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1

PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-? release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

2008-03-01

2

Adenoviral vectors stimulate innate immune responses in macrophages through cross-talk with epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Although adenovirus vectors (Ads) have been widely utilized for gene delivery, their clinical application has been hampered by host immune responses. It has been shown that macrophages can induce inflammatory response against Ads in vivo, but they are not easily activated by Ads in vitro, suggesting their activation requires interaction with other cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction between macrophages and epithelial cells during Ad infection. Ad infection of the macrophage-epithelial cell co-culture resulted in rapid and drastic changes in the cell culture such as decrease in pH within 24h, indicating macrophage activation. Ad infected co-culture showed several characteristics of inflammation including cytotoxicity, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and generation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. These signs of macrophage activation and inflammation were observed exclusively in the co-culture and were absent or significantly weaker in the macrophage mono-culture suggesting that there was a synergistic response by the interaction between macrophages and epithelial cells. We found that inhibition of NF-?B activation significantly reduced the inflammatory responses in the co-culture. Furthermore, we show that only the macrophages adjacent to epithelial cells were activated during Ad infection demonstrating that the interaction between macrophages and epithelial cells are crucial for Ad-induced inflammatory response. PMID:20850478

Lee, Benjamin H; Kushwah, Rahul; Wu, Jing; Ng, Philip; Palaniyar, Nades; Grinstein, Sergio; Philpott, Dana J; Hu, Jim

2010-11-30

3

Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct ‘subpopulations’ with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents a common mechanism for modulating innate or adaptive immunity.

Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

2012-01-01

4

Adenoviral vectors stimulate innate immune responses in macrophages through cross-talk with epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although adenovirus vectors (Ads) have been widely utilized for gene delivery, their clinical application has been hampered by host immune responses. It has been shown that macrophages can induce inflammatory response against Ads in vivo, but they are not easily activated by Ads in vitro, suggesting their activation requires interaction with other cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction

Benjamin H. Lee; Rahul Kushwah; Jing Wu; Philip Ng; Nades Palaniyar; Sergio Grinstein; Dana J. Philpott; Jim Hu

2010-01-01

5

Immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells regulated by mTOR signalling.  

PubMed

The innate myeloid immune system is a complex network of cells that protect against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells, but it is also implicated in homoeostatic mechanisms such as tissue remodelling and wound healing. Myeloid phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages or dendritic cells are at the basis of controlling these immune responses in all tissues of the body. In the present review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that mTOR [mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin] regulates innate immune reactions in macrophages and dendritic cells. The mTOR pathway serves as a decision maker to control the cellular response to pathogens and tumours by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines or interferons. In addition to various in vivo mouse models, kidney transplant patients under mTOR inhibitor therapy allowed the elucidation of important innate immune functions regulated by mTOR in humans. The role of the mTOR pathway in macrophages and dendritic cells enhances our understanding of the immune system and suggests new therapeutic avenues for the regulation of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators with potential relevance to cancer therapy, the design of novel adjuvants and the control of distinct infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23863158

Katholnig, Karl; Linke, Monika; Pham, Ha; Hengstschläger, Markus; Weichhart, Thomas

2013-08-01

6

Interleukin-10 receptor signaling in innate immune cells regulates mucosal immune tolerance and anti-inflammatory macrophage function.  

PubMed

Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer, Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice developed severe colitis in association with profound defects in generation and function of Treg cells. Moreover, loss of IL-10R signaling impaired the generation and function of anti-inflammatory intestinal and bone-marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to secrete IL-10. Importantly, transfer of WT but not Il10rb(-/-) anti-inflammatory macrophages ameliorated colitis induction by WT CD4(+) T cells in Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice. Similar alterations in the generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages were observed in IL-10R-deficient patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease. Collectively, our studies define innate immune IL-10R signaling as a key factor regulating mucosal immune homeostasis in mice and humans. PMID:24792912

Shouval, Dror S; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A; McCann, Katelyn; Conaway, Evan; Redhu, Naresh S; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Al Adham, Ziad; Lavoie, Sydney; Ibourk, Mouna; Nguyen, Deanna D; Samsom, Janneke N; Escher, Johanna C; Somech, Raz; Weiss, Batia; Beier, Rita; Conklin, Laurie S; Ebens, Christen L; Santos, Fernanda G M S; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Sherlock, Mary; Bhan, Atul K; Müller, Werner; Mora, J Rodrigo; Quintana, Francisco J; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Horwitz, Bruce H; Snapper, Scott B

2014-05-15

7

Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-Responsive Cells Play an Important Role in the Induction of Type 2 Immunity  

PubMed Central

Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4R?-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Urban, Joseph F.; Bohl, Jennifer; Sun, Rex; Notari, Luigi; Yan, Shu; Ramalingam, Thirumalai; Keegan, Achsah D.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

2013-01-01

8

The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages  

PubMed Central

The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3?,5?)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-?. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies.

Libanova, Rimma; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Guzman, Carlos A.

2014-01-01

9

Analysis of colony-stimulating factors and macrophage progenitor cells in mice immunized against Listeria monocytogenes by adoptive transfer.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were performed to elucidate the role of colony-stimulating factors in host defenses to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Mice were protected against Listeria sp. by adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells and were then challenged with listeriae intravenously. Control mice were injected with spleen cells from uninfected mice. Adoptively immunized (immune) mice had significantly fewer listeriae in spleens and livers 2 and 4 days after Listeria challenge than did control mice. During acute infection, colony-stimulating activity in serum was increased earlier (10 h) in immune mice than in controls. Concentrations of colony-stimulating activity were equal at 24 h. By 48 h, values were decreased in immune mice, but were elevated in control mice. Similar changes were noted when a specific colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, was measured in serum by using a radioimmunoassay. The changes in serum colony-stimulating activity in mice adoptively immunized with immune spleen cells were eliminated if spleen cells were first treated with anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibodies. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleen were also determined as measures of the hemopoietic potential in these organs. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow was higher in immune animals than control animals at 1, 2, and 4 days of infection. Similarly, the number of these cells in spleens was higher during the early stages of infection in immune mice. These results indicate that both the regulation of leukocyte production and the transfer of specific cellular immunity by spleen cells are associated, and they therefore suggest that hemopoietic regulatory factors play a role in immune host defenses.

Wing, E J; Magee, D M; Barczynski, L K

1987-01-01

10

MANGANESE CHLORIDE ENHANCES NATURAL CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE EFFECTOR CELL FUNCTION: EFFECTS ON MACROPHAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

A single intramuscular injection of MnCl2 in mice caused an increase in macrophage functional activity. Spleen cell antibody-dependent cellmediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against both chicken erythrocytes and P815 tumor cell targets was enhanced 24 hours following a single injection...

11

Human Primary Adipocytes Exhibit Immune Cell Function: Adipocytes Prime Inflammation Independent of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity promotes inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and this is implicated in pathophysiological complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although based on the classical hypothesis, necrotic AT adipocytes (ATA) in obese state activate AT macrophages (ATM) that then lead to a sustained chronic inflammation in AT, the link between human adipocytes and the source of inflammation in AT has not been in-depth and systematically studied. So we decided as a new hypothesis to investigate human primary adipocytes alone to see whether they are able to prime inflammation in AT. Methods and Results Using mRNA expression, human preadipocytes and adipocytes express the cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, MHC II molecule genes and 14 acute phase reactants including C-reactive protein. Using multiplex ELISA revealed the expression of 50 cytokine/chemokine proteins by human adipocytes. Upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, most of these adipocyte-associated cytokines/chemokines and immune cell modulating receptors were up-regulated and a few down-regulated such as (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and TNF-? highly up-regulated and IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13 and VEGF down-regulated. In migration assay, human adipocyte-derived chemokines attracted significantly more CD4+ T cells than controls and the number of migrated CD4+ cells was doubled after treating the adipocytes with LPS. Neutralizing MCP-1 effect produced by adipocytes reduced CD4+ migration by approximately 30%. Conclusion Human adipocytes express many cytokines/chemokines that are biologically functional. They are able to induce inflammation and activate CD4+ cells independent of macrophages. This suggests that the primary event in the sequence leading to chronic inflammation in AT is metabolic dysfunction in adipocytes, followed by production of immunological mediators by these adipocytes, which is then exacerbated by activated ATM, activation and recruitment of immune cells. This study provides novel knowledge about the prime of inflammation in human obese adipose tissue, opening a new avenue of investigations towards obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.

Meijer, Kees; de Vries, Marcel; Al-Lahham, Saad; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Weening, Desiree; Dijkstra, Martijn; Kloosterhuis, Niels; van der Leij, Roelof Jan; van der Want, Han; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Vonk, Roel; Rezaee, Farhad

2011-01-01

12

Macrophages in homeostatic immune function  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are not only involved in inflammatory and anti-infective processes, but also play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent evidence investigating the role of macrophages in controlling angiogenesis, metabolism as well as salt and water balance. Particularly, we summarize the importance of macrophage tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP, also termed nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) expression in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis. Further understanding of homeostatic macrophage function may lead to new therapeutic approaches to treat ischemia, hypertension and metabolic disorders.

Jantsch, Jonathan; Binger, Katrina J.; Muller, Dominik N.; Titze, Jens

2014-01-01

13

Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen  

SciTech Connect

Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

1986-03-15

14

Avian Macrophages: Regulators of Local and Systemic Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are key regulatory cells of the immune system involved in initiating and directing the innate and specific immune responses, the systemic acute phase response, tissue repair, and tissue remodel- ing. In the early stages of a challenge from invading microorganisms or from tissue injury, macrophages defend local and systemic homeostasis by initiating a complex series of cellular, biochemical, and

KIRK C. KLASING

1998-01-01

15

Cooperativity between CD8+ T cells, non-neutralizing antibodies, and alveolar macrophages is important for heterosubtypic influenza virus immunity.  

PubMed

Seasonal epidemics of influenza virus result in ?36,000 deaths annually in the United States. Current vaccines against influenza virus elicit an antibody response specific for the envelope glycoproteins. However, high mutation rates result in the emergence of new viral serotypes, which elude neutralization by preexisting antibodies. T lymphocytes have been reported to be capable of mediating heterosubtypic protection through recognition of internal, more conserved, influenza virus proteins. Here, we demonstrate using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However, when combined virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. This synergistic improvement in protective immunity is dependent, at least in part, on alveolar macrophages and/or other lung phagocytes. Overall, our studies suggest that an influenza vaccine capable of eliciting both CD8+ T cells and antibodies specific for highly conserved influenza proteins may be able to provide heterosubtypic protection in humans, and act as the basis for a potential "universal" vaccine. PMID:23516357

Laidlaw, Brian J; Decman, Vilma; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A; Abt, Michael C; Wolf, Amaya I; Monticelli, Laurel A; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Angelosanto, Jill M; Artis, David; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E John

2013-03-01

16

Cooperativity Between CD8+ T Cells, Non-Neutralizing Antibodies, and Alveolar Macrophages Is Important for Heterosubtypic Influenza Virus Immunity  

PubMed Central

Seasonal epidemics of influenza virus result in ?36,000 deaths annually in the United States. Current vaccines against influenza virus elicit an antibody response specific for the envelope glycoproteins. However, high mutation rates result in the emergence of new viral serotypes, which elude neutralization by preexisting antibodies. T lymphocytes have been reported to be capable of mediating heterosubtypic protection through recognition of internal, more conserved, influenza virus proteins. Here, we demonstrate using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However, when combined virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. This synergistic improvement in protective immunity is dependent, at least in part, on alveolar macrophages and/or other lung phagocytes. Overall, our studies suggest that an influenza vaccine capable of eliciting both CD8+ T cells and antibodies specific for highly conserved influenza proteins may be able to provide heterosubtypic protection in humans, and act as the basis for a potential “universal” vaccine.

Laidlaw, Brian J.; Decman, Vilma; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A.; Abt, Michael C.; Wolf, Amaya I.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Angelosanto, Jill M.; Artis, David; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E. John

2013-01-01

17

Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies and myeloid cell immune functions in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

High levels of granulocyte/macrophage–colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies are thought to cause pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare syndrome characterized by myeloid dysfunction resulting in pulmonary surfactant accumulation and respiratory failure. Paradoxically, GM-CSF autoantibodies have been reported to occur rarely in healthy people and routinely in pharmaceutical intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) purified from serum pooled from healthy subjects. These findings suggest that either GM-CSF autoantibodies are normally present in healthy people at low levels that are difficult to detect or that serum pooled for IVIG purification may include asymptomatic persons with high levels of GM-CSF autoantibodies. Using several experimental approaches, GM-CSF autoantibodies were detected in all healthy subjects evaluated (n = 72) at low levels sufficient to rheostatically regulate multiple myeloid functions. Serum GM-CSF was more abundant than previously reported, but more than 99% was bound and neutralized by GM-CSF autoantibody. The critical threshold of GM-CSF autoantibodies associated with the development of PAP was determined. Results demonstrate that free serum GM-CSF is tightly maintained at low levels, identify a novel potential mechanism of innate immune regulation, help define the therapeutic window for potential clinical use of GM-CSF autoantibodies to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and have implications for the pathogenesis of PAP.

Uchida, Kanji; Nakata, Koh; Suzuki, Takuji; Luisetti, Maurizio; Watanabe, Masato; Koch, Diana E.; Stevens, Carrie A.; Beck, David C.; Denson, Lee A.; Carey, Brenna C.; Keicho, Naoto; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

2009-01-01

18

Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired

Stephen J Galli; Niels Borregaard; Thomas A Wynn

2011-01-01

19

Macrophages are involved in hexachlorobenzene-induced adverse immune effects  

SciTech Connect

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. T cells play an important role but do not account for all adverse effects induced by HCB. Macrophages are probably also important and the relationship between macrophages and T cells was further investigated. To eliminate macrophages clodronate-liposomes were used. Furthermore, a kinetic study was performed to obtain insight in the early phase of the HCB-induced immune response. Also, experiments were performed to detect specific memory T cells. Therefore, an adoptive transfer study was performed. Our results indicate that macrophages are indeed involved in HCB-induced skin lesions, lung eosinophilia, and elevation of IgM against ssDNA. Kinetics showed that both skin and lung lesions appeared early after exposure. Moreover, immune effects could not be adaptively transferred. Thus, both macrophages and T cells are involved in HCB-induced immune effects but HCB exposure does not lead to specific T cell sensitization. Presumably, HCB exposure induces macrophage activation, thereby generating adjuvant signals that polyclonally stimulate T cells. Together, these events may lead to the observed immunopathology in BN rats.

Ezendam, Janine [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Janine.Ezendam@rivm.nl; Kosterman, Kevin [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Henneke [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleumink, Rob [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hassing, Ine [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooijen, Nico van [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Free University, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Joseph G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands); Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.150, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Pieters, Raymond [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

20

The prognostic implications of macrophages expressing proliferating cell nuclear antigen in breast cancer depend on immune context.  

PubMed

Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are recruited from the circulation to the tumor site, and can undergo a spectrum of phenotypic changes, with two contrasting activation states described in the literature: the M1 and M2 phenotypes. We previously identified a population of TAMs that express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and are associated with high grade, hormone receptor negative breast cancers and poor outcomes. In the present exploratory study we again found that high PCNA(+) TAM counts in pre-treatment tumor biopsies (102 invasive breast cancer cases from the I-SPY 1 Trial, a prospective neoadjuvant trial with serial core biopsies and gene array data) were associated with high grade, hormone receptor negativity, and decreased recurrence free survival. We explored the association of these PCNA(+) TAMs with the expression of M1 and M2 related genes and, contrary to expectation, observed that high PCNA(+) TAM levels were associated with more M1- than M2-related genes. An immune gene signature, derived from cytotoxic T cell and MHC Class II genes (Tc/ClassII), was developed and we found that high PCNA(+) TAM counts, in the context of a low Tc/ClassII signature score, were associated with significantly worse recurrence free survival in all cases and in hormone receptor negative only cases. We observed similar results using a gene signature-proxy for PCNA(+) TAMs in a larger independent set of 425 neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer cases. The results of this exploratory study indicate that high numbers of PCNA(+) TAMs, in the absence of an anti-tumor immune microenvironment (as indicated by a low Tc/ClassII signature score), are associated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This, along with the observation that PCNA(+) TAMs were associated predominantly with M1-related genes, may provide new insights into the role of the immune microenvironment in breast cancer. PMID:24205370

Campbell, Michael J; Wolf, Denise; Mukhtar, Rita A; Tandon, Vickram; Yau, Christina; Au, Alfred; Baehner, Frederick; van't Veer, Laura; Berry, Donald; Esserman, Laura J

2013-01-01

21

Modulation of macrophage immune responses by Echinacea.  

PubMed

Echinacea preparations are widely used herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of colds and minor infections. There is little evidence for the individual components in Echinacea that contribute to immune regulatory activity. Activity of an ethanolic Echinacea extract and several constituents, including cichoric acid, have been examined using three in vitro measures of macrophage immune function - NF-kappaB, TNF- alpha and nitric oxide (NO). In cultured macrophages, all components except the monoene alkylamide (AA1) decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated NF-kappaB levels. 0.2 microg/ml cichoric acid and 2.0 microg/mL Echinacea Premium Liquid (EPL) and EPL alkylamide fraction (EPL AA) were found to significantly decrease TNF-alpha production under LPS stimulated conditions in macrophages. In macrophages, only the alkylamide mixture isolated from the ethanolic Echinacea extract decreased LPS stimulated NO production. In this study, the mixture of alkylamides in the Echinacea ethanolic liquid extract did not respond in the same manner in the assays as the individual alkylamides investigated. While cichoric acid has been shown to affect NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha and NO levels, it is unlikely to be relevant in the Echinacea alterations of the immune response in vivo due to its non- bioavailability - i.e. no demonstrated absorption across the intestinal barrier and no detectable levels in plasma. These results demonstrate that Echinacea is an effective modulator of macrophage immune responses in vitro. PMID:18007520

Stevenson, Lesley M; Matthias, Anita; Banbury, Linda; Penman, Kerry G; Bone, Kerry M; Leach, David Leach; Lehmann, Reg P

2005-01-01

22

Living T9 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor produce immediate tumor destruction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages via a "paraptosis"-induced pathway that promotes systemic immunity against intracranial T9 gliomas.  

PubMed

Cloned T9-C2 glioma cells transfected with membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) never formed subcutaneous tumors when implanted into Fischer rats, whereas control T9 cells did. The T9-C2 cells were completely killed within 1 day through a mechanism that resembled paraptosis. Vacuolization of the T9-C2 cell's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum started within 4 hours after implantation. By 24 hours, the dead tumor cells were swollen and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive. Bcl2-transduced T9-C2 cells failed to form tumors in rats. Both T9 and T9-C2 cells produced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant that recruited the granulocytes into the tumor injection sites, where they interacted with the tumor cells. Freshly isolated macrophages killed the T9-C2 cells in vitro by a mechanism independent of phagocytosis. Nude athymic rats treated with antiasialo GM1 antibody formed T9-C2 tumors, whereas rats treated with a natural killer cell (NK)-specific antibody failed to form tumors. When treated with antipolymorphonuclear leukocyte (anti-PMN) and antimacrophage antibodies, 80% of nude rats formed tumors, whereas only 40% of the rats developed a tumor when a single antibody was used. This suggests that both PMNs and macrophages are involved in the killing of T9-C2 tumor cells. Immunocompetent rats that rejected the living T9-C2 cells were immune to the intracranial rechallenge with T9 cells. No vaccinating effect occurred if the T9-C2 cells were freeze-thawed, x-irradiated, or treated with mitomycin-C prior to injection. Optimal tumor immunization using mM-CSF-transduced T9 cells requires viable tumor cells. In this study optimal tumor immunization occurred when a strong inflammatory response at the injection of the tumor cells was induced. PMID:12149220

Chen, Yijun; Douglass, Thomas; Jeffes, Edward W B; Xu, Qingcheng; Williams, Christopher C; Arpajirakul, Neary; Delgado, Christina; Kleinman, Michael; Sanchez, Ramon; Dan, Qinghong; Kim, Ronald C; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

2002-08-15

23

Immune Memory-Boosting Dose of Rapamycin Impairs Macrophage Vesicle Acidification and Curtails Glycolysis in Effector CD8 Cells, Impairing Defense against Acute Infections.  

PubMed

Direct mammalian target of rapamycin (Rapa) complex 1 inhibition by short-term low-dose Rapa treatment has recently been shown to improve CD8 T cell immunological memory. Whereas these studies focused on memory development, the impact of low-dose Rapa on the primary immune response, particularly as it relates to functional effector immunity, is far less clear. In this study, we investigated the impact of acute Rapa treatment on immune effector cell function during the primary immune response to several acute infections. We found that functional CD8 T cell and macrophage responses to both viral and intracellular bacterial pathogens were depressed in mice in vivo and in humans to phorbol ester and calcium ionophore stimulation in vitro in the face of low-dose Rapa treatment. Mechanistically, the CD8 defect was linked to impaired glycolytic switch in stimulated naive cells and the reduced formation of short-lived effector cells. Therefore, more than one cell type required for a protective effector immune response is impaired by Rapa in both mice and humans, at the dose shown to improve immune memory and extend lifespan. This urges caution with regard to the relative therapeutic costs and benefits of Rapa treatment as means to improve immune memory. PMID:24913978

Goldberg, Emily L; Smithey, Megan J; Lutes, Lydia K; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

2014-07-15

24

Exosomes isolated from mycobacteria-infected mice or cultured macrophages can recruit and activate immune cells in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Over 2 billion people are infected with M. tuberculosis (M.tb); however, only 5–10% of those infected will develop active disease. Recent data suggest that containment is controlled locally at the level of the granuloma and that granuloma architecture may differ even within a single infected individual. Formation of a granuloma likely requires exposure to mycobacterial components released from infected macrophages but the mechanism of their release is still unclear. We hypothesize that exosomes, which are small membrane vesicles containing mycobacterial components released from infected macrophages, could promote cellular recruitment during granuloma formation. In support of this hypothesis, we found that C57BL/6 mouse-derived bone marrow macrophages treated with exosomes released from M.tb-infected RAW264.7 cells secrete significant levels of chemokines and can induce migration of CFSE-labeled macrophages and splenocytes. Exosomes isolated from the serum of M. bovis BCG infected mice could also stimulate macrophage production of chemokines and cytokines ex vivo but the level and type differed during the course of a 60 day infection. Interestingly, the exosome concentration in serum correlated strongly with mouse bacterial load, suggesting some role in immune regulation. Finally, hollow fiber-based experiments indicated that macrophages treated with exosomes released from Mtb-infected cells could promote macrophage recruitment in vivo. Exosomes injected intranasally could also recruit CD11b+ cells into the lung. Overall, our study suggests that exosomes may play an important role in recruiting and regulating host cells during an M. tuberculosis infection.

Singh, Prachi P.; Smith, Victoria L.; Karakousis, Petros C.; Schorey, Jeffery S.

2013-01-01

25

Development of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Monocytes and macrophages are critical effectors and regulators of inflammation and the innate immune response, the immediate, pre-programmed arm of the immune system. Dendritic cells initiate and regulate the highly pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses, and are central to the development of immunologic memory and tolerance. Recent in vivo experimental approaches in the mouse have unveiled new aspects of the developmental and lineage relationships among these cell populations. Despite this, the origin and differentiation cues for many tissue macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cell subsets in mice, and the corresponding cell populations in humans, remain to be elucidated.

Geissmann, Frederic; Manz, Markus G.; Jung, Steffen; Sieweke, Michael H.; Merad, Miriam; Ley, Klaus

2010-01-01

26

Innate immune responses of primary murine macrophage-lineage cells and RAW 264.7 cells to ligands of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4  

PubMed Central

Although studies have been performed to characterize responses of macrophages from individual anatomical sites (e.g., alveolar macrophages) or of murine-derived macrophage cell lines to microbial ligands, few studies compare these cell types in terms of phenotype and function. We directly compared the expression of cell surface markers and functional responses of primary cultures of three commonly used cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (splenic macrophages, bone-marrow derived macrophages, and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells) with those of the murine-leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. We hypothesized that RAW 264.7 cells and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages would be similar in phenotype and would respond similarly to microbial ligands that bind to either Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4. Results indicate that RAW 264.7 cells most closely mimic bone marrow-derived macrophages in terms of cell surface receptors and response to microbial ligands that initiate cellular activation via Toll-like receptors 3 and 4. However, caution must be applied when extrapolating findings obtained with RAW 264.7 cells to those of other primary macrophage-lineage cells, primarily because phenotype and function of the former cells may change with continuous culture.

Berghaus, Londa J; Moore, James N; Hurley, David J; Vandenplas, Michel L; Fortes, Barbara P; Wolfert, Margreet A; Boons, Geert-Jan

2009-01-01

27

RESISTANCE TO FIBROMA VIRUS INFECTION. THE ROLE OF IMMUNE LEUKOCYTES AND IMMUNE MACROPHAGES  

PubMed Central

Leukocytes and macrophages, obtained from fibroma-immune rabbits and added to immune serum-fibroma virus mixtures, significantly increased the neutralization of fibroma virus as compared with immune serum alone. Immune cell suspensions from peritoneal exudates, regional lymph nodes, buffy coats, spleen, and liver were all effective in inhibiting fibroma virus. Approximately 2000 to 4000 immune cells/mm.3 were necessary to cause an effect but no particular cell type could be implicated as responsible for the inhibition of fibroma virus. Normal cells did not consistently and significantly inhibit fibroma virus and cells from rabbits immunized with other viruses did not inhibit fibroma virus. Studies of the mechanism of action of the immune cells revealed: (a) that living cells were essential; (b) that normal cells, sensitized with immune serum, did not simulate the effects of immune cells; (c) that immune cells contained less preformed neutralizing antibody than an equivalent volume of immune serum, and (d) that inhibition of fibroma lesions was not the result of viral interference. It is suggested that the fibroma-neutralizing effect of immune cells is related to intracellularly placed antibody or to cellular transfer of an ability to form specific antibody in recipient animals.

Ginder, David R.

1955-01-01

28

Natural IgM and innate immune collectin SP-D bind to late apoptotic cells and enhance their clearance by alveolar macrophages in vivo.  

PubMed

Innate immune collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) and natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) are two soluble proteins. These opsonic proteins are good candidates for enhancing late apoptotic cell clearance. However, effects of these proteins on late apoptotic cell clearance in the lungs are not clearly established. We have recently shown that SP-D can bind several immunoglobulin isotypes, including IgM. Here we hypothesized that IgM and SP-D bind to late apoptotic cells and enhance their clearance from the lungs. We show that IgM and SP-D bind to late apoptotic secondary necrotic cells, and that IgM and SP-D either co-localize to the same regions or to different regions of late apoptotic Jurkat T cells. Mouse alveolar macrophages internalized late apoptotic cells, in vivo. We induced lung inflammation in mice using LPS and show that airway IgM and SP-D levels and the clearance of late apoptotic cells by alveolar macrophages increases under these conditions. We then coated late apoptotic cells with IgM, SP-D, or both and instilled them into the mouse airways. We found that alveolar macrophages internalize IgM- and SP-D-coated late apoptotic cells more effectively than uncoated late apoptotic cells, in vivo. None of these conditions cause inflammation in the naïve lungs. Therefore, these data suggest that both IgM and SP-D effectively opsonize late apoptotic cells and directly enhance their clearance by alveolar macrophages in the lungs. PMID:21035192

Litvack, Michael L; Djiadeu, Pascal; Renganathan, Sri Dushyaanthan Sri; Sy, Sarah; Post, Martin; Palaniyar, Nades

2010-01-01

29

Innate immunity and monocyte-macrophage activation in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Innate inflammation is a hallmark of both experimental and human atherosclerosis. The predominant innate immune cell in the atherosclerotic plaque is the monocyte-macrophage. The behaviour of this cell type within the plaque is heterogeneous and depends on the recruitment of diverse monocyte subsets. Furthermore, the plaque microenvironment offers polarisation and activation signals which impact on phenotype. Microenvironmental signals are sensed through pattern recognition receptors, including toll-like and NOD-like receptors - the latter of which are components of the inflammasome - thus dictating macrophage behaviour and outcome in atherosclerosis. Recently cholesterol crystals and modified lipoproteins have been recognised as able to directly engage these pattern recognition receptors. The convergent role of such pathways in terms of macrophage activation is discussed in this review.

2011-01-01

30

MicroRNAs in immune response and macrophage polarization  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is essential to combat invading microbial pathogens. In this process, the involvement of multiple immune cell populations is critical in mounting an optimum immune response. In the past decade, a new class of non-coding small RNAs, called miRNAs, has emerged as important regulators in biological processes. The important role of miRNAs in inflammation and immune response is highlighted by studies in which deregulation of miRNAs was demonstrated to accompany diseases associated with excessive or uncontrolled inflammation. In this brief review, we summarize the roles of miRNAs that have been characterized in innate and adaptive immune responses. We discuss the role of miRNAs in macrophage polarization, a molecular event that has clear impact on inflammation.

Liu, Gang; Abraham, Edward

2012-01-01

31

Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation (MIA) models. More recently, permanent changes in T cell cytokine responses were reported in children with autism and in offspring of MIA mice; however, the cytokine responses of other immune cell populations have not been thoroughly investigated in these MIA models. Similar to changes in T cell function, we hypothesized that following MIA, offspring will have long-term changes in macrophage function. To test this theory, we utilized the poly (I:C) MIA mouse model in C57BL/6J mice and examined macrophage cytokine production in adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given either a single injection of 20mg/kg polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly (I:C), or saline delivered intraperitoneally on gestational day 12.5. When offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams reached 10weeks of age, femurs were collected and bone marrow-derived macrophages were generated. Cytokine production was measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated for 24h in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/LPS, or IFN-?/LPS. Following stimulation with LPS alone, or the combination of IFN-?/LPS, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams produced higher levels of IL-12(p40) (p<0.04) suggesting an increased M1 polarization. In addition, even without the presence of a polarizing cytokine or LPS stimulus, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams exhibited a higher production of CCL3 (p=0.05). Moreover, CCL3 levels were further increased when stimulated with LPS, or polarized with either IL-4/LPS or IFN-?/LPS (p<0.05) suggesting a general increase in production of this chemokine. Collectively, these data suggest that MIA can produce lasting changes in macrophage function that are sustained into adulthood. PMID:24566386

Onore, Charity E; Schwartzer, Jared J; Careaga, Milo; Berman, Robert F; Ashwood, Paul

2014-05-01

32

Tumour cell inhibition of macrophage cytokine activity.  

PubMed

Macrophages elaborate both effector and regulatory immune functions. It was hypothesised that tumours can exert a local alteration of macrophage function. Murine peritoneal macrophage-derived cytokines were assayed in the presence and absence of cells, cytosol fractions or conditioned media (TCCM) from established murine tumour lines. Interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha activities were significantly inhibited by tumour cells or their products, as were the corresponding recombinant human cytokines. Intracellular protein kinase C activation was also measured and was significantly inhibited by murine TCCM, thus suggesting one possible site of inhibitor action. Data analyses indicate that the inhibitory factor(s) is probably not an already well-characterised macrophage inhibitor. PMID:1466902

Hannigan, B M; McNally, O R; Kirrane, O; Eason, S J

1992-12-01

33

Innate immune response to a H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus in newborn porcine trachea cells, alveolar macrophages, and precision-cut lung slices  

PubMed Central

Viral respiratory diseases remain of major importance in swine breeding units. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the main known contributors to infectious respiratory diseases. The innate immune response to swine influenza viruses has been assessed in many previous studies. However most of these studies were carried out in a single-cell population or directly in the live animal, in all its complexity. In the current study we report the use of a trachea epithelial cell line (newborn pig trachea cells – NPTr) in comparison with alveolar macrophages and lung slices for the characterization of innate immune response to an infection by a European SIV of the H3N2 subtype. The expression pattern of transcripts involved in the recognition of the virus, interferon type I and III responses, and the host-response regulation were assessed by quantitative PCR in response to infection. Some significant differences were observed between the three systems, notably in the expression of type III interferon mRNA. Then, results show a clear induction of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways in infected NPTr cells. Conversely, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways was not activated. The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway clearly reduced interferon type I and III responses and the induction of SOCS1 at the transcript level in infected NPTr cells. Similarly, the inhibition of MAPK pathway reduced viral replication and interferon response. All together, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the innate immune response to H3N2 SIV and may help identify strategies to effectively control SIV infection.

2014-01-01

34

Interactions of immune cells and lymphatic vessels.  

PubMed

In addition to fluid and lipid absorption, immune cell trafficking has now become recognized as one of the major functions of the lymphatic system. Recently, several critical roles of the lymphatic vessels (LVs) in modulating immune reactions during both physiological and pathological conditions have been emerging. As LVs serve as conduits for immune cells, they come to closely interact with macrophages/monocytes, dendritic cells, and T and B lymphocytes. Accumulating evidences indicate that reciprocal interactions between the LVs and immune cells exist which cause considerable influence over the process of immune cell migration, LV growth, and ultimately certain immune reactions. This chapter discusses on the interactions of macrophages/monocytes and dendritic cells with peripheral LVs and on those of sinusoidal macrophages and T and B lymphocytes with lymph node LVs. PMID:24276890

Kataru, Raghu P; Lee, Yulia G; Koh, Gou Young

2014-01-01

35

Cell–Cell Contacts with Epithelial Cells Modulate the Phenotype of Human Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of macrophages with epithelium represent one of the pathways involved in regulating local immune mechanisms. We studied the effect of cell–cell contact with an epithelial monolayer on the phenotype of macrophages. Human monocytes and THP-1 macrophages were co-cultured with monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), the alveolar type II-like cell line A549, renal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (RA), and

I. St?íž; A. Slav?ev; J. Kalanin; M. Jarešová; S. I. Rennard

2001-01-01

36

The Identification of Markers of Macrophage Differentiation in PMA-Stimulated THP1 Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiated macrophages are the resident tissue phagocytes and sentinel cells of the innate immune response. The phenotype of mature tissue macrophages represents the composite of environmental and differentiation-dependent imprinting. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) are stimuli commonly used to induce macrophage differentiation in monocytic cell lines but the extent of differentiation in comparison to primary tissue macrophages is unclear.

Marc Daigneault; Julie A. Preston; Helen M. Marriott; Moira K. B. Whyte; David H. Dockrell; T. Mark Doherty

2010-01-01

37

Notch signaling determines the M1 versus M2 polarization of macrophages in antitumor immune responses.  

PubMed

Macrophages are important tumor-infiltrating cells and play pivotal roles in tumor growth and metastasis. Macrophages participate in immune responses to tumors in a polarized manner: classic M1 macrophages produce interleukin (IL) 12 to promote tumoricidal responses, whereas M2 macrophages produce IL10 and help tumor progression. The mechanisms governing macrophage polarization are unclear. Here, we show that the M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have a lower level of Notch pathway activation in mouse tumor models. Forced activation of Notch signaling increased M1 macrophages which produce IL12, no matter whether M1 or M2 inducers were applied. When Notch signaling was blocked, the M1 inducers induced M2 response in the expense of M1. Macrophages deficient in canonical Notch signaling showed TAM phenotypes. Forced activation of Notch signaling in macrophages enhanced their antitumor capacity. We further show that RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulates the M1 versus M2 polarization through SOCS3. Therefore, Notch signaling plays critical roles in the determination of M1 versus M2 polarization of macrophages, and compromised Notch pathway activation will lead to the M2-like TAMs. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization and shed light on new therapies for cancers through the modulation of macrophage polarization through the Notch signaling. PMID:20501839

Wang, Yao-Chun; He, Fei; Feng, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Dong, Guang-Ying; Qin, Hong-Yan; Hu, Xing-Bin; Zheng, Min-Hua; Liang, Liang; Feng, Lei; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

2010-06-15

38

Acquired immunity in experimental murine aspergillosis is mediated by macrophages.  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have substantiated the pivotal role of innate defense mechanisms in protection against invasive aspergillosis. However, experiments demonstrating increased resistance to lethal intravenous (i.v.) infection with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in cortisone-treated or untreated mice preinfected with a sublethal dose of conidia and protection of turkeys inoculated subcutaneously with a killed A. fumigatus germling vaccine against subsequent aerosol challenge led us to speculate that acquired immunity may also contribute to host defense against Aspergillus infection. Five-week-old male BALB/c mice were inoculated i.v. with 1.0 x 10(4) viable conidia or saline and challenged i.v. with 1.0 x 10(6) conidia after 7, 15, or 21 days. No protection against challenge was found after 7 days. However, significant and reproducible protection was observed after 15 and 21 days. Mortality was reduced from 90% in control mice to 53% in preinfected mice 40 days after challenge (P = 0.0002). Increased survival was correlated with decreased content of chitin in lungs, liver, and kidneys 4 and 7 days after challenge (P < 0.05). Mice were again inoculated with 1.0 x 10(4) conidia or saline, and after 21 days, 1.0 x 10(8) or 2.0 x 10(8) splenocytes were transferred to naive syngeneic recipients; 2.0 x 10(8) immune splenocytes conferred significant protection (P = 0.0001) against i.v. challenge with 1.0 x 10(6) conidia, and mortality decreased from 83 to 48% 40 days after challenge. Transfer of immune serum offered no protection despite the presence of antibody against a hyphal homogenate of A. fumigatus, which was absent in the sera of control mice. Protection by immune splenocytes was maintained after selective depletion of T cells but was abolished after removal of plastic-adherent splenocytes. Adherent cells were characterized as macrophages by using morphological criteria, nonspecific esterase, and MAC-1 monoclonal antibody. Production of hydrogen peroxide by peritoneal and splenic macrophages from preinfected mice was the same as and lower than, respectively, that from uninfected controls. However, phagocytosis of conidia by peritoneal or splenic macrophages from mice preinfected i.v. or intratracheally was significantly increased after 2 and 3 h of coculture compared with that from uninfected animals, whereas in vitro killing of conidia by splenic macrophages was unaltered. Peritoneal or splenic macrophages from control or preinfected mice failed to kill hyphae in vitro. Killing of hyphae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was not significantly different between mice preinfected i.v. and uninfected controls. Taken together, the results indicate that acquired immunity mediated by activated macrophages can be demonstrated in experimental murine aspergillosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images

de Repentigny, L; Petitbois, S; Boushira, M; Michaliszyn, E; Senechal, S; Gendron, N; Montplaisir, S

1993-01-01

39

Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Prostate Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Using ex Vivo Gene Transfer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulat- ing factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. Expansion of primary cultures of autologous vaccine cells was successful to meet trial

Jonathan W. Simons; Bahar Mikhak; Ju-Fay Chang; Angelo M. DeMarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Michael Lim; Christine E. Weber; Angelo A. Baccala; Marti A. Goemann; Shirley M. Clift; Dale G. Ando; Hyam I. Levitsky; Lawrence K. Cohen; Martin G. Sanda; Richard C. Mulligan; Alan W. Partin; H. Ballentine Carter; Steven Piantadosi; Fray F. Marshall; William G. Nelson

40

Alkylamides from echinacea modulate induced immune responses in macrophages.  

PubMed

The ability of Echinacea and its components to alter the immune response was examined in vitro in a macrophage cell line under either basal or immunostimulated conditions. Potential immunostimulatory and inflammatory activity was determined using a nuclear transcription factor (NFkappaB) expression, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO) production as biomarkers. In the absence of alternate stimulation, the only significant effects seen were a decrease in NFkappaB expression by a 2-ene alkylamide ((2E)-N-isobutylundeca-2-ene-8,10-diynamide (1)) and a decrease in TNFalpha levels by cichoric acid and an Echinacea alkylamide fraction (EPL AA). When the cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibition of the increased NFkappaB expression levels was caused by cichoric acid, an Echinacea preparation (EPL), EPL AA and a 2,4-diene ((2E,4E,8Z,10Z)-N-isobutyldodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraenamide (2)). Increases in TNFalpha levels were inhibited by cichoric acid, EPL and EPL AA but enhanced by 1 in the presence of LPS, while only EPL AA was able to inhibit the stimulated increases in NO. When using phorbol myristate acetate to stimulate the cells, NFkappaB and NO levels were unaffected by Echinacea or its components while only cichoric acid and 2 inhibited TNFalpha levels. Although cichoric acid was found to have an effect, it is probably not an important contributor to the Echinacea modulation of the immune response in vivo, as it is not bioavailable. Echinacea appears to attenuate the response of macrophages to an immune stimulus and its combination of phytochemicals exhibits different pharmacological properties to one or more of the isolated major individual components. PMID:17365014

Matthias, A; Banbury, L; Stevenson, L M; Bone, K M; Leach, D N; Lehmann, R P

2007-01-01

41

Immune Modulation with Sulfasalazine Attenuates Immunopathogenesis but Enhances Macrophage-Mediated Fungal Clearance during Pneumocystis Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Although T cells are critical for host defense against respiratory fungal infections, they also contribute to the immunopathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). However, the precise downstream effector mechanisms by which T cells mediate these diverse processes are undefined. In the current study the effects of immune modulation with sulfasalazine were evaluated in a mouse model of PcP-related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (PcP-IRIS). Recovery of T cell-mediated immunity in Pneumocystis-infected immunodeficient mice restored host defense, but also initiated the marked pulmonary inflammation and severe pulmonary function deficits characteristic of IRIS. Sulfasalazine produced a profound attenuation of IRIS, with the unexpected consequence of accelerated fungal clearance. To determine whether macrophage phagocytosis is an effector mechanism of T cell-mediated Pneumocystis clearance and whether sulfasalazine enhances clearance by altering alveolar macrophage phagocytic activity, a novel multispectral imaging flow cytometer-based method was developed to quantify the phagocytosis of Pneumocystis in vivo. Following immune reconstitution, alveolar macrophages from PcP-IRIS mice exhibited a dramatic increase in their ability to actively phagocytose Pneumocystis. Increased phagocytosis correlated temporally with fungal clearance, and required the presence of CD4+ T cells. Sulfasalazine accelerated the onset of the CD4+ T cell-dependent alveolar macrophage phagocytic response in PcP-IRIS mice, resulting in enhanced fungal clearance. Furthermore, sulfasalazine promoted a TH2-polarized cytokine environment in the lung, and sulfasalazine-enhanced phagocytosis of Pneumocystis was associated with an alternatively activated alveolar macrophage phenotype. These results provide evidence that macrophage phagocytosis is an important in vivo effector mechanism for T cell-mediated Pneumocystis clearance, and that macrophage phenotype can be altered to enhance phagocytosis without exacerbating inflammation. Immune modulation can diminish pulmonary inflammation while preserving host defense, and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of PcP-related immunopathogenesis.

Wang, Jing; Gigliotti, Francis; Bhagwat, Samir P.; George, Thaddeus C.; Wright, Terry W.

2010-01-01

42

In vitro killing of Ehrlichia risticii by activated and immune mouse peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Normal resident murine peritoneal macrophages inoculated in vitro with Ehrlichia risticii readily phagocytized the organism but were unable to suppress ehrlichial replication as determined by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining of the inoculated cells. In contrast, macrophages from Corynebacterium parvum-inoculated and E. risticii-recovered mice rapidly eliminated the ehrlichiae. Macrophages from E. risticii-recovered mice were as effective as the C. parvum-activated cells in phagocytizing and eliminating the organism. Opsonization of E. risticii with homologous antiserum prior to inoculation of macrophage cultures resulted in enhancement of phagocytosis and greater suppression of E. risticii replication in all macrophage groups. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of E. risticii infection centers on the ability of the organism to enter and replicate within the macrophage with avoidance of macrophage antimicrobial effects. An immune response results in macrophage activation with enhancement of the macrophage's ability to eliminate E. risticii. Opsonization of E. risticii with anti-E. risticii serum renders E. risticii more susceptible to macrophage destruction.

Williams, N M; Timoney, P J

1993-01-01

43

Macrophage Depletion Disrupts Immune Balance and Energy Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Increased macrophage infiltration in tissues including white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle has been recognized as a pro-inflammatory factor that impairs insulin sensitivity in obesity. However, the relationship between tissue macrophages and energy metabolism under non-obese physiological conditions is not clear. To study a homeostatic role of macrophages in energy homeostasis, we depleted tissue macrophages in adult mice through conditional expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor and DT-induced apoptosis. Macrophage depletion robustly reduced body fat mass due to reduced energy intake. These phenotypes were reversed after macrophage recovery. As a potential mechanism, severe hypothalamic and systemic inflammation was induced by neutrophil (NE) infiltration in the absence of macrophages. In addition, macrophage depletion dramatically increased circulating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) which is indispensable for NE production and tissue infiltration. Our in vitro study further revealed that macrophages directly suppress G-CSF gene expression. Therefore, our study indicates that macrophages may play a critical role in integrating immune balance and energy homeostasis under physiological conditions.

Lee, Bonggi; Qiao, Liping; Kinney, Brice; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Shao, Jianhua

2014-01-01

44

Alterations in macrophages and monocytes from tumor-bearing mice: evidence of local and systemic immune impairment.  

PubMed

Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system involved in critical activities such as maintaining tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance. Pro-inflammatory macrophages M1 are responsible for the inflammatory response, while M2 macrophages are associated with the immunosuppressive repair phase of tissue remodeling. Most cancers are associated with chronic inflammation, and a high number of macrophages in tumors have been associated with tumor progression. Much effort has been made in elucidating the mechanisms through which macrophages contribute to tumor development, yet much less is known about the initial mechanisms by which tumors modify macrophages. Our work has focused on identifying the mechanisms by which macrophages from tumor hosts are modified by tumors. We have shown that peritoneal macrophages are significantly altered in mice bearing advanced mammary tumors and are not M1 or M2 polarized, but express a mixture of both transcriptional programs. These macrophages are less differentiated and more prone to apoptosis, resulting in increased myelopoiesis as a compensation to regenerate macrophage progenitors in the marrow. Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are also neither M1 nor M2 cells and through a display of different mechanisms are even more impaired than their peripheral counterparts. Finally, systemic blood monocytes, precursors of tissue macrophages, are also altered in tumor bearers and show a mixed program of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We conclude that there is evidence for local and systemic immune impairment in tumor hosts. PMID:24203436

Torroella-Kouri, Marta; Rodríguez, Dayron; Caso, Raul

2013-12-01

45

Thematic review series: The Immune System and Atherogenesis. Recent insights into the biology of macrophage scavenger receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scavenger receptors were originally defined by their ability to bind and internalize modified lipoproteins. Macrophages express at least six structurally different cell surface receptors for modified forms of LDL that contrib- ute to foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In addition to their role in the pathology of atherosclerosis, macrophage scavenger receptors, especially SR-A, play critical roles in in- nate immunity,

David R. Greaves; Siamon Gordon

2004-01-01

46

Macrophages and recently identified forms of cell death.  

PubMed

Recent advances in cell death biology have uncovered an ever increasing range of cell death forms. Macrophages have a bidirectional relationship with cell death that modulates the immune response. Thus, macrophages engulf apoptotic cells and secrete cytokines that may promote cell death in parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the presence of apoptotic or necrotic dead cells in the microenvironment elicits differential macrophage responses. Apoptotic cells elicit anti-inflammatory responses in macrophages. By contrast macrophages may undergo a proinflammatory form of cell death (pyroptosis) in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from necrotic cells and also in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Pyroptosis is a recently identified form of cell death that occurs predominantly in subsets of inflammatory macrophages and is associated to the release of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18. Deregulation of these processes may result in disease. Thus, failure of macrophages to engulf apoptotic cells may be a source of autoantigens in autoimmune diseases, excessive macrophage release of proapoptotic factors or sterile pyroptosis may contribute to tissue injury and failure of pathogen-induced pyroptosis may contribute to pathogen survival. Ongoing research is exploring the therapeutic opportunities resulting this new knowledge. PMID:23802146

Sanz, Ana B; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Izquierdo, Maria C; Gonzalez-Espinoza, Liliana; Ucero, Alvaro C; Poveda, Jonay; Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2014-01-01

47

Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors by mast cells alone, but not lymphocytes, macrophages or other immune cells in human upper airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDNasal polyposis often coexists with asthma in airway inflammatory conditions characterised by the infiltration of a range of immune cells. A potentially important role for ovarian hormones has been implicated in airway inflammation but the cellular target for such action is not known.METHODSExpression of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) was examined using immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed nasal polyp

X J Zhao; G McKerr; Z Dong; C A Higgins; J Carson; Z Q Yang; B M Hannigan

2001-01-01

48

Different subsets of T cells in conjunction with natural killer cells, macrophages, and activated microglia participate in the intracerebral immune response to Toxoplasma gondii in athymic nude and immunocompetent rats.  

PubMed Central

Oral infection of athymic nude and immunocompetent Lewis rats with Toxoplasma gondii induced a chronic nonlethal encephalitis. The histopathological pattern of Toxoplasma encephalitis was significantly different in both groups of animals and there were substantially larger numbers of Toxoplasma cysts in the brains of athymic rats. Combined immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses of intracerebral leukocytes identified alpha beta TCR+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; macrophages, and natural killer cells as inflammatory cell populations in immunocompetent rats, whereas in athymic rats natural killer cells, macrophages, and gamma delta TCR+ CD8+ CD3+ T cells contributed to the intracerebral inflammatory infiltrates. These findings not only point to a major participation of alpha beta TCR+ T cells to the intracerebral immune response, but also indicate that they are not essential to prevent the development of a lethal Toxoplasma encephalitis. In addition, microglia were strongly activated in both strains with simultaneous up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens and CD4. Activation of microglia was most prominent in athymic rats, demonstrating that immunodeficiency does not preclude an up-regulation of these molecules including the human immunodeficiency virus receptor CD4 on microglial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Schluter, D.; Hein, A.; Dorries, R.; Deckert-Schluter, M.

1995-01-01

49

Regulation of murine macrophage Ia antigen expression by a lymphokine with immune interferon activity  

PubMed Central

A culture supernatant of concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (Con A supernatant) induced murine macrophages to express Ia antigens in vitro. Biochemical characterization of the Con A supernatant indicated that the macrophage Ia antigen regulatory activity shares molecular weight, pI, and hydrophobic and affinity characteristics with immune interferon (IFN-gamma). Antiserum to mouse IFN-gamma neutralized both the macrophage Ia antigen regulatory and IFN-gamma bioactivities of the Con A supernatant. Furthermore, both partially purified murine IFN- gamma (10(7) U/mg protein sp act) and IFN-containing culture supernatants of the murine BFS T cell line-induced macrophage Ia antigen expression in vitro. Culture supernatants containing colony- stimulating factor, interleukin 1, interleukin 2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and a macrophage-activating activity that were distinct from IFN-gamma did not induce macrophage Ia antigen expression. Taken together, the data indicate that the in vitro expression of Ia antigens on macrophages is regulated by an activity that has the characteristics of interferon.

1982-01-01

50

Interplay of macrophages and T cells in the lung vasculature  

PubMed Central

In severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), vascular lesions are composed of phenotypically altered vascular and inflammatory cells that form clusters or tumorlets. Because macrophages are found in increased numbers in intravascular and perivascular space in human PAH, here we address the question whether macrophages play a role in pulmonary vascular remodeling and whether accumulation of macrophages in the lung vasculature could be compromised by the immune system. We used the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 because these cells are resistant to apoptosis, have high proliferative capacity, and resemble cells in the plexiform lesions that tend to pile up instead of maintaining a monolayer. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry with cell surface markers (Lycopersicon Esculentum Lectin, CD117, CD133, FVIII, CD31, VEGFR-2, and S100). Activated, but not quiescent, T cells were able to suppress RAW 264.7 cell proliferative and migration activity in vitro. The carboxyfluorescein diacetate-labeled RAW 264.7 cells were injected into the naïve Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and athymic nude rat. Twelve days later, cells were found in the lung vasculature of athymic nude rats that lack functional T cells, contributing to vascular remodeling. No labeled RAW 264.7 cells were detected in the lungs of immune-competent SD rats. Our data demonstrate that T cells can inhibit in vitro migration and in vivo accumulation of macrophage-like cells.

Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia; Kratzer, Adelheid; Sidiakova, Asya; Salys, Jonas; Zamora, Martin

2012-01-01

51

Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

2013-10-01

52

Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption.  

PubMed

Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. PMID:23954561

Srivastava, Ritesh K; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Ballestas, Mary E; Elmets, Craig A; Robbins, David J; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R; Athar, Mohammad

2013-11-01

53

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Macrophages to Modulate Host Immunity  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological agent of gonorrhoea, which is a sexually transmitted disease widespread throughout the world. N. gonorrhoeae does not improve immune response in patients with reinfection, suggesting that gonococcus displays several mechanisms to evade immune response and survive in the host. N. gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. In this study, we determined whether N. gonorrhoeae directly conditions the phenotype of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line and its response. We established that gonococcus was effectively phagocytosed by the RAW 264.7 cells and upregulates production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-?1) but not the production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?, indicating that gonococcus induces a shift towards anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, N. gonorrhoeae did not induce significant upregulation of costimulatory CD86 and MHC class II molecules. We also showed that N. gonorrhoeae infected macrophage cell line fails to elicit proliferative CD4+ response. This implies that macrophage that can phagocytose gonococcus do not display proper antigen-presenting functions. These results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae induces a tolerogenic phenotype in antigen-presenting cells, which seems to be one of the mechanisms to induce evasion of immune response.

Candia, Enzo; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastian; Villegas-Valdes, Belgica; Neira, Tanya; Lopez, Mercedes; Maisey, Kevin; Tempio, Fabian; Rios, Miguel; Acuna-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Monica

2013-01-01

54

Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces a tolerogenic phenotype in macrophages to modulate host immunity.  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological agent of gonorrhoea, which is a sexually transmitted disease widespread throughout the world. N. gonorrhoeae does not improve immune response in patients with reinfection, suggesting that gonococcus displays several mechanisms to evade immune response and survive in the host. N. gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. In this study, we determined whether N. gonorrhoeae directly conditions the phenotype of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line and its response. We established that gonococcus was effectively phagocytosed by the RAW 264.7 cells and upregulates production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF- ? 1) but not the production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF- ? , indicating that gonococcus induces a shift towards anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, N. gonorrhoeae did not induce significant upregulation of costimulatory CD86 and MHC class II molecules. We also showed that N. gonorrhoeae infected macrophage cell line fails to elicit proliferative CD4+ response. This implies that macrophage that can phagocytose gonococcus do not display proper antigen-presenting functions. These results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae induces a tolerogenic phenotype in antigen-presenting cells, which seems to be one of the mechanisms to induce evasion of immune response. PMID:24204097

Escobar, Alejandro; Candia, Enzo; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastian; Villegas-Valdes, Bélgica; Neira, Tanya; Lopez, Mercedes; Maisey, Kevin; Tempio, Fabián; Ríos, Miguel; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Mónica

2013-01-01

55

IgA and IgG immune complexes increase human macrophage C3 biosynthesis.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the effect of IgA- and IgG-containing immune complexes on the production of complement proteins C3, factor B and C2 by human monocyte-derived macrophages, using biosynthetic labelling, immunoprecipitation, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) and autoradiography. There was a consistent increase in C3 production and secretion with both IgA and IgG immune complexes. This increase appeared after a 24-hr incubation period of the macrophages in the presence of immune complexes. No change in the biosynthesis of factor B and C2 proteins was observed in these experiments. Concomitant with the enhanced C3 biosynthesis, the immune complexes caused an increase in macrophage tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production; 310 + 24 U/ml/5 x 10(5) cells and 430 + 51 U/ml/5 x 10(5) cells for IgA and IgG immune complexes, respectively, versus 12 + 8 U/ml/5 x 10(5) cells in the control cells. The presence of prednisolone (2 x 10(-5) M) or dexamethasone (1 x 10(-7) M) inhibited the immune complex-induced TNF production, but had no effect on C3-increased synthesis, suggesting that the effect of immune complexes was not mediated by endogenous TNF production. These findings may be relevant to the local inflammatory response in IgA immune complex-mediated diseases, including IgA nephropathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7

Laufer, J; Boichis, H; Farzam, N; Passwell, J H

1995-01-01

56

Immune Cells Detection of the In Vivo Rejecting Heart in USPIO-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of immune cells, in particular macrophages. Contrast agents, for example ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles, administered intravenously into the blood stream will be engulfed by macrophages circulating in the circulation system. When a transplanted heart rejects, macrophages and other immune cells will infiltrate the rejecting tissue. Imaged by

Hsun-Hsien Chang; Jose M. F. Moura; Yijen L. Wu; Chien Ho

2006-01-01

57

Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.  

PubMed

Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages. PMID:24523696

de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin

2014-01-01

58

Immune evasion, stress resistance, and efficient nutrient acquisition are crucial for intracellular survival of Candida glabrata within macrophages.  

PubMed

Candida glabrata is both a human fungal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen which can withstand activities of the immune system. For example, C. glabrata can survive phagocytosis and replicates within macrophages. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular survival remain unclear. In this work, we used a functional genomic approach to identify C. glabrata determinants necessary for survival within human monocyte-derived macrophages by screening a set of 433 deletion mutants. We identified 23 genes which are required to resist killing by macrophages. Based on homologies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs, these genes are putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, nutritional and stress response, protein glycosylation, or iron homeostasis. Mutants were further characterized using a series of in vitro assays to elucidate the genes' functions in survival. We investigated different parameters of C. glabrata-phagocyte interactions: uptake by macrophages, replication within macrophages, phagosomal pH, and recognition of mutant cells by macrophages as indicated by production of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We further studied the cell surface integrity of mutant cells, their ability to grow under nutrient-limited conditions, and their susceptibility to stress conditions mirroring the harsh environment inside a phagosome. Additionally, resistance to killing by neutrophils was analyzed. Our data support the view that immune evasion is a key aspect of C. glabrata virulence and that increased immune recognition causes increased antifungal activities by macrophages. Furthermore, stress resistance and efficient nutrient acquisition, in particular, iron uptake, are crucial for intraphagosomal survival of C. glabrata. PMID:24363366

Seider, Katja; Gerwien, Franziska; Kasper, Lydia; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Jablonowski, Nadja; Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Kuchler, Karl; Hube, Bernhard

2014-01-01

59

Immune Evasion, Stress Resistance, and Efficient Nutrient Acquisition Are Crucial for Intracellular Survival of Candida glabrata within Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Candida glabrata is both a human fungal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen which can withstand activities of the immune system. For example, C. glabrata can survive phagocytosis and replicates within macrophages. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular survival remain unclear. In this work, we used a functional genomic approach to identify C. glabrata determinants necessary for survival within human monocyte-derived macrophages by screening a set of 433 deletion mutants. We identified 23 genes which are required to resist killing by macrophages. Based on homologies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs, these genes are putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, nutritional and stress response, protein glycosylation, or iron homeostasis. Mutants were further characterized using a series of in vitro assays to elucidate the genes' functions in survival. We investigated different parameters of C. glabrata-phagocyte interactions: uptake by macrophages, replication within macrophages, phagosomal pH, and recognition of mutant cells by macrophages as indicated by production of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We further studied the cell surface integrity of mutant cells, their ability to grow under nutrient-limited conditions, and their susceptibility to stress conditions mirroring the harsh environment inside a phagosome. Additionally, resistance to killing by neutrophils was analyzed. Our data support the view that immune evasion is a key aspect of C. glabrata virulence and that increased immune recognition causes increased antifungal activities by macrophages. Furthermore, stress resistance and efficient nutrient acquisition, in particular, iron uptake, are crucial for intraphagosomal survival of C. glabrata.

Seider, Katja; Gerwien, Franziska; Kasper, Lydia; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Jablonowski, Nadja; Schwarzmuller, Tobias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Kuchler, Karl

2014-01-01

60

The Role of Macrophages in T Cell-mediated Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that the inactivation of macrophages in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice results in the prevention of diabetes; however, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. In this study, we found that T cells in a macrophage-depleted environment lost their ability to differentiate into ? cell–cytotoxic T cells, resulting in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes, but these T cells regained their ? cell–cytotoxic potential when returned to a macrophage-containing environment. To learn why T cells in a macrophage-depleted environment lose their ability to kill ? cells, we examined the islet antigen–specific immune response and T cell activation in macrophage-depleted NOD mice. There was a shift in the immune balance, a decrease in the T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune response, and an increase in the Th2 immune response, due to the reduced expression of the macrophage-derived cytokine IL-12. As well, there was a deficit in T cell activation, evidenced by significant decreases in the expression of Fas ligand and perforin. The administration of IL-12 substantially reversed the prevention of diabetes in NOD mice conferred by macrophage depletion. We conclude that macrophages play an essential role in the development and activation of ? cell–cytotoxic T cells that cause ? cell destruction, resulting in autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

Jun, Hee-Sook; Yoon, Chang-Soon; Zbytnuik, Lori; van Rooijen, Nico; Yoon, Ji-Won

1999-01-01

61

PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

2009-11-01

62

The journey from stem cell to macrophage.  

PubMed

Essential protectors against infection and injury, macrophages can also contribute to many common and fatal diseases. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that control different types of macrophage activities in mice. We follow the cells' maturational pathways over time and space and elaborate on events that influence the type of macrophage eventually settling a particular destination. The nature of the precursor cells, developmental niches, tissues, environmental cues, and other connecting processes appear to contribute to the identity of macrophage type. Together, the spatial and developmental relationships of macrophages compose a topo-ontogenic map that can guide our understanding of their biology. PMID:24673186

Pittet, Mikael J; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

2014-06-01

63

Chemoattractant Signaling between Tumor Cells and Macrophages Regulates Cancer Cell Migration, Metastasis and Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-associated macrophages are known to influence cancer progression by modulation of immune function, angiogenesis, and cell metastasis, however, little is known about the chemokine signaling networks that regulate this process. Utilizing CT26 colon cancer cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages as a model cellular system, we demonstrate that treatment of CT26 cells with RAW 264.7 conditioned medium induces cell migration, invasion

Chad E. Green; Tiffany Liu; Valerie Montel; Gene Hsiao; Robin D. Lester; Shankar Subramaniam; Steven L. Gonias; Richard L. Klemke

2009-01-01

64

Natural IgM and innate immune collectin SPD bind to late apoptotic cells and enhance their clearance by alveolar macrophages in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate immune collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) and natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) are two soluble proteins. These opsonic proteins are good candidates for enhancing late apoptotic cell clearance. However, effects of these proteins on late apoptotic cell clearance in the lungs are not clearly established. We have recently shown that SP-D can bind several immunoglobulin isotypes, including IgM. Here we

Michael L. Litvack; Pascal Djiadeu; Sri Dushyaanthan Sri Renganathan; Sarah Sy; Martin Post; Nades Palaniyar

65

Infiltration of tumours by macrophages and dendritic cells: tumour-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes.  

PubMed

Macrophages and dendritic cells infiltrate tumours. In the tumour microenvironment, mononuclear phagocytes acquire properties of polarized M2 (or alternatively activated) macrophages. These functionally polarized cells, and similarly oriented or immature dendritic cells present in tumours, play a key role in subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits which promote tumour growth and progression. PMID:15027487

Mantovani, Alberto; Sozzani, Silvano; Locati, Massimo; Schioppa, Tiziana; Saccani, Alessandra; Allavena, Paola; Sica, Antonio

2004-01-01

66

Immune regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase in murine peritoneal macrophages: unravelling the IFNgamma pathway.  

PubMed

The activated form of vitamin D(3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), plays an important role in the immune system. Indeed, receptors for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) are found on most immune cells, and 1alpha-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for final activation of vitamin D(3), is expressed by monocytes/macrophages, resulting in secretion of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) after immune stimulation. We have previously shown that in murine peritoneal macrophages 1alpha-hydroxylase is highly regulated by immune signals such as IFNgamma and LPS. In the present study we made use of two different knock-out mouse models with disruptions in two key transcription factors in the IFNgamma-signalling cascade (STAT1alpha and IRF1), to evaluate their role in the regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase. This was performed by culturing peritoneal macrophages from these knock-out mice in the presence of IFNgamma and LPS, and evaluating the impact of the absence of the respective transcription factors on 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR. In addition also the mRNA expression profiles of the essential transcription factors STAT1alpha, IRF1 and C/EBPbeta were investigated. The data confirm a crucial role for STAT1alpha as well as for C/EBPbeta in the regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase in monocytes. PMID:17267208

Stoffels, K; Overbergh, L; Bouillon, R; Mathieu, C

2007-03-01

67

Cell-Mediated Immune Responses of Guinea Pigs to an Inactivated Phase I 'Coxiella Burnetii' Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of a killed phase I Coxiella burnetii vaccine to induce cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in guinea pigs was studied. Cell-mediated immune responses were assessed by the inhibition of macrophage migration (IMM) and lymphocyte transformation...

R. A. Kishimoto J. W. Johnson R. H. Kenyon M. S. Ascher E. W. Larson

1977-01-01

68

Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Females are more susceptible to development of asthma than are males. In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, with aggravated disease in females compared with males, we studied interactions between immune and resident lung cells during asthma development to elucidate which processes are affected by sex. We studied numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), effector T cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?), and their functional capabilities. Male and female mice had comparable Treg numbers in lung tissue and comparable Treg function, but effector T cells had expanded to a greater extent in lungs of females after ovalbumin exposure. This difference in T cell expansion was therefore not the result of lack of Treg control, but appeared to be driven by a greater number of inflammatory mDCs migrating from the lungs to lymph nodes in females. Resident lung cells can influence mDC migration, and AAM? in lung tissue were found to be involved. Artificially elevating the number of AAM? in lung tissue increased the migration of mDCs and airway inflammation. We found greater numbers of AAM? in female lungs than in males; we therefore postulate that AAM? are involved in increased airway inflammation found in female mice.

Melgert, Barbro N.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Qi, Zengbiao; Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara; Geerlings, Marie; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Ray, Anuradha

2010-01-01

69

Diverse influences of androgen-disrupting chemicals on immune responses mounted by macrophages.  

PubMed

Androgen-disrupting chemicals (ADCs) can alter male sexual development. Although the effects of ADCs on hormone disruption have been studied, their influence on the immune response is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of ADCs on innate immunity, we tested eight candidate ADCs for their influence on macrophages by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. Our results showed that treatment with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and hexachlorobenzene increased NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. In contrast, compared to exposure to a negative control, exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), testosterone (TTT), or permethrin decreased NO production. DEHA, BBP, and TTT inhibited NO production in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NNP), or tributyltin chloride (TBTC) reduced NO production and induced cell death. While BPA induced RAW 264.7 cell death through apoptosis, NNP and TBTC caused cell death through necrosis. These results offer insights into the influences of ADCs on the innate immune system. PMID:24287822

Kim, Kyong Hoon; Yeon, Seung-Min; Kim, Hyun Gyung; Choi, Hyun Suk; Kang, Hyojeung; Park, Hee-Deung; Park, Tae Won; Pack, Seung Pil; Lee, Eun Hee; Byun, Youngjoo; Choi, Sang-Eun; Lee, Kenneth Sung; Ha, Un-Hwan; Jung, Yong Woo

2014-06-01

70

A phosphatidylinositol species acutely generated by activated macrophages regulates innate immune responses.  

PubMed

Activation of macrophages with stimuli of the innate immune response results in the intense remodeling of arachidonate-containing phospholipids, leading to the mobilization of large quantities of this fatty acid for conversion into biologically active eicosanoids. As a consequence of this process, the arachidonate levels in membrane phospholipids markedly decrease. We have applied mass spectrometry-based lipid profiling to study the levels of arachidonate-containing phospholipids under inflammatory activation of macrophages. We identify an unusual inositol phospholipid molecule, PI(20:4/20:4), the levels of which do not decrease but actually increase by 300% after activation of the macrophages. PI(20:4/20:4) is formed and degraded rapidly, suggesting a role for this molecule in regulating cell signaling events. Using a metabolipidomic approach consisting in exposing the cells to deuterium-labeled arachidonate at the time they are exposed to stimuli, we show that PI(20:4/20:4) biosynthesis occurs via the sequential incorporation of arachidonate, first into the sn-2 position of a preformed phosphatidylinositol (PI) molecule, followed by the rapid introduction of a second arachidonate moiety into the sn-1 position. Generation requires the participation of cytosolic phospholipase A2? and CoA-dependent acyltransferases. PI(20:4/20:4) formation is also detected in vivo in murine peritonitis exudates. Elevating the intracellular concentration of PI(20:4/20:4) by introducing the lipid into the cells results in enhancement of the microbