagocytosis in tolerized macrophages, but did not affect the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance. PMID:23667110

  3. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. II. Peritoneal macrophage function

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, G.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.

  4. Macrophage Depletion Disrupts Immune Balance and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Qiao, Liping; Kinney, Brice; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Shao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Increased macrophage infiltration in tissues including white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle has been recognized as a pro-inflammatory factor that impairs insulin sensitivity in obesity. However, the relationship between tissue macrophages and energy metabolism under non-obese physiological conditions is not clear. To study a homeostatic role of macrophages in energy homeostasis, we depleted tissue macrophages in adult mice through conditional expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor and DT-induced apoptosis. Macrophage depletion robustly reduced body fat mass due to reduced energy intake. These phenotypes were reversed after macrophage recovery. As a potential mechanism, severe hypothalamic and systemic inflammation was induced by neutrophil (NE) infiltration in the absence of macrophages. In addition, macrophage depletion dramatically increased circulating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) which is indispensable for NE production and tissue infiltration. Our in vitro study further revealed that macrophages directly suppress G-CSF gene expression. Therefore, our study indicates that macrophages may play a critical role in integrating immune balance and energy homeostasis under physiological conditions. PMID:24911652

  5. Innate and adaptive immune response to apoptotic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuFeng Peng; David A. Martin; Justin Kenkel; Kang Zhang; Carol Anne Ogden; Keith B. Elkon

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated

  6. Liposomal Cholesterol Delivery Activates the Macrophage Innate Immune Arm To Facilitate Intracellular Leishmania donovani Killing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, June; Guha, Rajan; Das, Shantanabha

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The protozoan parasite has adopted several means of escaping the host immune response, with one of the major methods being deactivation of host macrophages. Previous reports highlight dampened macrophage signaling, defective antigen presentation due to increased membrane fluidity, and the downregulation of several genes associated with L. donovani infection. We have reported previously that the defective antigen presentation in infected hamsters could be corrected by a single injection of a cholesterol-containing liposome. Here we show that cholesterol in the form of a liposomal formulation can stimulate the innate immune arm and reactivate macrophage function. Augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), corroborate intracellular parasite killing. Cholesterol incorporation kinetics is favored in infected macrophages more than in normal macrophages. Such an enhanced cholesterol uptake is associated with preferential apoptosis of infected macrophages in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. All these events are coupled with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, while inhibition of such pathways resulted in increased parasite loads. Hence, liposomal cholesterol is a potential facilitator of the macrophage effector function in favor of the host, independently of the T-cell arm. PMID:24478076

  7. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C in immune response to Salmonella lipopolysacharide in chicken macrophage cells (HD11)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiqi He; Kenneth J. Genovese; David J. Nisbet; Michael H. Kogut

    2006-01-01

    The activation of phospholipases is one of the earliest key events in receptor-mediated cellular responses to a number of extracellular signaling molecules. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a principle component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a prime target for recognition by the innate immune system. In the present study, we evaluated the role of specific phospholipase in the activation

  8. Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage’s Appetite

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells. PMID:24860573

  9. WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION INVITED LECTURE Avian Macrophage and Immune Response: An Overview1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Qureshi

    Macrophages belong to the mononuclear phagocytic system lineage. This cell type is unique in that it is a crucial player in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The material described in this over- view is a brief description of what I presented as a World's Poultry Science Association-sponsored lecture at the an-

  10. Involvement of the Macrophage in Experimental Chronic Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin J. Becker; Wayne W. Hancock; Jennifer L. Stow; Eric F. Glasgow; Robert C. Atkins; Napier M. Thomson

    1982-01-01

    Serial renal biopsies for glomerular culture, histochemical staining for ?-glucuronidase, electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy, were used to study macrophage involvement in experimental chronic immune complex (IC) glomerulonephritis (GN) induced in rabbits by daily intravenous injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the 26 animals studied, proliferative GN of variable severity was induced, with mild disease in 5 animals,

  11. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting AntiTumor Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Dranoff; Elizabeth Jaffee; Audrey Lazenby; Paul Golumbek; Hyam Levitsky; Katja Brose; Valerie Jackson; Hirofumi Hamada; Drew Pardoll; Richard C. Mulligan

    1993-01-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells

  12. Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

    2013-10-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

  13. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  14. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  15. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story

    PubMed Central

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 1010 RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

  16. Localized retinal neuropeptide regulation of macrophage and microglial cell functionality

    PubMed Central

    Kawanaka, Norikuni; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    The functionality of immune cells is manipulated within the ocular microenvironment to protect the sensitive and non-regenerating light-gathering tissue from the collateral damage of inflammation. This is mediated partly by the constitutive presence of immunomodulating neuropeptides. Treating primary resting macrophages with soluble factors produced by the posterior eye induced co-expression of Arginase1 and NOS2. The neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and Neuropeptide Y alternatively activated the macrophages to co-express Arginase1 and NOS2 like myeloid suppressor cells. Similar co-expressing cells were found within healthy, but not in wounded retinas. Therefore, the healthy retina regulates macrophage functionality to the benefit of ocular immune privilege. PMID:20965575

  17. Genetically engineered macrophages expressing IFN-? restore alveolar immune function in scid mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Hussain, Shabbir; He, Ying-Hui; Pasula, Rajamouli; Smith, Patricia A.; Martin, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Reversal of immunodeficiency in the lung by gene therapy is limited in part by the difficulty of transfecting lung cells in vivo. Many options exist for successfully transfecting cells in vitro, but they are not easily adapted to the in vivo condition. To overcome this limitation, we transduced macrophages in vitro with the murine IFN-? (mIFN-?) gene and intratracheally delivered the macrophages to express mIFN-? in vivo. A recombinant retroviral vector pSF91 system was modified to encode mIFN-? and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). A murine macrophage cell line J774A.1 transduced with the retroviral supernatant increased secretion from undetectable levels to 131.6 ± 4.2 ?g/ml mIFN-? at 24 h in vitro. The mIFN-?-producing macrophages were intratracheally instilled into mechanically ventilated scid mice. mIFN-? levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage increased from undetectable levels at baseline to 158.8 ± 5.1 pg/ml at 48 h (P < 0.001). Analysis of the lavaged cells for EGFP expression revealed that EGFP expression was directly proportional to the number of transduced macrophages instilled into the lung. Immune function was partially restored in the alveolar spaces of scid mice with evidence of enhanced MHC class II antigen expression and increased phagocytosis (P < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor ? was increased from undetectable at baseline to 103.5 ± 11.4 pg/ml. In contrast, i.p. administration of the engineered macrophages did not enhance IFN-? levels in the lung. Our study suggests airway delivery of genetically engineered macrophages expressing mIFN-? gene can partially restore significant immune activity in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. PMID:11724936

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses inhibit effective immune responses of human blood-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Friesenhagen, Judith; Boergeling, Yvonne; Hrincius, Eike; Ludwig, Stephan; Roth, Johannes; Viemann, Dorothee

    2012-07-01

    Systemic infections with HPAIVs, such as H5N1, are characterized by cytokine burst and sepsis. We investigated the role of human monocyte-derived macrophages in these events after infection with different influenza virus strains. Macrophages were infected with low pathogenic H1N1 (PR8) or high pathogenic H7N7 (FPV) and H5N1 (KAN-1) subtypes. Macrophages were found to be nonpermissive for influenza virus propagation. Surprisingly, transcriptome analysis revealed an insufficient innate immune response of macrophages only to HPAIV infections. Induction of inflammatory cytokines, as well as type I IFNs, was significantly attenuated in H5N1- and H7N7-infected cells, contradicting a primary role of macrophages for the cytokine burst. Furthermore, inflammasome activation was impaired significantly in HPAIV-infected macrophages. Interestingly, this finding correlated with a complete suppression of viral protein M2 expression after HPAIV infection, which is known to be involved in influenza viral inflammasome activation. In summary, our data provide first evidences for a strategy of how HPAIVs avoid initial inflammatory responses of macrophages facilitating virus spreading and progression to the systemic stage of disease. PMID:22442495

  19. Immune Evasion, Stress Resistance, and Efficient Nutrient Acquisition Are Crucial for Intracellular Survival of Candida glabrata within Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Katja; Gerwien, Franziska; Kasper, Lydia; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Jablonowski, Nadja; Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata is both a human fungal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen which can withstand activities of the immune system. For example, C. glabrata can survive phagocytosis and replicates within macrophages. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular survival remain unclear. In this work, we used a functional genomic approach to identify C. glabrata determinants necessary for survival within human monocyte-derived macrophages by screening a set of 433 deletion mutants. We identified 23 genes which are required to resist killing by macrophages. Based on homologies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs, these genes are putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, nutritional and stress response, protein glycosylation, or iron homeostasis. Mutants were further characterized using a series of in vitro assays to elucidate the genes' functions in survival. We investigated different parameters of C. glabrata-phagocyte interactions: uptake by macrophages, replication within macrophages, phagosomal pH, and recognition of mutant cells by macrophages as indicated by production of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We further studied the cell surface integrity of mutant cells, their ability to grow under nutrient-limited conditions, and their susceptibility to stress conditions mirroring the harsh environment inside a phagosome. Additionally, resistance to killing by neutrophils was analyzed. Our data support the view that immune evasion is a key aspect of C. glabrata virulence and that increased immune recognition causes increased antifungal activities by macrophages. Furthermore, stress resistance and efficient nutrient acquisition, in particular, iron uptake, are crucial for intraphagosomal survival of C. glabrata. PMID:24363366

  20. Epigenetic programming during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Quintin, Jessica; Kerstens, Hindrik H.D.; Rao, Nagesha A; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Matarese, Filomena; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Ratter, Jacqueline; Berentsen, Kim; van der Ent, Martijn A.; Sharifi, Nilofar; Janssen-Megens, Eva M.; Huurne, Menno Ter; Mandoli, Amit; van Schaik, Tom; Ng, Aylwin; Burden, Frances; Downes, Kate; Frontini, Mattia; Kumar, Vinod; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Ouwehand, Willem H; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Martens, Joost H.A.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Logie, Colin; Netea, Mihai G.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for up to 3–5 days. Concomitantly, immunological imprinting of either tolerance (immunosuppression) or trained immunity (innate immune memory) determines the functional fate of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, as observed after infection or vaccination. Methods Purified circulating monocytes from healthy volunteers were differentiated under the homeostatic M-CSF concentrations present in human serum. During the first 24 hours, trained immunity was induced by ?-glucan (BG) priming, while post-sepsis immunoparalysis was mimicked by exposure to LPS, generating endotoxin-induced tolerance. Epigenomic profiling of the histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, DNase I accessibility and RNA sequencing were performed at both the start of the experiment (ex vivo monocytes) and at the end of the six days of in vitro culture (macrophages). Results Compared to monocytes (Mo), naïve macrophages (Mf) display a remodeled metabolic enzyme repertoire and attenuated innate inflammatory pathways; most likely necessary to generate functional tissue macrophages. Epigenetic profiling uncovered ~8000 dynamic regions associated with ~11000 DNase I hypersensitive sites. Changes in histone acetylation identified most dynamic events. Furthermore, these regions of differential histone marks displayed some degree of DNase I accessibility that was already present in monocytes. H3K4me1 mark increased in parallel with de novo H3K27ac deposition at distal regulatory regions; H3K4me1 mark remained even after the loss of H3K27ac, marking decommissioned regulatory elements. ?-glucan priming specifically induced ~3000 distal regulatory elements, whereas LPS-tolerization uniquely induced H3K27ac at ~500 distal regulatory regions. At the transcriptional level, we identified co-regulated gene modules during monocyte to macrophage differentiation, as well as discordant modules between trained and tolerized cells. These indicate that training likely involves an increased expression of modules expressed in naïve macrophages, including genes that code for metabolic enzymes. On the other hand, endotoxin tolerance involves gene modules that are more active in monocytes than in naïve macrophages. About 12% of known human transcription factors display variation in expression during macrophage differentiation, training and tolerance. We also observed transcription factor motifs in DNase I hypersensitive sites at condition-specific dynamic epigenomic regions, implying that specific transcription factors are required for trained and tolerized macrophage epigenetic and transcriptional programs. Finally, our analyses and functional validation indicate that the inhibition of cAMP generation blocked trained immunity in vitro and during an in vivo model of lethal C. albicans infection, abolishing the protective effects of trained immunity. Discussion We documented the importance of epigenetic regulation of the immunological pathways underlying monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained immunity. These dynamic epigenetic elements may inform on potential pharmacological targets that modulate innate immunity. Altogether, we uncovered the epigenetic and transcriptional programs of monocyte differentiation to macrophages that distinguish tolerant and trained macrophage phenotypes, providing a resource to further understand and manipulate immune-mediated responses. PMID:25258085

  1. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  2. Cross-talk among myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor cells impacts the inflammatory milieu of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Beury, Daniel W; Parker, Katherine H; Nyandjo, Maeva; Sinha, Pratima; Carter, Kayla A; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    MDSC and macrophages are present in most solid tumors and are important drivers of immune suppression and inflammation. It is established that cross-talk between MDSC and macrophages impacts anti-tumor immunity; however, interactions between tumor cells and MDSC or macrophages are less well studied. To examine potential interactions between these cells, we studied the impact of MDSC, macrophages, and four murine tumor cell lines on each other, both in vitro and in vivo. We focused on IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and NO, as these molecules are produced by macrophages, MDSC, and many tumor cells; are present in most solid tumors; and regulate inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDSC-produced IL-10 decreased macrophage IL-6 and TNF-? and increased NO. IL-6 indirectly regulated MDSC IL-10. Tumor cells increased MDSC IL-6 and vice versa. Tumor cells also increased macrophage IL-6 and NO and decreased macrophage TNF-?. Tumor cell-driven macrophage IL-6 was reduced by MDSC, and tumor cells and MDSC enhanced macrophage NO. In vivo analysis of solid tumors identified IL-6 and IL-10 as the dominant cytokines and demonstrated that these molecules were produced predominantly by stromal cells. These results suggest that inflammation within solid tumors is regulated by the ratio of tumor cells to MDSC and macrophages and that interactions of these cells have the potential to alter significantly the inflammatory milieu within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25170116

  3. DNA-Protein Immunization Using Leishmania Peroxidoxin-1 Induces a Strong CD4+ T Cell Response and Partially Protects Mice from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Role of Fusion Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor DNA Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Daifalla, Nada S.; Gedamu, Lashitew

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, no universally effective and safe vaccine has been developed for general human use. Leishmania donovani Peroxidoxin-1 (LdPxn-1) is a member of the antioxidant family of proteins and is predominantly expressed in the amastigote stage of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LdPxn-1 in BALB/c mice in heterologous DNA-Protein immunization regimen in the presence of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGMCSF) DNA adjuvant. Methodology and Principal Findings A fusion DNA of LdPxn1 and mGMCSF was cloned into a modified pcDNA vector. To confirm the expression in mammalian system, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid vector containing LdPxn1 gene. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 or pcDNA-LdPxn1 DNA and boosted once with recombinant LdPxn-1 protein. Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes. The result showed that immunization with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 elicited a mixed Th-1/Th-2 immune response with significantly higher production of IFN-? than controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of antigen-stimulated spleen cells showed that immunization with this antigen elicited significantly higher proportion of CD4+ T cells that express IFN-?, TNF-?, or IL-2. The antigen also induced significantly higher proportion of multipotent CD4+ cells that simultaneously express the three Th-1 cytokines. Moreover, a significant reduction in the footpad swelling was seen in mice immunized with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 antigen. Expression study in CHO cells demonstrated that pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 was expressed in mammalian system. Conclusion The result demonstrates that immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid expressing LdPxn1 in the presence of mGMCSF adjuvant elicits a strong specific immune response with high level induction of multipotent CD4+ cells that mediate protection of the mice from Leishmania major infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the vaccine potential of Leishmania peroxidoxin -1. PMID:25500571

  4. Immunization with the adjuvant MF59 induces macrophage trafficking and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, M; Denis-Mize, K; LaBarbara, A; Peters, W; Charo, I F; McDonald, D M; Ott, G

    2001-10-01

    The mechanisms associated with the immunostimulatory activity of vaccine adjuvants are still poorly understood. We have undertaken a study to determine whether antigen-presenting cell trafficking is modified by administration of the submicron emulsion adjuvant MF59. We investigated the fate of inflammatory macrophages after intramuscular injection of the antigen herpes simplex virus gD2 with fluorescence-labeled MF59. A homogeneous population of macrophages infiltrated the muscle, internalized adjuvant and expressed markers characteristic of mature macrophages over a 48-h period. Macrophage influx to the injection site was reduced by 70% in mice deficient for the chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Two distinct cell populations were shown to contain fluorescence-labeled MF59 in the draining lymph node at 48 h post injection. The first population had a round morphology, exhibited bright fluorescence, was located in the subcapsular sinus, and was apoptotic. The second population had a dendritic morphology, was weakly fluorescent, and was located in the T cell area where adjuvant-containing apoptotic bodies identified by TUNEL labeling were present. We propose that lymph node-resident dendritic cells can acquire antigen and MF59 after intramuscular immunization by uptake of the apoptotic macrophages. PMID:11592066

  5. Absence of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Mice Leads to Decreased Local Macrophage Recruitment and Antigen-Specific T Helper Cell Type 1 Immune Response in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, DeRen; Wang, Jintang; Kivisakk, Pia; Rollins, Barrett J.; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plays a critical role in innate immunity by directing the migration of monocytes into inflammatory sites. Recent data indicated a function for this chemokine in adaptive immunity as a regulator of T cell commitment to T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector function. Studies in a Th1-dependent animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), showed that MCP-1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of affected rodents, and MCP-1 antibodies could block relapses of the disease. Mice deficient for the major MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2, did not develop EAE after active immunization but generated effector cells that could transfer the disease to naive wild-type recipients. We analyzed EAE in mice deficient for MCP-1 to define the relevant ligand for CCR2, which responds to murine MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and MCP-5. We found that C57BL/6 MCP-1–null mice were markedly resistant to EAE after active immunization, with drastically impaired recruitment of macrophages to the CNS, yet able to generate effector T cells that transferred severe disease to naive wild-type recipients. By contrast, adoptive transfer of primed T cells from wild-type mice into naive MCP-1–null recipients did not mediate clinical EAE. On the SJL background, disruption of the MCP-1 gene produced a milder EAE phenotype with diminished relapses that mimicked previous findings using anti–MCP-1 antibodies. There was no compensatory upregulation of MCP-2, MCP-3, or MCP-5 in MCP-1–null mice with EAE. These results indicated that MCP-1 is the major CCR2 ligand in mice with EAE, and provided an opportunity to define the role of MCP-1 in EAE. Compared with wild-type littermates, MCP-1?/? mice exhibited reduced expression of interferon ? in draining lymph node and CNS and increased antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 antibody production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MCP-1 is crucial for Th1 immune responses in EAE induction and that macrophage recruitment to the inflamed CNS target organ is required for primed T cells to execute a Th1 effector program in EAE. PMID:11257138

  6. Atherosclerosis and the role of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Fulya; Kalkanli, Sevgi Tas

    2015-04-16

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease arising from lipids, specifically low-density lipoproteins, and leukocytes. Following the activation of endothelium with the expression of adhesion molecules and monocytes, inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, high levels of interferon (IFN)-? and ? are generated upon the activation of toll-like receptor-9, and T-cells, especially the ones with Th1 profile, produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as IFN-? and upregulate macrophages to adhere to the endothelium and migrate into the intima. This review presents an exhaustive account for the role of immune cells in the atherosclerosis. PMID:25879006

  7. Atherosclerosis and the role of immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Fulya; Kalkanli, Sevgi Tas

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease arising from lipids, specifically low-density lipoproteins, and leukocytes. Following the activation of endothelium with the expression of adhesion molecules and monocytes, inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, high levels of interferon (IFN)-? and ? are generated upon the activation of toll-like receptor-9, and T-cells, especially the ones with Th1 profile, produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as IFN-? and upregulate macrophages to adhere to the endothelium and migrate into the intima. This review presents an exhaustive account for the role of immune cells in the atherosclerosis. PMID:25879006

  8. Macrophages.com: an on-line community resource for innate immunity research.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Lu, Xiang; Law, Andrew; Freeman, Tom C; Hume, David A

    2011-11-01

    Macrophages play a major role in tissue remodelling during development, wound healing and tissue homeostasis, and are central to innate immunity and to the pathology of tissue injury and inflammation. Given this fundamental role in many aspects of biological function, an enormous wealth of information has accumulated on these fascinating cells in the literature and other public repositories. With the escalation of genome-scale data derived from macrophages and related haematopoietic cell types, there is a growing need for an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organise and analyse our collective knowledge of macrophage biology. Here we describe a community-driven web-based resource, macrophages.com that aims to provide a portal onto various types of Omics data to facilitate comparative genomic studies, promoter and transcriptional network analyses, models of macrophage pathways together with other information on these cells. To this end, the website combines public and in-house analyses of expression data with pre-analysed views of co-expressed genes as supported by the network analysis tool BioLayout Express(3D), as well as providing access to maps of pathways active in macrophages. Macrophages.com also provides access to an extensive image library of macrophages in adult/embryonic tissue sections prepared from normal and transgenic mice. In addition, the site links to the Human Protein Atlas database so as to provide direct access to protein expression patterns in human macrophages. Finally, an integrated gene-centric portal provides the tools for rapid promoter analysis studies based on a comprehensive set of CAGE-derived transcription start site (TSS) sequences in human and mouse genomes as generated by the Functional Annotation of Mammalian genomes (FANTOM) projects initiated by the RIKEN Omics Science Center. Our aim is to continue to grow the macrophages.com resource using publicly available data, as well as in-house generated knowledge. In so doing we aim to provide a user-friendly community website and a community portal for access to comprehensive sets of macrophage-related data. PMID:21924793

  9. Antigen-induced mitosis in liver macrophages of immunized mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. More; D. S. Nelson

    1972-01-01

    Résumé Des souris ont été immunisées avec l'albumine du sérum humain dans l'adjuvant complet de Freund. Un jour après une injection de rappel de l'antigène la taille des mitoses, parmi les macrophages du foie dépasse celle des mitoses des souris témoins.

  10. Cross-protective immune responses induced in rhesus macaques by immunization with attenuated macrophage-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, J E; Montelaro, R C; Zink, M C; Amedee, A M; Miller, S; Trichel, A M; Jagerski, B; Hauer, D; Martin, L N; Bohm, R P

    1995-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of AIDS has provided a valuable system with which to investigate vaccine approaches for protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In particular, the ability of macaques persistently infected with attenuated infectious molecular clones of SIV to resist challenge with the pathogenic parental swarm has conclusively demonstrated that protective immunity can be achieved by immunization prior to exposure. The breadth of these protective responses and the immunological correlates of protection, however, have not been identified. In addition, vaccine studies have mainly employed lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1 and SIV. Recent studies have implicated macrophage-tropic strains in the transmission of HIV-1 and have suggested that these virus strains should be examined in vaccine strategies. Macrophage-tropic viruses may confer additional advantages in the induction of protective immunity by replication in antigen-presenting cells. In this study, the immune response of rhesus macaques inoculated with an attenuated macrophage-tropic recombinant of SIVmac239 (SIV/17E-Cl) was evaluated with respect to protective immunity by heterologous challenge at various times after infection. Vigorous type-specific neutralizing-antibody responses restricted to SIV/17E-Cl were evident by 2 weeks postinfection. By 7 months, however, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies emerged which neutralized not only SIV/17E-Cl but also the heterologous primary isolate SIV/DeltaB670. Challenge of SIV/17E-Cl-infected monkeys with SIV/DeltaB670 at various times postinfection demonstrated that protective responses were associated with the appearance of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, passive transfer of sera from SIV/17E-Cl-infected animals passively protected two of four naive recipients. PMID:7707496

  11. Diverse influences of androgen-disrupting chemicals on immune responses mounted by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong Hoon; Yeon, Seung-min; Kim, Hyun Gyung; Choi, Hyun Suk; Kang, Hyojeung; Park, Hee-Deung; Park, Tae Won; Pack, Seung Pil; Lee, Eun Hee; Byun, Youngjoo; Choi, Sang-Eun; Lee, Kenneth Sung; Ha, Un-Hwan; Jung, Yong Woo

    2014-06-01

    Androgen-disrupting chemicals (ADCs) can alter male sexual development. Although the effects of ADCs on hormone disruption have been studied, their influence on the immune response is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of ADCs on innate immunity, we tested eight candidate ADCs for their influence on macrophages by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. Our results showed that treatment with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and hexachlorobenzene increased NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. In contrast, compared to exposure to a negative control, exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), testosterone (TTT), or permethrin decreased NO production. DEHA, BBP, and TTT inhibited NO production in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NNP), or tributyltin chloride (TBTC) reduced NO production and induced cell death. While BPA induced RAW 264.7 cell death through apoptosis, NNP and TBTC caused cell death through necrosis. These results offer insights into the influences of ADCs on the innate immune system. PMID:24287822

  12. Effect of PDT-treated apoptotic cells on macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xing, Da; Zhou, Fei-fan; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the long-term immunological effects of photodynamic therapy have attracted much attention. PDT induced immune response was mainly initiated through necrotic cells and apoptotic cells, as well as immune cells such as macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) as an important regulatory factor in signal transfer between cells has been wildly studied for generation, development, and metastasis of tumors. NO synthase is a key enzyme in nitric oxide synthesis. However, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is usually activated under pathological conditions, such as stress and cancer, which can produce high levels of nitric oxide and contribute to tumor cytotoxicity. In addition, increased NO production by iNOS has been associated with the host immune response and cell apoptosis, which play an important role in many carcinogenesis and anti-carcinoma mechanisms. This study focuses on the NO production in macrophages, induced by mouse breast carcinoma apoptotic cells treated by PDT in vitro, and on the effects of immune response induced by apoptotic cells in tumor cells growth.

  13. Macrophages: supportive cells for tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages, and more broadly inflammation, have been considered for a long time as bad markers of tissue homeostasis. However, if it is indisputable that macrophages are associated with many diseases in a deleterious way, new roles have emerged, showing beneficial properties of macrophages during tissue repair and regeneration. This discrepancy is likely due to the high plasticity of macrophages, which may exhibit a wide range of phenotypes and functions depending on their environment. Therefore, regardless of their role in immunity, macrophages play a myriad of roles in the maintenance and recovery of tissue homeostasis. They take a major part in the resolution of inflammation. They also exert various effects of parenchymal cells, including stem and progenitor cell, of which they regulate the fate. In the present review, few examples from various tissues are presented to illustrate that, beyond their specific properties in a given tissue, common features have been described that sustain a role of macrophages in the recovery and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24080029

  14. T Cell–Macrophage Interactions and Granuloma Formation in Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Marc; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Berry, Gerald; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma formation, bringing into close proximity highly activated macrophages and T cells, is a typical event in inflammatory blood vessel diseases, and is noted in the name of several of the vasculitides. It is not known whether specific properties of the microenvironment in the blood vessel wall or the immediate surroundings of blood vessels contribute to granuloma formation and, in some cases, generation of multinucleated giant cells. Granulomas provide a specialized niche to optimize macrophage–T cell interactions, strongly activating both cell types. This is mirrored by the intensity of the systemic inflammation encountered in patients with vasculitis, often presenting with malaise, weight loss, fever, and strongly upregulated acute phase responses. As a sophisticated and highly organized structure, granulomas can serve as an ideal site to induce differentiation and maturation of T cells. The granulomas possibly seed aberrant Th1 and Th17 cells into the circulation, which are known to be the main pathogenic cells in vasculitis. Through the induction of memory T cells, aberrant innate immune responses can imprint the host immune system for decades to come and promote chronicity of the disease process. Improved understanding of T cell–macrophage interactions will redefine pathogenic models in the vasculitides and provide new avenues for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25309534

  15. Alveolar macrophage migration inhibition in animals immunized with thermophilic actinomycete antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, T.; Salvaggio, J.; Harris, J. O.; Arquembourg, P.

    1973-01-01

    Intratracheal immunization of rabbits with Micropolyspora faeni, a thermophilic actinomycete known to be a rich source of `farmer's lung hay' antigen leads to development of pulmonary lesions similar to those noted in human hypersensitivity pneumonitis and in antigen induced MIF production by sensitized respiratory tract lymphocytes. MIF release was not specific for the respiratory route of immunization since immunization via the toe pad route using Freund's adjuvant also resulted in antigen induced migration inhibition of alveolar wash cells. If macrophage migration inhibition can be regarded as an in vitro correlate of cell mediated (type IV) hypersensitivity, our results suggest that this type of hypersensitivity plays a role in pathogenesis of experimentally induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4765718

  16. Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

  17. Macrophages: The "Defense" Cells That Help Throughout the Body

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-08-26

    Press Release on research from David Mosser, Professor of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics at the University of MarylandÂ?s College of Chemical and Life Sciences, about the three primary duties of macrophages. His work was presented at the 2010 American Physiological Society conference, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Disease, in Westminster Colorado, August 25-28. The full conference program can be found at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/inflammation/.

  18. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  19. Immune cells tracing using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Yasuhara, Masato; Dohi, Taeko; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs), have potential to be applied to molecular biology and bioimaging, since some nanocrystals emit higher and longer lasting fluorescence than conventional organic probes do. Here we report an example of labeling immune cells by QDs. We collected splenic CD4 + T-lymphocyte and peritoneal macrophages from mice. Then cells were labeled with QDs. QDs are incorporated into the T-lymphocyte and macrophages immediately after addition and located in the cytoplasm via endocytosis pathway. The fluorescence of QDs held in the endosomes was easily detected for more than a week. In addition, T-lymphocytes labeled with QDs were stable and cell proliferation or cytokine production including IL-2 and IFN-? was not affected. When QD-labeled T-lymphocytes were adoptively transferred intravenously to mice, they remained in the peripheral blood and spleen up to a week. Using QD-labeled peritoneal macrophages, we studied cell traffic during inflammation on viscera in peritoneum cavity. QD-labeled macrophages were transplanted into the peritoneum of the mouse, and colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of a hapten, trinitrobenzensulfonic acid. With the aid of stong signals of QDs, we found that macrophage accumuled on the inflammation site of the colon. These results suggested that fluorescent probes of QDs might be useful as bioimaging tools for tracing target cells in vivo.

  20. Innate Immune Cells in Liver Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liaskou, Evaggelia; Wilson, Daisy V.; Oo, Ye H.

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:22933833

  1. Immune cells in experimental acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Rabb, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) prolongs hospital stay and increases mortality in various clinical settings. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), nephrotoxic agents and infection leading to sepsis are among the major causes of AKI. Inflammatory responses substantially contribute to the overall renal damage in AKI. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in the inflammatory process occurring in post-ischaemic AKI. Proinflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns, hypoxia-inducible factors, adhesion molecules, dysfunction of the renal vascular endothelium, chemokines, cytokines and Toll-like receptors are involved in the activation and recruitment of immune cells into injured kidneys. Immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of renal injury after IRI, and some of their subpopulations also participate in the repair process. These immune cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of nephrotoxic AKI. Experimental studies of immune cells in AKI have resulted in improved understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying AKI and will be the foundation for development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. This Review describes what is currently known about the function of the immune system in the pathogenesis and repair of ischaemic and nephrotoxic AKI. PMID:25331787

  2. Papillomatous digital dermatitis spirochetes suppress the bovine macrophage innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Zuerner, Richard L; Heidari, Mohammad; Elliott, Margaret K; Alt, David P; Neill, John D

    2007-12-15

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is a polymicrobial infection in soft tissue adjacent to the hoof and is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. Treponema phagedenis-like (TPL) spirochetes are a constant feature of PDD lesions and are localized deep in infected tissue. Host-cell response mechanisms to TPL spirochetes are poorly understood. To assess how bovine macrophages respond to cellular constituents of TPL spirochetes, changes in transcription were analyzed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and real time RT-PCR. This analysis revealed that some proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. GCP-2 and IL-8) are induced in treated macrophages, while receptors and their accessory proteins for IL-1, IL-6 and IL-11 are either down regulated or unchanged. Two genes encoding proteins having negative effects on NFkappaB, IkappaB and SIVA-1, are significantly induced in stimulated cells. Several genes associated with the cytoskeleton and antigen presentation are down regulated after exposure to sonicated TPL spirochetes, as are genes associated with wound repair. Combined, these data suggest that the innate immune and wound repair functions of bovine macrophages exposed to TPL cellular constituents are impaired thereby enabling bacteria to resist clearance and induce lesion formation. Use of this in vitro bovine macrophage model should be useful in elucidating host-spirochete interactions and facilitate identification of potential virulence traits. PMID:17628359

  3. IL-34- and M-CSF-induced macrophages switch memory T cells into Th17 cells via membrane IL-1?.

    PubMed

    Foucher, Etienne D; Blanchard, Simon; Preisser, Laurence; Descamps, Philippe; Ifrah, Norbert; Delneste, Yves; Jeannin, Pascale

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages orchestrate the immune response via the polarization of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. Different subsets of macrophages with distinct phenotypes, and sometimes opposite functions, have been described. M-CSF and IL-34 induce the differentiation of monocytes into IL-10(high) IL-12(low) immunoregulatory macrophages, which are similar to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in ovarian cancer. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of human macrophages induced in the presence of M-CSF (M-CSF macrophages) or IL-34 (IL-34 macrophages) and ovarian cancer TAMs to modulate the phenotype of human CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our results show that M-CSF-, IL-34 macrophages, and TAMs switch non-Th17 committed memory CD4(+) T cells into conventional CCR4(+) CCR6(+) CD161(+) Th17 cells, expressing or not IFN-gamma. Contrary, the pro-inflammatory GM-CSF macrophages promote Th1 cells. The polarization of memory T cells into Th17 cells is mediated via membrane IL-1? (mIL-1?), which is constitutively expressed by M-CSF-, IL-34 macrophages, and TAMs. This study elucidates a new mechanism that allows macrophages to maintain locally restrained and smoldering inflammation, which is required in angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:25545357

  4. Effect of immune serum and role of individual Fcgamma receptors on the intracellular distribution and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uppington, Hazel; Menager, Nathalie; Boross, Peter; Wood, James; Sheppard, Mark; Verbeek, Sjef; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2006-10-01

    Immune serum has a protective role against Salmonella infections in mice, domestic animals and humans. In this study, the effect of antibody on the interaction between murine macrophages and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was examined. Detailed analysis at the single-cell level demonstrated that opsonization of the bacteria with immune serum enhanced bacterial uptake and altered bacterial distribution within individual phagocytic cells. Using gene-targeted mice deficient in individual Fc gamma receptors it was shown that immune serum enhanced bacterial internalization by macrophages via the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor, Fc gamma receptor I. Exposure of murine macrophages to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium opsonized with immune serum resulted in increased production of superoxide, leading to enhanced antibacterial functions of the infected cells. However, opsonization of bacteria with immune serum did not increase either nitric oxide production in response to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. PMID:16836651

  5. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of lead and cadmium on cell-mediated immunity was studied in peritoneal macrophages, B-, and T-lymphocytes of mice. Lead and cadmium were administered in drinking water for 10 weeks in short-term experiments and up to 18 months to deal with immune responses in aged mic...

  6. Nanogel-based immunologically stealth vaccine targets macrophages in the medulla of lymph node and induces potent antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Daisuke; Harada, Naozumi; Hayashi, Tae; Tahara, Yoshiro; Momose, Fumiyasu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2014-09-23

    Because existing therapeutic cancer vaccines provide only a limited clinical benefit, a different vaccination strategy is necessary to improve vaccine efficacy. We developed a nanoparticulate cancer vaccine by encapsulating a synthetic long peptide antigen within an immunologically inert nanoparticulate hydrogel (nanogel) of cholesteryl pullulan (CHP). After subcutaneous injection to mice, the nanogel-based vaccine was efficiently transported to the draining lymph node, and was preferentially engulfed by medullary macrophages but was not sensed by other macrophages and dendritic cells (so-called "immunologically stealth mode"). Although the function of medullary macrophages in T cell immunity has been unexplored so far, these macrophages effectively cross-primed the vaccine-specific CD8(+) T cells in the presence of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist as an adjuvant. The nanogel-based vaccine significantly inhibited in vivo tumor growth in the prophylactic and therapeutic settings, compared to another vaccine formulation using a conventional delivery system, incomplete Freund's adjuvant. We also revealed that lymph node macrophages were highly responsive to TLR stimulation, which may underlie the potency of the macrophage-oriented, nanogel-based vaccine. These results indicate that targeting medullary macrophages using the immunologically stealth nanoparticulate delivery system is an effective vaccine strategy. PMID:25180962

  7. Intestinal monocytes and macrophages are required for T cell polarization in response to Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Heidi A.; Loschko, Jakob; Karssemeijer, Roos A.; Escolano, Amelia; Meredith, Matthew M.; Mucida, Daniel; Guermonprez, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are closely related phagocytes that share many phenotypic features and, in some cases, a common developmental origin. Although the requirement for DCs in initiating adaptive immune responses is well appreciated, the role of monocytes and macrophages remains largely undefined, in part because of the lack of genetic tools enabling their specific depletion. Here, we describe a two-gene approach that requires overlapping expression of LysM and Csf1r to define and deplete monocytes and macrophages. The role of monocytes and macrophages in immunity to pathogens was tested by their selective depletion during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Although neither cell type was required to initiate immunity, monocytes and macrophages contributed to the adaptive immune response by secreting IL-12, which induced Th1 polarization and IFN-? secretion. Thus, whereas DCs are indispensable for priming naive CD4+ T cells, monocytes and macrophages participate in intestinal immunity by producing mediators that direct T cell polarization. PMID:24043764

  8. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    E-print Network

    Patel, Naimish R.

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central ...

  9. Macrophages Contribute to the Cyclic Activation of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells as a novel, additional cue that regulates their regenerative activity. This finding may have translational implications for skin repair, inflammatory skin diseases and cancer. PMID:25536657

  10. Intracellular localisation and innate immune responses following Francisella noatunensis infection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bakkemo, Kathrine R; Mikkelsen, Helene; Bordevik, Marianne; Torgersen, Jacob; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Vanberg, Christin; Olsen, Randi; Johansen, Lill-Heidi; Seppola, Marit

    2011-12-01

    The facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis causes francisellosis in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), but little is known about its survival strategies or how these bacteria evade the host immune response. In this study we show intracellular localisation of F. noatunensis in cod macrophages using indirect immunofluorescence techniques and green fluorescent labelled bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that F. noatunensis was enclosed by a phagosomal membrane during the initial phase of infection. Bacteria were at a later stage of the infection found in large electron-lucent zones, apparently surrounded by a partially intact or disintegrated membrane. Immune electron microscopy demonstrated the release of bacterial derived vesicles from intracellular F. noatunensis, an event suspected of promoting phagosomal membrane degradation and allowing escape of the bacteria to cytoplasm. Studies of macrophages infected with F. noatunensis demonstrated a weak activation of the inflammatory response genes as measured by increased expression of the Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-8. In comparison, a stronger induction of gene expression was found for the anti-inflammatory IL-10 indicating that the bacterium exhibits a role in down-regulating the inflammatory response. Expression of the p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-17 genes was highly induced during infection suggesting that F. noatunensis promotes T cell polarisation. The host macrophage responses studied here showed low ability to distinguish between live and inactivated bacteria, although other types of responses could be of importance for such discriminations. The immunoreactivity of F. noatunensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was very modest, in contrast to the strong capacity of Escherichia coli LPS to induce inflammatory responsive genes. These results suggest that F. noatunensis virulence mechanisms cover many strategies for intracellular survival in cod macrophages. PMID:21896333

  11. The polarization of immune cells in the tumour environment by TGF?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shomyseh Sanjabi; Stephen H. Wrzesinski; Paula Licona-Limón; Richard A. Flavell

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by tumour cells and immune cells that can polarize many components of the immune system. This Review covers the effects of TGF? on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CD8+ and CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and NKT cells in animal tumour models and in patients with cancer.

  12. Anoctamin 6 mediates effects essential for innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Kmit, Arthur; Romao, Ana M.; Jantarajit, Walailak; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are fundamental to innate immune response. In macrophages, transient stimulation of P2X7R activates several transport mechanisms and induces the scrambling of phospholipids with subsequent membrane blebbing and apoptosis. These processes support phagocytosis and subsequent killing of phagocytosed bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the stimulation of P2X7 receptors activates anoctamin 6 (ANO6, TMEM16F), a protein that functions as Ca2+ dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca2+-activated Cl? channel. Inhibition or knockdown of ANO6 attenuates ATP-induced cell shrinkage, cell migration and phospholipid scrambling. In mouse macrophages, Ano6 produces large ion currents by stimulation of P2X7 receptors and contributes to ATP-induced membrane blebbing and apoptosis, which is largely reduced in macrophages from Ano6?/? mice. ANO6 supports bacterial phagocytosis and killing by mouse and human THP-1 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that anoctamin 6 is an essential component of the immune defense by macrophages.

  13. Biodegradation of carbon nanohorns in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minfang; Yang, Mei; Bussy, Cyrill; Iijima, Sumio; Kostarelos, Kostas; Yudasaka, Masako

    2015-02-01

    With the rapid developments in the medical applications of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanohorns (CNHs), carbon nanotubes, and graphene based nanomaterials, understanding the long-term fate, health impact, excretion, and degradation of these materials has become crucial. Herein, the in vitro biodegradation of CNHs was determined using a non-cellular enzymatic oxidation method and two types of macrophage cell lines. Approximately 60% of the CNHs was degraded within 24 h in a phosphate buffer solution containing myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, approximately 30% of the CNHs was degraded by both RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophage cells within 9 days. Inflammation markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor ? were not induced by exposure to CNHs. However, reactive oxygen species were generated by the macrophage cells after uptake of CNHs, suggesting that these species were actively involved in the degradation of the nanomaterials rather than in an inflammatory pathway induction. PMID:25597450

  14. Human Uveal Melanoma Cells Produce Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factor to Prevent Lysis by NK Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda C. Repp; Elizabeth S. Mayhew; Sherine Apte; Jerry Y. Niederkorn

    Human uveal melanoma arises in an immune privileged ocular environment in which both adaptive and innate immune effector mechanisms are suppressed. Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults and is derived from tissues in the eye that produce macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine that has recently been demonstrated to produce immediate inhibition of NK cell-mediated lytic

  15. Biodegradation of carbon nanohorns in macrophage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minfang; Yang, Mei; Bussy, Cyrill; Iijima, Sumio; Kostarelos, Kostas; Yudasaka, Masako

    2015-02-01

    With the rapid developments in the medical applications of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanohorns (CNHs), carbon nanotubes, and graphene based nanomaterials, understanding the long-term fate, health impact, excretion, and degradation of these materials has become crucial. Herein, the in vitro biodegradation of CNHs was determined using a non-cellular enzymatic oxidation method and two types of macrophage cell lines. Approximately 60% of the CNHs was degraded within 24 h in a phosphate buffer solution containing myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, approximately 30% of the CNHs was degraded by both RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophage cells within 9 days. Inflammation markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor ? were not induced by exposure to CNHs. However, reactive oxygen species were generated by the macrophage cells after uptake of CNHs, suggesting that these species were actively involved in the degradation of the nanomaterials rather than in an inflammatory pathway induction.With the rapid developments in the medical applications of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanohorns (CNHs), carbon nanotubes, and graphene based nanomaterials, understanding the long-term fate, health impact, excretion, and degradation of these materials has become crucial. Herein, the in vitro biodegradation of CNHs was determined using a non-cellular enzymatic oxidation method and two types of macrophage cell lines. Approximately 60% of the CNHs was degraded within 24 h in a phosphate buffer solution containing myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, approximately 30% of the CNHs was degraded by both RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophage cells within 9 days. Inflammation markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor ? were not induced by exposure to CNHs. However, reactive oxygen species were generated by the macrophage cells after uptake of CNHs, suggesting that these species were actively involved in the degradation of the nanomaterials rather than in an inflammatory pathway induction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06175f

  16. HIV1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jhen Tsang; Benjamin M. Chain; Robert F. Miller; Benjamin L. J. Webb; Wendy Barclay; Greg J. Towers; David R. Katz; Mahdad Noursadeghi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The cellular innate immune response to HIV-1 is poorly characterized. In view of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages, which can be activated via pattern recognition receptorstotriggerantimicrobialdefences,weinvestigatedinnateimmuneresponsesto HIV-1 by monocyte-derived macrophages. Design: In a model of productive HIV-1 infection, cellular innate immune responses to HIV-1 were investigated, at the level of transcription factor activation, specific gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional profiling.

  17. Immune Regulation by Rapamycin: Moving Beyond T Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew R. Janes (Irvine; University of California REV)

    2009-04-21

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a multifunctional kinase that promotes cell growth and division in response to growth factor and nutrient signals. Rapamycin exerts its potent immunosuppressive effects in part through direct effects on antigen-specific lymphocytes; however, rapamycin also modulates adaptive immunity through its effects on innate immune cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Studies have established rapamycin-sensitive functions of mTOR, downstream of Toll-like receptors, in shaping the cytokine response of myeloid cells and driving the production of interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. These findings point to new strategies for boosting or suppressing specific immune responses.

  18. Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-? responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic filariasis is caused by microfilaria-modulated monocytes in an IL-10-dependent manner. Together with suppression of macrophage innate responses, this may contribute to the overall down-regulation of immune responses observed in asymptomatically infected patients. PMID:25275395

  19. Activation of murine dendritic cells and macrophages induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, Ruwani Sagarika; Mastroeni, Pietro; Maskell, Duncan; Blacklaws, Barbara Ann

    2005-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and the direct involvement of both cell types in the immune response to Salmonella has been identified. In this study we analysed the phenotypic and functional changes that take place in murine macrophages and DCs in response to live and heat-killed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both types of cell secreted proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in response to live and heat-killed salmonellae. Bacterial stimulation also resulted in up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on macrophages and DCs. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules by macrophages and DCs was differentially regulated by interferon (IFN)-? and salmonellae. Live and heat-killed salmonellae as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibited the up-regulation of MHC class II expression induced by IFN-? on macrophages but not on DCs. Macrophages as well as DCs presented Salmonella-derived antigen to CD4 T cells, although DCs were much more efficient than macrophages at stimulating CD4 T-cell cytokine release. Macrophages are effective in the uptake and killing of bacteria whilst DCs specialize in antigen presentation. This study showed that the viability of salmonellae was not essential for activation of APCs but, unlike live bacteria, prolonged contact with heat-killed bacteria was necessary to obtain maximal expression of the activation markers studied. PMID:16011515

  20. Helical Carbon Nanotubes Enhance the Early Immune Response and Inhibit Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Brent E.; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B.; Jeffries, Jayme L.; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

  1. Human macrophage hybrid forming spontaneous giant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad R. Parwaresch; Hans Kreipe; Heinz J. Radzun

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Thymidine kinase-deficient clones of the human monocyte\\/ macrophage cell line U-937 were established and used for fusion experiments\\u000a with separated normal human blood monocytes. A hybrid (H 29) was generated during HAT-selection procedure, about 50% of which\\u000a formed spontaneous giant cells, as shown by morphological, immunocytochemical, and chromosomal analyses. It is concluded that\\u000a giant cells originate from monocytes and display

  2. ? 1-4 mannobiose enhances Salmonella-killing activity and activates innate immune responses in chicken macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Fukui, Kensuke; Kanatani, Hiroyuki; Mine, Yoshinori

    2011-02-15

    Salmonella spp. is one of the major causes of food-borne illness in humans, and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in commercial poultry is a world-wide problem. Here we have investigated the in vitro immune-modulating effects of ? 1-4 mannobiose (MNB), which was previously found to prevent SE infection in vivo in chickens, using chicken macrophage (MQ-MCSU) cells. Treatment of MQ-NCSU cells with MNB dose-dependently increased both phagocytic activity and Salmonella-killing activity of macrophages, with the highest reduction in SE viability observed at a concentration of 40 ?g/ml at 48 h post-infection. Likewise, both hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production were increased in a dose-dependent manner by MNB. Gene expression analysis of MNB-treated macrophages revealed significant increases in the expression of iNOS, NOX-1, IFN-?, NRAMP1, and LITAF, genes critical for host defense and antimicrobial activity, when compared to untreated cells. This data confirms that MNB possesses potent innate immune-modulating activities and can up-regulate antibacterial defenses in chicken macrophages. PMID:21067819

  3. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and regression of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Jonathan E.; Feig, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the number one cause of death in the Western world. It results from the interaction between modified lipoproteins and cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and other cellular elements present in the arterial wall. This inflammatory process can ultimately lead to the development of complex lesions, or plaques, that protrude into the arterial lumen. Ultimately, plaque rupture and thrombosis can occur leading to the clinical complications of myocardial infarction or stroke. Although each of the cell types plays roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the focus of this review will be primarily on the macrophages and DCs. The role of these two cell types in atherosclerosis is discussed, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in atherosclerosis regression. PMID:22934038

  4. UV Exposure Reduces Immunization Rates and Promotes Tolerance to Epicutaneous Antigens in Humans: Relationship to Dose, CD1a^DR^+ Epidermal Macrophage Induction, and Langerhans Cell Depletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Cooper; L. Oberhelman; T. A. Hamilton; O. Baadsgaard; M. Terhune; G. Levee; T. Anderson; H. Koren

    1992-01-01

    Increasing UVB radiation at the earth's surface might have adverse effects on in vivo immunologic responses in humans. We prospectively randomized subjects to test whether epicutaneous immunization is altered by prior administration of biologically equalized doses of UV radiation. Multiple doses of antigens on upper inner arm skin (UV protected) were used to elicit contact sensitivity responses, which were quantitated

  5. Host response. Inflammation-induced disruption of SCS macrophages impairs B cell responses to secondary infection.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Mauro; Castello, Angelo; Montaner, Beatriz; Rogers, Neil; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batista, Facundo D

    2015-02-01

    The layer of macrophages at the subcapsular sinus (SCS) captures pathogens entering the lymph node, preventing their global dissemination and triggering an immune response. However, how infection affects SCS macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here we show that infection and inflammation disrupt the organization of SCS macrophages in a manner that involves the migration of mature dendritic cells to the lymph node. This disrupted organization reduces the capacity of SCS macrophages to retain and present antigen in a subsequent secondary infection, resulting in diminished B cell responses. Thus, the SCS macrophage layer may act as a sensor or valve during infection to temporarily shut down the lymph node to further antigenic challenge. This shutdown may increase an organism's susceptibility to secondary infections. PMID:25657250

  6. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A; McLean, Leon P; Madden, Kathleen B; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a "lean" epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells. PMID:24465430

  7. Role of Macrophages in the Altered Epithelial Function during a Type 2 Immune Response Induced by Enteric Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C.; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A.; McLean, Leon P.; Madden, Kathleen B.; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F.; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a “lean” epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells. PMID:24465430

  8. The role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the initiation of inflammation in IBD

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Erin C.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    In the healthy gastrointestinal tract, homeostasis is an active process that requires a careful balance of host responses to the enteric luminal contents. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells comprise a unique group of tissue immune cells that are ideally situated at the interface of the host and the enteric luminal environment to appropriately respond to microbes and ingested stimuli. However, intrinsic defects in macrophage and dendritic cell function contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), as highlighted by recent genome-wide association studies. Gastrointestinal macrophages and dendritic cells participate in IBD development through inappropriate responses to enteric microbial stimuli, inefficient clearance of microbes from host tissues, and impaired transition from appropriate pro-inflammatory responses to anti-inflammatory responses that promote resolution. By understanding how intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells initiate chronic inflammation, new pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategies to treat human IBD will be elucidated. PMID:23974993

  9. Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage-Dendritic Cell Contacts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage, the agent of anthrax. We show that after alveolar macrophages capture spores, CD11b-positive dendritic cells to the draining lymph nodes and elicit the immune response in pulmonary anthrax. The intimate and long-last- ing

  10. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  11. Lysis of inducer T cell clones by activated macrophages and macrophage- like cell lines

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We describe a sequence of reciprocal interactions between cloned inducer T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC) that results in selective depletion of the antigen-reactive inducer cells. We show that corecognition of antigen and I-A by hapten-reactive inducer T cell clones results in (a) release of macrophage-activating factor (MAF) and other lymphokines, (b) expression of lytic activity by a subset of MAF- sensitized APC after triggering, and (3) lysis (mediated by the activated and triggered macrophage) of the inducer T cell clone and other cells in the vicinity. We suggest that this sequence of steps may limit the extent of macrophage-mediated tissue destruction by depleting the specific inducer T cell clones that initiate the response. PMID:6194244

  12. The role of the macrophage scavenger receptor in immune stimulation by bacterial DNA and synthetic oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fu-Gang; Reich, Charles F; Pisetsky, David S

    2001-01-01

    To assess the role of the macrophage scavenger receptor type A (SRA) in immune activation by CpG DNA, cytokine induction and DNA uptake were tested in vitro and in vivo using SRA knockout (SRA?/?) and wild type (WT) mice. As a source of CpG DNA, Escherichia coli DNA (EC DNA) and a 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide with two CpG motifs (CpG ODN) were used. In vitro, both EC DNA and the CpG ODN induced dose-dependent increases of interleukin (IL)-12 production by spleen cells and bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMM?) from both SRA?/? and WT mice. The levels of cytokines produced by SRA?/? spleen cells and BMM? were similar to those of WT spleen cells and BMM?. When injected intravenously with CpG ODN and EC DNA, both SRA?/? and WT mice showed elevated serum levels of IL-12. To investigate further the role of the SRA, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were performed to examine the uptake of fluorescently labelled oligonucleotides. SRA?/? and WT BMM? showed similarity in the extent of uptake and distribution of oligonucleotides as assessed by these two techniques. Together, these findings indicate that, while the SRA may bind DNA, this receptor is not essential for the uptake of CpG DNA or its immunostimulatory activity. PMID:11412310

  13. SELECTION OF MACROPHAGE-RESIS TANT PROGRESSOR TUMOR VARIANTS BY THE NORMAL HOST Requirement for Concomitant T Cell-mediated Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES L. URBAN; HANS SCHREIBER

    The evolutionary progression from an initial carcinogen-expos ed target cell to a cancer cell is characterized by a series of alterations in heritable phenotypic properties of the cells (1). Obviously, malignant cells that succeed in forming progressive tumors must have developed some means of subverting relevant host defenses and homeostatic control mechanisms. Thus, an analysis of how potentialiy malignant ceils

  14. Absence of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 in Mice Leads to Decreased Local Macrophage Recruitment and Antigen-specific T Helper Cell Type 1 Immune Response in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeRen Huang; Jintang Wang; Pia Kivisakk; Barrett J. Rollins; Richard M. Ransohoff

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 plays a critical role in innate immunity by direct- ing the migration of monocytes into inflammatory sites. Recent data indicated a function for this chemokine in adaptive immunity as a regulator of T cell commitment to T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector function. Studies in a Th1-dependent animal model, experimental autoim- mune encephalomyelitis (EAE), showed

  15. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  16. A combined omics study on activated macrophages—enhanced role of STATs in apoptosis, immunity and lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dinasarapu, Ashok Reddy; Gupta, Shakti; Ram Maurya, Mano; Fahy, Eoin; Min, Jun; Sud, Manish; Gersten, Merril J.; Glass, Christopher K.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been studied extensively because this model system mimics the physiological context of bacterial infection and subsequent inflammatory responses. Previous studies on macrophages elucidated the biological roles of caspase-1 in post-translational activation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-18 in inflammation and apoptosis. However, the results from these studies focused only on a small number of factors. To better understand the host response, we have performed a high-throughput study of Kdo2-lipid A (KLA)-primed macrophages stimulated with ATP. Results: The study suggests that treating mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with KLA and ATP produces ‘synergistic’ effects that are not seen with treatment of KLA or ATP alone. The synergistic regulation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism is observed in a time-dependent manner. The synergistic effects are produced by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and activator protein (AP)-1 through regulation of their target cytokines. The synergistically regulated cytokines then activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) factors that result in enhanced immunity, apoptosis and lipid metabolism; STAT1 enhances immunity by promoting anti-microbial factors; and STAT3 contributes to downregulation of cell cycle and upregulation of apoptosis. STAT1 and STAT3 also regulate glycerolipid and eicosanoid metabolism, respectively. Further, western blot analysis for STAT1 and STAT3 showed that the changes in transcriptomic levels were consistent with their proteomic levels. In summary, this study shows the synergistic interaction between the toll-like receptor and purinergic receptor signaling during macrophage activation on bacterial infection. Availability: Time-course data of transcriptomics and lipidomics can be queried or downloaded from http://www.lipidmaps.org. Contact: shankar@ucsd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23981351

  17. Biomarkers of CD4+ CTL cell Mediated Immunity to Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune responses mediated by interactions between T-lymphocyte subsets and mycobacteria-infected macrophages are critical for control of tuberculosis. In these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the cytolytic and mycobactericidal CD4+ T cell response induced by BCG vaccination. ...

  18. Phagocytosis independent extracellular nanoparticle clearance by human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Bartneck, Matthias; Keul, Heidrun A; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Groll, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that human immune cells, especially neutrophil granulocytes, form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that abolish pathogens. Our study provides evidence that extracellular traps formed by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages act as physical barriers for nanoparticles, thus presenting a new nanomaterial clearance mechanism of the human immune system. While particle shape is of minor importance, positive charges significantly enhance particle trapping. PMID:19994869

  19. Macrophage and T Cell Produced IL-10 Promotes Viral Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A.; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A.; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Chronic viral infections lead to CD8+ T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c+ cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c+ cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4+ T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4+ T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10. PMID:24244162

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal, macrophages and mast cells in the gut musculature: morphology, distribution, spatial and possible functional interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are recognized as pacemaker cells for gastrointestinal movement and are suggested to be mediators of neuromuscular transmission. Intestinal motility disturbances are often associated with a reduced number of ICC and/or ultrastructural damage, sometimes associated with immune cells. Macrophages and mast cells in the intestinal muscularis externa of rodents can be found in close spatial contact with ICC. Macrophages are a constant and regularly distributed cell population in the serosa and at the level of Auerbach’s plexus (AP). In human colon, ICC are in close contact with macrophages at the level of AP, suggesting functional interaction. It has therefore been proposed that ICC and macrophages interact. Macrophages and mast cells are considered to play important roles in the innate immune defence by producing pro-inflammatory mediators during classical activation, which may in itself result in damage to the tissue. They also take part in alternative activation which is associated with anti-inflammatory mediators, tissue remodelling and homeostasis, cancer, helminth infections and immunophenotype switch. ICC become damaged under various circumstances – surgical resection, possibly post-operative ileus in rodents – where innate activation takes place, and in helminth infections – where alternative activation takes place. During alternative activation the muscularis macrophage can switch phenotype resulting in up-regulation of F4/80 and the mannose receptor. In more chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease and achalasia, ICC and mast cells develop close spatial contacts and piecemeal degranulation is possibly triggered. PMID:20132411

  1. Selective Early Production of CCL20, or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 , by Human Mast Cells in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong-Jun Lin; Lauren H. Maher; Kaede Gomi; Jeffrey D. McCurdy; Rafael Garduno; Jean S. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Mast cells are important as sentinel cells in host defense against bacterial infection. Much of their effectiveness depends upon recruiting other immune cells; however, little is known about the mechanisms of this response. CCL20, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (MIP-3), Exodus, and LARC, is a chemokine known to be a potent chemoattractant for immature dendritic cells and T cells.

  2. The innate NK cells and macrophages recognize and reject allogeneic non-self in vivo via different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wentao; Xiao, Xiang; Demirci, Gulcin; Madsen, Joren; Li, Xian C.

    2012-01-01

    Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the allograft response. But how the innate immune cells respond to allotransplants remains poorly defined. In the present study, we examined the role of NK cells and macrophages in recognizing and rejecting allogeneic cells in vivo. We found that in naïve mice NK cells are the primary effector cells in killing of allogeneic cells via “the missing self” recognition. However, in alloantigen pre-sensitized mice, NK cells are dispensable. Instead, macrophages become alloreactive and readily recognize and reject allogeneic non-self. This effect requires help from activated CD4+ T cells and involves CD40/CD40L engagement, as blocking CD40/CD40L interactions prevents macrophage mediated rejection of allogeneic cells. Conversely, actively stimulating CD40 triggers macrophage-mediated rejection in the absence of CD4+ T cells. Importantly, alloantigen primed and CD4+ T cell-helped macrophages (licensed macrophages) exhibit potent regulatory function in vivo in an acute GVHD model. Together, our data uncover an important role for macrophages in the alloimmune response and may have important clinical implications. PMID:22327074

  3. Interleukin-27 in T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yukiko; Fujio, Keishi; Okamura, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27, a member of IL-12/IL-23 heterodimeric family of cytokines, has pleiotropic properties that can enhance or limit immune responses. IL-27 acts on various cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and non-hematopoietic cells. Intensive studies have been conducted especially on T cells, revealing that various subsets of T cells respond uniquely to IL-27. IL-27 induces expansion of Th1 cells by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1-mediated T-bet signaling pathway. On the other hand, IL-27 suppresses immune responses through inhibition of the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells and induction of IL-10 production in a STAT1- and STAT3-dependent manner. IL-27 is a potentially promising cytokine for therapeutic approaches on various human diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of IL-27 related to T cell subsets, its structure, and production mechanism. PMID:25633106

  4. Nitric oxide–mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2?/? macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2?/? macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-?) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2?/? macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages PMID:23630227

  5. Nitric oxide-mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Fang, Ferric C; Bogdan, Christian; Weiss, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2(-/-) macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2(-/-) macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-?) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2(-/-) macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages. PMID:23630227

  6. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AGAINST BESNOITIA AND TOXOPLASMA IN SPECIFICALLY AND CROSS-IMMUNIZED HAMSTERS AND IN CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Richard L.; Frenkel, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The capacity of hamster peritoneal cell populations to control viability and growth of Besnoitia and Toxoplasma organisms was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Immunized hamsters reduced the homologous organisms 100- to 10,000-fold over a 5-day period, but the heterologous infection increased 100- to 1,000-fold in numbers, similar as in the nonimmune controls. Passively administered antibody was ineffective although lytic cofactors were supplied by hamsters. In cultures, peritoneal cells from Besnoitia-immune hamsters delayed the growth of homologous parasites to an average of 38.5 h per division; however, in Toxoplasma-immune and nonimmune cells, Besnoitia divided every 12.8 h. Specificity of immunity was pronounced against both infections. With cross-infections, Toxoplasma-immune cultures did not effectively delay Besnoitia growth; however, Besnoitia-immune cultures reduced Toxoplasma growth by one-half. Co-cultivation experiments demonstrated that specifically committed lymphocytes could instruct macrophages to reduce the homologous organism 10-fold, whereas heterologous organisms were reduced only 2-fold. Lymphocyte supernatants initiated hypersensitivity as indicated by macrophage activation and giant cell formation in culture. However, these supernatants did not transfer infection immunity. Lymphokines could account for the hypersensitivity phenomena, but cell-mediated infection immunity in this model required close lymphocyte-macrophage proximity. These studies indicate that a number of distinct processes including delayed hypersensitivity, macrophage activation, and specific cellular immunity are acting simultaneously during latent Besnoitia infection of hamsters. All three processes are mediated by lymphoid cells and appear to be specifically induced. Although activated macrophages develop some heightened nonspecific capabilities, these were several orders of magnitude below the specific effects. PMID:4812629

  7. Recent progress in understanding the phenotype and function of intestinal dendritic cells and macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Kelsall

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal immune responses must be tightly controlled, particularly in the intestine. As members of the mononuclear phagocyte family, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are well represented in intestinal tissues and have developed unique functional niches. This review will focus on recent findings on antigen uptake and processing in the intestine and the role of DCs in the imprinting of homing

  8. NLRX1 prevents mitochondrial induced apoptosis and enhances macrophage antiviral immunity by interacting with influenza virus PB1-F2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Joanna; Coulombe, François; Downey, Jeffrey; Tzelepis, Fanny; Shalaby, Karim; Tattoli, Ivan; Berube, Julie; Rousseau, Simon; Martin, James G.; Girardin, Stephen E.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Divangahi, Maziar

    2014-01-01

    To subvert host immunity, influenza A virus (IAV) induces early apoptosis in innate immune cells by disrupting mitochondria membrane potential via its polymerase basic protein 1-frame 2 (PB1-F2) accessory protein. Whether immune cells have mechanisms to counteract PB1-F2–mediated apoptosis is currently unknown. Herein, we define that the host mitochondrial protein nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR)X1 binds to viral protein PB1-F2, preventing IAV-induced macrophage apoptosis and promoting both macrophage survival and type I IFN signaling. We initially observed that Nlrx1-deficient mice infected with IAV exhibited increased pulmonary viral replication, as well as enhanced inflammatory-associated pulmonary dysfunction and morbidity. Analysis of the lungs of IAV-infected mice revealed markedly enhanced leukocyte recruitment but impaired production of type I IFN in Nlrx1?/? mice. Impaired type I IFN production and enhanced viral replication was recapitulated in Nlrx1?/? macrophages and was associated with increased mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Through gain- and loss-of-function strategies for protein interaction, we identified that NLRX1 directly bound PB1-F2 in the mitochondria of macrophages. Using a recombinant virus lacking PB1-F2, we confirmed that deletion of PB1-F2 abrogated NLRX1-dependent macrophage type I IFN production and apoptosis. Thus, our results demonstrate that NLRX1 acts as a mitochondrial sentinel protecting macrophages from PB1-F2–induced apoptosis and preserving their antiviral function. We further propose that NLRX1 is critical for macrophage immunity against IAV infection by sensing the extent of viral replication and maintaining a protective balance between antiviral immunity and excessive inflammation within the lungs. PMID:24799673

  9. Carbonylation caused by cigarette smoke extract is associated with defective macrophage immunity.

    PubMed

    Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Zhang, Yilin; Lah, Lin Chin; Seow, Huei Jiunn; Mansell, Ashley; Anderson, Gary P

    2011-08-01

    Oxidants in cigarette smoke inhibit pathogen recognition receptor function and phagocytosis, but the molecular basis of this inhibition remains obscure. We sought to identify the inhibitory mechanisms that impair alveolar macrophage function. Balb/c mice were acutely exposed to four cigarettes for 4 hours before treatment with intranasal LPS (1 ?g). The mice exhibited significantly reduced airway neutrophilia and expression of TNF-?. Balb/c-derived MH-S alveolar macrophage cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) displayed a similar inhibitory response to stimulation with LPS. The induction of inflammatory genes by recombinant (r) TNF-? (100 ng/ml) was also impaired by CSE. Because both pathways converge on NF-?B, the degradation of I?B? and the phosphorylation of p65 were assessed and shown to be blunted by CSE. CSE also blocked the activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by inhibiting p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a reduced glutathione (GSH)-reversible manner. The induction of specific Toll-like receptor (TLR)-negative regulators (suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 [SOCS-1], interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-M [IRAK-M], and IL-10) did not account for the impaired responses of TLRs. As free radical species are abundant in CSE and GSH restored function, a panel of oxidative/nitrosative stress markers was screened using immunocytochemistry. The panel identified protein carbonylation as the major CSE-inducible marker. Oxyblot analysis confirmed that CSE potently introduced carbonyl groups to many proteins in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner that inversely correlated with the expression of TNF-?. The formation of pseudopodia was not prevented, but these membrane extensions were heavily carbonylated, and primary alveolar macrophages were also targeted for carbonylation. Oxidants in cigarette smoke drive a rapid, persistent, and global protein carbonylation that may represent a common pathway to altered immunity in disease. PMID:20935190

  10. The macrophage-TCR?? is a cholesterol-responsive combinatorial immune receptor and implicated in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tina; Puellmann, Kerstin; Emmert, Alexander; Fleig, Julian; Oniga, Septimia; Laird, Rebecca; Heida, Nana Maria; Schäfer, Katrin; Neumaier, Michael; Beham, Alexander W; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates constitutive expression of a recombinatorial TCR?? immune receptor in mammalian monocytes and macrophages. Here, we demonstrate in vitro that macrophage-TCR? repertoires are modulated by atherogenic low density cholesterol (LDL) and high-density cholesterol (HDL). In vivo, analysis of freshly obtained artery specimens from patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis reveals massive abundance of TCR??(+) macrophages within the atherosclerotic lesions. Experimental atherosclerosis in mouse carotids induces accumulation of TCR bearing macrophages in the vascular wall and TCR deficient rag(-/-) mice have an altered macrophage-dependent inflammatory response. We find that the majority of TCR?? bearing macrophages are localized in the hot spot regions of the atherosclerotic lesions. Advanced carotid artery lesions express highly restricted TCR?? repertoires that are characterized by a striking usage of the V?22 and V?16 chains. This together with a significant degree of interindividual lesion repertoire sharing suggests the existence of atherosclerosis-associated TCR?? signatures. Our results implicate the macrophage-TCR?? combinatorial immunoreceptor in atherosclerosis and thus identify an as yet unknown adaptive component in the innate response-to-injury process that underlies this macrophage-driven disease. PMID:25446098

  11. Differential Transcriptional Response in Macrophages Infected with Cell Wall Deficient versus Normal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu-Rong; Gao, Kun-Shan; Ji, Rui; Yi, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions determine the outcome following infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under adverse circumstances, normal Mtb can form cell-wall deficient (CWD) variants within macrophages, which have been considered an adaptive strategy for facilitating bacterial survival inside macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection of macrophages with different phenotypic Mtb elicits distinct responses of macrophages is not fully understood. To explore the molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, differential transcriptional responses of RAW264.7 cells infected with two forms of Mtb, CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb, were studied by microarray analysis. Some of the differentially regulated genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR in both RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was used to analyze functions of differentially expressed genes. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb group. Mapt was up-regulated, while NOS2 and IL-11 were down-regulated in CWD-Mtb infected RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages compared with normal Mtb infected ones. Many deregulated genes were found to be related to macrophages activation, immune response, phagosome maturation, autophagy and lipid metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Taken together, the present study showed that differential macrophage responses were induced by intracellular CWD-Mtb an normal Mtb infection, which suggested that interactions between macrophages and different phenotypic Mtb are very complex. The results provide evidence for further understanding of pathogenesis of CWD-Mtb and may help in improving strategies to eliminate intracellular CWD-Mtb. PMID:25552926

  12. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  13. Chemical characterization of specific pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Godleski; M. Anwar Joher; Jeffrey D. Goldstein; Joseph D. Brain

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary macrophages of mice have a unique cell surface antigen not shared by other cell types. In the study reported here,\\u000a the cell surface proteins of pulmonary macrophages were labeled with125I, dissociated by the detergent NP-40, and reacted with either specific guinea pig anti-mouse pulmonary macrophage serum or\\u000a normal guinea pig serum. Goat anti-guinea pig IgG was used for immunoprecipitation,

  14. Independent evolution of macrophage-tropism and increased charge between HIV-1 R5 envelopes present in brain and immune tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transmitted HIV-1 clade B or C R5 viruses have been reported to infect macrophages inefficiently, while other studies have described R5 viruses in late disease with either an enhanced macrophage-tropism or carrying envelopes with an increased positive charge and fitness. In contrast, our previous data suggested that viruses carrying non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes were still predominant in immune tissue of AIDS patients. To further investigate the tropism and charge of HIV-1 viruses in late disease, we evaluated the properties of HIV-1 envelopes amplified from immune and brain tissues of AIDS patients with neurological complications. Results Almost all envelopes amplified were R5. There was clear compartmentalization of envelope sequences for four of the five subjects. However, strong compartmentalization of macrophage-tropism in brain was observed even when brain and immune tissue envelope sequences were not segregated. R5 envelopes from immune tissue of four subjects carried a higher positive charge compared to brain envelopes. We also confirm a significant correlation between macrophage tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4, a weak association with sensitivity to the CD4 binding site antibody, b12, but no clear relationship with maraviroc sensitivity. Conclusions Our study shows that non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes carrying gp120s with an increased positive charge were predominant in immune tissue in late disease. However, highly macrophage-tropic variants with lower charged gp120s were nearly universal in the brain. These results are consistent with HIV-1 R5 envelopes evolving gp120s with an increased positive charge in immune tissue or sites outside the brain that likely reflect an adaptation for increased replication or fitness for CD4+ T-cells. Our data are consistent with the presence of powerful pressures in brain and in immune tissues selecting for R5 envelopes with very different properties; high macrophage-tropism, sCD4 sensitivity and low positive charge in brain and non-macrophage-tropism, sCD4 resistance and high positive charge in immune tissue. PMID:22420378

  15. Improved Method for Culturing Guinea-Pig Macrophage Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proper nutrients and periodic changes in culture medium maintain cell viability for a longer period. New method uses a thioglycolate solution, instead of mineral oil, to induce macrophage cells in guinea pigs and also uses an increased percent of fetal-calf bovine serum in cultivation medium. Macrophage cells play significant roles in the body's healing and defense systems.

  16. Studies on the immune reconstitution of sublethally irradiated mice by peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Harriet; Feldman, Michael

    1968-01-01

    Studies were performed on the reconstitution of the immune response to Shigella paradysenteriae and sheep erythrocytes in sublethally irradiated mice by the injection of normal peritoneal macrophages with and without pre-incubation with antigen. The response to Shigella was found to be less radiosensitive than the anti-SRBC response. Sublethally irradiated mice (550 r) injected with peritoneal macrophages from normal donors pre-incubated with Shigella antigen or injected simultaneously with macrophages and Shigella evinced a strong anti-Shigella response. No such reconstitution of the immune response against SRBC was observed, even when lower irradiation doses and phagocytosis-enhancing incubation media were used. Possible reasons for the different response to Shigella and SRBC are discussed. PMID:4884963

  17. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-Glucocorticoid Dyad: Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Flaster; Jurgen Bernhagen; Thierry Calandra; Richard Bucala

    2007-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) occupies a unique position in phys- iology by its ability to directly regulate the immu- nosuppressive actions of glucocorticoids. We re- view herein the interactions between MIF and glucocorticoids within the immune system and discuss the relevance of the MIF-glucocorticoid regulatory dyad in physiology and immunopa- thology. Therapeutic antagonism of MIF may be

  18. Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

  19. Streptolysin O Promotes Group A Streptococcus Immune Evasion by Accelerated Macrophage Apoptosis*

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Streptolysin O Promotes Group A Streptococcus Immune Evasion by Accelerated Macrophage Apoptosis and §§ Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182 Group A Streptococcus (GAS A Streptococcus (GAS)4 is a leading human pathogen that annually infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide

  20. Candida albicans Killing by RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells: Effects of Candida Genotype, Infection Ratios, and Gamma Interferon Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marcil; D. Harcus; D. Y. Thomas; M. Whiteway

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are potential components of the immune defense that protects mammals against Candida albicans infection. We have tested the interaction between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and a variety of mutant strains of C. albicans. We used an end point dilution assay to monitor the killing of C. albicans at low multiplicities

  1. Antagonism by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against the suppression by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells on macrophage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Yang, Ning; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Min; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-02-01

    It is well-documented that macrophages have the functions to regulate antitumor immune response. Antitumor response can be launched by a series of events, starting with inflammation mediated by monocyte/macrophages, which stimulates natural killer and dendritic cells and finally activates the cytotoxic lymphoid system. Monocytes/macrophages may be the first line of defense in tumors. However, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy for human cancer has shown no success or limited success in clinical trials. Part of the reasons attribute to tumor-derived soluble factors that suppress functions of immune cells or induce apoptosis of these cells, including macrophages. Therefore, antagonism of the suppression on the macrophages is an important goal for tumor immunotherapy. To achieve this purpose, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities were used on mouse peritoneal macrophages incubating with culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS). It was shown that the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by B16F10-CS, while the suppressions were fully or partially antagonized by Gl-PS. In conclusion, B16F10-CS is suppressive to the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages while Gl-PS had the antagonistic effects against this suppression, suggesting this potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23519930

  2. Modulators affecting the immune dialogue between human immune and colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer has been well established. The events proceeding along tumorigenesis are complicated and involve cells activated at the cancer microenvironment, tumor infiltrating polymorphonuclears, immune cells including lymphocyte subtypes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as tumor-associated macrophages. The immune cells generate inflammatory cytokines, several of them playing a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Additional factors, such as gene expression regulated by cytokines, assembling of tumor growth- and transforming factors, accelerated angiogenesis, delayed apoptosis, contribute all to initiation, development and migration of tumor cells. Oxygen radical species originating from the inflammatory area promote cell mutation and cancer proliferation. Tumor cells may over-express pro-inflammatory mediators that in turn activate immune cells for inflammatory cytokines production. Consequently, an immune dialogue emerges between immune and cancer cells orchestrated through a number of activated molecular pathways. Cytokines, encompassing migration inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor-?, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23 have been reported to be involved in human cancer development. Some cytokines, namely IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-22 and growth factors promote tumor development and metastasis, and inhibit apoptosis via activation of signal transducer activator transcription-3 transcription factor. Colon cancer environment comprises mesenchymal, endothelial and immune cells. Assessment of the interaction between components in the tumor environment and malignant cells requires a reconsideration of a few topics elucidating the role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis, the function of the immune cells expressed by inflammatory cytokine production, the immunomodulation of cancer cells and the existence of a cross-talk between immune and malignant cells leading to a balance in cytokine production. It is conceivable that the prevalence of anti-inflammatory cytokine production by PBMC in the affected colonic mucosa will contribute to the delay, or even to halt down malignant expansion. Targeting the interplay between immune and cancer cells by mediators capable to alter cytokine secretion toward increased anti-inflammatory cytokine release by PBMC and tumor associated macrophages, may serve as an additional strategy for treatment of malignant diseases. This review will focus on the inflammatory events preceding tumorigenesis in general, and on a number of modulators capable to affect colon cancer cell-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by PBMC through alteration of the immune cross-talk between PBMC and cancer cells. PMID:24834143

  3. Intracellular location of Mycobacterium leprae in macrophages of normal and immune-deficient mice and effect of rifampin.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, N

    1983-01-01

    Soon after more than 10(6) Mycobacterium leprae, freshly harvested from armadillo liver or harvested and 60CO irradiated, were inoculated into the hind footpads of either normal or thymectomized and irradiated (T900R) mice, the organisms were found to reside within phagosomes of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells. On the other hand, 7 and 8 months after 10(4) freshly harvested M. leprae were inoculated into the footpads of normal or T900R mice and the organisms had multiplied to their maximum in the normal mice, many organisms, largely intact by electron-microscopic criteria, were found to reside free in the cytoplasm of the footpad macrophages, whereas damaged organisms were contained within phagosomes. After 11 months, many intact organisms were found to lie free in the cytoplasm of the macrophages of T900R mice, whereas only damaged intraphagosomal M. leprae cells were observed in the macrophages of normal mice. Finally, a remarkably large proportion of damaged extraphagosomal M. leprae was found in T900R mice administered rifampin for 2 days in a bactericidal dosage. It appears that M. leprae multiplies free in the cytoplasm of the footpad macrophages of infected mice, whereas the M. leprae cells resident within the phagosomes of the macrophages are dead. As the result of treatment with rifampin, the organisms appeared to have been killed in their extraphagosomal location, only afterwards being incorporated into phagosomes. However, the intracellular site in which M. leprae is killed in the course of an effective immune response remains unclear. Images PMID:6358034

  4. Regulation of icam-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Unverdorben, Felix; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Buttron, Isabell; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  5. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  6. Constant light suppresses production of Met-enkephalin-containing peptides in cultured splenic macrophages and impairs primary immune response in rats.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Escobar, Carolina; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Asai, Miguel; Benítez-King, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    The light-dark cycle is an environmental factor that influences immune physiology, and so, variations of the photoperiod length result in altered immune responsivity. Macrophage physiology comprises a spectrum of functions that goes from host defense to immune down-regulation, in addition to their homeostatic activities. Macrophages also play a key role in the transition from innate to adaptive immune responses. Met-enkephalin (MEnk) has been recognized as a modulator of macrophage physiology acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to influence macrophage activation, phenotype polarization and production of cytokines that would enhance lymphocyte activation at early stages of an immune response. Previously it was shown that splenic MEnk tissue content is reduced in rats exposed to constant light. In this work, we explored whether production of Met-enkephalin-containing peptides (MECPs) in cultured splenic macrophages is affected by exposure of rats to a constant light regime. In addition, we explored whether primary immune response was impaired under this condition. We found that in rats, 15 days in constant light was sufficient to disrupt their general activity rhythm. Splenic MEnk content oscillations and levels were also blunted throughout a 24-h period in animals subjected to constant light. In agreement, de novo synthesis of MECPs evaluated through incorporation of (35)S-methionine was reduced in splenic macrophages from rats exposed to constant light. Moreover, MECPs immunocytochemistry showed a decrease in the intracellular content and lack of granule-like deposits in this condition. Furthermore, we found that primary T-dependent antibody response was compromised in rats exposed to constant light. In those animals, pharmacologic treatment with MEnk increased IFN-?-secreting cells. Also, IL-2 secretion from antigen-stimulated splenocytes was reduced after incubation with naloxone, suggesting that immune-derived opioid peptides and stimulation of opioid receptors are involved in this process. Thus, the immune impairment observed from early stages of the response in constant light-subjected rats, could be associated with reduced production of macrophage-derived enkephalins, leading to a sub-optimal interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes in the spleen and the subsequent deficiency in antibody production. PMID:25245012

  7. T cells down-regulate macrophage TNF production by IRAK1-mediated IL-10 expression and control innate hyperinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Makoto; Arikawa, Tomohiro; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Price, Michael; Brown, Michael; Perfect, John R.; Shinohara, Mari L.

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxemia is caused by excessive inflammation, but the immune system has various mechanisms to avoid collateral organ damage in endotoxemia. A handful of reports have shown that innate immune responses are suppressed by the adaptive immune system. However, the molecular mechanism by which adaptive immune cells suppress innate inflammatory responses is not clear. Here, we report that T cells are shown to interact with macrophages at the early stage of enodotoxemia and to prolong survival of mice through controlling TNF and IL-10 levels by macrophage CD40 stimulation. The cross-talk between CD40 and toll-like receptor (TLR4) signaling first mediates IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) nuclear translocation and its binding to the IL-10 gene promoter in macrophages, without interfering with the NF?B pathway. IL-10 is then detected by macrophages in an autocrine fashion to destabilize Tnfa mRNA. To induce IRAK1-mediated IL-10 expression, signals from both CD40 and TLR4 are essential. CD40 signaling induces IRAK1 sumoylation in the presence of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and intracellular isoform of osteopontin (iOPN) whereas TLR4 signaling provides IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) as a chaperone for sumoylated IRAK1 nuclear translocation. Interaction of T cells with macrophages was observed in the spleen in vivo after endotoxemia induction with LPS injection. Our study demonstrates a mechanistic basis for the immunosuppressive role of macrophage CD40 in LPS endotoxemia. PMID:24706909

  8. Modulation of mouse mesangial cell proliferation by macrophage products.

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, E P; Hsu, A; Ooi, Y M; Ooi, B S

    1985-01-01

    Mesangial hypercellularity is usually found in many models of nephritis characterized by monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the glomerulus. In order to examine the mechanism mediating these events, an in vitro model was used to study the effects of macrophage products on mouse mesangial cells, cultured under conditions which would render them relatively quiescent. Under these conditions, macrophage supernatants stimulated the proliferation of the mesangial cells. The stimulatory effect could be shown to be due in part to enhancement of endogenous mesangial cell PGE production. This was demonstrated by experiments which showed that macrophage supernatants stimulated mesangial cell PGE production, that the stimulatory effect of macrophage products was abrogated by pretreatment of mesangial cells with indomethacin, and finally that exogenous PGE2 stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. PMID:3865890

  9. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Krutzik, Stephan R.; Tan, Belinda; Li, Huiying; Ochoa, Maria Teresa; Liu, Philip T.; Sharfstein, Sarah E.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Sieling, Peter A.; Liu, Yong-Jun; Rea, Thomas H.; Bloom, Barry R.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Leprosy enables investigation of mechanisms by which the innate immune system contributes to host defense against infection, since in one form, the disease progresses, and in the other, the infection is limited. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of human monocytes induces rapid differentiation into two distinct subsets: DC-SIGN+CD16+ macrophages and CD1b+DC-SIGN? dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ phagocytic macrophages were expanded by TLR-mediated upregulation of IL-15/IL-15R. CD1b+ dendritic cells were expanded by TLR-mediated upregulation of GM-CSF/GM-CSFR, promoted T cell activation and secreted proinflammatory cytokines. While DC-SIGN+ macrophages were detected in lesions of all leprosy patients, CD1b+ dendritic cells were not detected in patients with the progressive lepromatous form, except during reversal reactions in which bacilli were cleared by Th1 responses. In T-lep lesions, DC-SIGN+ cells were positive for macrophage markers, but negative for dendritic cell markers. Thus, TLR-induced differentiation of monocytes into either macrophages or dendritic cells appears critically to influence effective host defenses in human infectious disease. PMID:15880118

  10. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  11. Fc Gamma Receptor IIb on GM-CSF Macrophages Controls Immune Complex Mediated Inhibition of Inflammatory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Santegoets, Kim C. M.; Wenink, Mark H.; van den Berg, Wim B.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) macrophages play a major role in amplifying synovial inflammation. Important activating signals are those induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and by activated T cells. The balance between activating and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs) on macrophages might be crucial in modulating these inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to determine Fc?R expression on pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages (gmM? and mM?, respectively) and identify functional consequences on immune complex uptake and macrophage activation. Methods Human monocytes were isolated and differentiated into gmM? and mM?. A full Fc?R characterization of both macrophage subtypes was performed and uptake of fluorescent immune complexes (ICs) was determined. Fc?RIIb isoforms were determined by qPCR. Macrophages were stimulated via different TLRs or cytokine activated T cells in the presence or absence of ICs and cytokine production was determined. Blocking studies were performed to look into the pathways involved. Results mM? expressed high levels of the activating Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIII and low levels of the inhibitory Fc?RIIb, while the Fc?R balance on gmM? was shifted towards the inhibitory Fc?RIIb. This was accompanied by a clear increase in Fc?RIIb1 mRNA expression in gmM?. This resulted in higher IC uptake by mM? compared to gmM?. Furthermore, Fc?R-mediated stimulation of gmM? inhibited TLR2, 3, 4 and 7/8 mediated cytokine production via Fc?RIIb and PI3K signaling. In addition, gmM? but not mM? produced TNF? upon co-culture with cytokine activated T cells, which was reduced by IC binding to Fc?RIIb. The latter was dependent on PI3K signaling and COX2. Conclusions Fc?R expression patterns on gmM? and mM? are significantly different, which translates in clear functional differences further substantiating Fc?RIIb as an interesting target for inflammation control in RA and other autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. PMID:25340460

  12. Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Charles A; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A; Anderson, Gregory G; Petrache, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophage cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. A mannuronic-specific alginate lyase did not restore efferocytosis inhibited by exogenous guluronic-rich marine alginate, but had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to chronic airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate production and synergy with LPS, suggesting that alginate lyase may be an attractive therapeutic approach to airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases characterized by P. aeruginosa colonization. PMID:25027418

  13. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, YuFeng; Martin, David A; Kenkel, Justin; Zhang, Kang; Ogden, Carol Anne; Elkon, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated by natural antibodies and serum opsonins. Recognition, may be site and context specific. Uptake and ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes an immunosuppressive environment that avoids inflammatory responses to self antigens. However, it does not preclude a T cell response and it is likely that constant exposure to self antigen, particularly by immature dendritic cells, leads to T cell tolerance. Tolerance occurs by several different mechanisms including anergy and deletion (for CD8+ T cells) and induction of T regulatory cells (for CD4+ T cells). Failed apoptotic cell clearance promotes immune responses to self antigens, especially when the cellular contents are leaked from the cell (necrosis). Inflammatory responses may be induced by nucleic acid stimulation of toll like receptors and other immune sensors, specific intracellular proteins and non protein (uric acid) stimulation of inflammasomes. PMID:17888627

  14. Modulation of Intracellular Restriction Factors Contributes to Methamphetamine-Mediated Enhancement of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus Infection of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Sinem; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (METH), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. In vitro studies have determined that METH enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and macrophages. In addition, animal studies have also showed that METH treatment increases brain viral load of SIV-infected monkeys and promotes HIV replication and viremia in HIV/hu-CycT1 transgenic mice. However, the mechanisms (s) of METH actions on HIV remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the impact of METH on intracellular restriction factors against HIV and SIV. We demonstrated that METH treatment of human blood mononuclear phagocytes significantly affected the expression of anti-HIV microRNAs and several key elements (RIG-I, IRF-3/5, SOCS-2, 3 and PIAS-1, 3, X, Y) in the type I IFN pathway. The suppression of these innate restriction factors was associated with a reduced production of type I IFNs and the enhancement of HIV or SIV infection of macrophages. These findings indicate that METH use impairs intracellular innate antiviral mechanism(s) in macrophages, contributing to cell susceptibility to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus infection. PMID:22591364

  15. Disruption of SIRP? signaling in macrophages eliminates human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells in xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Jin, Liqing; Cheng, Po-Yan; Prasolava, Tatiana K.; Malko, Andrei V.; Ho, Jenny M.; Poeppl, Armando G.; van Rooijen, Nico; Minden, Mark D.; Danska, Jayne S.; Dick, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor surveillance by T and B lymphocytes is well studied, the role of innate immune cells, in particular macrophages, is less clear. Moreover, the existence of subclonal genetic and functional diversity in some human cancers such as leukemia underscores the importance of defining tumor surveillance mechanisms that effectively target the disease-sustaining cancer stem cells in addition to bulk cells. In this study, we report that leukemia stem cell function in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on SIRP?-mediated inhibition of macrophages through engagement with its ligand CD47. We generated mice expressing SIRP? variants with differential ability to bind human CD47 and demonstrated that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of AML stem cells depend on absent SIRP? signaling. We obtained independent confirmation of the genetic restriction observed in our mouse models by using SIRP?-Fc fusion protein to disrupt SIRP?–CD47 engagement. Treatment with SIRP?-Fc enhanced phagocytosis of AML cells by both mouse and human macrophages and impaired leukemic engraftment in mice. Importantly, SIRP?-Fc treatment did not significantly enhance phagocytosis of normal hematopoietic targets. These findings support the development of therapeutics that antagonize SIRP? signaling to enhance macrophage-mediated elimination of AML. PMID:22945919

  16. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  17. M2 Polarized Macrophages and Giant Cells Contribute to Myofibrosis in Neuromuscular Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Stefan; Heppner, Frank L.; Goebel, Hans H.; Stenzel, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease, still remains obscure. A multitude of organs have been described to be affected in systemic sarcoidosis. Skeletal muscles may also be affected, leading to myalgia and weakness. A workup of the specific immune response with emphasis on the macrophage response is provided herein. Affected muscle tissue from seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis was analyzed and compared with that from seven patients with other myopathies containing macrophagocytic infiltration. Monocytes/macrophages and giant cells in granulomas of muscle tissue from patients with sarcoidosis show a status of alternative activation (M2) based on their expression of CD206, CD301, arginase-1, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as a consequence of a functionally type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-biased cytokine profile. Significant fibrosis and up-regulation of CCL18 were associated with the M2 phenotype of macrophages. Conversely, up-regulated Th1 cytokines did not result in significant classical activation of macrophages (M1), with poor inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 production. Giant cell formation was further associated with up-regulated expression of DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12; gene symbol TYROBP). Functionally, alternative activation of macrophages on the basis of a Th2-biased immune response may induce clinical symptoms and chronic evolution of neuromuscular sarcoidosis. This is the first characterization of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms in neuromuscular sarcoidosis suggesting that a specific macrophage activation status leading to myofibrosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21356378

  18. M2 polarized macrophages and giant cells contribute to myofibrosis in neuromuscular sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Stefan; Heppner, Frank L; Goebel, Hans H; Stenzel, Werner

    2011-03-01

    The etiopathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease, still remains obscure. A multitude of organs have been described to be affected in systemic sarcoidosis. Skeletal muscles may also be affected, leading to myalgia and weakness. A workup of the specific immune response with emphasis on the macrophage response is provided herein. Affected muscle tissue from seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis was analyzed and compared with that from seven patients with other myopathies containing macrophagocytic infiltration. Monocytes/macrophages and giant cells in granulomas of muscle tissue from patients with sarcoidosis show a status of alternative activation (M2) based on their expression of CD206, CD301, arginase-1, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 as a consequence of a functionally type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-biased cytokine profile. Significant fibrosis and up-regulation of CCL18 were associated with the M2 phenotype of macrophages. Conversely, up-regulated Th1 cytokines did not result in significant classical activation of macrophages (M1), with poor inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 production. Giant cell formation was further associated with up-regulated expression of DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12; gene symbol TYROBP). Functionally, alternative activation of macrophages on the basis of a Th2-biased immune response may induce clinical symptoms and chronic evolution of neuromuscular sarcoidosis. This is the first characterization of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms in neuromuscular sarcoidosis suggesting that a specific macrophage activation status leading to myofibrosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21356378

  19. Role of cell death in the propagation of PrP(Sc) in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have suggested that macrophages, dendritic cells, and follicular dendritic cells play an important role in the propagation of PrP(Sc). Both accumulation and proteolysis of PrP(Sc) have been demonstrated in peripheral macrophages. Macrophages may act as reservoirs for PrP(Sc) particles if the cells die during transient PrP(Sc) propagation. However, whether cell death plays a role in PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the possibility of propagation and transmission of PrP(Sc) between dead immune cells and living neural cells. We found that under specific conditions, transient PrP(Sc) propagation occurs in dead cells, indicating that interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) on plasma membrane lipid rafts might be important for PrP(Sc) propagation. Co-culturing of killed donor PrP(Sc)-infected macrophages with recipient N2a-3 neuroblastoma cells accelerated PrP(Sc) transmission. Our results suggest that cell death may play an important role in PrP(Sc) propagation, whereas transient PrP(Sc) propagation in macrophages has little effect on PrP(Sc) transmission. PMID:25559669

  20. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  1. Human dermal CD14? cells are a transient population of monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Naomi; Schlitzer, Andreas; Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Shin, Amanda; Poyner, Elizabeth; Green, Kile; Dickinson, Rachel; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Low, Donovan; Best, Katie; Covins, Samuel; Milne, Paul; Pagan, Sarah; Aljefri, Khadija; Windebank, Martin; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Saavedra, Diego Miranda; Larbi, Anis; Wasan, Pavandip Singh; Duan, Kaibo; Poidinger, Michael; Bigley, Venetia; Ginhoux, Florent; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2014-09-18

    Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are leukocytes with critical roles in immunity and tolerance. The DC network is evolutionarily conserved; the homologs of human tissue CD141(hi)XCR1? CLEC9A? DCs and CD1c? DCs are murine CD103? DCs and CD64? CD11b? DCs. In addition, human tissues also contain CD14? cells, currently designated as DCs, with an as-yet unknown murine counterpart. Here we have demonstrated that human dermal CD14? cells are a tissue-resident population of monocyte-derived macrophages with a short half-life of <6 days. The decline and reconstitution kinetics of human blood CD14? monocytes and dermal CD14? cells in vivo supported their precursor-progeny relationship. The murine homologs of human dermal CD14? cells are CD11b? CD64? monocyte-derived macrophages. Human and mouse monocytes and macrophages were defined by highly conserved gene transcripts, which were distinct from DCs. The demonstration of monocyte-derived macrophages in the steady state in human tissue supports a conserved organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte system. PMID:25200712

  2. Insulin Secretion is Regulated by the Glucose-Dependent Production of Islet beta Cell Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Waeber; Thierry Calandra; Raphael Roduit; Jacques-Antoine Haefliger; Christophe Bonny; Nancy Thompson; Bernard Thorens; Evelyne Temler; Andreas Meinhardt; Michael Bacher; Christine N. Metz; Pascal Nicod; Richard Bucala

    1997-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), originally identified as a cytokine secreted by T lymphocytes, was found recently to be both a pituitary hormone and a mediator released by immune cells in response to glucocorticoid stimulation. We report here that the insulin-secreting beta cell of the islets of Langerhans expresses MIF and that its production is regulated by glucose in a

  3. Functional Proteomic Analysis for Regulatory T Cell Surveillance of the HIV-1-Infected Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) induce robust neuroprotection in murine models of neuroAIDS, in part, through eliciting anti-inflammatory responses for HIV-1-infected brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophage and microglia). Herein, using both murine and human primary cell cultures in proteomic and cell biologic tests, we report that Treg promotes such neuroprotection by an even broader range of mechanisms than previously seen including inhibition of virus release, killing infected MP, and inducing phenotypic cell switches. Changes in individual Treg-induced macrophage proteins were quantified by iTRAQ labeling followed by mass spectrometry identifications. Reduction in virus release paralleled the upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene 15, an ubiquitin-like protein involved in interferon-mediated antiviral immunity. Treg killed virus-infected macrophages through caspase-3 and granzyme and perforin pathways. Independently, Treg transformed virus-infected macrophages from an M1 to an M2 phenotype by down- and up- regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and arginase 1, respectively. Taken together, Treg affects a range of virus-infected MP functions. The observations made serve to challenge the dogma of solitary Treg immune suppressor functions and provides novel insights into how Treg affects adaptive immunosurveillance for control of end organ diseases, notably neurocognitive disorders associated with advanced viral infection. PMID:20954747

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus Induces Innate Immune Responses in Alveolar Macrophages through the MAPK Pathway Independently of TLR2 and TLR41

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Dubourdeau; Rafika Athman; Viviane Balloy; Michel Huerre; Michel Chignard; Dana J. Philpott; Jean-Paul Latge; Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients. In the immunocompetent host, inhaled conidia are cleared by alveolar macrophages. The signaling pathways of the alveolar macrophage involved in the clearance of A. fumigatus are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of TLRs in the immune response against A. fumigatus and their contribution to the signaling events triggered in murine

  5. Stem cells—meet immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. P. Heng; Jarrod A. Dudakov; Danika M. P. Khong; Ann P. Chidgey; Richard L. Boyd

    2009-01-01

    The ability of stem cells to differentiate into various different cell types holds great promise for the treatment of irreversible\\u000a tissue damage that occurs in many debilitating conditions. With stem cell research advancing at a tremendous pace, it is becoming\\u000a clear that one of the greatest hurdles to successful stem cell-derived therapies is overcoming immune rejection of the transplant.\\u000a Although

  6. Integrative Model of the Immune Response to a Pulmonary Macrophage Infection: What Determines the Infection Duration?

    PubMed Central

    Go, Natacha; Bidot, Caroline; Belloc, Catherine; Touzeau, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The immune mechanisms which determine the infection duration induced by pathogens targeting pulmonary macrophages are poorly known. To explore the impact of such pathogens, it is indispensable to integrate the various immune mechanisms and to take into account the variability in pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. In this context, mathematical models complement experimentation and are powerful tools to represent and explore the complex mechanisms involved in the infection and immune dynamics. We developed an original mathematical model in which we detailed the interactions between the macrophages and the pathogen, the orientation of the adaptive response and the cytokine regulations. We applied our model to the Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome virus (PRRSv), a major concern for the swine industry. We extracted value ranges for the model parameters from modelling and experimental studies on respiratory pathogens. We identified the most influential parameters through a sensitivity analysis. We defined a parameter set, the reference scenario, resulting in a realistic and representative immune response to PRRSv infection. We then defined scenarios corresponding to graduated levels of strain virulence and host susceptibility around the reference scenario. We observed that high levels of antiviral cytokines and a dominant cellular response were associated with either short, the usual assumption, or long infection durations, depending on the immune mechanisms involved. To identify these mechanisms, we need to combine the levels of antiviral cytokines, including , and . The latter is a good indicator of the infected macrophage level, both combined provide the adaptive response orientation. Available PRRSv vaccines lack efficiency. By integrating the main interactions between the complex immune mechanisms, this modelling framework could be used to help designing more efficient vaccination strategies. PMID:25233096

  7. Engagement of the Mannose Receptor by Tumoral Mucins Activates an Immune Suppressive Phenotype in Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Allavena, P.; Chieppa, M.; Bianchi, G.; Solinas, G.; Fabbri, M.; Laskarin, G.; Mantovani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are abundantly present in the stroma of solid tumors and modulate several important biological processes, such as neoangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and suppression of adaptive immune responses. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) constitute a large family of transmembrane carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize pathogens as well as endogenous glycoproteins. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that some CLRs can inhibit the immune response. In this study we investigated TAM-associated molecules potentially involved in their immune suppressive activity. We found that TAMs isolated from human ovarian carcinoma samples predominantly express the CLRs Dectin-1, MDL-1, MGL, DCIR, and most abundantly the Mannose Receptor (MR). Components of carcinomatous ascites and purified tumoral mucins (CA125 and TAG-72) bound the MR and induced its internalization. MR engagement by tumoral mucins and by an agonist anti-MR antibody modulated cytokine production by TAM toward an immune-suppressive profile: increase of IL-10, absence of IL-12, and decrease of the Th1-attracting chemokine CCL3. This study highlights that tumoral mucin-mediated ligation of the MR on infiltrating TAM may contribute to their immune suppressive phenotype. PMID:21331365

  8. Brevetoxin-2 induces an inflammatory response in an alveolar macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Sas, Kelli M; Baatz, John E

    2010-09-01

    Brevetoxins, the algal toxins produced by Karenia brevis during red tide blooms, adversely impact health following ingestion or inhalation. Inhalation of brevetoxins results in a variety of acute symptoms including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Analysis of manatee lungs following death by purported brevetoxicosis has identified brevetoxin accumulation within macrophages, with pathological manifestions of lung congestion, inflammation, and edema. The goals of this work were to specifically examine effects of brevetoxin-2 on alveolar macrophages, a key cell in responding to toxins in the lung, as well as to determine if brevetoxin-2 results in an inflammatory response and/or direct cytotoxicity. Exposure of an alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) to an environmentally and physiologically relevant dose of brevetoxin-2 (0.5microg/ml) did not significantly alter cellular growth over a 24h time period. However, exposure of MH-S cells to brevetoxin-2 for 6h increased phagocytosis of latex beads, increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and decreased secretion of IL-5. Very few changes were seen in gene expression following 3 or 6h exposure to brevetoxin-2. These results show that brevetoxin-2 induced an immune response indicative of inflammation in an alveolar macrophage cell line, indicating that inhalation of brevetoxin-2 may lead to lung inflammation through an alveolar macrophage-initiated pathway. PMID:20655277

  9. Tityus serrulatus venom and toxins Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6 induce macrophage activation and production of immune mediators.

    PubMed

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Secatto, Adriana; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueredo; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2011-06-01

    Scorpion envenomation induces a systemic immune response, and neurotoxins of venom act on specific ion channels, modulating neurotransmitter release or activity. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of crude venom from scorpion Tityus serrulatus (TsV) or its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6) in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of TsV and its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6), J774.1 cells were stimulated with different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL) of venom or toxins pre-stimulated or not with LPS (0.5 ?g/mL). Macrophage cytotoxicity was assessed, and nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production were analyzed utilizing the culture supernatants. TsV and its toxins did not produce cytotoxic effects. Depending on the concentrations used, TsV, Ts1 and Ts6 stimulated the production of NO, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in J774.1 cells, which were enhanced under LPS co-stimulation. However, LPS + Ts2 inhibited NO, IL-6 and TNF-? production, and Ts2 alone stimulated the production of IL-10, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity for this toxin. Our findings are important for the basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in macrophage activation following envenomation; additionally, these findings may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic compounds to treat immune-mediated diseases. PMID:21549737

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pivotal role in immunity against Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidrun Koebernick; Leander Grode; John R. David; Wolfgang Rohde; Michael S. Rolph; Hans-Willi Mittrücker; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    2002-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exerts a multitude of biological functions. Notably, it induces inflammation at the interface between the immune system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. The role of MIF in infectious diseases is not understood completely. Here, we show that MIF-deficient (MIF\\/) knockout mice fail to control an infection with wild-type Salmonella typhimurium. Increased susceptibility was

  11. Anesthetics, immune cells, and immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Kurosawa; Masato Kato

    2008-01-01

    General anesthesia accompanied by surgical stress is considered to suppress immunity, presumably by directly affecting the\\u000a immune system or activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Along with stress\\u000a such as surgery, blood transfusion, hypothermia, hyperglycemia, and postoperative pain, anesthetics per se are associated\\u000a with suppressed immunity during perioperative periods because every anesthetic has direct suppressive effects on

  12. An essential regulatory role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, M; Metz, C N; Calandra, T; Mayer, K; Chesney, J; Lohoff, M; Gemsa, D; Donnelly, T; Bucala, R

    1996-01-01

    The protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was one of the first cytokines to be discovered and was described 30 years ago to be a T-cell-derived factor that inhibited the random migration of macrophages in vitro. A much broader role for MIF has emerged recently as a result of studies that have demonstrated it to be released from the anterior pituitary gland in vivo. MIF also is the first protein that has been identified to be secreted from monocytes/macrophages upon glucocorticoid stimulation. Once released, MIF acts to "override" or counter-regulate the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids on macrophage cytokine production. We report herein that MIF plays an important regulatory role in the activation of T cells induced by mitogenic or antigenic stimuli. Activated T cells produce MIF and neutralizing anti-MIF antibodies inhibit T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production in vitro, and suppress antigen-driven T-cell activation and antibody production in vivo. T cells also release MIF in response to glucocorticoid stimulation and MIF acts to override glucocorticoid inhibition of T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 and interferon gamma production. These studies indicate that MIF acts in concert with glucocorticoids to control T-cell activation and assign a previously unsuspected but critical role for MIF in antigen-specific immune responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8755565

  13. Immunogenic potential of irradiated lymphoma cells is enhanced by adjuvant immunotherapy and modulation of local macrophage populations.

    PubMed

    Honeychurch, Jamie; Melis, Monique H M; Dovedi, Simon J; Mu, Lijun; Illidge, Timothy M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of irradiated lymphoma cells in vivo and determine whether immunogenicity can be enhanced by modulation of the host immune system. Syngeneic murine lymphoma models irradiated ex vivo were used as an orthotopic cellular vaccination prior to challenge with viable tumor cells. We demonstrate that irradiated lymphoma cells are poorly immunogenic and that protective anti-tumor CD8 T-cell responses require the addition of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibody as an immune adjuvant, and increased frequency of antigen exposure by multiple vaccinations. Furthermore, we show the potential importance of macrophages in regulating immunogenicity of irradiated lymphoma cells and demonstrate that depletion of macrophages using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes considerably enhances primary vaccination efficacy in the presence of adjuvant anti-CD40 antibody. Our results demonstrate that the immunogenic potential of poorly immunogenic lymphoma cells dying after radiation therapy can be improved by modulation of the host immune system. PMID:23339450

  14. Differentiation of C2D Macrophage Cells after Adoptive Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsey E. Potts; Marcia L. Hart; Laura L. Snyder; Dan Boyle; Derek A. Mosier; Stephen K. Chapes

    2008-01-01

    Received 8 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 7 October 2007\\/Accepted 5 December 2007 C2D macrophage cells protect immunocompromised mice from experimentally induced pneumonias after intraperitoneal (i.p.) adoptive transfer. These macrophage cells are immature and display minimal activity in vitro. Therefore, we wanted to understand how adoptive transfer affected these cells. We believe that the in vivo environment affects the phenotypic and

  15. TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition Promotes Monocyte/Macrophage Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Joel; Tabor, Vedrana; Wikell, Anna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer progression toward metastatic disease is linked to re-activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process. Breast cancer cells undergoing EMT lose epithelial characteristics and gain the capacity to invade the surrounding tissue and migrate away from the primary tumor. However, less is known about the possible role of EMT in providing cancer cells with properties that allow them to traffic to distant sites. Given the fact that pro-metastatic cancer cells share a unique capacity with immune cells to traffic in-and-out of blood and lymphatic vessels we hypothesized that tumor cells undergoing EMT may acquire properties of immune cells. To study this, we performed gene-profiling analysis of mouse mammary EpRas tumor cells that had been allowed to adopt an EMT program after long-term treatment with TGF-?1 for 2?weeks. As expected, EMT cells acquired traits of mesenchymal cell differentiation and migration. However, in addition, we found another cluster of induced genes, which was specifically enriched in monocyte-derived macrophages, mast cells, and myeloid dendritic cells, but less in other types of immune cells. Further studies revealed that this monocyte/macrophage gene cluster was enriched in human breast cancer cell lines displaying an EMT or a Basal B profile, and in human breast tumors with EMT and undifferentiated (ER?/PR?) characteristics. The results identify an EMT-induced monocyte/macrophage gene cluster, which may play a role in breast cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. PMID:25674539

  16. CD14 Influences Host Immune Responses and Alternative Activation of Macrophages during Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tundup, Smanla; Srivastava, Leena; Nagy, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cell (APC) plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation in metabolic diseases and infections. The roles that pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play in regulating APC phenotypes are just now being defined. We evaluated the expression of PRRs on APCs in mice infected with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni and observed an upregulation of CD14 expression on macrophages. Schistosome-infected Cd14?/? mice showed significantly increased alternative activation of (M2) macrophages in the livers compared to infected wild-type (wt) mice. In addition, splenocytes from infected Cd14?/? mice exhibited increased production of CD4+-specific interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 and CD4+Foxp3+IL-10+ regulatory T cells compared to cells from infected wt mice. S. mansoni-infected Cd14?/? mice also presented with smaller liver egg granulomas associated with increased collagen deposition compared to granulomas in infected wt mice. The highest expression of CD14 was found on liver macrophages in infected mice. To determine if the Cd14?/? phenotype was in part due to increased M2 macrophages, we adoptively transferred wt macrophages into Cd14?/? mice and normalized the M2 and CD4+ Th cell balance close to that observed in infected wt mice. Finally, we demonstrated that CD14 regulates STAT6 activation, as Cd14?/? mice had increased STAT6 activation in vivo, suggesting that lack of CD14 impacts the IL-4R?-STAT6 pathway, altering macrophage polarization during parasite infection. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for CD14 in regulating macrophage plasticity and CD4+ T cell biasing during helminth infection. PMID:24866794

  17. CD14 influences host immune responses and alternative activation of macrophages during Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Tundup, Smanla; Srivastava, Leena; Nagy, Tamas; Harn, Donald

    2014-08-01

    Antigen-presenting cell (APC) plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation in metabolic diseases and infections. The roles that pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play in regulating APC phenotypes are just now being defined. We evaluated the expression of PRRs on APCs in mice infected with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni and observed an upregulation of CD14 expression on macrophages. Schistosome-infected Cd14(-/-) mice showed significantly increased alternative activation of (M2) macrophages in the livers compared to infected wild-type (wt) mice. In addition, splenocytes from infected Cd14(-/-) mice exhibited increased production of CD4(+)-specific interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 and CD4(+)Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) regulatory T cells compared to cells from infected wt mice. S. mansoni-infected Cd14(-/-) mice also presented with smaller liver egg granulomas associated with increased collagen deposition compared to granulomas in infected wt mice. The highest expression of CD14 was found on liver macrophages in infected mice. To determine if the Cd14(-/-) phenotype was in part due to increased M2 macrophages, we adoptively transferred wt macrophages into Cd14(-/-) mice and normalized the M2 and CD4(+) Th cell balance close to that observed in infected wt mice. Finally, we demonstrated that CD14 regulates STAT6 activation, as Cd14(-/-) mice had increased STAT6 activation in vivo, suggesting that lack of CD14 impacts the IL-4R?-STAT6 pathway, altering macrophage polarization during parasite infection. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for CD14 in regulating macrophage plasticity and CD4(+) T cell biasing during helminth infection. PMID:24866794

  18. Nuclear receptor transrepression pathways that regulate inflammation in macrophages and T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Saijo; Christopher K. Glass

    2010-01-01

    Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of immunity and inflammation by both positively and negatively regulating gene expression. Here, we review recent studies providing insights into the distinct mechanisms that enable nuclear receptors to antagonize pro-inflammatory programmes of gene expression in macrophages and T cells by altering the turnover or recruitment of co-repressors

  19. Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

  20. Fate of Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1 strain in resident, elicited, activated, and immune peritoneal macrophages of guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Mizuguchi, Y; Nikaido, Y; Mitsuyama, M; Nomoto, K

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is known to grow intracellularly in resident peritoneal macrophages of guinea pigs. The present study was done to determine what kinds of macrophage stimulants are able to activate guinea pig macrophages to inhibit intracellular growth of the organism. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested from healthy guinea pigs, from guinea pigs injected intraperitoneally with proteose peptone (PP) or thioglycolate medium, from guinea pigs injected intraperitoneally with live Mycobacterium bovis BCG or killed Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum), and from guinea pigs surviving infection with live L. pneumophila. After in vitro phagocytosis, the L. pneumophila CFU in each well were counted on charcoal-yeast extract agar plates. In the macrophages elicited by PP or thioglycolate medium, the organism grew as well as it did in resident macrophages. In BCG-activated and immune macrophages, growth was inhibited almost completely. In P. acnes-activated macrophages, the initial growth of L. pneumophila was inhibited to some extent, but its growth reached the same level as in the resident and PP-induced macrophages after 3 or 4 days of culture. In the lethal challenge experiments in vivo, the superior protection provided by BCG over P. acnes was ascertained and the importance of macrophages in resistance to L. pneumophila was confirmed. Difference of activation by BCG and P. acnes in relation to the inhibition of intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in guinea pig macrophages is discussed. PMID:3308708

  1. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  2. Phospholipase C-? in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Xiao, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has recently been made in structural and functional research of phospholipase C (PLC)-?. We now understand how PLC-? isoforms (?1-?4) are activated by GTP-bound G?q downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Numerous studies indicate that PLC-?s participate in the differentiation and activation of immune cells that control both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The PLC-?3 isoform also interplays with tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathways, to inhibit Stat5 activation by recruiting the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, with which PLC-?3 and Stat5 form a multi-molecular signaling platform, named SPS complex. The SPS complex has important regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and immune cell activation. PMID:23981313

  3. Immune cell expression of GABAA receptors and the effects of diazepam on influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Robert D; Grover, Vimal; Goulding, John; Godlee, Alexandra; Gurney, Stefan; Snelgrove, Robert; Ma, Daqing; Singh, Suveer; Maze, Mervyn; Hussell, Tracy

    2015-05-15

    Benzodiazepines increase vulnerability to infection through ?1 subunit dependent ?-amino-butyric-type-A (GABAA) signalling. Immune cell expression of GABAA receptors and the effect of diazepam on influenza infection was investigated. In patients with pneumonia, ?1 GABAA subunits were expressed on alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes. In mice, influenza induced dynamic changes in immune cell GABAA subunit expression: ?1 subunits decreased on alveolar macrophage, but increased on monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Following influenza viral infection, diazepam delayed weight loss on day 3 but later increased weight loss. Viral load was unaffected but increased bacterial superinfection was noted on day 10. PMID:25903735

  4. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Tarr

    1996-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine currently used for the reversal of\\u000a neutropenia associated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, bone marrow and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. GM-CSF also modulates\\u000a the function of differentiated white blood cells. In the context of local inflammatory responses, GM-CSF stimulates macrophages\\u000a for antimicrobial and antitumor effects. GM-CSF further enhances healing and repair by its actions

  5. Interferon-? Primes Macrophages for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Adler; H. Adler; T. W. Jungi; E. Peterhans

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in generating and maintaining an effective immune system. Many pathogens can perturb the homeostasis of the immune system by either inducing or suppressing cell death of immune cells. Using bovine macrophages as a model, we found that interferon-?, one of the host?s responses to viral infection, can prime macrophages for activation-induced apoptosis. Exposure of bovine

  6. Suppression of measles virus expression by noncytolytic antibody in an immortalized macrophage cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M B; O'Bryan, T A; Buckthal, D J; Tetor, L M; Goldman, J N

    1995-01-01

    Immune regulation of measles virus (MV) expression was studied in a persistently infected mouse macrophage cell line. Synthesis of both membrane-associated and internal MV antigens was suppressed when infected macrophages were treated with polyclonal rabbit anti-MV antibody that was specific for MV proteins. Persistently infected macrophages were treated for 3, 5, or 7 days with increasing doses of anti-MV antibody. All MV proteins were down-regulated 2 days after treatment was terminated. One week after treatment was terminated, down-regulation was still evident but to a lesser degree. MV protein synthesis was suppressed whether or not complement components were inactivated by heating all serum supplements and antibodies. However, when complement was active, cell lysis accounted for some of the reduced MV protein synthesis. When lytic destruction of infected cells by antibody and complement was prevented by inactivation of complement, antibody alone reduced the cellular synthesis of viral proteins by noncytolytic mechanisms. The absence of cell death in the absence of complement was confirmed by the lack of 51Cr release from labeled cells, the lack of reduction in cell number, and the lack of a decrease in total protein synthesis when radiolabeled infected cells were treated with antibody. It is noteworthy that low doses of antibody were optimal for suppression in the longer-term experiments and did not cause lysis, even in the presence of active complement. Since infected macrophages disseminate virus in measles infection, noncytolytic regulation of these cells by antibody may supplement viral clearance by cytolytic T cells and other immune mechanisms. PMID:7815537

  7. Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Charriere, Guillaume M. [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Cousin, Beatrice [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Arnaud, Emmanuelle [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Saillan-Barreau, Corinne [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Andre, Mireille [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Massoudi, Ali [UMR 6543 CNRS, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Dani, Christian [UMR 6543 CNRS, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Penicaud, Luc [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Casteilla, Louis [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

    2006-10-15

    We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

  8. The Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjae; Jang, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Kangtaek

    2012-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles, which are applicable in many industrial fields, have been reported to induce cellular changes such as cytotoxicity in various cells and fibrosis in lungs. Because the immune system is the primary targeting organ reacting to internalized exogenous nanoparticles, we tried to figure out the immunostimulatory effect of silica nanoparticles in macrophages using differently sized silica nanoparticles. Using U937 cells we assessed cytotoxicity by CCK-8 assay, ROS generation by CM-H2DCFDA, intracellular Ca++ levels by staining with Fluo4-AM and IL-8 production by ELISA. At non-toxic concentration, the intracellular Ca++ level has increased immediately after exposure to 15 nm particles, not to larger particles. ROS generation was detected significantly in response to 15 nm particles. However, all three different sizes of silica nanoparticles induced IL-8 production. 15 nm silica nanoparticles are more stimulatory than larger particles in cytotoxicity, intracellular Ca++ increase and ROS generation. But IL-8 production was induced to same levels with 50 or 100 nm particles. Therefore, IL-8 production induced by silica nanoparticles may be dependent on other mechanisms rather than intracellular Ca++ increase and ROS generation. PMID:23397001

  9. Estradiol reduces susceptibility of CD4+ T cells and macrophages to HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V; Barr, Fiona D; Crist, Sarah G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-?-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4(+) T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4(+) T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4(+) T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2-treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1? secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms. PMID:23614015

  10. Immune regulation by non-lymphoid cells in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dugast, A-S; Vanhove, B

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory cells play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of tolerance by controlling T cell as well as B and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity. In transplantation, CD4+CD25+forkhead box P3+ T regulatory cells are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance, as are several other T cell subsets such as NK T cells, double negative CD3+ T cells, ?? T cells, interleukin-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells, transforming growth factor-?-producing T helper type 3 cells and CD8+CD28? cells. However, not only T cells have immunosuppressive properties, as it is becoming increasingly clear that both T and non-T regulatory cells co-operate and form a network of cellular interactions controlling immune responses. Non-T regulatory cells include tolerogenic dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, mesenchymal stem cells, different types of stem cells, various types of alternatively activated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Here, we review the mechanism of action of these non-lymphoid regulatory cells as they relate to the induction or maintenance of tolerance in organ transplantation. PMID:19196251

  11. Upregulation of retinal dehydrogenase 2 in alternatively activated macrophages during retinoid-dependent type-2 immunity to helminth infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Mara J; Leung, Jacqueline M; Lim, K C; Girgis, Natasha M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Fallon, Padraic G; Premenko-Lanier, Mary; McKerrow, James H; McCune, Joseph M; Loke, P'ng

    2012-01-01

    Although the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in immune function, RA synthesis during infection is poorly understood. Here, we show that retinal dehydrogenases (Raldh), required for the synthesis of RA, are induced during a retinoid-dependent type-2 immune response elicited by Schistosoma mansoni infection, but not during a retinoid-independent anti-viral immune response. Vitamin A deficient mice have a selective defect in T(H)2 responses to S. mansoni, but retained normal LCMV specific T(H)1 responses. A combination of in situ imaging, intra-vital imaging, and sort purification revealed that alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?) express high levels of Raldh2 during S. mansoni infection. IL-4 induces Raldh2 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro and peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Finally, in vivo derived AAM? have an enhanced capacity to induce Foxp3 expression in CD4+ cells through an RA dependent mechanism, especially in combination with TGF-?. The regulation of Raldh enzymes during infection is pathogen specific and reflects differential requirements for RA during effector responses. Specifically, AAM? are an inducible source of RA synthesis during helminth infections and T(H)2 responses that may be important in regulating immune responses. PMID:22927819

  12. MT1-MMP regulates the PI3K?·Mi-2/NuRD-dependent control of macrophage immune function.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Hirota, Ryoko; Xiong, Wanfen; Baxter, B Timothy; Kunkel, Steven L; Maillard, Ivan; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Sabeh, Farideh; Liu, Rui; Li, Xiao-Yan; Weiss, Stephen J

    2012-02-15

    Macrophages play critical roles in events ranging from host defense to obesity and cancer, where they infiltrate affected tissues and orchestrate immune responses in tandem with the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite the dual roles played by macrophages in inflammation, the functions of macrophage-derived proteinases are typically relegated to tissue-invasive or -degradative events. Here we report that the membrane-tethered matrix metalloenzyme MT1-MMP not only serves as an ECM-directed proteinase, but unexpectedly controls inflammatory gene responses wherein MT1-MMP(-/-) macrophages mount exaggerated chemokine and cytokine responses to immune stimuli both in vitro and in vivo. MT1-MMP modulates inflammatory responses in a protease-independent fashion in tandem with its trafficking to the nuclear compartment, where it triggers the expression and activation of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?)/Akt/GSK3? signaling cascade. In turn, MT1-MMP-dependent PI3K? activation regulates the immunoregulatory Mi-2/NuRD nucleosome remodeling complex that is responsible for controlling macrophage immune response. These findings identify a novel role for nuclear MT1-MMP as a previously unsuspected transactivator of signaling networks central to macrophage immune responses. PMID:22345520

  13. Piscirickettsia salmonis induces apoptosis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Verónica; Galanti, Norbel; Bols, Niels C; Jiménez, Verónica; Paredes, Rodolfo; Marshall, Sergio H

    2010-05-15

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) which causes significant losses in salmon production in Chile and other and in other regions in the southern hemisphere. As the killing of phagocytes is an important pathogenic mechanism for other bacteria to establish infections in vertebrates, we investigated whether P. salmonis kills trout macrophages by apoptosis. Apoptosis in infected macrophages was demonstrated by techniques based on morphological changes and host cell DNA fragmentation. Transmission electron microcopy showed classic apoptotic characteristics and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling showed fragmented DNA. Programmed cell death type I was further confirmed by increased binding of annexin V to externalized phosphatidylserine in infected macrophages. Moreover, significant increases of caspase 3 activation were detected in infected cells and treatment with caspase inhibitor caused a decrease in levels of apoptosis. This is the first evidence that P. salmonis induces cell death in trout macrophages. This could lead to bacterial survival and evasion of the host immune response and play an important role in the establishment of infection in the host. PMID:20432244

  14. Isolation and characterization of macrophages from a mixed primary culture of bovine liver cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kitani; Miyako Yoshioka; Takato Takenouchi; Mitsuru Sato; Noriko Yamanaka

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we developed a simple and efficient method to isolate liver macrophages from a mixed primary culture of adult rat liver cells. To extend the applicability of this method, we isolated macrophages from mixed primary cultures of bovine liver cells. Macrophage cells proliferated on the cell sheet of mixed bovine liver cells after 8–16d of culture. These cells were detached

  15. Macrophages eliminate circulating tumor cells after monoclonal antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Gül, Nuray; Babes, Liane; Siegmund, Kerstin; Korthouwer, Rianne; Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Vidarsson, Gestur; ten Hagen, Timo L M; Kubes, Paul; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2014-02-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as therapeutic tools has increased dramatically in the last decade and is now one of the mainstream strategies to treat cancer. Nonetheless, it is still not completely understood how mAbs mediate tumor cell elimination or the effector cells that are involved. Using intravital microscopy, we found that antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADPh) by macrophages is a prominent mechanism for removal of tumor cells from the circulation in a murine tumor cell opsonization model. Tumor cells were rapidly recognized and arrested by liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). In the absence of mAbs, Kupffer cells sampled tumor cells; however, this sampling was not sufficient for elimination. By contrast, antitumor mAb treatment resulted in rapid phagocytosis of tumor cells by Kupffer cells that was dependent on the high-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RI) and the low-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RIV). Uptake and intracellular degradation were independent of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production. Importantly, ADPh prevented the development of liver metastases. Tumor cell capture and therapeutic efficacy were lost after Kupffer cell depletion. Our data indicate that macrophages play a prominent role in mAb-mediated eradication of tumor cells. These findings may help to optimize mAb therapeutic strategies for patients with cancer by helping us to aim to enhance macrophage recruitment and activity. PMID:24430180

  16. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad G.; Tsai, Vicky W.W.; Ruitenberg, Marc J.; Hassanpour, Masoud; Li, Hui; Hart, Prue H.; Breit, Samuel N.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Brown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity. PMID:24569378

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Tournefortia sarmentosa on the regulation of macrophage immune response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Liang; Wu, Semon; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Chou, Wei-Mou; Tsai, Fu-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Tournefortia sarmentosa, a Chinese herbal medicine, is considered an antioxidant or a detoxicant agent. Recent studies have shown that T. sarmentosa plays an important role in inhibiting low-density-lipoprotein oxidation and attenuating acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. However, information regarding the signaling mechanism of T. sarmentosa-mediated immunoregulation is still limited. Here, we provide evidence that treating macrophages with T. sarmentosa extract leads to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequently suppresses phosphorylated ERK1/2. In contrast, our data revealed that T. sarmentosa extract increases macrophage phagocytosis and adhesion. Also, T. sarmentosa extract activates phosphorylated p38 MAPK in macrophages. We further discovered that T. sarmentosa extract could increase the lipopolysaccharides-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? production of macrophages. This result suggests that T. sarmentosa extract might enhance inflammation. Taken together, our results suggest that T. sarmentosa extract exerts dual functions on the macrophages: suppressing ROS within cells and enhancing inflammatory responses by improving phagocytic ability and proflammatory cytokine release. PMID:24157329

  18. Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine. PMID:24885781

  19. Prostaglandin E2 in tick saliva regulates macrophage cell migration and cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that suppress the host’s immune and inflammatory responses by secreting immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules in their saliva. In previous studies we have shown that tick salivary gland extract (SGE) and saliva from Dermacentor variabilis have distinct effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated IC-21 macrophage and NIH3T3-L1 fibroblast migration. Since tick saliva contains a high concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent modulator of inflammation, we used a PGE2 receptor antagonist to evaluate the role of PGE2 in the different migratory responses induced by saliva and its impact on macrophage cytokine profile. Methods Adult ticks were fed on female New Zealand white rabbits for 5-8 days. Female ticks were stimulated with dopamine/theophylline to induce salivation and saliva was pooled. Competitive enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to measure saliva PGE2 content and the changes in macrophage intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. The effects of tick saliva on macrophage and fibroblast migration were assessed in the absence and presence of the PGE2 receptor antagonist, AH 6809, using blind well chamber assays. A cytokine antibody array was used to examine the effects of tick saliva on macrophage cytokine secretion. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA; Student Newman-Kuels post-test was used for multiple comparisons. Results The saliva-induced increase in PDGF-stimulated macrophage migration was reversed by AH 6809. The inhibition of PDGF-stimulated fibroblast migration by saliva was also antagonist-sensitive. Tick saliva induced macrophages to secrete copious amounts of PGE2, and conditioned medium from these cells caused an AH 6809-sensitive inhibition of stimulated fibroblast migration, showing that macrophages can regulate fibroblast activity. We show that tick saliva decreased the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI) through a PGE2-dependent mechanism mediated by cAMP. Saliva had similar effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. Conclusions Our data show that ticks utilize salivary PGE2 to subvert the ability of macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and recruit fibroblasts to the feeding lesion, therefore inhibiting wound healing. PMID:24025197

  20. Immune cells in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Silke; Gieselmann, Marieke; Blaschke, Martina; Ramadori, Giuliano; Füzesi, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described immune cells in untreated primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we compare immune cells in metastatic and primary GIST, and describe their chemoattractants. For this purpose, tissue microarrays from 196 patients, 188 primary and 51 metastasized GIST were constructed for paraffin staining. Quantitative analysis was performed for cells of macrophage lineage (Ki-M1P, CD68), T-cells (CD3, CD56) and B-cells (CD20). Chemokine gene-expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Immuno-localisation was verified by immunofluorescence. Ki-M1P+ cells were the predominant immune cells in both primary and metastatic GIST (2 8.8% ± 7.1, vs. 26.7% ± 6.3). CD68+ macrophages were significantly fewer, with no significant difference between primary GIST (3.6% ± 2.1) and metastases (4.6% ± 1.5). CD3+ T-cells were the most dominant lymphocytes with a significant increase in metastases (7.3% ± 2.3 vs. 2.2% ± 1.8 in primary GIST, P < 0.01). The percentage of CD56+ NK-cells was 1.1% ± 0.9 in the primary, and 2.4 ± 0.7 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. The number of CD20+ B-cells was generally low with 0.6% ± 0.7 in the primary and 1.8% ± 0.3 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. Analysis of the metastases showed significantly more Ki-M1P+ cells in peritoneal metastases (31.8% ± 7.4 vs. 18.2% ± 3.7, P < 0.01), whilst CD3+ T-cells were more common in liver metastases (11.7% ± 1.8 vs. 4.4% ± 2.6, P < 0.01). The highest transcript expression was seen for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?/CCL3) and the pro-angiogenic growth-related oncoprotein 1 (Gro-?/CXCL-1). Whilst the ligands were predominantly expressed in tumor cells, their receptors were mostly present in immune cells. This locally specific microenvironment might influence neoplastic progression of GIST at the different metastatic sites. PMID:25120735

  1. HLA-DR-positive leucocyte subpopulations in human skin include dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD7-negative T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A L; McKenzie, J L; Hart, D N

    1988-01-01

    The immunophenotypes of the HLA-DR-positive leucocyte populations in normal human skin were studied using an extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies, which included antibodies from the Third International Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop (3rd LDAW). Langerhans' cells (LC) in the epidermis stained with antibodies from CD15c, Groups 10, 12a, 12b and 15, of the myeloid panel and from CD39 of the B-cell panel. However, LC did not react with CD14 antibodies or 63D3, which are frequently used to stain tissue macrophages. In addition to epidermal LC (26 cells/linear mm) a significant population of CD1a-positive cells was identified in the papillary dermis (7 cells/linear mm of overlying epidermis). The dermal HLA-DR-positive leucocytes consisted of three cell populations. The most numerous cell type stained with antibodies to monocytes/macrophages. There were fewer, though substantial, numbers of T lymphocytes (mainly CD7-negative) and the least numerous was the population of CD1a-positive cells. The CD1a-positive cells and the population of dermal cells that stain with monocyte/macrophage markers are both potential antigen-presenting cells for the skin-associated immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3065220

  2. Dual role of immune cells in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cecilia V.; Theas, María S.; Jacobo, Patricia V.; Jarazo-Dietrich, Sabrina; Guazzone, Vanesa A.; Lustig, Livia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe how the immune cells present in the testis interact with the germinal epithelium contributing to survival or apoptosis of germ cells (GCs). Physiologically, the immunosuppressor testicular microenvironment protects GCs from immune attack, whereas in inflammatory conditions, tolerance is disrupted and immune cells and their mediators respond to GC self antigens, inducing damage of the germinal epithelium. Considering that experimental models of autoimmune orchitis have clarified the local immune mechanisms by which protection of the testis is compromised, we described the following topics in the testis of normal and orchitic rats: (1) cell adhesion molecule expression of seminiferous tubule specialized junctions and modulation of blood-testis barrier permeability by cytokines (2) phenotypic and functional characteristics of testicular dendritic cells, macrophages, effector and regulatory T cells and mast cells and (3) effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and FasL) and the nitric oxide-nitric oxide synthase system on GC apoptosis. PMID:23687616

  3. Macrophages and Leydig Cells in Testicular Biopsies of Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Goluža, Trpimir; Cvetko, Jessica; Bernat, Maja Marija; Kasum, Miro; Kaštelan, Željko; Ježek, Davor

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that testicular macrophages play an important role in regulating steroidogenesis of Leydig cells and maintain homeostasis within the testis. The current paper deals with macrophages (CD68 positive cells) and Leydig cells in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Methods employed included histological analysis on semi- and ultrathin sections, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and hormone analysis in the blood serum. Histological analysis pointed out certain structural changes of macrophages and Leydig cells in NOA group of patients when compared to controls. In the testis interstitium, an increased presence of CD68 positive cells has been noted. Leydig cells in NOA patients displayed a kind of a mosaic picture across the same bioptic sample: both normal and damaged Leydig cells with pronounced vacuolisation and various intensity of expression of testosterone have been observed. Stereological analysis indicated a significant increase in volume density of both CD68 positive and vacuolated Leydig cells and a positive correlation between the volume densities of these cell types. The continuous gonadotropin overstimulation of Leydig cells, together with a negative paracrine action of macrophages, could result in the damage of steroidogenesis and deficit of testosterone in situ. PMID:24895614

  4. Dendritic cells in intestinal immune regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine L. Coombes; Fiona Powrie

    2008-01-01

    A breakdown in intestinal homeostasis can result in chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut including inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and allergy. Dendritic cells, through their ability to orchestrate protective immunity and immune tolerance in the host, have a key role in shaping the intestinal immune response. The mechanisms through which dendritic cells can respond to environmental cues in the

  5. Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khoa D. Nguyen; Y. P. Sharon Goh; Ajay Chawla

    2011-01-01

    Metabolism and immunity are two fundamental systems of metazoans. The presence of immune cells, such as macrophages, in metabolic tissues suggests dynamic, ongoing crosstalk between these two regulatory systems. Here, we discuss how changes in the recruitment and activation of macrophages contribute to metabolic homeostasis. In particular, we focus our discussion on the pathogenic and protective functions of classically and

  6. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage. PMID:25855345

  7. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus.

    PubMed

    Behar, Samuel M; Carpenter, Stephen M; Booty, Matthew G; Barber, Daniel L; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-12-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease--the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. PMID:25311810

  8. Emerging Role of Mast Cells and Macrophages in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are essential in allergic immune responses. Recent discoveries have revealed their direct participation in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Although more sophisticated mechanisms are still unknown, data from animal studies suggest that mast cells act similarly to macrophages and other inflammatory cells and contribute to human diseases through cell–cell interactions and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteases to induce inflammatory cell recruitment, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, and matrix protein remodeling. Reduced cardiovascular complications and improved metabolic symptoms in animals receiving over-the-counter antiallergy medications that stabilize mast cells open another era of mast cell biology and bring new hope to human patients suffering from these conditions. PMID:22240242

  9. Genetically engineered immune privileged Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Long, Charles R.; Dufour, Jannette M.

    2012-01-01

    Sertoli cells are immune privileged cells, important for controlling the immune response to male germ cells as well as maintaining the tolerogenic environment in the testis. Additionally, ectopic Sertoli cells have been shown to survive and protect co-grafted cells when transplanted across immunological barriers. The survival of ectopic Sertoli cells has led to the idea that they could be used in cell based gene therapy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of testis immune privilege and Sertoli cell transplantation, factors contributing to Sertoli cell immune privilege, the challenges faced by viral vector gene therapy, the use of immune privileged cells in cell based gene therapy and describe several recent studies on the use of genetically engineered Sertoli cells to provide continuous delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22553487

  10. Mannose-binding lectin is required for the effective clearance of apoptotic cells by adipose tissue macrophages during obesity.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Rinke; Dijk, Wieneke; van Beek, Lianne; Jansen, Henry; Heemskerk, Mattijs; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Denis, Simone; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Tack, Cees J; Kersten, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is accompanied by the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation manifested by infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble mediator of innate immunity, promotes phagocytosis and alters macrophage function. To assess the function of MBL in the development of obesity, we studied wild-type and MBL(-/-) mice rendered obese using a high-fat diet (HFD). Whereas no gross morphological differences were observed in liver, an HFD provoked distinct changes in the adipose tissue morphology of MBL(-/-) mice. In parallel with increased adipocyte size, MBL(-/-) mice displayed an increased influx of macrophages into adipose tissue. Macrophages were polarized toward an alternatively activated phenotype known to modulate apoptotic cell clearance. MBL deficiency also significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells in adipose tissue. Consistent with these observations, recombinant MBL enhanced phagocytic capacity of the stromal vascular fraction isolated from adipose tissue and modulated uptake of apoptotic adipocytes by macrophages. Despite changes in macrophage abundance and polarity, the absence of MBL did not affect systemic insulin resistance. Finally, in humans, lower levels of circulating MBL were accompanied by enhanced macrophage influx in subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose a novel role for MBL in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic adipocytes during obesity. PMID:25008177

  11. Characterisation of renal immune cell infiltrates in children with nephrotic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Benz; Maike Büttner; Katalin Dittrich; Valentina Campean; Jörg Dötsch; Kerstin Amann

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that not only T cells but also B cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic\\u000a nephrotic syndrome (NS). We have evaluated the infiltrating immune cells found in renal biopsies from 38 children with NS\\u000a using immunohistochemistry techniques involving antibodies against T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), B cells (CD20), macrophages\\u000a (CD68) and

  12. Human macrophage SCN5A activates an innate immune signaling pathway for antiviral host defense.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Lee, Cara; Carrithers, Michael D

    2014-12-19

    Pattern recognition receptors contain a binding domain for pathogen-associated molecular patterns coupled to a signaling domain that regulates transcription of host immune response genes. Here, a novel mechanism that links pathogen recognition to channel activation and downstream signaling is proposed. We demonstrate that an intracellular sodium channel variant, human macrophage SCN5A, initiates signaling and transcription through a calcium-dependent isoform of adenylate cyclase, ADCY8, and the transcription factor, ATF2. Pharmacological stimulation with a channel agonist or treatment with cytoplasmic poly(I:C), a mimic of viral dsRNA, activates this pathway to regulate expression of SP100-related genes and interferon ?. Electrophysiological analysis reveals that the SCN5A variant mediates nonselective outward currents and a small, but detectable, inward current. Intracellular poly(I:C) markedly augments an inward voltage-sensitive sodium current and inhibits the outward nonselective current. These results suggest human macrophage SCN5A initiates signaling in an innate immune pathway relevant to antiviral host defense. It is postulated that SCN5A is a novel pathogen sensor and that this pathway represents a channel activation-dependent mechanism of transcriptional regulation. PMID:25368329

  13. Single-cell technologies for monitoring interactions between immune cells

    E-print Network

    Yamanaka, Yvonne J. (Yvonne Joy)

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells participate in dynamic cellular interactions that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens and the destruction of malignant cells. The vast heterogeneity of immune cells motivates the study of ...

  14. Macrophages Are Critical for Cross-Protective Immunity Conferred by Babesia microti against Babesia rodhaini Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Luo, Yuzi; Ooka, Hideo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yu, Longzheng; Cao, Shinuo; Sun, Yongfeng; Yamagishi, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Although primary infection of mice with Babesia microti has been shown to protect mice against subsequent lethal infection by Babesia rodhaini, the mechanism behind the cross-protection is unknown. To unravel this mechanism, we investigated the influence of primary infection of mice with nonlethal B. microti using different time courses on the outcome of subsequent lethal B. rodhaini infection. Simultaneous infections of mice with these parasites resulted in rapid increases in parasitemia, with 100% mortality in BALB/c mice, as observed with control mice infected with B. rodhaini alone. In contrast, mice with acute, resolving, and chronic-phase B. microti infections were completely protected against B. rodhaini, resulting in low parasitemia and no mortalities. Mice immunized with dead B. microti were not protected from B. rodhaini infection, although high antibody responses were induced. Interestingly, the protected mice had significantly decreased levels of antibody response, cytokines (including gamma interferon [IFN-?], interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12), and nitric oxide levels after infection with B. rodhaini. SCID mice and IFN-?-deficient mice with chronic B. microti infections demonstrated protective responses comparable to those of immunocompetent mice. Likewise, in vivo NK cell depletion did not significantly impair the protective responses. Conversely, macrophage depletion resulted in increased susceptibility to B. rodhaini infection associated with changes in their antibody and cytokines profiles, indicating that macrophages contribute to the protection against this challenge infection. We conclude that future development of vaccines against Babesia should include a strategy that enhances the appropriate activation of macrophages. PMID:22064713

  15. Review of lithium effects on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Maddu, Narendra; Raghavendra, Pongali B

    2015-04-01

    One of the remarkable discoveries in the field of psychopharmacology from late 1940s is Lithium (Li) that reminds of old but still gold. It continues to be a distinctive mood stabilizer that matches various standards recommended for mood stabilizers. Apart from this Li is also known to affect immune cell functions. Lithium response and regulations of different immune cells in bipolar patients, related immune disorders are not well defined. Here, we provide an overview of literature with regard to Li's effects on different immune cells. However, the use of Li is currently limited to bipolar disorders and there is no empirical evidence for immune cell disorders. The objective of this article is to provide the evaluations of Li responses towards the different immune cells based on the existing studies. Further, more studies are needed to understand the mechanistic basis and heterogeneous responses of Li's effect in bipolar, also unravel relative immune disorders. PMID:25559226

  16. Recognition of tumor cells by Dectin-1 orchestrates innate immune cells for anti-tumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Shiho; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Ueki, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Hangai, Sho; Nishio, Junko; Negishi, Hideo; Tamura, Tomohiko; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The eradication of tumor cells requires communication to and signaling by cells of the immune system. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential tumor-killing effector cells of the innate immune system; however, little is known about whether or how other immune cells recognize tumor cells to assist NK cells. Here, we show that the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages is critical to NK-mediated killing of tumor cells that express N-glycan structures at high levels. Receptor recognition of these tumor cells causes the activation of the IRF5 transcription factor and downstream gene induction for the full-blown tumoricidal activity of NK cells. Consistent with this, we show exacerbated in vivo tumor growth in mice genetically deficient in either Dectin-1 or IRF5. The critical contribution of Dectin-1 in the recognition of and signaling by tumor cells may offer new insight into the anti-tumor immune system with therapeutic implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04177.001 PMID:25149452

  17. T cell inhibitor secreted by macrophages and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kashiwado, T; Oppenheimer-Marks, N; Ziff, M

    1989-11-01

    On stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal human macrophages (M phi) and endothelial cells (EC) produced factors which inhibited interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and PHA plus interleukin 1 (IL-1)-dependent mouse thymocyte proliferation but not IL-1-dependent human fibroblast proliferation, suggesting that they were inhibitors of the IL-2 response. In addition, these factors inhibited the production of IL-2 by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The factors also inhibited PBMC proliferation in response to PHA and concanavalin (Con A) but did not inhibit the proliferation of EC, U937 cells, or Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells. On Sephadex G200 gel filtration, the inhibitory factors from both M phi and EC were detected almost entirely in a 130- to 150-kDa fraction, but active material was also detected in a 15- to 20-kDa fraction. On isoelectric chromatofocusing of the 130- to 150-kDa fraction, inhibitory activity was associated with fractions eluted at three isoelectric points, pH 7.0, 5.4, and 4.8. The isoelectric fractions isolated from M phi and EC showed similar patterns of inhibition. When 130- to 150-kDa fractions from Sephadex G200 of the M phi and EC supernatants were treated with an antibody against a macrophage-derived suppressor factor produced by the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1, the activity of both fractions was neutralized. The above findings suggest that normal M phi and EC secrete an identical or closely related inhibitor of IL-2 synthesis and IL-2 response, and this inhibitor regulates these IL-2-related functions by a suppressive action on the T lymphocyte. PMID:2676271

  18. Taurine is an osmolyte in rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Warskulat; Fan Zhang; Dieter Häussinger

    1997-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The availability of betaine as an osmolyte was recently shown to interfere strongly with important cell functions of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells), such as eicosanoid and tumor necrosis factor-? production or phagocytosis. We therefore investigated whether taurine is also used as an osmolyte by Kupffer cells and whether it is involved in the control of Kupffer cell functions.Methods\\/Results: Hyperosmotic

  19. Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Ajay; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Goh, Y.P. Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism and immunity are two fundamental systems of metazoans. The presence of immune cells, such as macrophages, in metabolic tissues, suggests dynamic, on-going crosstalk between these two regulatory systems. Here, we discuss how changes in recruitment and activation of macrophages contribute to metabolic homeostasis. In particular, we focus our discussion on the pathogenic and protective functions of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, in experimental models of obesity and metabolic disease. PMID:21984069

  20. Nuclear DAMP complex-mediated RAGE-dependent macrophage cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruochan; Fu, Sha; Fan, Xue-Gong; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Tang, Daolin; Kang, Rui

    2015-03-13

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), histone, and DNA are essential nuclear components involved in the regulation of chromosome structure and function. In addition to their nuclear function, these molecules act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) alone or together when released extracellularly. The synergistic effect of these nuclear DNA-HMGB1-histone complexes as DAMP complexes (nDCs) on immune cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that nDCs limit survival of macrophages (e.g., RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophages) but not cancer cells (e.g., HCT116, HepG2 and Hepa1-6). nDCs promote production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) release, triggering reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR-2, was required for Akt-dependent TNF? release and subsequent cell death following treatment with nDCs. Genetic depletion of RAGE by RNAi, antioxidant N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, and TNF? neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated nDC-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence supporting novel signaling mechanisms linking nDCs and inflammation in macrophage cell death. PMID:25684181

  1. Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage-Dendritic Cell Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Fiole, Daniel; Deman, Pierre; Trescos, Yannick; Mayol, Jean-François; Mathieu, Jacques; Vial, Jean-Claude; Douady, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the lung immune system at the microscopic level are largely unknown because of inefficient methods of restraining chest motion during image acquisition. In this study, we developed an improved intravital method for two-photon lung imaging uniquely based on a posteriori parenchymal tissue motion correction. We took advantage of the alveolar collagen pattern given by the second harmonic generation signal as a reference for frame registration. We describe here for the first time a detailed dynamic account of two major lung immune cell populations, alveolar macrophages and CD11b-positive dendritic cells, during homeostasis and infection by spores of Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax. We show that after alveolar macrophages capture spores, CD11b-positive dendritic cells come in prolonged contact with infected macrophages. Dendritic cells are known to carry spores to the draining lymph nodes and elicit the immune response in pulmonary anthrax. The intimate and long-lasting contacts between these two lines of defense may therefore coordinate immune responses in the lung through an immunological synapse-like process. PMID:24478099

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR (MIF) IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENOTHELIAL CELLS AND ITS INDUCTION BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Nishihira; Yoshikazu Koyama; Yuka Mizue

    1998-01-01

    Cytokines play an important role in inflammation and immunity. In this study, the authors examined expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in vascular endothelial cells, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)\\/Southern blot, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The RT\\/PCR\\/Southern blot showed that MIF mRNA was exceedingly upregulated by the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide

  3. Stage Specific Assessment of Candida albicans Phagocytosis by Macrophages Identifies Cell Wall Composition and Morphogenesis as Key Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Leanne E.; Bain, Judith M.; Lowes, Christina; Gillespie, Collette; Rudkin, Fiona M.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Erwig, Lars-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major life-threatening human fungal pathogen. Host defence against systemic Candida infection relies mainly on phagocytosis of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system. In this study, we have employed video microscopy, coupled with sophisticated image analysis tools, to assess the contribution of distinct C. albicans cell wall components and yeast-hypha morphogenesis to specific stages of phagocytosis by macrophages. We show that macrophage migration towards C. albicans was dependent on the glycosylation status of the fungal cell wall, but not cell viability or morphogenic switching from yeast to hyphal forms. This was not a consequence of differences in maximal macrophage track velocity, but stems from a greater percentage of macrophages pursuing glycosylation deficient C. albicans during the first hour of the phagocytosis assay. The rate of engulfment of C. albicans attached to the macrophage surface was significantly delayed for glycosylation and yeast-locked morphogenetic mutant strains, but enhanced for non-viable cells. Hyphal cells were engulfed at a slower rate than yeast cells, especially those with hyphae in excess of 20 µm, but there was no correlation between hyphal length and the rate of engulfment below this threshold. We show that spatial orientation of the hypha and whether hyphal C. albicans attached to the macrophage via the yeast or hyphal end were also important determinants of the rate of engulfment. Breaking down the overall phagocytic process into its individual components revealed novel insights into what determines the speed and effectiveness of C. albicans phagocytosis by macrophages. PMID:22438806

  4. IL-27 affects helper T cell responses via regulation of PGE2 production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yayoi; Hara, Hiromitsu; Okuno, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Naoko; Suzuki, Shinobu; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2014-08-22

    IL-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine that regulates both innate and adaptive immunity. The immunosuppressive effect of IL-27 largely depends on induction of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. To date, however, effects of IL-27 on regulation of immune responses via mediators other than cytokines remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we examined immunoregulatory effects of conditional medium of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from WSX-1 (IL-27R?)-deficient mice and found enhanced IFN-? and IL-17A secretion by CD4(+) T cells as compared with that of control BMDMs. We then found that PGE2 production and COX-2 expression by BMDMs from WSX-1-deficient mice was increased compared to control macrophages in response to LPS. The enhanced production of IFN-? and IL-17A was abolished by EP2 and EP4 antagonists, demonstrating PGE2 was responsible for enhanced cytokine production. Murine WSX-1-expressing Raw264.7 cells (mWSX-1-Raw264.7) showed phosphorylation of both STAT1 and STAT3 in response to IL-27 and produced less amounts of PGE2 and COX-2 compared to parental RAW264.7 cells. STAT1 knockdown in parental RAW264.7 cells and STAT1-deficiency in BMDMs showed higher COX-2 expression than their respective control cells. Collectively, our result indicated that IL-27/WSX-1 regulated PGE2 secretion via STAT1-COX-2 pathway in macrophages and affected helper T cell response in a PGE2-mediated fashion. PMID:25088998

  5. Labeling of macrophage cell using biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Kwanghee; Wu, Jun Hua; Jeong, Jaeho; Song, Ah Young; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Young Keun

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the intrinsic cell labeling efficiency of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared by a modified thermal decomposition method using nontoxic precursors and a biocompatible polymer surfactant. This method eliminates the current need for additional step of surface modification. The structural analysis reveals the highly crystalline feature of the nanoparticles, while the magnetic measurement shows their superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were efficiently incorporated into the murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) without visible cytotoxicity. Cell labeling efficiency was found to be over 90% as measured by magnetically activated cell sorting and physical property measurement system. Therefore, such Fe3O4 nanoparticles could provide a useful magnetic cell labeling tool for macrophage cells using their phagocytic/endocytic activity and further apply to the other relevant biomedical applications.

  6. Survival Strategy of Obligately Intracellular Ehrlichia chaffeensis: Novel Modulation of Immune Response and Host Cell Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-zhi; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce A.; Yu, Xue-jie

    2004-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium which resides in an early endosome in monocytes. E. chaffeensis infection in a human monocyte cell line (THP1) significantly altered the transcriptional levels of 4.5% of host genes, including those coding for apoptosis inhibitors, proteins regulating cell differentiation, signal transduction, proinflammatory cytokines, biosynthetic and metabolic proteins, and membrane trafficking proteins. The transcriptional profile of the host cell revealed key themes in the pathogenesis of Ehrlichia. First, E. chaffeensis avoided stimulation of or repressed the transcription of cytokines involved in the early innate immune response and cell-mediated immune response to intracellular microbes, such as the interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 genes, which might make Ehrlichia a stealth organism for the macrophage. Second, E. chaffeensis up-regulated NF-?B and apoptosis inhibitors and differentially regulated cell cyclins and CDK expression, which may enhance host cell survival. Third, E. chaffeensis also inhibited the gene transcription of RAB5A, SNAP23, and STX16, which are involved in membrane trafficking. By comparing the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with other bacteria and that of macrophages infected with E. chaffeensis, we have identified few genes that are commonly induced and no commonly repressed genes. These results illustrate the stereotyped macrophage response to other pathogens, in contrast with the novel host response to obligate intracellular Ehrlichia, whose survival depends entirely on a long evolutionary process of outmaneuvering macrophages. PMID:14688131

  7. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  8. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  9. Tissue-resident macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Luke C.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Allen, Judith E.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo. PMID:24048120

  10. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Wichers, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications related to the THP-1 cell model. An overview on the biological similarities and dissimilarities between the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived-monocytes and macrophages, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of THP-1 cell line, is included. The review summarizes different published co-cultivation studies of THP-1 cells with other cell types, for instance, intestinal cells, adipocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be an option to study cell-cell interaction in vitro and can be an approach to better mimic in vivo conditions. Macrophage polarization is a relatively new topic which gains interest for which the THP-1 cell line also may be relevant. Besides that an overview of newly released commercial THP-1 engineered-reporter cells and THP-1 inflammasome test-cells is also given. Evaluation of recent papers leads to the conclusion that the THP-1 cell line has unique characteristics as a model to investigate/estimate immune-modulating effects of compounds in both activated and resting conditions of the cells. Although the THP-1 response can hint to potential responses that might occur ex vivo or in vivo, these should be, however, validated by in vivo studies to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:25130606

  11. Macrophage-Derived Complement Component C4 Can Restore Humoral Immunity in C4-Deficient Mice1

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    ) or infected with HSV-1, and the Ab response was evaluated. Wild-type bone marrow rescued the humoral immune response to both Ags, i.e., the soluble Ag and HSV-1, demonstrating that local C4 production is sufficient) or infectious virus (HSV-1). Local C4 was produced by CD11b /CD11c splenic macrophages, which also synthesized C

  12. Radiation exposure induces inflammasome pathway activation in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Stoecklein, Veit M; Osuka, Akinori; Ishikawa, Shizu; Lederer, Madeline R; Wanke-Jellinek, Lorenz; Lederer, James A

    2015-02-01

    Radiation exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Because the inflammasome pathway is triggered by cell death and danger-associated molecular patterns, we hypothesized that the inflammasome may signal acute and chronic immune responses to radiation. Using a mouse radiation model, we show that radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in inflammasome activation in macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells, and B cells as judged by cleaved caspase-1 detection in cells. Time course analysis showed the appearance of cleaved caspase-1 in cells by day 1 and sustained expression until day 7 after radiation. Also, cells showing inflammasome activation coexpressed the cell surface apoptosis marker annexin V. The role of caspase-1 as a trigger for hematopoietic cell losses after radiation was studied in caspase-1(-/-) mice. We found less radiation-induced cell apoptosis and immune cell loss in caspase-1(-/-) mice than in control mice. Next, we tested whether uric acid might mediate inflammasome activation in cells by treating mice with allopurinol and discovered that allopurinol treatment completely blocked caspase-1 activation in cells. Finally, we demonstrate that radiation-induced caspase-1 activation occurs by a Nod-like receptor family protein 3-independent mechanism because radiation-exposed Nlrp3(-/-) mice showed caspase-1 activation profiles that were indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice. In summary, our data demonstrate that inflammasome activation occurs in many immune cell types following radiation exposure and that allopurinol prevented radiation-induced inflammasome activation. These results suggest that targeting the inflammasome may help control radiation-induced inflammation. PMID:25539818

  13. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits macrophage-derived foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Wang, Zuo; Li, Guo-Hua; Wang, Ren; Tan, Jian-Miao; Cao, Xuan; Suo, Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) exerts an antiatherogenic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a crucial event in the development of atherosclerosis. Thus, we explore the effect of H(2)S on the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Incubation of monocyte-derived macrophages with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) alone caused significant increases both in intracellular lipids revealed by Oil-red O staining and in intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) concentrations assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H(2)S donor) remarkably abrogated oxLDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, and attenuated TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio, whereas dl-propargylglycine (PPG) (a H(2)S-generating enzyme cystathionine gamma lyase inhibitor) exacerbated lipid accumulation and augmented TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio. Incubation of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-oxLDL led to lipoprotein binding and uptake of macrophages, which was blunted by NaHS, but enhanced by PPG. Furthermore, OxLDL markedly induced CD36, scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) expressions in macrophages, which was suppressed by NaHS (50-200 ?mol/L). Finally, the down-regulations of TC and EC concentrations as well as CD36 and ACAT-1 expressions by NaHS were suppressed by glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, but facilitated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor. These results suggested that H(2)S inhibits foam cell formation by down-regulating CD36, SR-A and ACAT1 expressions via the K(ATP)/ERK1/2 pathway in human monocyte-derived macrophages. PMID:21321313

  14. Glycosylation in immune cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Markus; Gleissner, Christian A.; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte recruitment encompasses cell adhesion and activation steps that enable circulating leukocytes to roll, arrest, and firmly adhere on the endothelial surface before they extravasate into distinct tissue locations. This complex sequence of events relies on adhesive interactions between surface structures on leukocytes and endothelial cells and also on signals generated during the cell-cell contacts. Cell surface glycans play a crucial role in leukocyte recruitment. Several glycosyltransferases such as ?1,3 fucosyltransferases, ?2,3 sialyltransferases, core 2 N-acetylglucosaminlytransferases, ?1,4 galactosyltransferases and polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases have been implicated in the generation of functional selectin ligands that mediate leukocyte rolling via binding to selectins. Recent evidence also suggests a role of ?2,3 sialylated carbohydrate determinants in triggering chemokine-mediated leukocyte arrest and influencing ?1 integrin function. Additional mechanisms by galectin- and siglec-dependent processes contribute to the growing number of reports emphasizing the significant role of glycans for the successful recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Advancing the knowledge on glycan function into appropriate pathology models is likely to suggest interesting new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:19594631

  15. Innate Immunity, Decidual Cells, and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chang-Ching; Chao, Kuan-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) manifested by hypertension and proteinuria complicates 3% to 8% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of fetal–maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may lead to intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and long-term sequelae in women and fetuses, and consequently cause socioeconomic burden to the affected families and society as a whole. Balanced immune responses are required for the maintenance of successful pregnancy. Although not a focus of most studies, decidual cells, the major resident cell type at the fetal–maternal interface, have been shown to modulate the local immune balance by interacting with other cell types, such as bone marrow derived-immune cells, endothelial cells, and invading extravillous trophoblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalanced innate immunity, facilitated by decidual cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. Thus, this review will discuss the role of innate immunity and the potential contribution of decidual cells in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:22814099

  16. The development and function of lung-resident macrophages and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Manfred; Schneider, Christoph; Nobs, Samuel P

    2015-01-01

    Gas exchange is the vital function of the lungs. It occurs in the alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium surrounding the alveoli, separated only by a fused basement membrane 0.2-0.5 ?m in thickness. This tenuous barrier is exposed to dangerous or innocuous particles, toxins, allergens and infectious agents inhaled with the air or carried in the blood. The lung immune system has evolved to ward off pathogens and restrain inflammation-mediated damage to maintain gas exchange. Lung-resident macrophages and dendritic cells are located in close proximity to the epithelial surface of the respiratory system and the capillaries to sample and examine the air-borne and blood-borne material. In communication with alveolar epithelial cells, they set the threshold and the quality of the immune response. PMID:25521683

  17. Sessile alveolar macrophages modulate immunity through connexin 43-based epithelial communication

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defense against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide sentinel function against inhaled pathogens1. Bacterial constituents ligate toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs2, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines3 that activate alveolar epithelial receptors4, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens5,6. However, since the AM-induced immune response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, through real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall, formed connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junctional channels (GJCs) with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, the AMs remained alveolus-attached and sessile, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+ dependent activation of Akt, since AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. PMID:24463523

  18. Role of copper efflux in pneumococcal pathogenesis and resistance to macrophage-mediated immune clearance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D L; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Klein, Roger; Kelly, Jacqueline; Burnham, Corinna; Mann, Beth; Rosch, Jason W

    2015-04-01

    In bacteria, the intracellular levels of metals are mediated by tightly controlled acquisition and efflux systems. This is particularly true of copper, a trace element that is universally toxic in excess. During infection, the toxic properties of copper are exploited by the mammalian host to facilitate bacterial clearance. To better understand the role of copper during infection, we characterized the contribution of the cop operon to copper homeostasis and virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Deletion of either the exporter, encoded by copA, or the chaperone, encoded by cupA, led to hypersensitivity to copper stress. We further demonstrated that loss of the copper exporter encoded by copA led to decreased virulence in pulmonary, intraperitoneal, and intravenous models of infection. Deletion of copA resulted in enhanced macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance in vitro. The attenuation phenotype of the copA mutant in the lung was found to be dependent on pulmonary macrophages, underscoring the importance of copper efflux in evading immune defenses. Overall, these data provide insight into the role of the cop operon in pneumococcal pathogenesis. PMID:25667262

  19. Macrophages enhance tumor-derived autophagosomes (DRibbles)-induced B cells activation by TLR4/MyD88 and CD40/CD40L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng; Li, Weixia; Wen, Zhifa; Sheng, Yemeng; Ren, Hongyan; Dong, Huixia; Cao, Meng; Hu, Hong-Ming; Wang, Li-Xin

    2015-02-15

    Our previous studies have showed that tumor-derived autophagosomes (termed "DRibbles") induce B cell activation, resulting in antibody production and cytokine secretion. Unexpectedly, we found that unfractionated splenocytes produced a higher level of antibody and cytokine than that of purified B cells. In the current study, we investigated the role of accessory cells in DRibbles-induced B cell activation. We found that cognate macrophages, but not T cells, significantly enhanced the B cell activities. Such an enhancement required cell-cell contact. Furthermore, DRibbles stimulation up-regulated CD40L expression on macrophages, resulting in increased level of CD40 expressed on B cells. The accessory role of macrophages in DRibbles-activated B cells is critically dependent on the CD40/CD40L interaction. In addition, the effects of macrophages were found to be largely dependent on TLR4 and MyD88 signaling pathway. Finally, our results showed that macrophages were able to enhance the antigen presentation function of B cells for specific T cell stimulation. Thus, these results suggest that macrophages play an important accessory role for DRibbles-induced B cell immune function. PMID:25447440

  20. Macrophage Infection via Selective Capture of HIV-1-Infected CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Amy E.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Moore, Michael D.; Willberg, Christian B.; Pablos, Jose L.; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo. PMID:25467409

  1. Macrophage Contact Dependent and Independent TLR4 Mechanisms Induce ?-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cucak, Helena; Mayer, Christopher; Tonnesen, Morten; Thomsen, Lise Høj; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is evolving into a global disease and patients have a systemic low-grade inflammation, yet the role of this inflammation is still not established. One plausible mechanism is enhanced expression and activity of the innate immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and the function of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on pancreatic ?-cells in primary mouse islets and on the murine ?-cell line MIN6 in the presence or absence of macrophages. Diabetic islets have 40% fewer TLR4 positive ?-cells, but twice the number of TLR4 positive macrophages as compared to healthy islets. Healthy and diabetic islets respond to a TLR4 challenge with enhanced production of cytokines (5–10-fold), while the TLR4 negative ?-cell line MIN6 fails to produce cytokines. TLR4 stimulation induces ?-cell dysfunction in mouse islets, measured as reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetic macrophages from 4-months old mice have acquired a transient enhanced capacity to produce cytokines when stimulated with LPS. Interestingly, this is lost in 6-months old diabetic mice. TLR4 activation alone does not induce apoptosis in islets or MIN-6 cells. In contrast, macrophages mediate TLR4-dependent cell-contact dependent (3-fold) as well as cell-contact independent (2-fold) apoptosis of both islets and MIN-6 cells. Importantly, diabetic macrophages have a significantly enhanced capacity to induce ?-cell apoptosis compared to healthy macrophages. Taken together, the TLR4 responsiveness is elevated in the diabetic islets and mainly mediated by newly recruited macrophages. The TLR4 positive macrophages, in both a cell-contact dependent and independent manner, induce apoptosis of ?-cells in a TLR4 dependent fashion and TLR4 activation directly induces ?-cell dysfunction. Thus, targeting either the TLR4 pathway or the macrophages provides a novel attractive treatment regime for T2D. PMID:24594974

  2. Immune chaperone gp96 drives the contributions of macrophages to inflammatory colon tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Crystal; Rachidi, Saleh; Hong, Feng; Sun, Shaoli; Ouyang, Xinshou; Wallace, Caroline; Zhang, Yongliang; Garret-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wu, Jennifer; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important drivers in the development of inflammation-associated colon cancers, but the mechanistic underpinnings for their contributions are not fully understood. Further, Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been implicated in colon cancer, but their relevant cellular sites of action are obscure. In this study, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is essential in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) to license their contributions to inflammatory colon tumorigenesis. Mice where gp96 was genetically deleted in a macrophage-specific manner exhibited reduced colitis and inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis. Attenuation of colon cancer in these mice correlated strikingly with reduced mutation rates of ?-catenin, increased efficiency of the DNA repair machinery and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17 and IL-23 in the tumor microenvironment. The genotoxic nature of TAM-associated inflammation was evident by increased expression of genes in the DNA repair pathway. Our work deepens understanding of how TAM promote oncogenesis by altering the molecular oncogenic program within epithelial cells, and it identifies gp96 as a lynchpin chaperone needed in TAM to license their function and impact on expression of critical inflammatory cytokines in colon tumorigenesis. PMID:24322981

  3. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandão, Ana S.; Leitão, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Ângela Raquel; Sucena, Élio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells. PMID:24204269

  4. Steroid hormone signaling is essential to regulate innate immune cells and fight bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jennifer C; Brandão, Ana S; Leitão, Alexandre B; Mantas Dias, Angela Raquel; Sucena, Elio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells. PMID:24204269

  5. Immune responses of TLR5 + lamina propria dendritic cells in enterobacterial infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Uematsu; Shizuo Akira

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 has been shown\\u000a to recognize bacterial flagellin. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 is not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages.\\u000a By contrast, TLR5 is mainly expressed on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells (LPCs), which do not express TLR4. These cells detect pathogenic bacteria and secreted proinflammatory\\u000a cytokines,

  6. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin ?M (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  7. Continuous porcine cell lines developed from alveolar macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Weingartl; M Sabara; J Pasick; E van Moorlehem; L Babiuk

    2002-01-01

    Porcine monomyeloid cell lines were established following transfection of primary porcine alveolar macrophage cultures with plasmid pSV3neo, carrying genes for neomycin resistance and SV40 large T antigen. The parental clone 3D4 exhibited a relatively rapid doubling time (25.5 h), high plating efficiency and mixed phenotype with respect to growth on a solid support. Single cell cloning of the 3D4 parent

  8. Interleukin-10 from T Cells, but Not Macrophages and Granulocytes, Is Required for Chronic Disease in Leishmania mexicana Infection.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Laurence U

    2015-04-01

    Chronic cutaneous disease of mice caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana requires interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Fc?RIII (an activating IgG receptor). Macrophages readily secrete IL-10 in response to IgG-coated amastigotes, making macrophages a prime candidate as the critical source of IL-10. However, indirect evidence suggested that macrophage IL-10 is not essential for chronic disease. I now show directly that mice lacking IL-10 from macrophages and granulocytes still have chronic disease, like wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, T cell-derived IL-10 is required for chronic disease. CD4-cre IL-10(flox/flox) mice lack IL-10 from T cells (both CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and heal their L. mexicana lesions, with parasite control. I had previously shown that depletion of CD25(+) T cells had no effect on chronic disease, and thus, T cells other than CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells should be the important source of IL-10. Given that conventional T cells do not express Fc?Rs, there is likely to be an indirect pathway by which Fc?RIII on some other cell engaged by IgG1-amastigote immune complexes induces IL-10 from T cells. Further work is needed to delineate these pathways. PMID:25605773

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells: immune evasive, not immune privileged

    PubMed Central

    Ankrum, James A.; Ong, Joon Faii; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may be exploited for treatment of a multitude of inflammatory conditions. MSCs have long been reported to be hypoimmunogenic or ‘immune privileged’; this property is thought to enable MSC transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers and the creation of off-the-shelf therapies consisting of MSCs grown in culture. However, recent studies describing generation of antibodies against and immune rejection of allogeneic donor MSCs suggest that MSCs may not actually be immune privileged. Nevertheless, whether rejection of donor MSCs influences the efficacy of allogeneic MSC therapies is not known, and no definitive clinical advantage of autologous MSCs over allogeneic MSCs has been demonstrated to date. Although MSCs may exert therapeutic function through a brief ‘hit and run’ mechanism, protecting MSCs from immune detection and prolonging their persistence in vivo may improve clinical outcomes and prevent patient sensitization toward donor antigens. PMID:24561556

  10. Interactions between tenofovir and nevirapine in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages restrict their intracellular accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Liptrott, N. J.; Curley, P.; Moss, D.; Back, D. J.; Khoo, S. H.; Owen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no pharmacokinetic interaction between tenofovir and nevirapine, but a higher emergence rate of resistance mutations has been reported when these drugs are coadministered. We sought to examine if there is a potential intracellular interaction that may account for the emergence of resistant virus. Methods Primary CD4+ and CD14+ cells were isolated from healthy volunteer blood. Monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated from CD14+ cells. Accumulation of radiolabelled tenofovir and nevirapine was then assessed in these cells. Results We show here that tenofovir and nevirapine immune cell intracellular concentrations are lower when coincubated in CD4+ cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in CD14+ cells. Conclusions These data indicate a potential intracellular drug–drug interaction between these drugs that warrants further investigation. PMID:23794601

  11. Immune system cells in healthy ferrets: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vidaña, B; Majó, N; Pérez, M; Montoya, M; Martorell, J; Martínez, J

    2014-07-01

    The ferret has emerged as an excellent animal model to characterize several physiologic and pathologic conditions. The distribution and characterization of different types of immune system cells were studied in healthy ferret tissues. Eight primary antibodies were tested for immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed tissues: anti-CD3, anti-CD79?, anti-CD20, anti-HLA-DR, anti-lysozyme, anti-CD163, anti-SWC3, and anti-Mac387. The anti-CD3 antibody labeled T cells mainly in interfollicular and paracortical areas of lymph nodes, cortex and thymic medulla, and periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths in the spleen. The anti-CD79? and anti-CD20 antibodies immunolabeled B cells located in lymphoid follicles at lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer patches. The CD79? and CD20 antibodies also labeled cells with nonlymphoid morphology in atypical B-cell locations. The anti-HLA-DR antibody labeled macrophages, some populations of B and T lymphocytes, and different populations of dendritic cells in lymph nodes, Peyer patches, spleen, and thymus. The anti-lysozyme antibody immunolabeled macrophages in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. The Mac-387, CD163, and SWC3 antibodies did not show any positive reaction in formalin-fixed or frozen tissues. To elucidate the origin of the uncommon CD79?/CD20 positive cells, a double immunohistochemistry was carried out using the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79?, the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD20, and the anti-lysozyme + the anti-CD79? antibodies. Double labeling was mainly observed when the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79? antibodies were combined. The immunohistologic characterization and distribution of these immune system cells in healthy ferret tissues should be of value in future comparative studies of diseases in ferrets. PMID:24045889

  12. Modulation of phagocytosis by anisoosmolarity and betaine in rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Warskulat; Fan Zhang; Dieter Häussinger

    1996-01-01

    Hypoosmotic exposure (205 mosmol\\/l) of rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) for 12 h stimulated phagocytosis of latex particles by about 20%, whereas hyperosmotic exposure (405 mosmol\\/l) resulted in 30–40% inhibition. Inhibition of phagocytosis by hyperosmolarity was fully prevented in the presence of betaine, which acts as an osmolyte in liver macrophages. When hyperosmotically exposed Kupffer cells were preloaded with betaine,

  13. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Revisited: New Insights into the Regulation of Immunity, Inflammation and Metabolic Function following Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jessica C.; Nair, Meera G.

    2014-01-01

    The role of macrophages in homeostatic conditions and the immune system range from clearing debris to recognizing and killing pathogens. While classically activated macrophages (CAMacs) are induced by T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines and exhibit microbicidal properties, Th2 cytokines promote alternative activation of macrophages (AAMacs). AAMacs contribute to the killing of helminth parasites and mediate additional host-protective processes such as regulating inflammation and wound healing. Yet, other parasites susceptible to Th1 type responses can exploit alternative activation of macrophages to diminish Th1 immune responses and prolong infection. In this review, we will delineate the factors that mediate alternative activation (e.g. Th2 cytokines and chitin) and the resulting downstream signaling events (e.g. STAT6 signaling). Next, the specific AAMac-derived factors (e.g. Arginase1) that contribute to resistance or susceptibility to parasitic infections will be summarized. Finally, we will conclude with the discussion of additional AAMac functions beyond immunity to parasites, including the regulation of inflammation, wound healing and the regulation of metabolic disorders. PMID:24772059

  14. Macrophages prevent human red blood cell reconstitution in immunodeficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Van Rooijen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    An animal model supporting human erythropoiesis will be highly valuable for assessing the biologic function of human RBCs under physiologic and disease settings, and for evaluating protocols of in vitro RBC differentiation. Herein, we analyzed human RBC reconstitution in NOD/SCID or NOD/SCID/?c?/? mice that were transplanted with human CD34+ fetal liver cells and fetal thymic tissue. Although a large number of human CD45?CD71+ nucleated immature erythroid cells were detected in the bone marrow, human RBCs were undetectable in the blood of these mice. Human RBCs became detectable in blood after macrophage depletion but disappeared again after withdrawal of treatment. Furthermore, treatment with human erythropoietin and IL-3 significantly increased human RBC reconstitution in macrophage-depleted, but not control, humanized mice. Significantly more rapid rejection of human RBCs than CD47-deficient mouse RBCs indicates that mechanisms other than insufficient CD47-SIRP? signaling are involved in human RBC xenorejection in mice. All considered, our data demonstrate that human RBCs are highly susceptible to rejection by macrophages in immunodeficient mice. Thus, strategies for preventing human RBC rejection by macrophages are required for using immunodeficient mice as an in vivo model to study human erythropoiesis and RBC function. PMID:21926352

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells reciprocally regulate the M1/M2 balance in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dong-Im; Kim, Mi Ra; Jeong, Hye-yun; Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Sung Ho; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied for their applications in stem cell-based regeneration. During myocardial infarction (MI), infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in inflammation, angiogenesis and cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that MSCs may modulate the immunologic environment to accelerate regeneration. This study was designed to assess the functional relationship between the macrophage phenotype and MSCs. MSCs isolated from bone marrow and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) underwent differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor. To determine the macrophage phenotype, classical M1 markers and alternative M2 markers were analyzed with or without co-culturing with MSCs in a transwell system. For animal studies, MI was induced by the ligation of the rat coronary artery. MSCs were injected within the infarct myocardium, and we analyzed the phenotype of the infiltrated macrophages by immunostaining. In the MSC-injected myocardium, the macrophages adjacent to the MSCs showed strong expression of arginase-1 (Arg1), an M2 marker. In BMDMs co-cultured with MSCs, the M1 markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were significantly reduced. In contrast, the M2 markers such as IL-10, IL-4, CD206 and Arg1 were markedly increased by co-culturing with MSCs. Specifically, the ratio of iNOS to Arg1 in BMDMs was notably downregulated by co-culturing with MSCs. These results suggest that the preferential shift of the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2 may be related to the immune-modulating characteristics of MSCs that contribute to cardiac repair. PMID:24406319

  16. Retinoid-mediated inhibition of interleukin-12 production in mouse macrophages suppresses Th1 cytokine profile in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, B Y; Chung, S W; Kim, S H; Kang, S N; Choe, Y K; Kim, T S

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays a central role in the immune system by driving the immune response towards T helper 1 (Th1) type responses characterized by high IFN-? and low IL-4 production. In this study we investigated whether retinoid-mediated inhibition of interleukin-12 production in mouse macrophages could regulate cytokine profile of antigen (Ag)-primed CD4+ Th cells.Pretreatment with retinoids (9-cis-RA, all-trans-RA, TTNPB) significantly inhibited IL-12 production by mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heated-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL). Retinoid-pretreated macrophages reduced their ability to induce IFN-? and increased the ability to induce IL-4 in Ag-primed CD4+ T cells.Addition of recombinant IL-12 to cultures of retinoid-pretreated macrophages and CD4+ T cells restored IFN-? production in CD4+ T cells.The in vivo administration of 9-cis-RA resulted in the inhibition of IL-12 production by macrophages stimulated in vitro with either LPS or HKL, leading to the inhibition of Th1 cytokine profile (decreased IFN-? and increased IL-4 production) in CD4+ T cells.These findings may explain some known effects of retinoids including the inhibition of encephalitogenicity, and point to a possible therapeutic use of retinoids in the Th1-mediated immune diseases such as autoimmune diseases. PMID:10821786

  17. Respiratory Tract Cell-Mediated Immunity: Comparison of Primary and Secondary Response

    PubMed Central

    Gadol, N.; Johnson, J. E.; Waldman, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary local and splenic cell-mediated immune response was observed and compared to the primary response. Previous studies have demonstrated cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by lymphocytes from bronchopulmonary washings and have shown that its appearance is to a large extent inedpendent of splenic CMI. This study evaluated the secondary as compared to the primary response, with respect to both cellular and humoral immune responses. Guinea pigs were immunized with influenza virus vaccine either nasally or parenterally, booster immunizations were given by the same route, and animals were killed at various times after immunization or booster. The inhibition of macrophage migration was used to assess CMI. As in previous studies, local application of antigen led to mainly local appearance of CMI, whereas parenteral immunization led to mainly systemic CMI. Both pulmonary and splenic lymphocytes showed an inhibition of macrophage migration that appeared 2 to 3 days sooner after the booster, as compared to the primary immunization. There was no evidence, however, for the earlier production or increased amount of antibody in the bronchial secretions in the boosted animals. The results suggest that pulmonary as well as splenic T lymphocytes exhibit memory, but that pulmonary B lymphocytes do not. PMID:4824634

  18. Macrophages eat cancer cells using their own calreticulin as a guide: Roles of TLR and Btk

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingye; Chen, James Y.; Weissman-Tsukamoto, Rachel; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Ho, Po Yi; McKenna, Kelly M.; Cheshier, Samuel; Zhang, Michael; Guo, Nan; Gip, Phung; Mitra, Siddhartha S.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage-mediated programmed cell removal (PrCR) is an important mechanism of eliminating diseased and damaged cells before programmed cell death. The induction of PrCR by eat-me signals on tumor cells is countered by don’t-eat-me signals such as CD47, which binds macrophage signal-regulatory protein ? to inhibit phagocytosis. Blockade of CD47 on tumor cells leads to phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we demonstrate that the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages synergizes with blocking CD47 on tumor cells to enhance PrCR. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) mediates TLR signaling in macrophages. Calreticulin, previously shown to be an eat-me signal on cancer cells, is activated in macrophages for secretion and cell-surface exposure by TLR and Btk to target cancer cells for phagocytosis, even if the cancer cells themselves do not express calreticulin. PMID:25646432

  19. Induction of interleukin-12 production in mouse macrophages by berberine, a benzodioxoloquinolizine alkaloid, deviates CD4+ T cells from a Th2 to a Th1 response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae S; Kang, Bok Y; Cho, Daeho; Kim, Seung H

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether berberine-mediated induction of interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in antigen-presenting cells could regulate a cytokine profile of antigen-primed CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. Pretreatment with berberine induced IL-12 production in both macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly increased the levels of IL-12 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and in CD40 ligand-stimulated dendritic cells. Importantly, berberine pretreatment of macrophages increased their ability to induce interferon-? (IFN-?) and reduced their ability to induce IL-4 in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. Berberine did not influence the macrophage cell surface expression of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1. Addition of neutralizing anti-IL-12p40 monoclonal antibody to cultures of berberine-pretreated macrophages and CD4+ T cells restored IL-4 production in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. The in vivo administration of berberine resulted in the enhanced induction of IL-12 production by macrophages when stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes, leading to the inhibition of the Th type 2 cytokine profile (decreased IL-4 and increased IFN-? production) in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. These findings may point to a possible therapeutic use of berberine or medicinal plants containing berberine in the Th type 2 cell-mediated immune diseases such as allergic diseases. PMID:12807487

  20. Interactions between macrophages and cell wall oligosaccharides of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mora-Montes, Héctor M; McKenzie, Christopher; Bain, Judith M; Lewis, Leanne E; Erwig, Lars P; Gow, Neil A R

    2012-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is the armour that protects the cell from changes in the external environment. The wall of Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, is also the immediate point of contact with the host immune system and contains most of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognised by innate immune cells. Along with the use of mutants altered in cell wall composition, the isolation and purification of cell wall components has proven useful in the identification of receptors involved in the sensing of these molecules, and assessment of the relative relevance of ligand-receptor interactions during the sensing of C. albicans by the immune system. Here, we describe protocols for the isolation of cell wall chitin, N-linked and O-linked mannans from C. albicans, and how they can subsequently be used to assess immunological activities such as phagocytosis and cytokine production by myeloid cells. PMID:22328379

  1. Mechanisms of NK Cell-Macrophage Bacillus anthracis Crosstalk: A Balance between Stimulation by Spores and Differential Disruption by Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Klezovich-Bénard, Maria; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jusforgues-Saklani, Hélène; Fiole, Daniel; Burjek, Nick; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L.

    2012-01-01

    NK cells are important immune effectors for preventing microbial invasion and dissemination, through natural cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. Bacillus anthracis spores can efficiently drive IFN-? production by NK cells. The present study provides insights into the mechanisms of cytokine and cellular signaling that underlie the process of NK-cell activation by B. anthracis and the bacterial strategies to subvert and evade this response. Infection with non-toxigenic encapsulated B. anthracis induced recruitment of NK cells and macrophages into the mouse draining lymph node. Production of edema (ET) or lethal (LT) toxin during infection impaired this cellular recruitment. NK cell depletion led to accelerated systemic bacterial dissemination. IFN-? production by NK cells in response to B. anthracis spores was: i) contact-dependent through RAE-1-NKG2D interaction with macrophages; ii) IL-12, IL-18, and IL-15-dependent, where IL-12 played a key role and regulated both NK cell and macrophage activation; and iii) required IL-18 for only an initial short time window. B. anthracis toxins subverted both NK cell essential functions. ET and LT disrupted IFN-? production through different mechanisms. LT acted both on macrophages and NK cells, whereas ET mainly affected macrophages and did not alter NK cell capacity of IFN-? secretion. In contrast, ET and LT inhibited the natural cytotoxicity function of NK cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The subverting action of ET thus led to dissociation in NK cell function and blocked natural cytotoxicity without affecting IFN-? secretion. The high efficiency of this process stresses the impact that this toxin may exert in anthrax pathogenesis, and highlights a potential usefulness for controlling excessive cytotoxic responses in immunopathological diseases. Our findings therefore exemplify the delicate balance between bacterial stimulation and evasion strategies. This highlights the potential implication of the crosstalk between host innate defences and B. anthracis in initial anthrax control mechanisms. PMID:22253596

  2. Biosynthesis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in mouse J774 macrophages and N18 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Marzo, V; De Petrocellis, L; Sepe, N; Buono, A

    1996-01-01

    Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide, AnNH) has been recently proposed as the endogenous ligand at the brain cannabinoid receptor CB1. Two alternative pathways have been suggested for the biosynthesis of this putative mediator in the central nervous system. Here we present data (1) substantiating further the mechanism by which AnNH is produced by phospholipase D (PLD)-catalysed hydrolysis of N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine in mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells, and (2) suggesting for the first time that AnNH is biosynthesized via the same mechanism in a non-neuronal cell line, mouse J774 macrophages, together with other acylethanolamides and is possibly involved in the control of the immune/inflammatory response. Lipids from both neuroblastoma cells and J774 macrophages were shown to contain a family of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (N-aPEs), including the possible precursor of AnNH, N-arachidonoyl-PE. Treatment with exogenous PLD, but not with exogenous phospholipase A2 and ethanolamine, resulted in the production of a series of acylethanolamides (AEs), including AnNH, from both cell types. The formation of AEs was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of the corresponding N-aPEs. Enzymically active homogenates from either neuroblastoma cells or J774 macrophages were shown to convert synthetic N-[3H]arachidonoyl-PE into [3H]AnNH, thus suggesting that in both cells an enzyme is present which is capable of catalysing the hydrolysis of N-aPE(s) to the corresponding AE(s). Finally, as previously shown in central neurons, on stimulation with ionomycin, J774 macrophages also produced a mixture of AEs including AnNH and palmitoylethanolamide, which has been proposed as the preferential endogenous ligand at the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 and, consequently, as a possible down-modulator of mast cells. On the basis of this as well as previous findings it is now possible to hypothesize for AnNH and palmitoylethanolamide, co-synthesized by macrophages, a role as peripheral mediators with multiple actions on blood cell function. PMID:8670178

  3. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  4. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Orona, N.S. [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D.R., E-mail: deborah.tasat@unsam.edu.ar [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, M. T. de Alvear 2142 (1122), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  5. The Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the pathological role of the immune system in several metabolic disorders, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Addison’s disease, has long been recognized and studied, only in the last decade has it become apparent that the immune system plays a broad and more subtle role in local and systemic metabolism. It is now apparent that the immune system monitors and responds to specific metabolic cues in both pathologic and non-pathologic settings through a set of processes dubbed immunometabolism. Expansion of adipose tissue mass, activation of lipolysis, eating a high fat diet and even non-shivering thermogenesis all lead to the recruitment and activation of immune cells in key metabolic tissues. The responses are complex and not completely defined, and indeed, as is typical of rapidly evolving research areas, there are some conflicting reports, especially related to the metabolic consequences of manipulation of immune function. However, what is clear is the consensus that metabolic processes, especially obesity and obesity-related complications, activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Canonical immune processes consist of discrete steps: surveillance, recognition, effector action and resolution. Over the last decade evidence for each part of the immune response has been found at the intersection of the immune system with metabolism. Although evidence for immune surveillance and modulation of metabolism has been found in the liver, muscle, hypothalamus and pancreas, immune cell function has been most intensively studied and best understood in adipose tissue where studies continue to provide insights into the intersection of the metabolic and immune systems. Here we review the modulation of immune cell populations in adipose tissue and discuss regulatory processes implicated in controlling the interface between metabolism and immunologic function. PMID:24003919

  6. Effects of Amphotericin B on Macrophages and Their Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-San; Medoff, Gerald; Kobayashi, George S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment on the mononuclear phagocyte system of mice was investigated. Peritoneal macrophages from mice that received AmB treatment showed a higher phagocytic and antibacterial activity than those from normal untreated mice. When the levels of macrophage precursor cells in bone marrow and spleen were followed in mice after AmB treatment, an eightfold increase in the splenic content of limited stem cells for both macrophages and granulocytes (colony-forming units in culture) and a threefold increase in the number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (colony-forming units in spleen) were observed on day 4. These were also accompanied by a slight increase in the colony-forming units in spleen and in culture in femoral marrows. AmB was capable of inducing a large number of peritoneal colony-forming cells in the peritoneum, and caused a significant rise in the serum level of colony-stimulating factor. No significant change in the level of blood monocytes was noted, although a transient increase in the proportion of neutrophils was observed within 24 h after AmB treatment. PMID:836011

  7. Mast cells aggravate sepsis by inhibiting peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahdah, Albert; Gautier, Gregory; Attout, Tarik; Fiore, Frédéric; Lebourdais, Emeline; Msallam, Rasha; Daëron, Marc; Monteiro, Renato C.; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Davoust, Jean; Blank, Ulrich; Malissen, Bernard; Launay, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the overwhelming inflammatory reaction associated with polymicrobial sepsis remains a prevalent clinical challenge with few treatment options. In septic peritonitis, blood neutrophils and monocytes are rapidly recruited into the peritoneal cavity to control infection, but the role of resident sentinel cells during the early phase of infection is less clear. In particular, the influence of mast cells on other tissue-resident cells remains poorly understood. Here, we developed a mouse model that allows both visualization and conditional ablation of mast cells and basophils to investigate the role of mast cells in severe septic peritonitis. Specific depletion of mast cells led to increased survival rates in mice with acute sepsis. Furthermore, we determined that mast cells impair the phagocytic action of resident macrophages, thereby allowing local and systemic bacterial proliferation. Mast cells did not influence local recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or the release of inflammatory cytokines. Phagocytosis inhibition by mast cells involved their ability to release prestored IL-4 within 15 minutes after bacterial encounter, and treatment with an IL-4–neutralizing antibody prevented this inhibitory effect and improved survival of septic mice. Our study uncovers a local crosstalk between mast cells and macrophages during the early phase of sepsis development that aggravates the outcome of severe bacterial infection. PMID:25180604

  8. Orchestration of Angiogenesis by Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Albini, Adriana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Noonan, Douglas M.; Mortara, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The TUMIC involves many “players” going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune, and endothelial cells (ECs). The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can “orchestrate” the “symphony” of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy. Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the ECs, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here, we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here, we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the “conductors” of this “orchestra.” We also suggest that interrupting the immune???inflammation???angiogenesis???tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease. PMID:25072019

  9. Orchestration of angiogenesis by immune cells.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Albini, Adriana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Noonan, Douglas M; Mortara, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The TUMIC involves many "players" going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune, and endothelial cells (ECs). The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can "orchestrate" the "symphony" of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy. Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the ECs, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here, we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here, we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the "conductors" of this "orchestra." We also suggest that interrupting the immune???inflammation???angiogenesis???tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease. PMID:25072019

  10. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways are required for recombinant Brucella abortus BCSP31-induced cytokine production, functional upregulation of mouse macrophages, and the Th1 immune response in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-?B in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-?-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2?/? and TLR4?/? mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-?B and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2?/? and TLR4?/? mice. In addition, CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-? and IL-2 compared with CD4+ T cells from TLR2?/? and TLR4?/? mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2?/? and TLR4?/? mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2?/? and TLR4?/? mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response. PMID:24769793

  11. Cyclooxygenase2 in cancer cells and macrophages induces colon cancer cell growth by cigarette smoke extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar S. L. Liu; Vivian Y. Shin; Yi-Ni Ye; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; William K. K. Wu; Chi-Hin Cho

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and macrophages are independently associated with colorectal cancer. In the present study, cigarette smoke ethanol extract was applied to colon cancer cells (SW1116) or indirectly via activated macrophages (THP-1 cells) to attest their effects on cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Ethanol extract induced COX-2 expression in SW1116 and THP-1

  12. Modelling and analysis of macrophage activation pathways 

    E-print Network

    Raza, Sobia

    2011-11-25

    Macrophages are present in virtually all tissues and account for approximately 10% of all body mass. Although classically credited as the scavenger cells of innate immune system, ridding a host of pathogenic material and ...

  13. Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Ni, Bin; Dodd, Claire E; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding macrophage responses to M.tb infection, while pointing out relevant differences in experimental outcomes due to the use of divergent model systems. A brief description of the lung environment is included since there is increasing evidence that the alveolar macrophage (AM) has immunoregulatory properties that can delay optimal protective host immune responses. In this context, this review focuses on selected macrophage immunoregulatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, negative regulators of inflammation, lipid mediators and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:25453226

  14. Some immune cells appear to aid cancer cell growth

    Cancer.gov

    The immune system is normally known for protecting the body from illness. But a subset of immune cells appear to be doing more harm than good. A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center found that these cells, called myeloid derived suppressor cells, provide a niche where the cancer stem cells survive.

  15. Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:24626170

  16. B-cells and humoral immunity in multiple sclerosis. Implications for therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangjin Oh; Cornelia Cudrici; Takahiro Ito; Horea Rus

    2008-01-01

    B-cells and humoral immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. The most common pattern of demyelinating\\u000a pathology in multiple sclerosis is associated with the deposition of antibodies and the activation of complement, as well\\u000a as T-cells and macrophages. Plasmapheresis has been found to be an efficient therapeutic approach in patients with this type\\u000a of pathological lesion. Recent

  17. [Cannabinoids and the immune system. Of men, mice and cells].

    PubMed

    Kraft, B; Kress, H G

    2004-06-01

    The medical use of cannabis or cannabinoid compounds is controversial. Cannabinoids like the Delta(9)-THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or the synthetic derivative Nabilone are available against cancer- and HIV-associated cachexia, nausea and vomiting. Over the last 20 years, the cannabinoid receptors CB(1) and CB(2) and their endogenous ligands have been found. The involvement of this endogenous cannabinoid signalling system in feeding, appetite, pain perception and immunomodulation could be demonstrated using animal and in vitro studies. Thus, the concern about immunosuppressive effects in humans using medical cannabinoid preparations grew. However, up to now most human studies have failed to demonstrate a well-defined and reproducible immunosuppressive cannabinoid-effect. Only the smoking of marijuana showed a significant local immunosuppression of the bactericidal activity of human alveolar macrophages. In animal studies, cannabinoids were identified as potent modulators of cytokine production, causing a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. In consequence, a compromised cellular immunity was observed in these animals, resulting in enhanced tumor growth and reduced immunity to viral infections. In vitro, immunosuppressive effects were shown in all immune cells, but only at high micromolar cannabinoid concentrations not reached under normal clinical conditions. In conclusion, there is no evidence that cannabinoids induce a serious, relevant immunosuppression in humans, with the exception of marijuana-smoking which may affect local broncho-alveolar immunity. PMID:15221424

  18. The Majority of In Vitro Macrophage Activation Exhibited by Extracts of Some Immune Enhancing Botanicals is Due to Bacterial Lipoproteins and Lipopolysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacteriall...

  19. Playing hide-and-seek with host macrophages through the use of mycobacterial cell envelope phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Arbues, Ainhoa; Lugo-Villarino, GeanCarlo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Guilhot, Christophe; Astarie-Dequeker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), have evolved a remarkable ability to evade the immune system in order to survive and to colonize the host. Among the most important evasion strategies is the capacity of these bacilli to parasitize host macrophages, since these are major effector cells against intracellular pathogens that can be used as long-term cellular reservoirs. Mycobacterial pathogens employ an array of virulence factors that manipulate macrophage function to survive and establish infection. Until recently, however, the role of mycobacterial cell envelope lipids as virulence factors in macrophage subversion has remained elusive. Here, we will address exclusively the proposed role for phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) in the modulation of the resident macrophage response and that of phenolic glycolipids (PGL) in the regulation of the recruitment and phenotype of incoming macrophage precursors to the site of infection. We will provide a unique perspective of potential additional functions for these lipids, and highlight obstacles and opportunities to further understand their role in the pathogenesis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases. PMID:25538905

  20. Retinal pigment epithelium cells promote the maturation of monocytes to macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Osuský, R; Malik, P; Ryan, S J

    1997-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is characterized by excessive cell proliferation within the eye; retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form the majority of proliferating cells and interact with infiltrating leukocytes including monocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RPE cells on the maturation of monocytes to macrophages. The enriched monocyte fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was either cultured with or without RPE cells. The expression of the maturation-associated antigen CD16 on monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry, and the concentration of bioactive transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the culture supernatant measured by mink lung epithelial cell (Mv1Lu) bioassay. The cellular density of CD16 in terms of mean fluorescence intensity was significantly higher on monocytes in coculture with RPE cells (p = 0.0153) than on monocytes in monoculture. The CD16 expression was significantly (p = 0.0093) reduced when antibodies to TGF-beta were added to the culture medium. RPE cells did not express CD16. Supernatants from cocultures also contained active TGF-beta (76.7 +/- 23.8 pg/ml), while in those of cell monocultures TGF-beta was close to the detection limit. We conclude that RPE cells stimulate and modulate the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages. Bioactive TGF-beta generated in the coculture was in part responsible for this effect. It seems likely that RPE cells or interactions between RPE cells and monocytes could be an important factor in inflammatory/immune processes and wound healing in the eye, which are probably involved in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. PMID:9112264

  1. Tumors skew endothelial cells to disrupt NK cell, T-cell and macrophage functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer K. Mulligan; Deanne M. R. Lathers; M. Rita I. Young

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Patients and mice with solid tumors, such as Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), have defects in functions of immune effector cells.\\u000a Endothelial cells, a component of the tumor vasculature, are potential regulators of immune cell functions. Therefore, these\\u000a studies examined the impact of exposure to LLC tumor on the ability of endothelial cells to modulate immune cell functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Endothelial

  2. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong, E-mail: nzhang@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC.

  3. Immune interferon production by lymphoid cells: role in the inhibition of herpesviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Babiuk, L A; Rouse, B T

    1976-01-01

    Bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus- and tuberculin-immunized animals produced large quantities of interferon within 24 h of in vitro stimulation by IBR and purified protein derivative antigens. Separation of PBL into populations enriched in T lymphocytes or B lymphocyte provided the antigen-specific step for immune interferon production. A 2- to 10-fold increase in interferon occurred when lymphocytes were combined with autologous macrophages. Although macrophages, even if treated with antilymphocyte serum to remove any contaminating lymphocytes, could produce some interferon, the augmented interferon produced by macrophage-lypmhocyte cultures was not dmpocytes. Direct physical contact between macrophages and lymphocytes was required for the production of enhanced levels of interferon. Antigen-antibody complexes of irradiated virus-infected cells in the presence of antibody were as efficient or better at stimulating interferon than was free antigen. Because IBR virus was inhibited by interferon levels stimulated in cultures by IBR antigen, it was suggested that the local production of interferon by immune cells might play a similar role in curtailing virus dissemination in vivo, thus leading to recovery from disease. PMID:1085748

  4. Reduced immune cell responses on nano and submicron rough titanium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Current bare metal stents can be improved by nanotechnology to support the simultaneous acceleration of endothelialization and consequent reduction of immune cell responses after implantation. In our prior study, electron beam deposition was utilized to create different scales of roughness on titanium stents including flat (F-Ti), a mixture of nanometer and submicron (S-Ti), and nanometer (N-Ti). Enhanced endothelial responses (adhesion, migration, and nitric acid/endothelin-1 secretion) on nanometer to submicron rough titanium were observed compared to flat titanium. The present study aimed to further investigate the influence of nano and submicron titanium surface features on immune cells. Initial monocyte adhesion was found to be reduced on nano and submicron surface features compared to a flat surface. In a model including both endothelial cells and monocytes, it was proven that the submicron surface gave rise to an endothelial cell monolayer which generated the highest amount of NOx and subsequently led to decreased adhesiveness of endothelial cells to monocytes. The analysis of monocyte morphology gave hints to less differentiated monocytes on a submicron surface. Furthermore, the adhesion of and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages were all reduced on nano and submicron titanium surface features compared to a flat surface. This study, thus, suggests that nano and submicron titanium surfaces should be further studied for improved vascular stent performance. PMID:25660564

  5. Immune Heterogeneity in Neuroinflammation: Dendritic Cells in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical to an integrated immune response and serve as the key link between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Under steady state conditions, brain DC’s act as sentinels, continually sampling their local environment. They share this function with macrophages derived from the same basic hemopoietic (bone marrow-derived) precursor and with parenchymal microglia that arise from a unique non-hemopoietic origin. While multiple cells may serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells present both foreign and self-proteins to naïve T cells that, in turn, carry out effector functions that serve to protect or destroy. The resulting activation of the adaptive response is a critical step to resolution of injury or infection and is key to survival. In this review we will explore the critical roles that DCs play in the brain’s response to neuroinflammatory disease with emphasis on how the brain’s microenvironment impacts these actions. PMID:23114889

  6. Innate immune activation in the pathogenesis of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Fisher-Perkins, Jeanne M; Sansing, Hope A; Lee, Kim M; Alvarez, Xavier; MacLean, Andrew G; Peterson, Karin E; Lackner, Andrew A; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the loss of galactocerebrosidase. Galactocerebrosidase loss leads to the accumulation of psychosine and subsequent oligodendrocyte cell death, demyelination, macrophage recruitment, and astroglial activation and proliferation. To date, no studies have elucidated the mechanism of glial cell activation and cytokine and chemokine up-regulation and release. We explored a novel explanation for the development of the pathological changes in the early stages of globoid cell leukodystrophy associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 up-regulation in the hindbrain and cerebellum as a response to dying oligodendrocytes. TLR2 up-regulation on microglia/macrophages coincided with morphological changes consistent with activation at 2 and 3 weeks of age. TLR2 up-regulation on activated microglia/macrophages resulted in astrocyte activation and marked up-regulation of cytokines/chemokines. Because oligodendrocyte cell death is an important feature of globoid cell leukodystrophy, we tested the ability of TLR2 reporter cells to respond to oligodendrocyte cell death. These reporter cells responded in vitro to medium conditioned by psychosine-treated oligodendrocytes, indicating the likelihood that oligodendrocytes release a TLR2 ligand during apoptosis. TLRs are a member of the innate immune system and initiate immune and inflammatory events; therefore, the identification of TLR2 as a potential driver in the activation of central nervous system glial activity in globoid cell leukodystrophy may provide important insight into its pathogenesis. PMID:24316110

  7. Profiling B cell immune responses by microengraving

    E-print Network

    Papa, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    The ability to monitor an immune response in the course of vaccination or disease progression is highly desirable. Currently, no technique is able to generate a comprehensive profile of the individual cells involved and ...

  8. FcgammaR expression on macrophages is related to severity and chronicity of synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction during experimental immune-complex-mediated arthritis (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Arjen B; van Lent, Peter L; van Vuuren, Hanneke; Holthuysen, Astrid E; Jacobs, Cor; van de Putte, Leo B; van de Winkel, Jan G; van den Berg, Wim B

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) present on cells of the haematopoietic lineage communicate with IgG-containing immune complexes that are abundant in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In mice, three classes of Fc?R (RI, RII, and RIII) have been described. Binding of these receptors leads to either activation (Fc?RI and RIII) or deactivation (Fc?RII) of intracellular transduction pathways. Together, the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors is thought to drive immune-complex-mediated diseases. Earlier studies in our laboratory showed that macrophages of the synovial lining are of utmost importance in the onset and propagation of immune-complex-driven arthritic diseases. Selective depletion of macrophages in the joint downregulated both inflammation and cartilage destruction. As all three classes of Fc?R are expressed on synovial macrophages, these cells are among the first that come in contact with immune complexes deposited in the joint. Recently, we observed that when immune complexes were injected into the knee joints of mice, strains susceptible to collagen-type-II arthritis (DBA/1, B10.RIII) developed more severe arthritis than nonsusceptible strains did, or even developed chronic arthritis. One reason why these strains are more susceptible might be their higher levels of Fc?Rs on macrophage membranes. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of Fc?Rs in inflammation and cartilage damage during immune-complex-mediated arthritis (ICA). First, we studied arthritis and subsequent cartilage damage in mice lacking functional Fc?RI and RIII (FcR ?-chain-/- mice). Next, DBA/1 mice, which are prone to develop collagen-type-II arthritis (`collagen-induced arthritis'; CIA) and are hypersensitive to immune complexes, were compared with control C57BL/6 mice as regards cartilage damage and the expression and function of Fc?Rs on their macrophages. Aims: To examine whether Fc?R expression on macrophages is related to severity of synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction during immune-complex-mediated joint inflammation. Methods: ICA was induced in three strains of mice (FcR ?-chain-/-, C57BL/6, and DBA/1, which have, respectively, no functional Fc?RI and RIII, intermediate basal expression of Fc?Rs, and high basal expression of Fc?Rs) by passive immunisation using rabbit anti-lysozyme antibodies, followed by poly-L-lysine lysozyme injection into the right knee joint 1 day later. In other experiments, streptococcal-cell-wall (SCW)- or zymosan-induced arthritis was induced by injecting SCW (25 ?g) or zymosan (180 ?g) directly into the knee joint. At several time points after arthritis induction, knee joints were dissected and studied either histologically (using haematoxylin/eosin or safranin O staining) or immuno-histochemically. The arthritis severity and the cartilage damage were scored separately on an arbitrary scale of 0-3. Fc?Rs were immunohistochemically detected using the monoclonal antibody 2.4G2, which detects both Fc?RII and RIII. Deposition of IgG and C3c in the arthritic joint tissue was also detected immunohistochemically. Expression of Fc?Rs by murine peritoneal macrophages was measured using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Peritoneal macrophages were stimulated using heat-aggregated gamma globulins (HAGGs), and production of IL-1 was measured using a bioassay. To assess the levels of IL-1 and its receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) during arthritis, tissue was dissected and washed in RPMI medium. Washouts were tested for levels of IL-1 and IL-1Ra using radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA was isolated from the tissue, and levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1, and IL-1Ra were determined using semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: ICA induced in knee joints of C57BL/6 mice caused a florid inflammation

  9. Identification of betaine as an osmolyte in rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Zhang; U Warskulat; M Wettstein; D Haussinger

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anisosmotic cell volume changes were identified recently as a critical factor in the regulation of eicosanoid formation in stimulated liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether osmolytes are involved in the control of Kupffer cell function. METHODS: Cultured rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) were studied with respect to their functional

  10. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: role of immune cells in the corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Walusimbi, S S; Pate, J L

    2013-04-01

    The immune system is essential for optimal function of the reproductive system. The corpus luteum (CL) is an endocrine organ that secretes progesterone, which is responsible for regulating the length of the estrous cycle, and for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. This paper reviews literature that addresses 2 areas; i) how immune cells are recruited to the CL, and ii) how immune cells communicate with luteal cells to affect the formation, development, and regression of the CL. Immune cells, primarily recruited to the ovulatory follicle from lymphoid organs after the LH surge, facilitate ovulation and populate the developing CL. During the luteal phase, changes in the population of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes occur at critical functional stages of the CL. In addition to their role in facilitating ovulation, immune cells may have an important role in luteal function. Evidence shows that cytokines secreted by immune cells modulate both luteotropic and luteolytic processes. However, the decision to pursue either function may depend on the environment provided by luteal cells. It is suggested that understanding the role immune cells play could lead to identification of new strategies to improve fertility in dairy cattle and other species. PMID:23422006

  11. Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane E. Wobus; Stephanie M. Karst; Larissa B. Thackray; Kyeong-Ok Chang; Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev; Gaël Belliot; Anne Krug; Jason M. Mackenzie; Kim Y. Green; Herbert W. Virgin

    2004-01-01

    Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-?? receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution

  12. Immunization with Leishmania receptor for macrophages protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Handman, E; Mitchell, G F

    1985-09-01

    The Leishmania major receptor for macrophages is a lipid-containing glycoconjugate that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody WIC-79.3. When L. major promastigotes were incubated with Fab fragments of WIC-79.3 prior to injection into genetically susceptible mice, their infectivity was decreased. Fab fragments from an irrelevant control antibody of the same class had no effect. The L. major glycolipid was purified from detergent-solubilized promastigotes by affinity chromatography on immobilized WIC-79.3 and used to vaccinate mice that are genetically resistant or susceptible to disease. Genetically resistant mice could be protected totally from cutaneous disease with as little as 5 micrograms of glycolipid. A high but not absolute level of resistance was also induced in the susceptible mice, in which the disease is otherwise fatal. No protection was obtained with the carbohydrate fragment of the glycolipid alone or by injection of the glycolipid in the absence of adjuvant. Genetically susceptible mice, immunized and protected from disease as a result of multiple injections of live avirulent cloned promastigotes of L. major, produced antibodies to the glycolipid of L. major. No antibodies were detected in serum from chronically diseased mice. The data suggest that this functionally important antigen of L. major is a candidate vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:3862105

  13. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP’s ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP’s ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP’s interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages. PMID:24885748

  14. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  15. Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie M. Marketon; R. William DePaolo; Kristin L. DeBord; Bana Jabri; Olaf Schneewind

    2005-01-01

    The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop beta-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune

  16. Suppressive Effect on Activation of Macrophages by Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota Genes Determining the Synthesis of Cell Wall-Associated Polysaccharides ?

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Emi; Serata, Masaki; Sako, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although many Lactobacillus strains used as probiotics are believed to modulate host immune responses, the molecular natures of the components of such probiotic microorganisms directly involved in immune modulation process are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the function of polysaccharide moiety of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota as a possible immune modulator which regulates cytokine production by macrophages. A gene survey of the genome sequence of L. casei Shirota hunted down a unique cluster of 10 genes, most of whose predicted amino acid sequences had similarities to various extents to known proteins involved in biosynthesis of extracellular or capsular polysaccharides from other lactic acid bacteria. Gene knockout mutants of eight genes from this cluster resulted in the loss of reactivity to L. casei Shirota-specific monoclonal antibody and extreme reduction of high-molecular-mass polysaccharides in the cell wall fraction, indicating that at least these genes are involved in biosynthesis of high-molecular-mass cell wall polysaccharides. By adding heat-killed mutant cells to mouse macrophage cell lines or to mouse spleen cells, the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-10, and IL-6 was more stimulated than by wild-type cells. In addition, these mutants additively enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells, while wild-type cells significantly suppressed the IL-6 production of RAW 264.7. Collectively, these results indicate that this cluster of genes of L. casei Shirota, which have been named cps1A, cps1B, cps1C, cps1D, cps1E, cps1F, cps1G, and cps1J, determine the synthesis of the high-molecular-mass polysaccharide moiety of the L. casei Shirota cell wall and that this polysaccharide moiety is the relevant immune modulator which may function to reduce excessive immune reactions during the activation of macrophages by L. casei Shirota. PMID:18552190

  17. Isolation and characterization of macrophages from a mixed primary culture of bovine liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Takenouchi, Takato; Sato, Mitsuru; Yamanaka, Noriko

    2011-04-15

    Previously, we developed a simple and efficient method to isolate liver macrophages from a mixed primary culture of adult rat liver cells. To extend the applicability of this method, we isolated macrophages from mixed primary cultures of bovine liver cells. Macrophage cells proliferated on the cell sheet of mixed bovine liver cells after 8-16d of culture. These cells were detached by shaking of the culture flasks. Subsequent transfer and brief incubation in plastic dishes resulted in selective adhesion of macrophages. After rinses with PBS, attached macrophages were harvested. More than 10(6) cells could be harvested from the culture flask at intervals of 2-3d for more than three weeks. The isolated cells were strongly positive for bovine macrophage markers, such as CD68, CD172a and Iba-1. These cells exhibited functional properties of macrophages, including active phagocytosis of polystyrene microbeads, proliferative response to recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, upregulation of specific inflammatory cytokine genes upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, and formation of multinucleated giant cells. The shaking and attachment method provides a simple and efficient alternative to obtain bovine liver macrophages without requiring complex equipment or specialized technical skills. PMID:21334751

  18. Monocyte differentiation in intestine-like macrophage phenotype induced by epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Spottl; M. Hausmann; M. Kreutz; A. Peuker; D. Vogl; J. Scholmerich; W. Falk; R. Andreesen; T. Andus; H. Herfarth; G. Rogler

    2001-01-01

    Macrophages in normal colonic mucosa show a specific and distinct phenotype with low expression of the typical monocyte\\/macrophage surface antigens CD14, CD16, and CD11b and T-cell costimulatory molecules. A method for the in vitro induction of a macrophage phenotype sim- ilar to this intestinal phenotype is presented. Mul- ticellular spheroids (MCSs) of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) and control cell lines

  19. Alterations in Marginal Zone Macrophages and Marginal Zone B Cells in Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Birjandi, Shirin Z.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Ramadorai, Anand K.; Witte, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Marginal zones (MZs) are architecturally organized for clearance of and rapid response against blood-borne Ags entering the spleen. MZ macrophages (MZMs) and MZ B cells are particularly important in host defense against T-independent pathogens and may be crucial for the prevention of diseases, such as streptococcal pneumonia, that are devastating in older patients. Our objective was to determine whether there are changes in the cellular components of the MZ between old and young mice. Using immunocytochemistry and a blinded scoring system, we observed gross architectural changes in the MZs of old mice, including reduction in the abundance of MZMs surrounding the MZ sinus as well as disruptions in positioning of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1)+ sinus lining cells and metallophilic macrophages. Loss of frequency of MZMs was corroborated by flow cytometry. A majority of old mice also showed reduced frequency of MZ B cells, which correlated with decreased abundance of MZM in individual old mice. The spleens of old mice showed less deposition of intravenously injected dextran particles within the MZ, likely because of the decreased frequency in MZMs, because SIGN-R1 expression was not reduced on MZM from old mice. The phagocytic ability of individual MZMs was examined using Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles, and no differences in phagocytosis were found between macrophages from young or old spleens. In summary, an anatomical breakdown of the MZ occurs in advanced age, and a reduction in frequency of MZM may affect the ability of the MZM compartment to clear blood-borne Ags and mount proper T-independent immune responses. PMID:21307289

  20. Click hybridization of immune cells and polyamidoamine dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leyuan; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Yeudall, W Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilizing highly branched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to the cell surface represents an innovative method of enhancing cell surface loading capacity to deliver therapeutic and imaging agents. In this work, hybridized immune cells, that is, macrophage RAW264.7 (RAW), with PAMAM dendrimer G4.0 (DEN) on the basis of bioorthogonal chemistry are clicked. Efficient and selective cell surface immobilization of dendrimers is confirmed by confocal microscopy. Viability and motility of RAW-DEN hybrids remain the same as untreated RAW cells according to WST-1 assay and wound closure assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis reveals that there are no significant alterations in the expression levels of signaling molecules AKT, p38, and NF?B (p65) and their corresponding activated (phosphorylated) forms in RAW cells treated with azido sugar and dendrimer, indicating that the hybridization process neither induced cell stress response nor altered normal signaling pathways. Taken together, this work shows the feasibility of applying bioorthogonal chemistry to create cell-nanoparticle hybrids and demonstrates the noninvasiveness of this cell surface engineering approach. PMID:24574321

  1. Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

    1992-01-01

    This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

  2. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  3. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Yeung, A T Y; Hale, C; Xia, J; Tate, P H; Goulding, D; Keane, J A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Forrester, L; Billker, O; Skarnes, W C; Hancock, R E W; Dougan, G

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  4. Tetherin Can Restrict Cell-Free and Cell-Cell Transmission of HIV from Primary Macrophages to T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sebastian; Marsh, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bst-2/Tetherin inhibits the release of HIV by tethering newly formed virus particles to the plasma membrane of infected cells. Although the mechanisms of Tetherin-mediated restriction are increasingly well understood, the biological relevance of this restriction in the natural target cells of HIV is unclear. Moreover, whether Tetherin exerts any restriction on the direct cell-cell spread of HIV across intercellular contacts remains controversial. Here we analyse the restriction endogenous Tetherin imposes on HIV transmission from primary human macrophages, one of the main targets of HIV in vivo. We find that the mRNA and protein levels of Tetherin in macrophages are comparable to those in T cells from the same donors, and are highly upregulated by type I interferons. Improved immunocytochemistry protocols enable us to demonstrate that Tetherin localises to the cell surface, the trans-Golgi network, and the macrophage HIV assembly compartments. Tetherin retains budded virions in the assembly compartments, thereby impeding the release and cell-free spread of HIV, but it is not required for the maintenance of these compartments per se. Notably, using a novel assay to quantify cell-cell spread, we show that Tetherin promotes the transfer of virus clusters from macrophages to T cells and thereby restricts the direct transmission of a dual-tropic HIV-1. Kinetic analyses provide support for the notion that this direct macrophage-T cell spread is mediated, at least in part, by so-called virological synapses. Finally, we demonstrate that the viral Vpu protein efficiently downregulates the cell surface and overall levels of Tetherin, and thereby abrogates this HIV restriction in macrophages. Together, our study shows that Tetherin, one of the most potent HIV restriction factors identified to date, can inhibit virus spread from primary macrophages, regardless of the mode of transmission. PMID:24991932

  5. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

  6. Soluble factors from colonic epithelial cells contribute to gut homeostasis by modulating macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kristek, Maja; Collins, Laura E; DeCourcey, Joseph; McEvoy, Fiona A; Loscher, Christine E

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal macrophages originate from inflammatory blood monocytes which migrate to the intestine, where they differentiate into anti-inflammatory macrophages through a number of transitional stages. These macrophages typically remain hypo-responsive to commensal bacteria and food Ags in the intestine, yet also retain the ability to react to invading pathogens. In this study we examined the role of epithelial cells in inducing this intestinal macrophage phenotype. Using an in vitro system we showed that, in two-dimensional culture, epithelial cell-derived factors from a murine cell line, CMT-93, are sufficient to induce phenotypic changes in macrophages. Exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages, J774A.1, to soluble factors derived from epithelial cells, induced an altered phenotype similar to that of intestinal macrophages with decreased production of IL-12p40, IL-6 and IL-23 and expression of MHC ?? and CD80 following TLR ligation. Furthermore, these conditioned macrophages showed enhanced phagocytic activity in parallel with low respiratory burst and NO production, similar to the response seen in intestinal macrophages. Our findings suggest a role for colonic epithelial cells in modulation of macrophage phenotype for maintenance of gut homeostasis. Further understanding of the cell interactions that maintain homeostasis in the gut could reveal novel therapeutic strategies to restore the balance in disease. PMID:25298104

  7. Reciprocal interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in angiogenic vascular niches

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Caroline; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa, E-mail: arispe@mcdb.ucla.edu [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, CA (United States); De Palma, Michele, E-mail: michele.depalma@epfl.ch [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The ability of macrophages to promote vascular growth has been associated with the secretion and local delivery of classic proangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and proteases). More recently, a series of studies have also revealed that physical contact of macrophages with growing blood vessels coordinates vascular fusion of emerging sprouts. Interestingly, the interactions between macrophages and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) appear to be bidirectional, such that activated ECs also support the expansion and differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages from myeloid progenitors. Here, we discuss recent findings suggesting that dynamic angiogenic vascular niches might also exist in vivo, e.g. in tumors, where sprouting blood vessels and immature myeloid cells like monocytes engage in heterotypic interactions that are required for angiogenesis. Finally, we provide an account of emerging mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication that rely on secreted microvesicles, such as exosomes, which can offer a vehicle for the rapid exchange of molecules and genetic information between macrophages and ECs engaged in angiogenesis. -- Highlights: • Macrophages promote angiogenesis by secreting proangiogenic factors. • Macrophages modulate angiogenesis via cell-to-cell contacts with endothelial cells. • Endothelial cells promote the differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages. • Macrophages and endothelial cells may cooperate to form angiogenic vascular niches.

  8. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimund W Kinne; Bruno Stuhlmüller; Gerd-R Burmester

    2007-01-01

    The multitude and abundance of macrophage-derived mediators in rheumatoid arthritis and their paracrine\\/autocrine effects identify macrophages as local and systemic amplifiers of disease. Although uncovering the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis remains the ultimate means to silence the pathogenetic process, efforts in understanding how activated macrophages influence disease have led to optimization strategies to selectively target macrophages by agents tailored to

  9. Smac mimetics induce inflammation and necrotic tumour cell death by modulating macrophage activity

    PubMed Central

    Lecis, D; De Cesare, M; Perego, P; Conti, A; Corna, E; Drago, C; Seneci, P; Walczak, H; Colombo, M P; Delia, D; Sangaletti, S

    2013-01-01

    Smac mimetics (SMs) comprise a class of small molecules that target members of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of pro-survival proteins, whose expression in cancer cells hinders the action of conventional chemotherapeutics. Herein, we describe the activity of SM83, a newly synthesised dimeric SM, in two cancer ascites models: athymic nude mice injected intraperitoneally with IGROV-1 human ovarian carcinoma cells and immunocompetent BALB/c mice injected with murine Meth A sarcoma cells. SM83 rapidly killed ascitic IGROV-1 and Meth A cells in vivo (prolonging mouse survival), but was ineffective against the same cells in vitro. IGROV-1 cells in nude mice were killed within the ascites by a non-apoptotic, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent mechanism. SM83 administration triggered a rapid inflammatory event characterised by host secretion of TNF, interleukin-1? and interferon-?. This inflammatory response was associated with the reversion of the phenotype of tumour-associated macrophages from a pro-tumoural M2- to a pro-inflammatory M1-like state. SM83 treatment was also associated with a massive recruitment of neutrophils that, however, was not essential for the antitumoural activity of this compound. In BALB/c mice bearing Meth A ascites, SM83 treatment was in some cases curative, and these mice became resistant to a second injection of cancer cells, suggesting that they had developed an adaptive immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that, in vivo, SM83 modulates the immune system within the tumour microenvironment and, through its pro-inflammatory action, leads cancer cells to die by necrosis with the release of high-mobility group box-1. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that SMs could be more therapeutically active than expected by stimulating the immune system. PMID:24232096

  10. Hypoxic macrophages impair autophagy in epithelial cells through Wnt1: relevance in IBD.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Masiá, D; Cosín-Roger, J; Calatayud, S; Hernández, C; Alós, R; Hinojosa, J; Apostolova, N; Alvarez, A; Barrachina, M D

    2014-07-01

    A defective induction of epithelial autophagy may have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. This process is regulated mainly by extracellular factors such as nutrients and growth factors and is highly induced by diverse situations of stress. We hypothesized that epithelial autophagy is regulated by the immune response that in turn is modulated by local hypoxia and inflammatory signals present in the inflamed mucosa. Our results reveal that HIF-1? and Wnt1 were co-localized with CD68 in cells of the mucosa of IBD patients. We have observed increased protein levels of ?-catenin, phosphorylated mTOR, and p62 and decreased expression of LC3II in colonic epithelial crypts from damaged mucosa in which ?-catenin positively correlated with phosphorylated mTOR and negatively correlated with autophagic protein markers. In cultured macrophages, HIF-1 mediated the increase in Wnt1 expression induced by hypoxia, which enhanced protein levels of ?-catenin, activated mTOR, and decreased autophagy in epithelial cells in co-culture. Our results demonstrate a HIF-1-dependent induction of Wnt1 in hypoxic macrophages that undermines autophagy in epithelial cells and suggest a role for Wnt signaling and mTOR pathways in the impaired epithelial autophagy observed in the mucosa of IBD patients. PMID:24301659

  11. 1Autoreactive pre-plasma cells break tolerance in the absence of regulation by dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mileka R.; Wagner, Nikki J.; Jones, Shannon Z.; Wisz, Amanda B.; Roques, Jose R.; Krum, Kristen N.; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Nickeleit, Volker; Hulbert, Chrys; Thomas, James W.; Gauld, Stephen B.; Vilen, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to induce antibody responses to pathogens while maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive cells is an important aspect of immune tolerance. During activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MFs) repress autoantibody production through their secretion of IL-6 and soluble CD40L (sCD40L). These soluble mediators selectively repress B cells chronically exposed to antigen, but not naïve cells, suggesting a means to maintain tolerance during TLR4 stimulation, yet allow immunity. In this study, we identify TNF? as a third repressive factor, which together with IL-6 and CD40L, account for nearly all the repression conferred by DCs and MFs. Like IL-6 and sCD40L, TNF? did not alter B cell proliferation or survival. Rather, it reduced the number of antibody secreting cells. To address whether the soluble mediators secreted by DCs and MFs functioned in vivo, we generated mice lacking IL-6, CD40L and TNF?. Compared to wildtype mice, these mice showed prolonged anti-nuclear antibody responses following TLR4 stimulation. Further, adoptive transfer of autoreactive B cells into chimeric IL-6-/- × CD40L-/- × TNF?-/- mice showed that pre-plasma cells secreted autoantibodies independent of germinal center formation or extrafollicular foci. These data indicate that in the absence of genetic predisposition to autoimmunity, loss of endogenous IL-6, CD40L, and TNF? promotes autoantibody secretion during TLR4 stimulation. PMID:22675201

  12. Liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol induce an M2-like macrophage phenotype reprogrammable to M1 pattern with the involvement of B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Lucatelli Laurindo, María Fernanda; Osugui, Lika; Luzardo, María Del Carmen; López-Requena, Alejandro; Alonso, María Eugenia; Álvarez, Carlos; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario; Pérez, Rolando; Lanio, María Eliana

    2014-06-01

    Macrophages respond to endogenous and non-self stimuli acquiring the M1 or M2 phenotypes, corresponding to classical or alternative activation, respectively. The role of B-1 cells in the regulation of macrophage polarization through the secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 has been demonstrated. However, the influence of B-1 cells on macrophage phenotype induction by an immunogen that suppress their ability to secrete IL-10 has not been explored. Here, we studied the peritoneal macrophage pattern induced by liposomes comprised of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol (Chol) carrying ovalbumin (OVA) (Lp DPPC/OVA), and the involvement of B-1 cells in macrophage polarization. Peritoneal cells from BALB/c, B-1 cells-deficient BALB/xid and C57BL/6 mice immunized with Lp DPPC/OVA and OVA in soluble form (PBS/OVA) were analyzed and stimulated or not in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with Lp DPPC/OVA showed an M2-like phenotype as evidenced by their high arginase activity without LPS stimulation. Upon stimulation, these macrophages were reprogrammable toward the M1 phenotype with the upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) and a decrease in IL-10 secretion. In addition, high IFN-? levels were detected in the culture supernatant of peritoneal cells from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with Lp DPPC/OVA. Nevertheless, still high levels of arginase activity and undetectable levels of IL-12 were found, indicating that the switch to a classical activation state was not complete. In the peritoneal cells from liposomes-immunized BALB/xid mice, levels of arginase activity, NO, and IL-6 were below those from wild type animals, but the last two products were restored upon adoptive transfer of B-1 cells, together with an increase in IFN-? secretion. Summarizing, we have demonstrated that Lp DPPC/OVA induce an M2-like pattern in peritoneal macrophages reprogrammable to M1 phenotype after LPS stimulation, with the involvement of B-1 cells. PMID:24594322

  13. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators.

    PubMed

    Orona, N S; Tasat, D R

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5-200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO? 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO?. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O??). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O?? may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O?? may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium-related diseases. PMID:22561334

  14. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Response to Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Roux, Christelle M.; Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The potent phagocytic and microbicidal activities of neutrophils and macrophages are among the first lines of defense against bacterial infections. Yet Staphylococcus aureus is often resistant to innate immune defense mechanisms, especially when organized as a biofilm. To investigate how S. aureus biofilms respond to macrophages and neutrophils, gene expression patterns were profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The addition of macrophages to S. aureus static biofilms led to a global suppression of the biofilm transcriptome with a wide variety of genes downregulated. Notably, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall synthesis/structure, and transcription/translation/replication were among the most highly downregulated, which was most dramatic at 1 h compared to 24 h following macrophage addition to biofilms. Unexpectedly, few genes were enhanced in biofilms after macrophage challenge. Unlike coculture with macrophages, coculture of S. aureus static biofilms with neutrophils did not greatly influence the biofilm transcriptome. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms differentially modify their gene expression patterns depending on the leukocyte subset encountered. PMID:24042108

  15. Mechanism of Suppression of Cell-Mediated Immunity by Measles Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Karp; Maria Wysocka; Larry M. Wahl; Joseph M. Ahearn; Peter J. Cuomo; Barbara Sherry; Giorgio Trinchieri; Diane E. Griffin

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) accompanying measles are unclear. Interleukin-12 (IL-12), derived principally from monocytes and macrophages, is critical for the generation of CMI. Measles virus (MV) infection of primary human monocytes specifically down-regulated IL-12 production. Cross-linking of CD46, a complement regulatory protein that is the cellular receptor for MV, with antibody or with the

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induces Type-III-Secretion-Mediated Apoptosis of Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN R. HAUSER; JOANNE N. ENGEL

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is cytotoxic towards a variety of eukaryotic cells. To investigate the effect of this bacterium on macrophages, we infected J774A.1 cells and primary bone-marrow-derived murine macrophages with the P. aeruginosa strain PA103 in vitro. PA103 caused type-III-secretion-dependent killing of macrophages withi n2ho finfection. Only a portion of the killing required the putative

  17. Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  18. Ovarian cancer stem-like cells elicit the polarization of M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Cai, Da-Jun; Li, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is a life?threatening disease in females worldwide. The polarization of macrophages is crucial in oncogenesis and the development of ovarian cancer. Increasing evidence has supported the correlation between ovarian cancer stem?like cells (OCSCs) and macrophages, however, whether OCSCs can affect the polarization of macrophages and the underlying mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. To examine the interplay between OCSCs and macrophages, a co?culture system was used to detect the effect of OCSCs on macrophage polarization. The expression of cluster of differentiation 206+ and the secretion of interleukin?10 were significantly increased and the production of tumor necrosis factor?? was suppressed, confirming macrophage polarization to M2 macrophages. Further investigation of the macrophages in a Transwell culture system with OCSCs revealed polarization to the M2 macrophages to a similar extent, indicating that the cytokines of the OCSCs, rather than direct cell?cell contact, are important for the polarization of M2 macrophages. Furthermore, the expression levels of chemokine (C?C motif) ligand (CCL)2, cyclooxygenase (COX)?2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were increased in the Transwell system and the inhibition of COX?2, but not CCL2, significantly decreased the polarization of the M2 macrophages. In addition, mechanistic analysis revealed the importance of the COX?2/PGE2 pathway in OCSCs to activate Janus kinase (JAK) signaling in macrophages to elicit M2 polarization. These findings provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that OCSCs are capable of altering macrophages into the M2 phenotype via the overexpression of COX?2 and the increased production of PGE2 cytokines and that the JAK signaling pathway in macrophages is important for this alteration. The present study provided evidence supporting possible molecular targets for cancer treatment. PMID:25672286

  19. T Regulatory Cells in Primary Immune Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Verbsky, James W.; Chatila, Talal A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the review To summarize studies on the development and function of T regulatory cells in primary immune deficiencies. Recent findings Primary immune deficiencies are associated with high rates of autoimmunity. T regulatory (TR) cells, which are critical to the control of autoimmunity, appear involved in the pathogenesis of PID-related autoimmunity. A number of PIDs, including Omenn’s syndrome and Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, have been associated with impaired production and/or function of thymus-derived (natural) TR cells. Recently defined primary immunodeficiencies, including Stim1 deficiency, IL-10 receptor deficiency, and xIAP deficiency, have been associated with defects in TR cells. De novo generated TR cells from peripheral CD4+ conventional T cells is impaired in the hyper IgE syndrome. Summary Gene defects underlying PIDs may also compromise the TR cell, leading to breakdown of peripheral tolerance. PMID:21986549

  20. Activated Human Mast Cells Induce LOX-1-Specific Scavenger Receptor Expression in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Lappalainen, Jani; Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). Results Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?1), which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell –induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages. Conclusions Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-?, and TGF-?1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis. PMID:25250731

  1. ENGULFMENT OF APOPTOTIC CELLS BY MACROPHAGES: A ROLE OF MICRO-RNA-21 IN THE RESOLUTION OF WOUND INFLAMMATION1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amitava; Ganesh, Kasturi; Khanna, Savita; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY At an injury-site, efficient clearance of apoptotic cells by wound macrophages or efferocytosis is a pre-requisite for the timely resolution of inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that miR-21 may regulate the inflammatory response. In this work, we sought to elucidate the significance of miR-21 in the regulation of efferocytosis mediated suppression of innate immune response, a key process implicated in resolving inflammation following injury. An increased expression of inducible miR-21 was noted in post-efferocytotic peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Such induction of miR-21 was associated with silencing of its target genes PTEN and PDCD4. Successful efferocytosis of apoptotic cells by MDM resulted in the suppression of LPS-induced NF-?B activation and TNF? expression. Interestingly, bolstering of miR-21 levels alone using miR mimic resulted in significant suppression of LPS-induced TNF? expression and NF?B activation. We report that efferocytosis-induced miR-21, by silencing PTEN and GSK3?, tempers LPS-induced inflammatory response. Macrophage efferocytosis is known to trigger the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. This study demonstrates that following successful efferocytosis, miR-21 induction in macrophages silence PDCD4 favoring cJun-AP1 activity which in turn results in elevated production of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In summary, this work provides direct evidence implicating miRNA in the process of turning-on an anti-inflammatory phenotype in the post-efferocytotic macrophage. Elevated macrophage miR-21 promotes efferocytosis and silences target genes PTEN and PDCD4 which in turn accounts for a net anti-inflammatory phenotype. Findings of this study highlight the significance of miRNAs in the resolution of wound inflammation. PMID:24391209

  2. Human bronchoalveolar macrophage cytotoxicity for cultured human lung-tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Swinburne, S.; Moore, M.; Cole, P.

    1982-01-01

    Human bronchoalveolar macrophages were separated from other free lung cells by density sedimentation on Percoll gradients. They were then tested for cytotoxicity against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, using a Selenomethionine-75 post-labelling assay. The cytotoxicity of the macrophages increased as the effector:target cell ratio was increased, approaching 100% at 20:1. There was no significant difference in the cytotoxicity of macrophages isolated from the lungs of bronchial-carcinoma or non-carcinoma patients. The highly cytotoxic nature of the macrophages was not due to selection of a more potent cytotoxic subpopulation of macrophages on the Percoll gradient, nor to a generally elevated activation of the macrophages due to the pathological conditions in the patients' lungs. An attempt to determine whether low concentrations of macrophages could potentiate target-cell growth proved negative. Cytotoxicity of macrophages for cultured lung target cells was not restricted to A549 cells and is not in accordance with the view that defective bronchoalveolar macrophage cytotoxicity contributes to the emergence of bronchial neoplasia. PMID:7138768

  3. Regulation of angiogenesis, mural cell recruitment and adventitial macrophage behavior by Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Aplin, Alfred C; Ligresti, Giovanni; Fogel, Eric; Zorzi, Penelope; Smith, Kelly; Nicosia, Roberto F

    2014-01-01

    The angiogenic response to injury can be studied by culturing rat or mouse aortic explants in collagen gels. Gene expression studies show that aortic angiogenesis is preceded by an immune reaction with overexpression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-inducible genes. TLR1, 3, and 6 are transiently upregulated at 24 h whereas TLR2, 4, and 8 expression peaks at 24 h but remains elevated during angiogenesis and vascular regression. Expression of TLR5, 7 and 9 steadily increases over time and is highest during vascular regression. Studies with isolated cells show that TLRs are expressed at higher levels in aortic macrophages compared to endothelial or mural cells with the exception of TLR2 and TLR9 which are more abundant in the aortic endothelium. LPS and other TLR ligands dose dependently stimulate angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor production. TLR9 ligands also influence the behavior of nonendothelial cell types by blocking mural cell recruitment and inducing formation of multinucleated giant cells by macrophages. TLR9-induced mural cell depletion is associated with reduced expression of the mural cell recruiting factor PDGFB. The spontaneous angiogenic response of the aortic rings to injury is reduced in cultures from mice deficient in myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), a key adapter molecule of TLRs, and following treatment with an inhibitor of the NF?B pathway. These results suggest that the TLR system participates in the angiogenic response of the vessel wall to injury and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory angiogenesis in reactive and pathologic processes. PMID:24091496

  4. Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice

    PubMed Central

    Derecki, Noel C.; Quinnies, Kayla M.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    It was recently shown that adaptive immunity plays a key role in cognitive function. T cells appear to be major players in learning and memory; thus, mice devoid of functional T cells are impaired in performance of cognitive tasks such as Morris Water Maze (MWM), Barnes maze and others. This is a reversible phenomenon; injection of immune deficient mice with T cells from wild type counterparts improves their cognitive function. Recently we described a critical role for T cell-derived IL-4 as having beneficial effects on learning and memory through regulation of meningeal myeloid cell phenotype. In the absence of IL-4, meningeal myeloid cells acquire a pro-inflammatory skew. Thus, the presence of IL-4 in the meningeal spaces maintains a delicate balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory myeloid cell phenotype. Here we show that macrophages alternatively activated in vitro (M2 cells) can circumvent the need for ‘pro-cognitive’ T cells when injected intravenously into immune deficient mice. These results show for the first time that M2 myeloid cells are new and unexpected players in cognitive function, conferring beneficial effects on learning and memory without adaptive immune influence. These results might lead to development of new therapeutic approaches for cognitive pathologies associated with malfunction of adaptive immunity, such as chemo-brain, age-related dementia, HIV-dementia, and others. PMID:21093578

  5. Embryonic Stem Cells Promoting Macrophage Survival and Function are Crucial for Teratoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianxiang; Wang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Wu, Mingmei; Duan, Zhaoxia; Lv, Jing; Tai, Wenjiao; Renganathan, Hemamalini; Didier, Ruth; Li, Jinhua; Sun, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoming; He, Xijing; Fan, Jianqing; Young, Wise; Ren, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigenic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34, which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2, and TNF-?, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to inhibit teratoma development would increase the safety of ESC-based therapies, inasmuch as the depletion of macrophages completely inhibits ESC-induced angiogenesis and teratoma development. PMID:25071759

  6. Targeting colon cancer cell NF-?B promotes an anti-tumour M1-like macrophage phenotype and inhibits peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A E; Colleran, A; O'Gorman, A; O'Flynn, L; Pindjacova, J; Lohan, P; O'Malley, G; Nosov, M; Mureau, C; Egan, L J

    2015-03-19

    In a model of peritoneal metastasis in immune-competent mice, we show that nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibition in CT26 colon cancer cells prevents metastasis. NF-?B inhibition, by stable overexpression of I?B-? super-repressor, induced differential polarization of co-cultured macrophages to an M1-like anti-tumour phenotype in vitro. NF-?B-deficient cancer cell-conditioned media (CT26/I?B-? SR) induced interleukin (IL)-12 and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (inducible NO synthase (iNOS)) expression in macrophages. Control cell (CT26/EV) conditioned media induced high levels of IL-10 and arginase in macrophages. In vivo, this effect translated to reduction in metastasis in mice injected with CT26/ I?B-? SR cells and was positively associated with increased CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) and CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effector T cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B activity induced high levels of NO in infiltrating immune cells and decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, simultaneous with increases in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 within tumours. CT26/I?B-? SR tumours displayed increased pro-inflammatory gene expression, low levels of angiogenesis and extensive intratumoral apoptosis, consistent with the presence of an anti-tumour macrophage phenotype. Macrophage depletion reduced tumour size in CT26/EV-injected animals and increased tumour size in CT26/I?B-? SR cells compared with untreated tumours. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that an important implication of targeting tumour cell NF-?B is skewing of macrophage polarization to an anti-tumour phenotype. This knowledge offers novel therapeutic opportunities for anticancer treatment. PMID:24704833

  7. Cell-intrinsic lysosomal lipolysis is essential for macrophage alternative activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Everts, Bart; Ivanova, Yulia; O'Sullivan, David; Nascimento, Marcia; Smith, Amber M.; Beatty, Wandy; Love-Gregory, Latisha; Lam, Wing Y.; O'Neill, Christina M.; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong; Abumrad, Nada A.; Urban, Joseph F.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Pearce, Erika L.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative (M2) macrophage activation driven through interleukin 4 receptor ? (IL-4R?) is important for immunity to parasites, wound healing, the prevention of atherosclerosis and metabolic homeostasis. M2 polarization is dependent on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), but the source of fatty acids to support this metabolic program has not been clear. We show that the uptake of triacylglycerol substrates via CD36 and their subsequent lipolysis by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) was important for the engagement of elevated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), enhanced spare respiratory capacity (SRC), prolonged survival and expression of genes that together define M2 activation. Inhibition of lipolysis suppressed M2 activation during infection with a parasitic helminth, and blocked protective responses against this pathogen. Our findings delineate a critical role for cell-intrinsic lysosomal lipolysis in M2 activation. PMID:25086775

  8. Immune Suppression by Myeloid Cells in HIV Infection: New Targets for Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Vyboh, Kishanda; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Over thirty years of extensive research has not yet solved the complexity of HIV pathogenesis leading to a continued need for a successful cure. Recent immunotherapy-based approaches are aimed at controlling the infection by reverting immune dysfunction. Comparatively less appreciated than the role of T cells in the context of HIV infection, the myeloid cells including macrophages monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils contribute significantly to immune dysfunction. Host restriction factors are cellular proteins expressed in these cells which are circumvented by HIV. Guided by the recent literature, the role of myeloid cells in HIV infection will be discussed highlighting potential targets for immunotherapy. HIV infection, which is mainly characterized by CD4 T cell dysfunction, also manifests in a vicious cycle of events comprising of inflammation and immune activation. Targeting the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1), an important regulator of T cell function; with PD-L1 expressed mainly on myeloid cells could bring promising results. Macrophage functional polarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 and vice versa has significant implications in viral pathogenesis. Neutrophils, recently discovered low density granular cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and yolk sac macrophages provide new avenues of research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence. Recent evidence has also shown significant implications of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), antimicrobial peptides and opsonizing antibodies. Further studies aimed to understand and modify myeloid cell restriction mechanisms have the potential to contribute in the future development of more effective anti-HIV interventions that may pave the way to viral eradication. PMID:25624956

  9. A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages from normal

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Leah

    A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages head: Phagocytosis and digestion by NOD mice macrophages Corresponding author: Leah Edelstein, thus quantifying kinetics of uptake and digestion of apoptotic cells in both mouse strains (Mar´ee et

  10. Characterization of macrophage - cancer cell crosstalk in estrogen receptor positive and triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollmén, Maija; Roudnicky, Filip; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity may broadly influence the activation of tumor-associated macrophages. We aimed to dissect how breast cancer cells of different molecular characteristics contribute to macrophage phenotype and function. Therefore, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing of human monocytes that were co-cultured with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) or triple-negative (TNBC) breast cancer cell lines and studied the biological responses related to the differential gene activation in both monocytes and cancer cells by pathway analysis. ER+ and TNBC cancer cell lines induced distinctly different macrophage phenotypes with different biological functions, cytokine and chemokine secretion, and morphology. Conversely, ER+ and TNBC breast cancer cell lines were distinctly influenced by the presence of macrophages. ER+ cells demonstrated up-regulation of an acute phase inflammatory response, IL-17 signaling and antigen presentation pathway, whereas thioredoxin and vitamin D3 receptor pathways were down-regulated in the respective macrophages. The TNBC educated macrophages down-regulated citrulline metabolism and differentiated into M2-like macrophages with increased MMR protein expression and CCL2 secretion. These data demonstrate how different cancer cells educate the host cells to support tumor growth and might explain why high infiltration of macrophages in TNBC tumors associates with poor prognosis. PMID:25776849

  11. Ebola virus: The role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Bray; Thomas W. Geisbert

    2005-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe viral infection characterized by fever, shock and coagulation defects. Recent studies in macaques show that major features of illness are caused by effects of viral replication on macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected macrophages produce proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tissue factor, attracting additional target cells and inducing vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  12. Inability of normal human intestinal macrophages to form multinucleated giant cells in response to cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Fais; F Pallone

    1995-01-01

    Multinucleated giant cells are an important feature of the granulomatous reaction in Crohn's disease (CD) but their cellular origin is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to discover if intestinal macrophages are capable of generating multinucleated giant cells in vitro in response to cytokine stimulation. Human intestinal macrophages were isolated from the intestinal mucosa of CD and uninflamed

  13. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. Methods To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. Results GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. Conclusions This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism. PMID:24739187

  14. Label-free proteomics and systems biology analysis of mycobacterial phagosomes in dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingbo; Singh, Christopher R.; Ma, Shuyi; Price, Nathan D.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics has been applied to study intracellular bacteria and phagocytic vacuoles in different host cell lines, especially macrophages (M?s). For mycobacterial phagosomes, few studies have identified over several hundred proteins for systems assessment of the phagosome maturation and antigen presentation pathways. More importantly, there has been a scarcity in publication on proteomic characterization of mycobacterial phagosomes in dendritic cells (DCs). In this work, we report a global proteomic analysis of M? and DC phagosomes infected with a virulent, an attenuated, and a vaccine strain of mycobacteria. We used label-free quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics tools to decipher the regulation of phagosome maturation and antigen presentation pathways in M?s and DCs. We found that the phagosomal antigen presentation pathways are repressed more in DCs than in M?s. The results suggest that virulent mycobacteria might co-opt the host immune system to stimulate granuloma formation for persistence while minimizing the antimicrobial immune response to enhance mycobacterial survival. The studies on phagosomal proteomes have also shown promise in discovering new antigen presentation mechanisms that a professional antigen presentation cell might use to overcome the mycobacterial blockade of conventional antigen presentation pathways. PMID:21413810

  15. Recruitment of dendritic cells and macrophages during T cell-mediated synovial inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahin Moghaddami; Leslie G Cleland; Gorjana Radisic; Graham Mayrhofer

    2007-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of adjuvant-induced arthritis was used in this study to examine local macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) during T cell-mediated synovial inflammation. We studied the influx of CD11b+CD11c+ putative myeloid DCs and other non-lymphoid CD45+ cells into synovium-rich tissues (SRTs) of the affected hind paws in response to a pulse of autoreactive thoracic duct cells. Cells were prepared from

  16. n-3 Fatty acids uniquely affect anti-microbial resistance and immune cell plasma membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, David N.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that dietary lipids are incorporated into macrophage and T-cell membrane microdomains, altering their structure and function. Within cell membranes, there are specific detergent-resistant domains in which key signal transduction proteins are localized. These regions are classified as “lipid rafts”. Rafts are composed mostly of cholesterol and sphingolipids and therefore do not integrate well into the fluid phospholipid bilayers causing them to form microdomains. Upon cell activation, rafts compartmentalize signal-transducing molecules, thus providing an environment conducive to signal transduction. In this review, we discuss recent novel data describing the effects of n-3 PUFA on alterations in the activation and functions of macrophages and T-cells. We believe that the modifications in these two disparate immune cell types are linked by fundamentally similar changes in membrane lipid composition and transmembrane signaling functions. We conclude that the outcomes of n-3 PUFA-mediated immune cell alterations may be beneficial (e.g., anti-inflammatory) or detrimental (e.g., loss of microbial immunity) depending upon the cell type interrogated. PMID:21798252

  17. Fine tuning inflammation at the front door: macrophage complement receptor 3-mediates phagocytosis and immune suppression for Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shipan; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Curry, Heather M; Leander, Rachel; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2013-01-01

    Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation, and increased MKP-1, which limits TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. These data indicate that while the highly virulent F. tularensis uses CR3 for efficient uptake, optimal engagement of this receptor down-regulates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting MAPK activation through outside-in signaling. CR3-linked immune suppression is an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of F. tularensis infection. PMID:23359218

  18. Fine Tuning Inflammation at the Front Door: Macrophage Complement Receptor 3-mediates Phagocytosis and Immune Suppression for Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Heather M.; Leander, Rachel; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation, and increased MKP-1, which limits TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. These data indicate that while the highly virulent F. tularensis uses CR3 for efficient uptake, optimal engagement of this receptor down-regulates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting MAPK activation through outside-in signaling. CR3-linked immune suppression is an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of F. tularensis infection. PMID:23359218

  19. Therapeutic Immunization with HIV-1 Tat Reduces Immune Activation and Loss of Regulatory T-Cells and Improves Immune Function in Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J.; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent or partial in the OBS population. These findings support the use of Tat immunization to intensify HAART efficacy and to restore immune homeostasis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00751595 PMID:21085635

  20. Detection of fluorescent nanoparticle interactions with primary immune cell subpopulations by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gamucci, Olimpia; Bertero, Alice; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Bardi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are endowed with very promising properties for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This work describes a fast and reliable method of analysis by flow cytometry to study nanoparticle interaction with immune cells. Primary immune cells can be easily purified from human or mouse tissues by antibody-mediated magnetic isolation. In the first instance, the different cell populations running in a flow cytometer can be distinguished by the forward-scattered light (FSC), which is proportional to cell size, and the side-scattered light (SSC), related to cell internal complexity. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled antibodies against specific cell surface receptors permit the identification of several subpopulations within the same sample. Often, all these features vary when cells are boosted by external stimuli that change their physiological and morphological state. Here, 50 nm FITC-SiO2 nanoparticles are used as a model to identify the internalization of nanostructured materials in human blood immune cells. The cell fluorescence and side-scattered light increase after incubation with nanoparticles allowed us to define time and concentration dependence of nanoparticle-cell interaction. Moreover, such protocol can be extended to investigate Rhodamine-SiO2 nanoparticle interaction with primary microglia, the central nervous system resident immune cells, isolated from mutant mice that specifically express the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Finally, flow cytometry data related to nanoparticle internalization into the cells have been confirmed by confocal microscopy. PMID:24747480

  1. Detection of Fluorescent Nanoparticle Interactions with Primary Immune Cell Subpopulations by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gamucci, Olimpia; Bertero, Alice; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Bardi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are endowed with very promising properties for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This work describes a fast and reliable method of analysis by flow cytometry to study nanoparticle interaction with immune cells. Primary immune cells can be easily purified from human or mouse tissues by antibody-mediated magnetic isolation. In the first instance, the different cell populations running in a flow cytometer can be distinguished by the forward-scattered light (FSC), which is proportional to cell size, and the side-scattered light (SSC), related to cell internal complexity. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled antibodies against specific cell surface receptors permit the identification of several subpopulations within the same sample. Often, all these features vary when cells are boosted by external stimuli that change their physiological and morphological state. Here, 50 nm FITC-SiO2 nanoparticles are used as a model to identify the internalization of nanostructured materials in human blood immune cells. The cell fluorescence and side-scattered light increase after incubation with nanoparticles allowed us to define time and concentration dependence of nanoparticle-cell interaction. Moreover, such protocol can be extended to investigate Rhodamine-SiO2 nanoparticle interaction with primary microglia, the central nervous system resident immune cells, isolated from mutant mice that specifically express the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Finally, flow cytometry data related to nanoparticle internalization into the cells have been confirmed by confocal microscopy. PMID:24747480

  2. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-? production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term detrimental effects on the immune system of the offspring and these effects are to some extent sex-specific. -- Highlights: ? Prenatal exposure to Cd causes no thymocyte phenotype changes in the offspring ? Analysis of the splenocyte phenotype demonstrates a macrophage-specific effect only in male offspring ? The cytokine profiles suggest an effect on peripheral Th1 cells in female and to a lesser degree in male offspring ? There was a marked increase in serum anti-streptococcal antibody levels after immunization in both sexes ? There was a marked decrease in the numbers of splenic CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} cells in both sexes.

  3. Immune suppression in cancer: Effects on immune cells, mechanisms and future therapeutic intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa L. Whiteside

    2006-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the healthy immune system is necessary for control of malignant disease and that immune suppression associated with cancer contributes to its progression. Tumors have developed strategies to successfully evade the host immune system, and various molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for tumor evasion have been identified. Certain of these mechanisms target immune anti-tumor effector cells. Dysfunction and

  4. Development of human dendritic cells and their role in HIV infection: antiviral immunity versus HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Muhsen, Mahmod

    2013-01-01

    Although dendritic cells (DCs) represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccines. However, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC–T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC–T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology, antiviral immune responses and DC restriction factors, all of which will be important issues for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future. PMID:23847602

  5. Francisella novicida Pathogenicity Island Encoded Proteins Were Secreted during Infection of Macrophage-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens and other organisms have evolved mechanisms to exploit host cells for their life cycles. Virulence genes of some intracellular bacteria responsible for these mechanisms are located in pathogenicity islands, such as secretion systems that secrete effector proteins. The Francisella pathogenicity island is required for phagosomal escape, intracellular replication, evasion of host immune responses, virulence, and encodes a type 6 secretion system. We hypothesize that some Francisella novicida pathogenicity island proteins are secreted during infection of host cells. To test this hypothesis, expression plasmids for all Francisella novicida FPI-encoded proteins with C-terminal and N-terminal epitope FLAG tags were developed. These plasmids expressed their respective epitope FLAG-tagged proteins at their predicted molecular weights. J774 murine macrophage-like cells were infected with Francisella novicida containing these plasmids. The FPI proteins expressed from these plasmids successfully restored the intramacrophage growth phenotype in mutants of the respective genes that were deficient for intramacrophage growth. Using these expression plasmids, the localization of the Francisella pathogenicity island proteins were examined via immuno-fluorescence microscopy within infected macrophage-like cells. Several Francisella pathogenicity island encoded proteins (IglABCDEFGHIJ, PdpACE, DotU and VgrG) were detected extracellularly and they were co-localized with the bacteria, while PdpBD and Anmk were not detected and thus remained inside bacteria. Proteins that were co-localized with bacteria had different patterns of localization. The localization of IglC was dependent on the type 6 secretion system. This suggests that some Francisella pathogenicity island proteins were secreted while others remain within the bacterium during infection of host cells as structural components of the secretion system and were necessary for secretion. PMID:25158041

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sailaja, Gangadhara [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Skountzou, Ioanna [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Quan, Fu-Shi [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Compans, Richard W. [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Kang, Sang-Moo [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: skang2@emory.edu

    2007-06-05

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses.

  7. Hemoglobin Directs Macrophage Differentiation and Prevents Foam Cell Formation in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Aloke V.; Nakano, Masataka; Polavarapu, Rohini; Karmali, Vinit; Saeed, Omar; Zhao, XiaoQing; Yazdani, Saami; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Davis, Talina; Habib, Anwer; Narula, Jagat; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine selective macrophage differentiation occurring in areas of intraplaque hemorrhage in human atherosclerosis. Background Macrophage subsets are recognized in atherosclerosis but the stimulus for and importance of differentiation programs remains unknown. Methods We used freshly isolated human monocytes, a rabbit model, and human atherosclerotic plaques to analyze macrophage differentiation in response to hemorrhage. Results Macrophages characterized by high expression of both mannose and CD163 receptors preferentially exist in atherosclerotic lesions at sites of intraplaque hemorrhage. These hemoglobin (Hb)-stimulated macrophages, M(Hb), are devoid of neutral lipids typical of foam cells. In vivo modeling of hemorrhage in the rabbit model demonstrated that sponges exposed to red cells showed an increase in mannose receptor positive macrophages only when these cells contained hemoglobin (Hb). Cultured human monocytes exposed to hemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes (Hb:Hp), but not IL-4, expressed the M(Hb) phenotype and were characterized by their resistance to cholesterol loading and upregulation of ABC transporters. M(Hb) demonstrated increased ferroportin (FPN) expression, reduced intracellular iron, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Degradation of FPN using hepcidin increased ROS, inhibited ABCA1 expression, and cholesterol efflux to ApoAI, suggesting reduced ROS triggers these effects. Knockdown of liver x receptor alpha (LXR?) inhibited ABC transporter expression in M(Hb) and macrophages differentiated in the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase. Lastly, liver X receptor ? (LXR) luciferase reporter activity was increased in M(Hb) and significantly reduced by overnight treatment with hepcidin. Collectively, these data suggest reduced ROS triggers LXR? activation and macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Conclusions Hb is a stimulus for macrophage differentiation in human atherosclerotic plaques. A reduction of macrophage intracellular iron plays an important role in this non- foam cell phenotype by reducing ROS, which drives transcription of ABC transporters through activation of LXR?. Reduction of macrophage intracellular iron may be a promising avenue to increase macrophage RCT. PMID:22154776

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EQUINE MACROPHAGE CELL LINE: APPLICATION TO STUDIES OF EIAV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Fidalgo-Carvalho, Isabel; Craigo, Jodi K.; Barnes, Shannon; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    EIAV is a monocyte/macrophage tropic virus. To date, even though EIAV has been under investigation for numerous years, very few details have been elucidated about EIAV/macrophage interactions. This is largely due to the absence of an equine macrophage cell line that would support viral replication. Herein we describe the spontaneous immortalization and generation of a clonal equine macrophage-like (EML) cell line with the functional and immunophenotype characteristics of differentiated equine monocyte derived macrophage(s) (eMDM(s)). These cells possess strong non-specific esterase (NSE) activity, are able to phagocytose fluorescent bioparticles, and produce nitrites in response to LPS. The EML-3C cell line expresses the EIAV receptor for cellular entry (ELR1) and supports replication of the virulent EIAVPV biological clone. Thus, EML-3C cells provide a useful cell line possessing equine macrophage related properties for the growth and study of EIAV infection as well as of other equine macrophage tropic viruses. PMID:19038510

  9. Studying the role of macrophages in circulating prostate cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-12-01

    Metastasis is a very complicated multi-step process and accounts for the low survival rate of the cancerous patients. To metastasize, the malignant cells must detach from the primary tumor and migrate to secondary sites in the body through either blood or lymph circulation. Macrophages appear to be directly involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of macrophages in affecting cancer metastasis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we have utilized an emerging technique, namely in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) to study the depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells in mice and how depletion of macrophages by the liposome-encapsulated clodronate affects the depletion kinetics. Our results show different depletion kinetics of PC-3 cells between macrophage-deficient group and the control group. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in macrophage-deficient group decreases in a slower manner compared to the control mice group. The differences in depletion kinetics indicate that the absence of macrophages facilitates the stay of prostate cancer cells in circulation. We speculate that macrophages might be able to arrest, phagocytose and digest PC-3 cells. Therefore, the phagocytosis may mainly contribute to the depletion kinetic differences. The developed methods here would be useful to study the relationship between macrophages and tumor metastasis in small animal cancer model.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL, CELL-BASED CHEMICAL SCREEN TO IDENTIFY INHIBITORS OF INTRAPHAGOSOMAL LIPOLYSIS IN MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    VanderVen, Brian C.; Hermetter, Albin; Huang, Amy; Maxfield, Fredrick R; Russell, David G; Yates, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in tissue homeostasis and the immune system. Their primary function is to internalize cellular debris and microorganisms for degradation within their phagosomes. In this context, their capacity to process and sequester lipids such as triacylglycerides and cholesteryl esters makes them key players in circulatory diseases such as atheroclerosis. To discover new inhibitors of lipolytic processing within the phagosomal system of the macrophage we have developed a novel, cell-based assay suitable for high-throughput screening. We employed particles carrying a fluorogenic triglyceride substrate and a calibration fluor to screen for inhibitors of phagosomal lipolysis. A panel of secondary assays were employed to discriminate between lipase inhibitors and compounds that perturbed general phagosomal trafficking events. This process enabled us to identify a new structural class of pyrazole-methanone compounds that directly inhibit lysosomal and lipoprotein lipase activity. PMID:20653015

  11. Macrophages increase microparticle uptake by enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, Siobhan M; Morris, John F; Carr, Katharine E

    2010-01-01

    Caco-2 cells form an enterocyte-like monolayer that has been used to explore small intestinal microparticle uptake. They are a useful functional model for the investigation of in vivo drug delivery systems and the uptake of particulate environmental pollutants. The aim of this paper was to determine if the previously reported decrease in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance following exposure to macrophages was matched by increased microparticle uptake, especially as macrophage phagocytosis simulates removal of particles from the subepithelial compartment. Caco-2 cells were grown as a monoculture for 21 days on insert membranes. A compartmentalised model involved Caco-2 cells in the upper compartment, with THP-1-derived macrophages adhering to the base of the underlying well, the two cell populations communicating only through the shared culture medium. Caco-2 cells were also cultured in macrophage-conditioned medium and all groups were exposed apically to 2 ?m latex particles for 5 or 60 min. Parameters measured were: transepithelial resistance; cytokine levels; cell dimensions and the distribution of nuclei, actin and junctional proteins. Subepithelial particle numbers, defined as those located below the insert membrane, were also counted and were significantly increased in the Caco-2/macrophage model, with over 90% associated with the macrophages. Other changes induced by the presence of macrophages included decreased transepithelial resistance levels, diffuse localisation of some junctional proteins, higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, disorganisation of cell shape and decreased cell height associated with actin reorganisation. Macrophage-conditioned medium produced a smaller transepithelial resistance decrease than the Caco-2/macrophage model and there were few other changes. In conclusion, culture of Caco-2 cells with underlying macrophages produced a lower, less organised epithelium and greater microparticle uptake. PMID:20880316

  12. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy reverses macrophage and dendritic cell passivity in murine melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Xiaolong; Gu, Chuanwen; Gao, Zhongxiuzi; Cao, Wenwu; Zheng, Jinhua

    2014-09-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) uses a combination of sonosensitizing drugs and low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound to cause apoptosis and autophagy of tumor cells. However, its effects on the tumor microenvironment, especially on the immune state, remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the transformation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the tumor microenvironment during 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated SDT in mice transplanted with B16F10 melanomas. Tumor growth and mouse weight were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to evaluate tumor morphology to quantify the anti-tumor efficacy of 5-ALA-mediated SDT. We investigated anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment by immunocytochemical staining of CD68, CD163, CD80, CD86, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon ? (IFN-?). Tumor growth was restrained by 5-ALA-mediated SDT in B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. CD68 levels increased and CD163 decreased, indicating that M2 macrophages were converted to the M1 phenotype in the tumor. The increase in CD80 and CD86 showed that DCs in the tumor microenvironment tend to mature after SDT treatment. The cytokines INF-?, TNF-? and IL-10 significantly increased in SDT. Application of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound alone also led to similar trends in our study, but combined treatment with 5-ALA yielded a change. The original stabilized immune state in the tumor microenvironment can be interrupted by low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound combined with 5-ALA, which enhanced the pro-inflammatory response and reversed the passive properties of macrophages and dendritic cells. PMID:25023114

  13. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. III. Macrophage resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of hamsters to microwave (MW) energy (2.45 GHz, 25 mW/cm2, 1 h) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages (PM) to a viricidal state restricting the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The PM from MW-exposed hamsters were viricidal as early as 1 day after exposure and remained active for 5 days. Immunization of hamsters with vaccinia virus induced viricidal PM by 3 to 4 days and they remained active for 7 days. To test the hypothesis that thermogenic MW exposure results in the release of endotoxin across the intestinal epithelium which subsequently activates PM, hamsters were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their viricidal activity was studied. Lipopolysaccharide in vitro (0.2 microgram) and in vivo (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages to a viricidal state. When administered in vivo, LPS (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages as early as 1 day and the activity remained for 3 days. While MW exposure of PM in vitro failed to induce viricidal activity, exposure of PM to LPS in vitro induced strong viricidal activity. This suggests that the in vivo response of PM to MW is an indirect one, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MW-induced PM viricidal activity may be mediated via LPS. In preliminary experiments, MW exposure resulted in extended survival time for hamsters challenged with a lethal dose of vesicular stomatitis virus, supporting the concept that MW-activated PM may be a useful therapeutic modality.

  14. TLR9 and RIG-I Signaling in Human Endocervical Epithelial Cells Modulates Inflammatory Responses of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Ameya; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved to recognize invading pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).Among PRRs, Toll like receptors (TLRs 3, 7/8,9) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) have been shown to recognize viral components. Mucosal immune responses to viral infections require coordinated actions from epithelial as well as immune cells. In this respect, endocervical epithelial cells (EEC's) play an important role in initiating innate immune responses via PRRs. It is unknown whether EEC's can alter immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC's) like its counterparts in intestinal and respiratory systems. In this study, we show that endocervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7) express two key receptors, TLR9 and RIG-I involved in anti-viral immunity. Stimulation of End1/E6E7 cells lead to the activation of NF-?B and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8. Polarized End1/E6E7 cells responded to apical stimulation with ligands of TLR9 and RIG-I, CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL respectively, without compromising End1/E6E7 cell integrity. At steady state, spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells significantly reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from LPS treated human primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) and DC:T cell co-cultures. Spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells stimulated with ligands of TLR9/RIG-I restored secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as enhanced phagocytosis and chemotaxis of monocytic U937 cells. Spent medium from CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL stimulated End1/E6E7 cells showed significant increased secretion of IL-12p70 from DC:T cell co-cultures. The anti-inflammatory effect of spent media of End1/E6E7 cell was observed to be TGF-? dependent. In summary, the results of our study indicate that EEC's play an indispensable role in modulating anti-viral immune responses at the female lower genital tract. PMID:24409285

  15. TLR9 and RIG-I signaling in human endocervical epithelial cells modulates inflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Ameya; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved to recognize invading pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).Among PRRs, Toll like receptors (TLRs 3, 7/8,9) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) have been shown to recognize viral components. Mucosal immune responses to viral infections require coordinated actions from epithelial as well as immune cells. In this respect, endocervical epithelial cells (EEC's) play an important role in initiating innate immune responses via PRRs. It is unknown whether EEC's can alter immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC's) like its counterparts in intestinal and respiratory systems. In this study, we show that endocervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7) express two key receptors, TLR9 and RIG-I involved in anti-viral immunity. Stimulation of End1/E6E7 cells lead to the activation of NF-?B and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8. Polarized End1/E6E7 cells responded to apical stimulation with ligands of TLR9 and RIG-I, CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL respectively, without compromising End1/E6E7 cell integrity. At steady state, spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells significantly reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from LPS treated human primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) and DC:T cell co-cultures. Spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells stimulated with ligands of TLR9/RIG-I restored secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as enhanced phagocytosis and chemotaxis of monocytic U937 cells. Spent medium from CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL stimulated End1/E6E7 cells showed significant increased secretion of IL-12p70 from DC:T cell co-cultures. The anti-inflammatory effect of spent media of End1/E6E7 cell was observed to be TGF-? dependent. In summary, the results of our study indicate that EEC's play an indispensable role in modulating anti-viral immune responses at the female lower genital tract. PMID:24409285

  16. Imaging macrophages with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Pittet, Mikael J.

    2014-02-01

    Nanomaterials have much to offer, not only in deciphering innate immune cell biology and tracking cells, but also in advancing personalized clinical care by providing diagnostic and prognostic information, quantifying treatment efficacy and designing better therapeutics. This Review presents different types of nanomaterial, their biological properties and their applications for imaging macrophages in human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, diabetes and other conditions. We anticipate that future needs will include the development of nanomaterials that are specific for immune cell subsets and can be used as imaging surrogates for nanotherapeutics. New in vivo imaging clinical tools for noninvasive macrophage quantification are thus ultimately expected to become relevant to predicting patients' clinical outcome, defining treatment options and monitoring responses to therapy.

  17. Molecular Cloning of CD68, a Human Macrophage Marker Related to Lysosomal Glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire L. Holness; David L. Simmons

    1993-01-01

    ISSUE MACROPHAGES are derived from cells of the T mononuclear phagocytic system, and are thought to represent the end-stage of differentiation of circulating monocytes.' Macrophages are widely distributed throughout the body and display great structural and functional heter- ogeneity, reflecting conditions within their local environment. Tissue macrophages are involved in many immune functions, the most significant being phagocytosis of foreign

  18. HIV-1-suppressive factors are secreted by CD4+ T cells during primary immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Sayed F.; Cocchi, Fiorenza; Bagley, Kenneth C.; Kamin-Lewis, Roberta; Gallo, Robert C.; DeVico, Anthony; Lewis, George K.

    2003-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are required for immunity against many viral infections, including HIV-1 where a positive correlation has been observed between strong recall responses and low HIV-1 viral loads. Some HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells are preferentially infected with HIV-1, whereas others escape infection by unknown mechanisms. One possibility is that some CD4+ T cells are protected from infection by the secretion of soluble HIV-suppressive factors, although it is not known whether these factors are produced during primary antigen-specific responses. Here, we show that soluble suppressive factors are produced against CXCR4 and CCR5 isolates of HIV-1 during the primary immune response of human CD4+ T cells. This activity requires antigenic stimulation of naïve CD4+ T cells. One anti-CXCR4 factor is macrophage-derived chemokine (chemokine ligand 22, CCL22), and anti-CCR5 factors include macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (CCL3), macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (CCL4), and RANTES (regulated upon activation of normal T cells expressed and secreted) (CCL5). Intracellular staining confirms that CD3+CD4+ T cells are the source of the prototype HIV-1-inhibiting chemokines CCL22 and CCL4. These results show that CD4+ T cells secrete an evolving HIV-1-suppressive activity during the primary immune response and that this activity is comprised primarily of CC chemokines. The data also suggest that production of such factors should be considered in the design of vaccines against HIV-1 and as a mechanism whereby the host can control infections with this virus. PMID:14657379

  19. Tumor-Altered Dendritic Cell Function: Implications for Anti-Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hargadon, Kristian M.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity. PMID:23874338

  20. cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.

    E-print Network

    Morante, Silvia

    cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Both classes of T cells express cell-surface, antibodylike receptors, encoded by genes that are assembled from multiple gene segments during T cell

  1. Formation of short-lived multinucleated giant cells (MGCS) from cultured gilthead seabream macrophages.

    PubMed

    Couso, Norma; Castro, Rosario; Noya, Manuel; Obach, Alex; Lamas, Jesús

    2002-07-01

    Monocytes/macrophages obtained from the head kidney and peritoneal cavity of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were cultured using plates from three different manufacturers, and were maintained under different conditions. The effects on the morphology and fusion of monocytes/macrophages of initial cell loading, removal of non-adherent cells at different times after plating, and addition of serum and antibiotics were evaluated by light microscopy, and transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Despite variations in adherence, the behaviour and the morphological changes in kidney monocytes/macrophages were similar in all three types of plates. When foetal calf serum (FCS) was added to the incubation medium, most of the cells resembling monocytes/macrophages were connected by cytoplasmic extensions that formed bridges after 24 hr in culture. After 30 hr, the monocytes/macrophages started to fuse, forming multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) which gradually increased in size until the culture was 4-5 days old. After 5 days the MGCs started to die, and after a week most had disappeared from the cultures. Cells incubated with medium without serum showed changes similar to those fed with FCS, but some cells survived for 3 weeks. The addition of fish serum to the medium appeared to accelerate all processes: the monocytes/macrophages and MGCs died after 3 days in culture. Antibiotics had no apparent effect on the cultures. Removal of non-adherent cells at different times after plating did not appear to affect cell fusion. Coating the wells with extracellular matrix proteins reduced adherence but did not inhibit cell fusion. Curiously, not all macrophages fused with MGCs, and, unlike MGCs, these macrophages phagocytosed sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Peritoneal macrophages also fused and formed MGCs in culture, similarly to kidney cells. PMID:12115269

  2. Inflammatory macrophages in pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia and initiation of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Storz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The roles of inflammatory macrophages in pancreatic tissue and the development of pancreatic cancer have not been well characterized. Recently it was shown that inflammatory macrophages, besides their function in clearing dead cells, also initiate pancreatic acinar cell metaplasia to duct-like progenitor cells. While in pancreatitis this is a reversible process, in context of an oncogenic stimulus this process is irreversible and can lead to the formation of precancerous lesions. Recent work now indicates that acquisition of an activating Kras mutation in acinar cells initiates signaling that leads to chemoattraction of M1-poliarized macrophages. This oncogene-caused chronic microinflammation can accelerate the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancers.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate experimental asthma by inducing polarization of alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolian; Xie, Shuanshuan; Lu, Kun; Wang, Changhui

    2015-04-01

    The reparative and immunoregulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have made them attractive candidates for cellular therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of the effects of transplanted MSCs on allergic asthma remains elusive. Here, we show that administration of MSCs isolated from human bone marrow provoked a pronounced polarization in alveolar macrophages to M2 subtypes, rather than induced an increase in the total macrophage number, and efficiently inhibited hallmark features of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic accumulation. Moreover, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling pathway appeared to mediate the effects of MSCs on macrophage polarization and subsequently the inhibition of hallmark features of asthma. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling was sufficient to inhibit the macrophage polarization in response to MSCs and consequently reserved the inhibitory effects of macrophage polarization on hallmark features of asthma. Collectively, our data demonstrate that human MSCs have immunosuppressive activity on asthma, which is mediated by TGF-?-signaling-dependent alveolar macrophage polarization. PMID:24958014

  4. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Marion; Quillay, Héloïse; Madec, Yoann; El Costa, Hicham; Cannou, Claude; Marlin, Romain; de Truchis, Claire; Rahmati, Mona; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Menu, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-?, whereas only dMs released IL-1?, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface. PMID:25071732

  5. HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the maturation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Muthumani, Karuppiah; Hwang, Daniel S; Choo, Andrew Y; Mayilvahanan, Shanmugam; Dayes, Nathanael S; Thieu, Khanh P; Weiner, David B

    2005-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vpr encodes a 14 kDa protein that has been implicated in viral pathogenesis through in vitro modulation of several host cell functions. Vpr modulates cellular proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis and host cell transcription in a manner that involves the glucocorticoid pathway. To better understand the role of HIV-1 Vpr in host gene expression, approximately 9600 cellular RNA transcripts were assessed for their modulation in primary APC after treatment with a bioactive recombinant Vpr (rVpr) by DNA micro-array. As an extracellular delivered protein, Vpr down-modulated the expression of several immunologically important molecules including CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 costimulatory molecules on MDM (monocyte-derived macrophage) and MDDC (monocyte-derived dendritic cells). Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) is known to result in a decreased capacity to produce HIV due to a post-entry block of the HIV-1 replicative cycle. Based on the changes observed in the gene array, we analyzed maturation of DC generated from monocytes in tissue culture as influenced by Vpr. We observed that Vpr-treated immature MDM and MDDC were unable to acquire high levels of costimulatory molecules and failed to develop into mature DC, even in the presence of maturation signals. These studies have importance for understanding the interaction of HIV with the host immune system. PMID:15611322

  6. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Malcolm B; Guo, Chunxiao; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F

    2014-09-01

    Production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (hCAP18/LL-37), is regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and is critical in the killing of pathogens by innate immune cells. In addition, secreted LL-37 binds extracellular receptors and modulates the recruitment and activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Evidence suggests that during infections activated immune cells locally produce increased levels of 1,25D3 thus increasing production of hCAP18/LL-37. The relative expression levels of hCAP18/LL-37 among different immune cell types are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in human peripheral blood immune cells and determine to what extent 1,25D3 increased its expression in peripheral blood-derived cells. We show for the first time, a hierarchy of expression of hCAP18 in freshly isolated cells with low levels in lymphocytes, intermediate levels in monocytes and the highest levels found in neutrophils. In peripheral blood-derived cells, the highest levels of hCAP18 following treatment with 1,25D3 were in macrophages, while comparatively lower levels were found in GM-CSF-derived dendritic cells and osteoclasts. We also tested whether treatment with parathyroid hormone in combination with 1,25D3 would enhance hCAP18 induction as has been reported in skin cells, but we did not find enhancement in any immune cells tested. Our results indicate that hCAP18 is expressed at different levels according to cell type and lineage. Furthermore, potent induction of hCAP18 by 1,25D3 in macrophages and dendritic cells may modulate functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells at sites of infection. PMID:24565560

  7. Plasmid vaccine expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor attracts infiltrates including immature dendritic cells into injected muscles.

    PubMed

    Haddad, D; Ramprakash, J; Sedegah, M; Charoenvit, Y; Baumgartner, R; Kumar, S; Hoffman, S L; Weiss, W R

    2000-10-01

    Plasmid-encoded GM-CSF (pGM-CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, little is known about how pGM-CSF enhances immunogenicity. We now report that pGM-CSF injected into mouse muscle leads to a local infiltration of potential APCs. Infiltrates reached maximal size on days 3 to 5 after injection and appeared in several large discrete clusters within the muscle. Immunohistological studies in muscle sections from mice injected with pGM-CSF showed staining of cells with the macrophage markers CD11b, Mac-3, IA(d)/E(d) and to the granulocyte marker GR-1 from day 1 through day 14. Cells staining with the dendritic cell marker CD11c were detected only on days 3 to 5. Muscles injected with control plasmids did not stain for CD11c but did stain for CD11b, Mac-3, IA(d)/E(d), and GR-1. No staining was observed with the APC activation markers, B7.1 or CD40, or with markers for T or B cells. These findings are consistent with the infiltrating cells in the pGM-CSF-injected muscles being a mixture of neutrophils, macrophages, and immature dendritic cells and suggest that the i.m. APCs may be enhancing immune responses to coinjected plasmid Ags. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that 1) separation of injections with pGM-CSF and Ag-expressing plasmid into different sites did not enhance immune responses and 2) immune enhancement was associated with the presence of CD11c+ cells in the infiltrates. Thus, pGM-CSF enhancement may depend on APC recruitment to the i.m. site of injection. PMID:11034382

  8. DC-SIGN Induction in Alveolar Macrophages Defines Privileged Target Host Cells for

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DC-SIGN Induction in Alveolar Macrophages Defines Privileged Target Host Cells for Mycobacteria JL, Charles P, et al. (2005) DC-SIGN induction in alveolar macrophages defines privileged target host the original author and source are credited. Abbreviations: BAL, broncho- alveolar lavage; CR, complement

  9. An Essential Regulatory Role for Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in T-Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bacher; Christine N. Metz; Thierry Calandra; Katrin Mayer; Jason Chesney; Michael Lohoff; Diethard Gemsa; Thomas Donnelly; Richard Bucala

    1996-01-01

    The protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was one of the first cytokines to be discovered and was described 30 years ago to be a T-cell-derived factor that inhibited the random migration of macrophages in vitro. A much broader role for MIF has emerged recently as a result of studies that have demonstrated it to be released from

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cell death and aggravates neurologic deficits after experimental stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R Inácio; Karsten Ruscher; Lin Leng; Richard Bucala; Tomas Deierborg

    2011-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to tissue demise and functional recovery after stroke. We studied the involvement of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in cell death and development of neurologic deficits after experimental stroke. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is upregulated in the brain after cerebral ischemia, and disruption of the Mif gene in mice leads to a smaller infarct volume and better

  11. Aggregated LDL and lipid dispersions induce lysosomal cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophage foam cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn E. Griffin; Jody C. Ullery; Brian E. Cox; W. Gray Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions accumulate substantial cholesterol stores within large, swollen lysosomes. Previous studies with mildly oxidized low den- sity lipoprotein (OxLDL)-treated THP-1 macrophages sug- gest an initial buildup of free cholesterol (FC), followed by an inhibition of lysosomal cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolysis and a subsequent lysosomal accumulation of unhydrolyzed lipoprotein CE. We examined whether other potential sources

  12. Unusual trafficking pattern of Bartonella henselae -containing vacuoles in macrophages and endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre A. Kyme; Albert Haas; Martin Schaller; Andreas Peschel; Jon Iredell; Volkhard A. J. Kempf

    Summary Bartonella henselae , the agent of cat-scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders in humans, is a fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, whose interaction with macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs) is crucial in the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, little is known about the subcellular com- partment in which B. henselae resides. Two hours after infection of murine macrophages and human ECs,

  13. PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE IN GRAFTED CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Norman W.; Simonsen, Morten

    1967-01-01

    The primary immune response elicited by host antigens in a grafted population of immunologically competent cells has been compared in conditions where the same dose of parental cells were grafted simultaneously to F1 hybrid embryos of 13 or 17 days of age. The enlarged chimeric spleens harvested 4 days later were analyzed for donor cell proliferation by using the sex chromosomes as karyological markers, and for proliferation of immunological activity by means of transfer to secondary hosts of the same genotype. Whereas the total number of dividing donor cells were on the average 16 times higher in 17-day than in 13-day hosts, the recovery of immunological reactivity showed a 6- to 7-fold difference in the opposite direction. The experiments cast doubt on the proposition that cellular proliferation is necessary for development of a primary immune response. They suggest that there exists an alternative way in which a primary immune response may unfold from involving a few to involving a much larger number of cells. PMID:6025322

  14. The Antiviral Effect of High-Molecular Weight Poly-Gamma-Glutamate against Newcastle Disease Virus on Murine Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Talactac, Melbourne; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Hojin; Chowdhury, Mohammed Y. E.; Kim, Chul Joong

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the capacity of HM-?-PGA treatment to significantly protect murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cells) against NDV infection. Such protection can be explained by the induction of antiviral state of HM-?-PGA in RAW 264.7 cells via TLR4-mediated IRF-3, IRF-7, IFN-?, and IFN-related gene induction as shown in time-dependent changes in mRNA expression confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, the present research also showed that HM-?-PGA can induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW 264.7 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, our findings suggest that HM-?-PGA can be a potential antiviral substance that can inhibit NDV infection through its stimulation of antiviral state on RAW 264.7 cells. These results have been consistent with the previous studies showing that HM-?-PGA can protect RAW 264.7 cells and mice against influenza infection. However, it should be noted that although murine macrophage cells are susceptible to NDV, they are not the natural host cells of the virus; thus further in vivo and in vitro studies involving chicken and chicken immune cells are needed to fully assess the efficacy and applicability of HM-?-PGA in the poultry industry. PMID:25610463

  15. Mast cell functions in the innate skin immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Metz; Frank Siebenhaar; Marcus Maurer

    2008-01-01

    Mast cells are not only potent effector cells in allergy, but are also important players in protective immune responses against pathogens. Most of our knowledge about mast cells in innate immunity is derived from models of sepsis, whereas their role in innate immune responses of the skin has largely been neglected in the past. Their particular pattern of distribution in

  16. Splenic B cells from Hymenolepis diminuta-infected mice ameliorate colitis independent of T cells and via cooperation with macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Wang, Arthur; Fernando, Maria R; Graepel, Rabea; Leung, Gabriella; van Rooijen, Nico; Sigvardsson, Mikael; McKay, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites provoke multicellular immune responses in their hosts that can suppress concomitant disease. The gut lumen-dwelling tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, unlike other parasites assessed as helminth therapy, causes no host tissue damage while potently suppressing murine colitis. With the goal of harnessing the immunomodulatory capacity of infection with H. diminuta, we assessed the putative generation of anti-colitic regulatory B cells following H. diminuta infection. Splenic CD19(+) B cells isolated from mice infected 7 [HdBc(7(d))] and 14 d (but not 3 d) previously with H. diminuta and transferred to naive mice significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-, oxazolone-, and dextran-sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Mechanistic studies with the DNBS model, revealed the anti-colitic HdBc(7(d)) was within the follicular B cell population and its phenotype was not dependent on IL-4 or IL-10. The HdBc(7(d)) were not characterized by increased expression of CD1d, CD5, CD23, or IL-10 production, but did spontaneously, and upon LPS plus anti-CD40 stimulation, produce more TGF-? than CD19(+) B cells from controls. DNBS-induced colitis in RAG1(-/-) mice was inhibited by administration of HdBc(7(d)), indicating a lack of a requirement for T and B cells in the recipient; however, depletion of macrophages in recipient mice abrogated the anti-colitic effect of HdBc(7(d)). Thus, in response to H. diminuta, a putatively unique splenic CD19(+) B cell with a functional immunoregulatory program is generated that promotes the suppression of colitis dominated by TH1, TH2, or TH1-plus-TH2 events, and may do so via the synthesis of TGF-? and the generation of, or cooperation with, a regulatory macrophage. PMID:25452561

  17. IRF3 polymorphisms induce different innate anti-Theiler's virus immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Tyler C. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln (United States); Al-Salleeh, Fahd M. [Endodontics, University of Nebraska Medical Center (United States); Brown, Deborah M. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska Lincoln (United States); Petro, Thomas M., E-mail: tpetro@unmc.edu [Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska Lincoln (United States); Departments of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Persistent viral infections can lead to disease such as myocarditis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infects macrophages of SJL/J (H-2s) mice establishing persistent infections leading to demyelinating disease. In contrast macrophages from B10.S (H-2s) mice clear TMEV. Activation of the transcription factor IRF3 induces IFN{beta}, ISG56, and apoptosis for viral clearance, but also inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL6, which contribute to disease. Here we identify polymorphisms in the IRF3 of SJL/J versus B10.S mice that are located in DNA binding, nuclear localization, and autoinhibitory domains. SJL-IRF3 expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells with or without TMEV infection decreased IL-23p19 promoter activity compared with B10S-IRF3. In contrast SJL-IRF3 increased IL-6, ISG56 and IFN{beta} in response to TMEV. B10S-IRF3 expression augmented apoptotic caspase activation and decreased viral RNA in TMEV-infected macrophages while SJL-IRF3 increased viral replication with less caspase activation. Therefore IRF3 polymorphisms contribute to viral persistence and altered cytokine expression.

  18. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 Reduces Cell Adhesion and Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Liu; Asne R. Bauskin; John Zaunders; David A. Brown; Susan Pankurst; Pamela J. Russell; Samuel N. Breit

    2010-01-01

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor- superfamily, is linked to the pathogenesis of cancer. To delineate possible roles for MIC-1 in prostate cancer, a number of prostate epithelial cell lines have been studied, including PZ-HPV-7, DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP cells. Factors regulating the production of MIC-1 protein by these cells and some of

  19. IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Roch, Toralf; Lampropoulou, Vicky; O'Connor, Richard A; Stervbo, Ulrik; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Ries, Stefanie; Dang, Van Duc; Jaimes, Yarúa; Daridon, Capucine; Li, Rui; Jouneau, Luc; Boudinot, Pierre; Wilantri, Siska; Sakwa, Imme; Miyazaki, Yusei; Leech, Melanie D; McPherson, Rhoanne C; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus; Hoehlig, Kai; Meinl, Edgar; Grützkau, Andreas; Grün, Joachim R; Horn, Katharina; Kühl, Anja A; Dörner, Thomas; Bar-Or, Amit; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Anderton, Stephen M; Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-03-20

    B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens. Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation of immunity. Mice in which only B cells did not express IL-35 lost their ability to recover from the T-cell-mediated demyelinating autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, these mice displayed a markedly improved resistance to infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as shown by their superior containment of the bacterial growth and their prolonged survival after primary infection, and upon secondary challenge, compared to control mice. The increased immunity found in mice lacking IL-35 production by B cells was associated with a higher activation of macrophages and inflammatory T cells, as well as an increased function of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). During Salmonella infection, IL-35- and IL-10-producing B cells corresponded to two largely distinct sets of surface-IgM(+)CD138(hi)TACI(+)CXCR4(+)CD1d(int)Tim1(int) plasma cells expressing the transcription factor Blimp1 (also known as Prdm1). During EAE, CD138(+) plasma cells were also the main source of B-cell-derived IL-35 and IL-10. Collectively, our data show the importance of IL-35-producing B cells in regulation of immunity and highlight IL-35 production by B cells as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune and infectious diseases. This study reveals the central role of activated B cells, particularly plasma cells, and their production of cytokines in the regulation of immune responses in health and disease. PMID:24572363

  20. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  1. Serratia marcescens induces apoptotic cell death in host immune cells via a lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Takano, Shinya; Usui, Kimihito; Suzuki, Kazushi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2012-10-19

    Injection of Serratia marcescens into the blood (hemolymph) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induced the activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), followed by caspase activation and apoptosis of blood cells (hemocytes). This process impaired the innate immune response in which pathogen cell wall components, such as glucan, stimulate hemocytes, leading to the activation of insect cytokine paralytic peptide. S. marcescens induced apoptotic cell death of silkworm hemocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. We searched for S. marcescens transposon mutants with attenuated ability to induce apoptosis of silkworm hemocytes. Among the genes identified, disruption mutants of wecA (a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis), and flhD and fliR (essential genes in flagella synthesis) showed reduced motility and impaired induction of mouse macrophage cell death. These findings suggest that S. marcescens induces apoptosis of host immune cells via lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent motility, leading to the suppression of host innate immunity. PMID:22859304

  2. An MHC Class II Dependent Activation Loop Between Adipose Tissue Macrophages and CD4+ T cells Controls Obesity-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Morris, David L.; DelProposto, Jennifer L.; Geletka, Lynn; Zamarron, Brian; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Meyer, Kevin A.; Singer, Kanakadurga; O'Rourke, Robert W.; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary An adaptive immune response triggered by obesity is characterized by the activation of adipose tissue CD4+ T cells by unclear mechanisms. We have examined if interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and CD4+ T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identifies dynamic antigen dependent interactions between ATMs and T cells in visceral fat. Mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) showed protection from diet-induced obesity. Deletion of MHCII expression in macrophages led to an adipose tissue specific decrease in the effector/memory CD4+ T cells, attenuation of CD11c+ ATM accumulation, and improvement in glucose intolerance by increasing adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Ablation experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of proliferating conventional T cells is dependent on signals from CD11c+ ATMs in obese mice. These studies demonstrate the importance of MHC Class II restricted signals from ATMs that regulate adipose tissue T cell maturation and metainflammation. PMID:25310975

  3. Blood-Borne Macrophage-Neural Cell Interactions Hitchhike Endosome Networks for Cell-Based Nanozyme Brain Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Matthew J.; Suresh, Poornima; Zhao, Yuling; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kadiu, Irena; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Mosley, R. Lee; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Batrakova, Elena V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Macrophage carried nanoformulated catalase (“nanozyme”) attenuates neuroinflammation and protects nigrostriatal neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxication. This is facilitated by effective enzyme transfer from blood borne macrophages to adjacent endothelial cells and neurons leading to the decomposition of reactive oxygen species. Methods We now examine the intra- and intercellular trafficking mechanisms of nanozymes. Results In macrophages, nanozymes are internalized mainly by clathrin mediated endocytosis then traffic to recycling endosomes. The enzyme is subsequently released in exosomes facilitated by bridging conduits. Nanozyme transfer from macrophages to adjacent cells by endocytosis-independent mechanisms diffusing broadly throughout the recipient cells. In contrast, macrophage-free nanozymes are localized in lysosomes following endocytic entry. Conclusion Facilitated transfer of nanozyme from cell to cell can improve neuroprotection against oxidative stress commonly seen during neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:22236307

  4. A macrophage Fc gamma receptor and the mast cell receptor for IgE share an identical subunit.

    PubMed

    Ra, C; Jouvin, M H; Blank, U; Kinet, J P

    1989-10-26

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulins are found on many immune cells and trigger essential functions of the immune defence system. With the exception of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI), these receptors were thought to consist of single polypeptides. Fc epsilon RI is a tetrameric complex of one alpha-subunit, one beta-subunit and two gamma-subunits. Here we report the cloning of a polypeptide identical to the gamma-chains of Fc epsilon RI, from mouse macrophages that do not express this receptor. Biosynthetic labelling and gene transfer together show that these gamma-chains associate with one of the macrophage receptors (Fc gamma RIIa). The human homologue, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), from natural killer cells is also expected to associate with gamma-chains. It is possible that these gamma-chains and the homologous zeta-chains of the T-cell antigen receptor belong to a new family of related proteins which share a common role in the signal transducing pathway. PMID:2529442

  5. Granulocyte–Macrophage Progenitors as Candidate Leukemic Stem Cells in Blast-Crisis CML

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catriona H. M. Jamieson; Laurie E. Ailles; Scott J. Dylla; Manja Muijtjens; Carol Jones; James L. Zehnder; Jason Gotlib; Kevin Li; Markus G. Manz; Armand Keating; Charles L. Sawyers; Irving L. Weissman

    2004-01-01

    methods We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, and megakaryocyte-eryth- roid progenitors from marrow during several phases of CML and from normal marrow. BCR-ABL, b -catenin , and LEF-1 transcripts were compared by means of a quantitative re- verse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay in normal and CML hematopoiet- ic stem cells and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Confocal

  6. T Cells and Macrophages Are Productively Infected at All Stages of SIV infection in Macaques

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    at different stages of infection. Finally, we cocultured semen CD4+ T cells and macrophages with a cell lineSemen CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages Are Productively Infected at All Stages of SIV infection in Macaques Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin1,2,3 , Ce´line Gommet1,2,3 , Aure´lien B. Corneau1,2,3 , Sabrina

  7. A novel isolation method for macrophage-like cells from mixed primary cultures of adult rat liver cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kitani; Takato Takenouchi; Mitsuru Sato; Miyako Yoshioka; Noriko Yamanaka

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient method to obtain macrophage-like cells from the mixed primary cultures of adult rat liver cells. A parenchymal hepatocyte enriched fraction was prepared from adult rat livers and seeded into culture flasks. After 7 to 10days of culture, when most hepatocytes were degenerated or transformed into fibroblastic cells, macrophage-like cells vigorously proliferated on the cell

  8. Regulation of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells by the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Riether, C; Schürch, C M; Ochsenbein, A F

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare, multipotent cells that generate via progenitor and precursor cells of all blood lineages. Similar to normal hematopoiesis, leukemia is also hierarchically organized and a subpopulation of leukemic cells, the leukemic stem cells (LSCs), is responsible for disease initiation and maintenance and gives rise to more differentiated malignant cells. Although genetically abnormal, LSCs share many characteristics with normal HSCs, including quiescence, multipotency and self-renewal. Normal HSCs reside in a specialized microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM), the so-called HSC niche that crucially regulates HSC survival and function. Many cell types including osteoblastic, perivascular, endothelial and mesenchymal cells contribute to the HSC niche. In addition, the BM functions as primary and secondary lymphoid organ and hosts various mature immune cell types, including T and B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages that contribute to the HSC niche. Signals derived from the HSC niche are necessary to regulate demand-adapted responses of HSCs and progenitor cells after BM stress or during infection. LSCs occupy similar niches and depend on signals from the BM microenvironment. However, in addition to the cell types that constitute the HSC niche during homeostasis, in leukemia the BM is infiltrated by activated leukemia-specific immune cells. Leukemic cells express different antigens that are able to activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It is well documented that activated T cells can contribute to the control of leukemic cells and it was hoped that these cells may be able to target and eliminate the therapy-resistant LSCs. However, the actual interaction of leukemia-specific T cells with LSCs remains ill-defined. Paradoxically, many immune mechanisms that evolved to activate emergency hematopoiesis during infection may actually contribute to the expansion and differentiation of LSCs, promoting leukemia progression. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which the immune system regulates HSCs and LSCs. PMID:24992931

  9. Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells. PMID:24098597

  10. Macrophages and Kidney Disease: Macrophages and Immunological Inflammation of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Monocyte derived tissue effector cells, macrophages, are present in large numbers in all forms of kidney disease with inflammation. Their roles in inflammation and the molecular effectors of macrophage function have been difficult to decipher. With the advent of modern genetic tools and mouse models of human disease, great insight into monocyte/macrophage biology has been forthcoming. In this review we will place macrophage study in its historical context, define immunological diseases of the kidney, and broaden its definition to encompass current thinking of the immune response to kidney injury, highlight key advances of the study of monocyte/macrophages in kidney diseases, and identify new therapeutic pathways and targets that hinge around macrophage function. Here we advance the case that targeting macrophage activation and phenotype is leading to new therapies in treatment of many acute and chronic kidney diseases. PMID:20620669

  11. How do immune cells support and shape the brain in health, disease, and aging?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Kipnis, Jonathan; Rivest, Serge; Prat, Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    For decades, several axioms have prevailed with respect to the relationships between the CNS and circulating immune cells. Specifically, immune cell entry was largely considered to be pathological or to mark the beginning of pathology within the brain. Moreover, local inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, were considered similar in their etiology to inflammatory diseases, such as remitting relapsing-multiple sclerosis. The ensuing confusion reflected a lack of awareness that the etiology of the disease as well as the origin of the immune cells determines the nature of the inflammatory response, and that inflammation resolution is an active cellular process. The last two decades have seen a revolution in these prevailing dogmas, with a significant contribution made by the authors. Microglia and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages are now known to be functionally distinct and of separate origin. Innate and adaptive immune cells are now known to have protective/healing properties in the CNS, as long as their activity is regulated, and their recruitment is well controlled; their role is appreciated in maintenance of brain plasticity in health, aging, and chronic neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is now understood that the barriers of the brain are not uniform in their interactions with the circulating immune cells. The implications of these new findings to the basic understanding of CNS repair processes, brain aging, and a wide spectrum of CNS disorders, including acute injuries, Rett syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis, will be discussed. PMID:24198349

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of mouse macrophages activated by coculture with syngeneic sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Olstad, R; Kaplan, G; Seljelid, R

    1982-11-01

    Normal resident peritoneal macrophages from C3D2 (C3H/Tif X DBA/2) F1 mice were activated in vitro by culturing with semisyngeneic tumour cells. The tumour cells originated from a methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma (MC1M) growing in vivo in ascites form. Macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity was evaluated after 5 days of in vitro culture, using five different target cells. Semisyngeneic (L 929), allogeneic (B16 melanoma), and xenogeneic (HeLa) tumour cell lines and normal allogeneic fibroblast cell lines (3T3, 3T6) were tested. The morphology and kinetics of the cytotoxicity reaction were studied by scanning electron microscopy and compared with release of radioactivity from 14C-thymidine-labelled target cells. The activated macrophages were able to kill the semisyngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic tumour cell lines tested under conditions that did not affect normal fibroblasts. The requirement for T cells during activation of the macrophages was also tested. The cytotoxicity decreased markedly when T cells were removed from the macrophage cultures before activation or when macrophages from nude mice were used in the experiments. PMID:6983715

  13. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-?B was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-?B activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  14. THE PRESENCE OF TWO Fc RECEPTORS ON MOUSE MACROPHAGES: EVIDENCE FROM A VARIANT CELL LINE AND DIFFERENTIAL TRYPSIN SENSITIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAY C. UNKELESS

    Massaschusetts 02139) Fc receptors are found on a wide variety of cells including macrophages (1-9), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) ~ (10), B cells (11, 12), some classes of T cells (13), mast cells (14), and herpes virus-infected cells (15). The role the receptors play in the physiology of these cells has not been defined in all cases; however, for the macrophage

  15. Plant extract reduces tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elyse Y. Bissonnette; Léa-Isabelle Proulx; Annie Spahr; Marie France Janelle; Stéphane Dupuis

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major factor responsible for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although the best solution to reduce the incidence of these diseases is to quit smoking, there are still a large number of smokers. Thus, given the immunoregulatory properties of plant extracts, their capacity to reduce tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was

  16. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the inflammatory immune response and rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leilani L. Santos; Eric F. Morand

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. Although the pathogenesis of RA is multifactorial, the contribution of cytokines is undoubtedly pivotal in the progression of the inflammatory process. One cytokine gaining recognition for its importance in inflammation is macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Initially described as a biological activity, a broad range of functions of MIF has

  17. Butyrate affects differentiation, maturation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Millard, A L; Mertes, P M; Ittelet, D; Villard, F; Jeannesson, P; Bernard, J

    2002-01-01

    We studied the in vitro effects of butyric acid on differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (M?) generated from human monocytes. A non-toxic dose of butyrate was shown to alter the phenotypic differentiation process of DC as assessed by a persistence of CD14, and a decreased CD54, CD86 and HLA class II expression. The more immature differentiation stage of treated cells was confirmed further by their increased phagocytic capability, their altered capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-12, and their weak allostimulatory abilities. Butyrate also altered DC terminal maturation, regardless of the maturation inducer, as demonstrated by a strong down-regulation of CD83, a decreased expression of CD40, CD86 and HLA class II. Similarly, butyrate altered M? differentiation, down-regulating the expression of the restricted membrane antigens and reducing the phagocytic capacity of treated cells. To investigate further the mechanism by which butyrate hampers the monocyte dual differentiation pathway, we studied the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in combination with butyrate on the phenotypic features of DC. Unlike 1,25(OH)2D3, butyrate inhibited DC differentiation without redirecting it towards M?. Combined treatment gave rise to a new cell subset (CD14high, CD86 and HLA-DRlow) phenotypically distinct from monocytes. These results reveal an alternative mechanism of inhibition of DC and M? differentiation. Altogether, our data demonstrate a novel immune suppression property of butyrate that may modulate both inflammatory and immune responses and support further the interest for butyrate and its derivatives as new immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:12390312

  18. Immune Surveillance of Unhealthy Cells by Natural Killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Alexandre; Raulet, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic and oncogenic insults result in the induction of intrinsic defense mechanisms such as cell death pathways and senescence, and extrinsic pathways that mobilize immune responses to destroy unhealthy cells. Both protective mechanisms presumably evolved to limit the damage these insults could inflict on the host. After viral infection or malignant transformation, unhealthy cells can be directly sensed by natural killer (NK) and some T cells via the activating receptor NKG2D. All NK cells and subsets of T cells express NKG2D. The NKG2D/ligand system represents a major recognition mechanism for detection and elimination of unhealthy cells. Here we discuss different pathways, including stress pathways, that are responsible for cell surface display of ligands for NKG2D, which are self-proteins that are minimally expressed by normal cells. We also discuss new results indicating that efficient elimination of tumor cells that display NKG2D ligands depends on the recruitment of NK cells and other immune cells to the tumor, which can be regulated by distinct mechanisms, including the p53-dependent production of chemokines by senescent tumors. The cooperative effect of pathways that induce the display NKG2D ligands and distinct pathways that mobilize immune cells provides a higher degree of specificity to the NK cell response. PMID:24135717

  19. Immune cell-mediated liver injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Corazza; Anastasia Badmann; Christoph Lauer

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Death of hepatocytes and other hepatic\\u000a cell types is a characteristic feature of several forms of liver injury such as cholestasis, viral hepatitis, drug- or toxin-induced\\u000a injury, and alcohol-induced liver damage. Moreover, irrespectively of the reason, liver injury seems to be facilitated by\\u000a similar immune effector mechanisms

  20. Tenascin-C Produced by Oxidized LDL-Stimulated Macrophages Increases Foam Cell Formation through Toll-like Receptor-4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; He, Yong; Li, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ren, Yingang; Han, Wei; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which both innate and adaptive immunity are involved. Although there have been major advances in the involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD36 in the initiation and development of this disease, detailed mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that tenascin-C (TN-C) can stimulate foam cell formation and this can be inhibited by a TLR4-blocking antibody or CD36 gene silencing. Our results identify TN-C-TLR4 activation as a common molecular mechanism in oxLDL-stimulated foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. In addition, CD36 is the major scavenger receptor responsible for the TN-C-mediated foam cell formation. Taken together, we have identified that TN-C produced by oxLDL-stimulated macrophages increases foam cell formation through TLR4 and scavenger receptor CD36. PMID:22699754

  1. Gene expression changes induced by bismuth in a macrophage cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils E. Magnusson; Agnete Larsen; Jørgen Rungby; Mogens Kruhøffer; Torben F. Ørntoft; Meredin Stoltenberg

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of bismuth by autometallography, cell viability, TUNEL assay and microarray analysis of a macrophage cell line. The cells accumulate bismuth in their lysosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell viability assays show a significant decrease in the number of viable cells related to both bismuth concentrations and exposure time. TUNEL assays after 12 h and

  2. De novo Generation of Cells within Human Nurse Macrophages and Consequences following HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gartner, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Nurse cells are defined as those that provide for the development of other cells. We report here, that in vitro, human monocyte-derived macrophages can behave as nurse cells with functional capabilities that include de novo generation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and a previously unknown small cell with monocytoid characteristics. We named these novel cells “self-renewing monocytoid cells” (SRMC), because they could develop into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of SRMC. SRMC were not detectable in blood. Their transition to nurse behavior was characterized by expression of CD10, a marker of thymic epithelium and bone marrow stroma, typically absent on macrophages. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunostaining for cdc6 expression confirmed DNA synthesis within nurse macrophages. T-cell excision circles were detected in macrophages, along with expression of pre-T-cell receptor alpha and recombination activating gene 1, suggesting that genetic recombination events associated with generation of the T-cell receptor were occurring in these cells. SRMC expressed CCR5, the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 isolates, and were highly susceptible to HIV-1 entry leading to productive infection. While expressing HIV-1, SRMC could differentiate into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of HIV-1-expressing SRMC. The infected nurse macrophage/SRMC cycle could continue in vitro for multiple generations, suggesting it might represent a mechanism whereby HIV-1 can maintain persistence in vivo. HIV-1 infection of nurse macrophages led to a decline in CD4+ T-cell production. There was severe, preferential loss of the CCR5+ CD4+ T-cell subpopulation. Confocal microscopy revealed individual HIV-1-expressing nurse macrophages simultaneously producing both HIV-1-expressing SRMC and non-expressing CD3+ cells, suggesting that nurse macrophages might be a source of latently infected CD4+ T-cells. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed this by demonstrating 10-fold more HIV-1-genome-harboring T-cells, than virus-expressing ones. These phenomena have far-reaching implications, and elicit new perspectives regarding HIV pathogenesis and T-cell and hematopoietic cell development. PMID:22911696

  3. Hemolysin-Positive Enteroaggregative and Cell-Detaching Escherichia coli Strains Cause Oncosis of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Apoptosis of Murine J774 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARMEN FERNANDEZ-PRADA; BEN D. TALL; SIMON E. ELLIOTT; DAVID L. HOOVER; JAMES P. NATARO; MALABI M. VENKATESAN

    Infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and J774 cells (murine macrophage cell line) with several enteroaggregative and cytodetaching Escherichia coli (EAggEC and CDEC, respectively) strains demonstrated that some strains could induce macrophage cell death accompanied by release of lactate dehydrogenase activity and interleukin 1b (IL-1b) into culture supernatants. The mode of cell death differed in the two types of macrophages.

  4. Tumors disable immune cells by using up sugar

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer cells’ appetite for sugar may have serious consequences for immune cell function, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have learned. The scientists found that when they kept sugar away from critical immune cells called T cells, the cells no longer produced interferon gamma, an inflammatory compound important for fighting tumors and some kinds of infection.

  5. IL-4/IL-13-Dependent Alternative Activation of Macrophages but Not Microglial Cells Is Associated with Uncontrolled Cerebral Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Werner; Müller, Uwe; Köhler, Gabriele; Heppner, Frank L.; Blessing, Manfred; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Brombacher, Frank; Alber, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Both interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-13-dependent Th2-mediated immune mechanisms exacerbate murine Cryptococcus neoformans-induced bronchopulmonary disease. To study the roles of IL-4 and IL-13 in cerebral cryptococcosis, IL-4 receptor ?-deficient (IL-4R??/?), IL-4-deficient (IL-4?/?), IL-13-deficient (IL-13?/?), IL-13 transgenic (IL-13T/+), and wild-type mice were infected intranasally. IL-13T/+ mice displayed a higher fungal brain burden than wild-type mice, whereas the brain burdens of IL-4R??/?, IL-4?/?, and IL-13?/? mice were significantly lower as compared with wild-type mice. On infection, 68% of wild-type mice and 88% of IL-13-overexpressing IL-13T/+ mice developed significant cerebral lesions. In contrast, only a few IL-4R??/?, IL-4?/?, and IL-13?/? mice had small lesions in their brains. Furthermore, IL-13T/+ mice harbored large pseudocystic lesions in the central nervous system parenchyma, bordered by voluminous foamy alternatively activated macrophages (aaMphs) that contained intracellular cryptococci, without significant microglial activation. In wild-type mice, aaMphs tightly bordered pseudocystic lesions as well, and these mice, in addition, showed microglial cell activation. Interestingly, in resistant IL-4?/?, IL-13?/?, and IL-4R??/? mice, no aaMphs were discernible. Microglial cells of all mouse genotypes neither internalized cryptococci nor expressed markers of alternative activation, although they displayed similar IL-4R? expression levels as macrophages. These data provide the first evidence of the development of aaMphs in a central nervous system infectious disease model, pointing to distinct roles of macrophages versus microglial cells in the central nervous system immune response against C. neoformans. PMID:19147811

  6. Targeting sortilin in immune cells reduces proinflammatory cytokines and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin B.; Kjolby, Mads; Gunnersen, Stine; Larsen, Jakob V.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Falk, Erling; Nykjaer, Anders; Bentzon, Jacob F.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (SORT1) has been implicated as the causative gene within the locus, as sortilin regulates hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Here we demonstrated that sortilin also directly affects atherogenesis, independent of its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, deletion of Sort1 did not alter plasma cholesterol levels, but reduced the development of both early and late atherosclerotic lesions. We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-?. Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-?, but not of other measured cytokines. Transfer of sortilin-deficient BM into irradiated atherosclerotic mice reduced atherosclerosis and systemic markers of inflammation. Together, these data demonstrate that sortilin influences cytokine secretion and that targeting sortilin in immune cells attenuates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis. PMID:25401472

  7. Lipoprotein in the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus is a major inducer of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Joong; Ahn, Ki Bum; Jeon, Jun Ho; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Finlay, B Brett; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes inflammation at infection sites by inducing various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). To identify the staphylococcal virulence factors contributing to NO production, we compared the ability of ethanol-killed wild-type S. aureus and mutant strains lacking lipoteichoic acid (?ltaS), lipoproteins (?lgt), or d-alanine (?dltA) to stimulate NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and the primary macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice. Wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner but this response was not observed when the cells were stimulated with the ?lgt strain. Moreover, purified lipoproteins triggered NO production in macrophages. Coincident with NO induction, the wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) at both mRNA and protein levels whereas ?lgt failed to induce iNOS protein or mRNA. Transient transfection followed by a reporter gene assay and Western blotting experiments demonstrated that wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains, but not the ?lgt strain, induced substantial activation of NF-?B and STAT1 phosphorylation, both of which are known to be crucial for iNOS expression. Moreover, wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is known to mediate S. aureus-induced innate immunity, whereas the ?lgt strain did not. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoproteins in the cell wall of S. aureus play a major role in the induction of NO production in murine macrophages through activation of the TLR2 receptor. PMID:25600878

  8. Paneth Cell ?-Defensins in Enteric Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, André J.

    2014-01-01

    Paneth cells at the base of small intestinal crypts of Lieberkühn secrete high levels of ?-defensins in response to cholinergic and microbial stimuli. Paneth cell ?-defensins are broad spectrum microbicides that function in the extracellular environment of the intestinal lumen, and they are responsible for the majority of secreted bactericidal peptide activity. Paneth cell ?-defensins confer immunity to oral infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and they are major determinants of the composition of the small intestinal microbiome. In addition to host defense molecules such as ?-defensins, lysozyme, and Pla2g2a, Paneth cells also produce and release proinflammatory mediators as components of secretory granules. Disruption of Paneth cell homeostasis, with subsequent induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, or apoptosis, contributes to inflammation in diverse genetic and experimental mouse models. PMID:21560070

  9. Are Platelets Cells? And if Yes, are They Immune Cells?

    PubMed

    Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Small fragments circulating in the blood were formally identified by the end of the nineteenth century, and it was suggested that they assisted coagulation via interactions with vessel endothelia. Wright, at the beginning of the twentieth century, identified their bone-marrow origin. For long, platelets have been considered sticky assistants of hemostasis and pollutants of blood or tissue samples; they were just cell fragments. As such, however, they were acknowledged as immunizing (to specific HPA and HLA markers): the platelet's dark face. The enlightened face showed that besides hemostasis, platelets contained factors involved in healing. As early as 1930s, platelets entered the arsenal of medicines were transfused, and were soon manipulated to become a kind of glue to repair damaged tissues. Some gladly categorized platelets as cells but they were certainly not fully licensed as such for cell physiologists. Actually, platelets possess almost every characteristic of cells, apart from being capable of organizing their genes: they have neither a nucleus nor genes. This view prevailed until it became evident that platelets play a role in homeostasis and interact with cells other than with vascular endothelial cells; then began the era of physiological and also pathological inflammation. Platelets have now entered the field of immunity as inflammatory cells. Does assistance to immune cells itself suffice to license a cell as an "immune cell"? Platelets prove capable of sensing different types of signals and organizing an appropriate response. Many cells can do that. However, platelets can use a complete signalosome (apart from the last transcription step, though it is likely that this step can be circumvented by retrotranscribing RNA messages). The question has also arisen as to whether platelets can present antigen via their abundantly expressed MHC class I molecules. In combination, these properties argue in favor of allowing platelets the title of immune cells. PMID:25750642

  10. Novel inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor prevent cytokine-induced beta cell death.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Krajnovic, Tamara; Cheng, Kai-Fan; VanPatten, Sonya; He, Mingzhu; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Al-Abed, Yousef; Saksida, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of immune processes and also in apoptosis induction. Elevated MIF expression is detrimental for insulin-producing beta cells and MIF inhibition protected beta cells from several cytotoxic insults such as inflammatory cytokines, high fatty acids or high glucose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate two newly synthesized small molecule MIF inhibitors (K664-1 and K647-1) and to compare them with previously established effects of the prototypical MIF inhibitor, ISO-1. Our results indicate that K664-1 and K647-1 are 160- and 40-fold more effective in inhibition of MIF?s tautomerase activity than ISO-1. Also, new inhibitors confer beta cell protection from cytokine-triggered apoptosis at significantly lower concentrations than ISO-1. Although all three MIF inhibitors inhibit caspase 3 activity, K664-1 and K647-1 suppress pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and up-regulate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA. Finally, all three MIF inhibitors operate through blockade of nitric oxide production stimulated by cytokines. In conclusion, two novel MIF inhibitors are more potent than ISO-1 and operate through inhibition of the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway. We propose that these compounds represent a unique class of anti-MIF antagonists that should be further tested for therapeutic use. PMID:24967533

  11. The In Vitro Immune Modulatory Effect of Bisphenol A on Fish Macrophages via Estrogen Receptor ? and Nuclear Factor-?B Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Bei; Chen, Jingsi; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Minghong; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical. Employing primary macrophages from head kidney of red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the present study aimed to evaluate the immune modulatory effect of BPA and to explore its potential action mechanism associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathways. A dynamic response process was observed in macrophages upon various concentrations of BPA exposure, which significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of macrophages at 0.1, 1, or 10 ?g/L, but instead induced the apoptosis at 100, 1000, and 10?000 ?g/L. A potential pro-inflammatory effect of BPA exposure was suggested, judging from the increased production of nitrite oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS), the induction of interleukin-1? mRNA and protein, as well as NF-?B and other NF-?B-associated immune gene expression. Following BPA coexposure with the ER or NF-?B antagonist, the induction of ROS, ER?, and NF-?B-associated immune gene expression was significantly inhibited, implying interaction between those two pathways. This study thus indicated that low doses of BPA exposure alone could significantly disturb the immune response of fish primary macrophages in vitro, and for the first time revealed the synergistic action of ER? and NF-?B transcription factors in the BPA effect. PMID:25565130

  12. Dendritic Cells in Dengue Virus Infection: Targets of Virus Replication and Mediators of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Harris, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and detect pathogens at sites of entry, such as the skin. In addition to the ability of DCs to control infections directly via their innate immune functions, DCs help to prime adaptive B- and T-cell responses by processing and presenting antigen in lymphoid tissues. Infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes to humans while probing for small blood vessels in the skin. DENV causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans, yet no vaccine or specific therapeutic is currently licensed. Although primary DENV infection confers life-long protective immunity against re-infection with the same DENV serotype, secondary infection with a different DENV serotype can lead to increased disease severity via cross-reactive T-cells or enhancing antibodies. This review summarizes recent findings in humans and animal models about DENV infection of DCs, monocytes, and macrophages. We discuss the dual role of DCs as both targets of DENV replication and mediators of innate and adaptive immunity, and summarize immune evasion strategies whereby DENV impairs the function of infected DCs. We suggest that DCs play a key role in priming DENV-specific neutralizing or potentially harmful memory B- and T-cell responses, and that future DC-directed therapies may help induce protective memory responses and reduce dengue pathogenesis. PMID:25566258

  13. B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages are required to induce an autoreactive CD4 helper T cell response in experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Bieber, Katja; Tiburzy, Benjamin; Chrobok, Navina; Kalies, Kathrin; Shimizu, Atsushi; Leineweber, Sarah; Ishiko, Akira; Vorobyev, Artem; Zillikens, Detlef; Köhl, Jörg; Westermann, Jürgen; Seeger, Karsten; Manz, Rudolf; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2013-09-15

    In autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBD), autoantibodies induce blisters on skin or mucous membranes, or both. Mechanisms of continued autoantibody production and blistering have been well characterized using AIBD animal models. Mechanisms leading to the initial autoantibody production, however, have not been investigated in detail. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an AIBD associated with autoantibodies to type VII collagen (COL7). The majority of EBA patients' sera recognize the noncollagenous domain 1, including the von Willebrand factor A-like domain 2 (vWFA2). In experimental EBA induced by immunization with GST-COL7, disease manifestation depended on the genetic background, a Th1 polarization, and the GST-tag. In this model, nude mice neither produced autoantibodies nor blisters. It has remained uncertain which APC and T cell subsets are required for EBA induction. We established a novel EBA model by immunization with vWFA2 fused to intein (lacking the GST-tag). All tested mouse strains developed autoantibodies, but blisters were exclusively observed in mice carrying H2s. In immunized mice, CD4 T cells specific for vWFA2 were detected, and their induction required presence of B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Anti-vWFA2 autoantibodies located at the lamina densa bound to the dermal side of salt-split skin and induced blisters when transferred into healthy mice. Absence of CD8 T cells at time of immunization had no effect, whereas depletion of CD4 T cells during the same time period delayed autoantibody production and blisters. Collectively, we demonstrate the pathogenic relevance of Abs targeting the vWFA2 domain of COL7 and show the requirement of APC-induced CD4 T cells to induce experimental EBA. PMID:23960233

  14. Activation of mononuclear immune cells in response to staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Y; Ko, H L; Beuth, J; Burrichter, H; Oette, K; Pulverer, G

    1991-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on the activation of mononuclear immune cells. A murine tumor necrosis-like factor (TNF-like) was induced in the sera of CD-1 mice which had been primed with heat/formalin-inactivated Propionibacterium avidum KP-40 and subsequently exposed to LTA extracted from Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain S 1. Monoclonal antibody against murine TNF (anti-TNF) significantly inhibited the cytostatic activity of mice sera against transformed L-929 cells. Freshly isolated lymphocytes did not display interleukin 2 (Il-2) receptors, but receptors were expressed on Con A incubated cells and in significantly higher numbers after coexposure to staphylococcal LTA in vitro. Since the induction of TNF (macrophages) and Il-2 receptors (lymphocytes) represent stimulation of the mononuclear immune system, staphylococcal LTA may be considered to be an immunomodifier. PMID:1741920

  15. Gardiquimod: a Toll-like receptor-7 agonist that inhibits HIV type 1 infection of human macrophages and activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Buitendijk, Maarten; Eszterhas, Susan K; Howell, Alexandra L

    2013-06-01

    Immune response modifiers are being studied as therapeutic agents for viral infections and cancer. These molecules include agonists for the Toll-like receptors (TLR), a family of innate immune receptors. TLR7 and 8, located in cellular endosomes, bind single-stranded RNA characteristic of viral genomes, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways that induce inflammatory cytokines and antiviral innate immune factors. We studied the anti-HIV-1 effects of gardiquimod, a specific TLR7 agonist when used at concentrations below 10 ?M, in macrophages and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Gardiquimod, added prior to or within 2 days after infection with X4, R5, or dual-tropic (R5/X4) strains of HIV-1, significantly reduced infection in these cells. Cocultures of activated PBMCs added to gardiquimod-treated and HIV-1-exposed macrophages demonstrated minimal HIV-1 replication for up to 10 days, suggesting that gardiquimod inhibited activated PBMCs viral amplification from HIV-1-exposed macrophages. Gardiquimod treatment of both activated PBMCs and macrophages induced interferon-alpha (IFN-?) transcription within hours of addition, and sustained IFN-? protein secretion for several days. Treatment of cells with a peptide inhibitor to the MyD88 adaptor protein blocked the induction of IFN-? by gardiquimod, and partially reversed the anti-HIV effects in activated PBMCs. Blocking the IFN-? receptor with a neutralizing antibody also reduced the anti-HIV effect of gardiquimod. Gardiquimod inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, an early step in the life cycle of HIV-1. These findings suggest that gardiquimod, functioning as both an immune system modifier and a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent to block systemic and mucosal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23316755

  16. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  17. Role of TLR-4 in liver macrophage and endothelial cell responsiveness during acute endotoxemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li C. Chen; Ronald E. Gordon; Jeffrey D. Laskin; Debra L. Laskin

    2007-01-01

    Liver macrophages and endothelial cells have been implicated in hepatotoxicity induced by endotoxin (ETX). In these studies, we analyzed the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in the response of these cells to acute endotoxemia. Treatment of control C3H\\/HeOuJ mice with ETX (3 mg\\/kg, i.p.) resulted in increased numbers of activated macrophages in the liver. This was associated with morphological changes

  18. Lowering the Threshold of Lung Innate Immune Cell Activation Alters Susceptibility to Secondary Bacterial Superinfection

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, John; Godlee, Alexandra; Vekaria, Seema; Hilty, Markus; Snelgrove, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background.?Previous studies have shown that the interaction of CD200R, a myeloid inhibitory receptor, with its ligand, CD200, is critical in the control of innate immune activation in the lung. Methods and Results.?Using a mouse model of bacterial superinfection following influenza, we show that an absence of CD200R (a negative regulator highly expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells), restricts commensal and exogenous bacterial invasiveness and completely prevents the mortality observed in wild-type mice. This benefit is due to a heightened innate immune response to influenza virus in cd200r knockout mice that limits immune pathogenesis and viral load. In wild-type mice, apoptotic cells expressing CD200 that we believe contribute to the suppressed innate immune response to bacteria dominate during the resolution phase of influenza-induced inflammation. We also show for the first time the presence of a variety of previously unidentified bacterial species in the lower airways that are significantly adjusted by influenza virus infection and may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease. Conclusions.?The interaction of CD200 with CD200R therefore contributes to the hyporesponsive innate immune state following influenza virus infection that predisposes to secondary bacterial infection, a phenomenon that has the potential for immune modulation. PMID:21881124

  19. Immunization with Leishmania Receptor for Macrophages Protects Mice against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Handman; Graham F. Mitchell

    1985-01-01

    The Leishmania major receptor for macrophages is a lipid-containing glycoconjugate that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody WIC-79.3. When L. major promastigotes were incubated with Fab fragments of WIC-79.3 prior to injection into genetically susceptible mice, their infectivity was decreased. Fab fragments from an irrelevant control antibody of the same class had no effect. The L. major glycolipid was purified

  20. Interaction between Yersinia pestis and the Host Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Li; R. Yang

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian immune system comprises multiple physi- cal, chemical, and cellular components that are traditionally classified as innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immune response is the first line of host defense against pathogens, depending on barrier structures, phagocytic cells (neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)), natural killer (NK) cells, and molecules such as complement proteins, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides.

  1. Dynamics of Salmonella infection of macrophages at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Gog, Julia R; Murcia, Alicia; Osterman, Natan; Restif, Olivier; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Sheppard, Mark; Achouri, Sarra; Wei, Bin; Mastroeni, Pietro; Wood, James L N; Maskell, Duncan J; Cicuta, Pietro; Bryant, Clare E

    2012-10-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a range of diseases. Salmonellae are intracellular parasites of macrophages, and the control of bacteria within these cells is critical to surviving an infection. The dynamics of the bacteria invading, surviving, proliferating in and killing macrophages are central to disease pathogenesis. Fundamentally important parameters, however, such as the cellular infection rate, have not previously been calculated. We used two independent approaches to calculate the macrophage infection rate: mathematical modelling of Salmonella infection experiments, and analysis of real-time video microscopy of infection events. Cells repeatedly encounter salmonellae, with the bacteria often remain associated with the macrophage for more than ten seconds. Once Salmonella encounters a macrophage, the probability of that bacterium infecting the cell is remarkably low: less than 5%. The macrophage population is heterogeneous in terms of its susceptibility to the first infection event. Once infected, a macrophage can undergo further infection events, but these reinfection events occur at a lower rate than that of the primary infection. PMID:22552918

  2. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1998-01-01

    The specific aims of the project were: (1) Application of the NASA bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC). (2) Compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients. (3) Analyze the effectiveness of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in a murine model of experimental fungal disease. Our investigations have provided new insight into DC immunobiology and have led to the development of methodology to evaluate DC in blood of normal donors and patients. Information gained from these studies has broadened our understanding of possible mechanisms involved in the immune dysfunction of space travelers and earth-bound cancer patients, and could contribute to the design of novel therapies to restore/preserve immunity in these individuals. Several new avenues of investigation were also revealed. The results of studies completed during Round 2 are summarized.

  3. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with conventional and optic-spinal forms of multiple sclerosis and neuro-Behçet’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Niino; Akihiko Ogata; Seiji Kikuchi; Kunio Tashiro; Jun Nishihira

    2000-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. It is released by activated T lymphocytes and macrophages and up-regulates the proinflammatory activity of these cells. MIF is required for antigen- and mitogen-driven T cell activation, and stimulates macrophages to release cytokines and nitric oxide. On the basis of the recent

  4. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  5. Macrophage Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Mediates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Vitro in Murine Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Thian Kui; Zheng, Guoping; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Wang, Ying; Lee, Vincent W.S.; Tian, Xinrui; Wang, Yiping; Cao, Qi; Wang, Ya; Harris, David C.H.

    2010-01-01

    As a rich source of pro-fibrogenic growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), macrophages are well-placed to play an important role in renal fibrosis. However, the exact underlying mechanisms and the extent of macrophage involvement are unclear. Tubular cell epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important contributor to renal fibrosis and MMPs to induction of tubular cell EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of macrophages and MMPs to induction of tubular cell EMT. The murine C1.1 tubular epithelial cell line and primary tubular epithelial cells were cultured in activated macrophage-conditioned medium (AMCM) derived from lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages. MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity was detected in AMCM. AMCM-induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells was inhibited by broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), MMP-2/9 inhibitor, and in AMCM after MMP-9 removal by monoclonal Ab against MMP-9. AMCM-induced EMT in primary tubular epithelial cells was inhibited by MMP-2/9 inhibitor. MMP-9 induced tubular cell EMT in both C1.1 cells and primary tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, MMP-9 induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells to an extent similar to transforming growth factor-?. Transforming growth factor-?-induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells was inhibited by MMP-2/9 inhibitor. Our in vitro study provides evidence that MMPs, specifically MMP-9, secreted by effector macrophages can induce tubular cell EMT and thereby contribute to renal fibrosis. PMID:20075196

  6. Ex Vivo Cytosolic Delivery of Functional Macromolecules to Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartoularos, George C.; Eyerman, Alexandra T.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Angin, Mathieu; Sharma, Siddhartha; Poceviciute, Roberta; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Liu, Sophia; Talkar, Tanya; Khan, Omar F.; Addo, Marylyn; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Lieberman, Judy; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies. PMID:25875117

  7. Signal Transduction Induced by Opioids in Immune Cells: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Martin-Kleiner; Tihomir Balog; Jelka Gabrilovac

    2006-01-01

    New data regarding signal transduction triggered by opioid ligands in immune cells are reviewed, and the signal transduction in neuronal cells is documented. Similar signaling pathways are induced by opioids in immune as well as neuronal cells. Opioids altered second messenger cAMP, intracellular calcium, and second messenger-induced kinases in immune cells. Met-enkephalin, preferentially ?-opioid, was bimodally regulated, while ?-opioids inhibited

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Cell Division in Neuroblastoma Cells and Bone Marrow Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sans-Fons, M. Gloria; Sole, Sonia; Sanfeliu, Coral; Planas, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and carry out key functions in cell development, cancer, injury, and regeneration. In addition to its well recognized extracellular action, functional intracellular MMP activity under certain conditions is supported by increasing evidence. In this study, we observed higher gelatinase activity by in situ zymography and increased MMP-9 immunoreactivity in human neuroblastoma cells and in bone marrow macrophages undergoing mitosis compared with resting cells. We studied the pattern of immunoreactivity at the different stages of cell division by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining with different monoclonal antibodies against MMP-9 revealed a precise, dynamic, and well orchestrated localization of MMP-9 at the different stages of cell division. The cellular distribution of MMP-9 staining was studied in relation to that of microtubules. The spatial pattern of MMP-9 immunoreactivity suggested some participation in both the reorganization of the nuclear content and the process of chromatid segmentation. We then used several MMP-9 inhibitors to find out whether MMP-9 might be involved in the cell cycle. These drugs impaired the entry of cells into mitosis, as revealed by flow cytometry, and reduced cell culture growth. In addition, the silencing of MMP-9 expression with small interfering RNA also reduced cell growth. Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular MMP-9 is involved in the process of cell division in neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of macrophages. PMID:20971732

  9. Toxicological studies of semiconductor quantum dots on immune cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricken, James Bryce; Rios, Lynette; Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George David; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2008-11-01

    Nanoengineered materials hold a vast promise of enabling revolutionary technologies, but also pose an emerging and potentially serious threat to human and environmental health. While there is increasing knowledge concerning the risks posed by engineered nanomaterials, significant inconsistencies exist within the current data based on the high degree of variability in the materials (e.g., synthesis method, coatings, etc) and biological test systems (e.g., cell lines, whole organism, etc). In this project, we evaluated the uptake and response of two immune cell lines (RAW macrophage and RBL mast cells) to nanocrystal quantum dots (Qdots) with different sizes and surface chemistries, and at different concentrations. The basic experimental design followed a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial model: two Qdot sizes (Qdot 520 and 620), two surface chemistries (amine 'NH{sub 2}' and carboxylic acid 'COOH'), and three concentrations (0, 1 nM, and 1 {micro}M). Based on this design, the following Qdots from Evident Technologies were used for all experiments: Qdot 520-COOH, Qdot 520-NH{sub 2}, Qdot 620-COOH, and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2}. Fluorescence and confocal imaging demonstrated that Qdot 620-COOH and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2} nanoparticles had a greater level of internalization and cell membrane association in RAW and RBL cells, respectively. From these data, a two-way interaction between Qdot size and concentration was observed in relation to the level of cellular uptake in RAW cells, and association with RBL cell membranes. Toxicity of both RBL and RAW cells was also significantly dependent on the interaction of Qdot size and concentration; the 1 {micro}M concentrations of the larger, Qdot 620 nanoparticles induced a greater toxic effect on both cell lines. The RBL data also demonstrate that Qdot exposure can induce significant toxicity independent of cellular uptake. A significant increase in TNF-{alpha} and decrease in IL-10 release was observed in RAW cells, and suggested that Qdot exposure induced a pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, significant decreases in both TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 releases were observed in RBL cells, which is indicative of a suppressed inflammatory response. The changes in cytokine release observed in RAW and RBL cells were primarily dependent on Qdot concentration and independent of size and surface chemistry. Changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase were observed in RAW, but not RBL cells, suggesting that RAW cells were experiencing oxidative stress induced by Qdot exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that the uptake/association and biomolecular response of macrophage and mast cells is primarily driven by an interaction between Qdot size and concentration. Based on these findings, a more detailed understanding of how size directly impacts cellular interactions and response will be critical to developing predictive models of Qdot toxicity.

  10. T follicular helper cells have distinct modes of migration and molecular signatures in naive and memory immune responses.

    PubMed

    Suan, Dan; Nguyen, Akira; Moran, Imogen; Bourne, Katherine; Hermes, Jana R; Arshi, Mehreen; Hampton, Henry R; Tomura, Michio; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Kelleher, Anthony D; Kaplan, Warren; Deenick, Elissa K; Tangye, Stuart G; Brink, Robert; Chtanova, Tatyana; Phan, Tri Giang

    2015-04-21

    B helper follicular T (Tfh) cells are critical for long-term humoral immunity. However, it remains unclear how these cells are recruited and contribute to secondary immune responses. Here we show that primary Tfh cells segregate into follicular mantle (FM) and germinal center (GC) subpopulations that display distinct gene expression signatures. Restriction of the primary Tfh cell subpopulation in the GC was mediated by downregulation of chemotactic receptor EBI2. Following collapse of the GC, memory T cells persisted in the outer follicle where they scanned CD169(+) subcapsular sinus macrophages. Reactivation and intrafollicular expansion of these follicular memory T cells in the subcapsular region was followed by their extrafollicular dissemination via the lymphatic flow. These data suggest that Tfh cells integrate their antigen-experience history to focus T cell help within the GC during primary responses but act rapidly to provide systemic T cell help after re-exposure to the antigen. PMID:25840682

  11. Toxicity of metallic ions in the lung: effects of alveolar macrophages and alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Castranova, V.; Bowman, L.; Wright, J.R.; Colby, H.; Miles, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates are associated with fossil-fueled power plants, automobile exhausts, metal mining, and metallurgical smelters. Therefore, the possible toxic effects of metals on the lung are of environmental and occupational concern. In this investigation the effects of in vitro exposure to metallic ions on the following parameters were determined: oxygen consumption and membrane integrity of alveolar macrophages and type II cells, and chemiluminescence of zymosan-stimulated alveolar macrophages. Cu/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ exhibited marked toxicity to isolated alveolar macrophages and type II cells, while V/sup 3 +/ exhibited intermediate toxicity. In contrast, short-term in vitro exposure to As/sup 5 +/ and Se/sup 4 +/ had little effect on alveolar macrophages and type II cells. Although the data suggest that exposure to certain metals may be harmful to the lung, the various pulmonary parameters tested in this investigation displsay differing susceptibility to metal exposure. That is, metals are less toxic to alveolar type II cells than to alveolar macrophages. Our data also indicate that chemiluminescence is the most sensitive assay for monitoring the viability of alveolar macrophages, while oxygen consumption is a sensitive assay for type II cells. 34 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals modulate the production of inflammatory mediators and cell viability of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Gyung; Yeon, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Kim, Heejoong; Park, Jong-Il; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Cha, Eun Ji; Park, Hee-Deung; Kang, Hyo Jung; Park, Tae Won; Jeon, Young-Ho; In Park, Young; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Jung, Yong Woo

    2015-04-01

    Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects by comparing nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (RAW cells), a macrophage cell line. Among the EDCs tested, fenitrothion (FTH) inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), resulting in reduced NO production, while treatment with andostenedione (AD), diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), estriol, or molinate decreased production of NO in an iNOS-independent fashion. In contrast, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) increased the production of NO in RAW cells. In addition, AD, DBP, or FTH inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta. Treatment with 17-?-ethynylestradiol, 17-?-estradiol, 4-n-butyl phenol, or alachlor induced apoptosis of RAW cells, while dicyclohexyl phthalate and B(a)P caused cell death in an apoptosis-independent manner. These data suggest that EDCs can influence the immune response to pathogens by modulating the functions of macrophages. PMID:25059213

  13. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzmann, Andrea [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Britta [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Vogt, Carmen [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Feliu, Neus [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Ye Fei [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gabrielsson, Susanne [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Toprak, Muhammet S. [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina [Laboratory for Materials, Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Laurent, Sophie [NMR and Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of General, Organic and Biomedical Chemistry, University of Mons, Mons (Belgium); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Krug, Harald [Laboratory for Materials, Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Muhammed, Mamoun [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Fadeel, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.fadeel@ki.se [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  14. EE: Dendritic cells and the regulation of a granulomatous immune response in the lung

    E-print Network

    To investigate the contribution of dendritic cells (DC) in a pulmonary granulomatous immune response, C57BL/l6 mice, nonimmunized or immunized with purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis, were intravenously injected with PPDcoated Sepharose-4B beads. One and three days later lungs were harvested, granuloma size was measured, and immunolabeled cells in granulomas were counted. On Day 1, granulomas in immunized mice were 3-fold larger and contained more major histocompatibility complex class II ? , CD11c ? DCs than nonimmunized mice. By Day 3, these differences had diminished. In all granulomas MHC class II ? , CD11c ? DCs were in contact with the beads. By in situ hybridization these DCs expressed interleukin (IL)-12 p40 mRNA. MOMA2 ? macrophages were present throughout the granulomas, whereas CD4 ? and CD8 ? ? T cells were localized at the granuloma periphery. DCs isolated from granulomatous lungs at Day 1, and from thoracic lymph nodes (LNs) at Days 1 and 3, stimulated PPD-specific T cell proliferation without exogenously added antigen, indicating that they had acquired bead-bound antigen. By Day 3, however, granuloma DCs presented little antigen, suggesting that newly immigrated DC lacked access to antigen or that antigen uptake/processing was inhibited. RNase protection assays of whole-lung mRNA showed increased interferon-?, IL-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and macrophage inhibitory factor, but no IL-10 mRNA on Days 1 and 3. These observations support the premise that DCs are key in initiating granulomatous cell–mediated immunity. However, factors generated within the granuloma downregulate the antigen presenting function of DC by Day 3 in this experimental model.

  15. Serratia marcescens Suppresses Host Cellular Immunity via the Production of an Adhesion-inhibitory Factor against Immunosurveillance Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Injection of a culture supernatant of Serratia marcescens into the bloodstream of the silkworm Bombyx mori increased the number of freely circulating immunosurveillance cells (hemocytes). Using a bioassay with live silkworms, serralysin metalloprotease was purified from the culture supernatant and identified as the factor responsible for this activity. Serralysin inhibited the in vitro attachment of both silkworm hemocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Incubation of silkworm hemocytes or murine macrophages with serralysin resulted in degradation of the cellular immune factor BmSPH-1 or calreticulin, respectively. Furthermore, serralysin suppressed in vitro phagocytosis of bacteria by hemocytes and in vivo bacterial clearance in silkworms. Disruption of the ser gene in S. marcescens attenuated its host killing ability in silkworms and mice. These findings suggest that serralysin metalloprotease secreted by S. marcescens suppresses cellular immunity by decreasing the adhesive properties of immunosurveillance cells, thereby contributing to bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24398686

  16. The role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in immune ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Gervassi, Ana; Jaspan, Heather; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections. PMID:25165466

  17. The Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Immune Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren; Gervassi, Ana; Jaspan, Heather; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections. PMID:25165466

  18. Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor in Immune Cells Regulates Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated With Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Macia, Laurence; Yulyaningsih, Ernie; Pangon, Laurent; Nguyen, Amy D.; Lin, Shu; Shi, Yan C.; Zhang, Lei; Bijker, Martijn; Grey, Shane; Mackay, Fabienne; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment of activated immune cells into white adipose tissue (WAT) is linked to the development of insulin resistance and obesity, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Y1 receptor signaling in immune cells controls inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. Selective deletion of Y1 receptors in the hematopoietic compartment of mice leads to insulin resistance and inflammation in WAT under high fat–fed conditions. This is accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory marker adiponectin in WAT and an increase of the proinflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). In vitro, activated Y1-deficient intraperitoneal macrophages display an increased inflammatory response, with exacerbated secretion of MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor, whereas addition of neuropeptide Y to wild-type macrophages attenuates the release of these cytokines, this effect being blocked by Y1 but not Y2 receptor antagonism. Importantly, treatment of adipocytes with the supernatant of activated Y1-deficient macrophages causes insulin resistance, as demonstrated by decreased insulin-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt as well as decreased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1. Thus, Y1 signaling in hematopoietic-derived cells such as macrophages is critical for the control of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:23011592

  19. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-02-28

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  20. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  1. Immune?enhancing effect of nano?DNA vaccine encoding a gene of the prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and BALB/c mouse granulocyte?macrophage colony?stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yongzhen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Ximei; Feng, Guohe

    2015-07-01

    Plasmid?encoded granulocyte?macrophage colony?stimulating factor (GM?CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, how GM?CSF enhances immunogenicity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that injection of a plasmid encoding the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and mouse GM?CSF (pJME/GM?CSF) into mouse muscle recruited large and multifocal conglomerates of macrophages and granulocytes, predominantly neutrophils. During the peak of the infiltration, an appreciable number of immature dendritic cells (DCs) appeared, although no T and B?cells was detected. pJME/GM?CSF increased the number of splenic DCs and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) on splenic DC, and enhanced the antigenic capture, processing and presentation functions of splenic DCs, and the cell?mediated immunity induced by the vaccine. These findings suggested that the immune?enhancing effect by pJME/GM?CSF was associated with infiltrate size and the appearance of integrin ?x (CD11c)+cells. Chitosan?pJME/GM?CSF nanoparticles, prepared by coacervation via intramuscular injection, outperformed standard pJME/GM?CSF administrations in DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. This revealed that muscular injection of chitosan?pJME/GM?CSF nanoparticles may enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM?CSF. PMID:25738258

  2. Effect of ferric sorbitol citrate (FSC) administration on NF-kappaB in macrophages and spleen cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Berislav; Kati?, Masa; Hrvaci?, Boska; Zupanovi?, Zeljko; Poljak-Blazi, Marija

    2004-02-01

    Interaction of iron metabolism and the immune system is complex and pathological changes in one system affect the other. Ferric sorbitol citrate (FSC), non-toxic compound of ferric ions with sorbitol and citrate. has immunomodulatory effect in treated mice. We investigated an effect of FSC on NF-kappaB expression/activation in peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells of rats. TNF-alpha concentrations in sera of control and FSC intraperitoneal (i.p.) treated Wistar rats were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages (PM) were counted and splenocytes were isolated. PM and splenocytes were lysed and their cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions were separated by centrifugation. The influence of FSC on NF-kappaB expression and/or activity as well as expression of its inhibitor IkappaB-alpha was measured by Western blot. 1.5 and three hours after FSC treatment TNF-alpha level in sera was significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased. Activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB in PM was detected three hours after treatment, followed by significant increment in PM number. In splenocytes NF-kappaB was activated six and 48 hours after FSC application. The results indicate that, after i.p. application, FSC acts as a modulator of the immune system activating NF-kappaB in PM. PM consequently secrete TNF-alpha that activates NF-kappaB in splenocytes. PMID:15106731

  3. Gene delivery of the elastase inhibitor elafin protects macrophages from neutrophil elastase-mediated impairment of apoptotic cell recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Henriksen; Andrew Devitt; Yuri Kotelevtsev; Jean-Michel Sallenave

    2004-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is dependent on recognition and phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Receptors for apoptotic cells are sensitive to degradation by human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We show in the present study that HNE cleaves macrophage cell surface CD14 and in so doing, reduces phagocytic recognition of apoptotic lymphocytic cells (Mutu 1). Using an improved method of

  4. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  5. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and 'instruct' the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  6. Interleukin 10 transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells prevents tumor growth and macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Richter, G; Krüger-Krasagakes, S; Hein, G; Hüls, C; Schmitt, E; Diamantstein, T; Blankenstein, T

    1993-09-15

    Expression of cytokines in tumor cells provides a sensitive modality to analyze the consequences of local cytokines in vivo on tumor infiltrating cells and tumorigenicity. We have transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with an interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression vector. CHO-IL10 cells although unaltered with respect to their in vitro growth lost tumorigenicity, both in nude and in SCID mice and in an IL-10 dose dependent manner. In addition, CHO-IL10 cells suppressed the growth of equal numbers of coinjected but not of contralaterally injected CHO cells. Immunohistology with anti-CR3/Mac-1 and anti-Mac-3 monoclonal antibodies revealed that CHO tumors were substantially infiltrated by macrophages. However, in CHO-IL10 tumors macrophages were virtually absent within the tumor tissue. Our results suggest that IL-10 indirectly suppresses tumor growth of certain tumors by inhibiting infiltration of macrophages which may provide tumor growth promoting activity. PMID:8364905

  7. Stress-induced NF-?B activation differentiates promyelocytic leukemia cells to macrophages in response to all-trans-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Joon Seong; Lim, In Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been known as a choice of treatment for inducing differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells to granulocytes. NF-?B plays a crucial role in inflammation and immunity and its activation is an important event for macrophage differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. We report here that NF-?B activation is critical for determining ATRA-induced lineage specific differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Our data revealed that ATRA treatment to HL-60 cells enhanced I?B? degradation and NF-?B nuclear translocation and the activated NF-?B potentiated the ability of ATRA for differentiation and switched differentiation to macrophages instead of granulocytes. Serum withdrawal and LPS treatment dampened I?B? expression via MAPK activation and reactive oxygen species generation leading to NF-?B nuclear translocation and ATRA treatment further corroborated these effects in myeloid leukemia cells. Activated NF-?B enhanced the degree of ATRA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to macrophages, rather than granulocytes, as assessed by morphologic examination and expressions of differentiation markers such as CD11b, CD38, CD68, MMP9 and Btg2. Employing LLnL or dominant negative I?B? attenuated NF-?B associated enhanced cell maturation and differentiation switch thus suggesting NF-?B as one of the factors that determines ATRA induced lineage specificity of myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, MAPK activation was observed to be central both for the differentiation of promyelocytic cells to macrophages or granulocytes regulating NF-?B or C/EBP? expressions, respectively; however, MAPK-mediated signals are modulated under various conditions affecting lineage specificity. In summary, our present data demonstrate that activation of NF-?B directly affects differentiation program of promyelocytes to macrophages, rather than granulocyte, in response to ATRA treatment. PMID:25435432

  8. Autophagy Controls Acquisition of Aging Features in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Stranks, Amanda J.; Hansen, Anne Louise; Panse, Isabel; Mortensen, Monika; Ferguson, David J.P.; Puleston, Daniel J.; Shenderov, Kevin; Watson, Alexander Scarth; Veldhoen, Marc; Phadwal, Kanchan; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Simon, Anna Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages provide a bridge linking innate and adaptive immunity. An increased frequency of macrophages and other myeloid cells paired with excessive cytokine production is commonly seen in the aging immune system, known as ‘inflamm-aging’. It is presently unclear how healthy macrophages are maintained throughout life and what connects inflammation with myeloid dysfunction during aging. Autophagy, an intracellular degradation mechanism, has known links with aging and lifespan extension. Here, we show for the first time that autophagy regulates the acquisition of major aging features in macrophages. In the absence of the essential autophagy gene Atg7, macrophage populations are increased and key functions such as phagocytosis and nitrite burst are reduced, while the inflammatory cytokine response is significantly increased – a phenotype also observed in aged macrophages. Furthermore, reduced autophagy decreases surface antigen expression and skews macrophage metabolism toward glycolysis. We show that macrophages from aged mice exhibit significantly reduced autophagic flux compared to young mice. These data demonstrate that autophagy plays a critical role in the maintenance of macrophage homeostasis and function, regulating inflammation and metabolism and thereby preventing immunosenescence. Thus, autophagy modulation may prevent excess inflammation and preserve macrophage function during aging, improving immune responses and reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with inflamm-aging. PMID:25359593

  9. Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair.

    PubMed

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (M?) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by M? in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human M? stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies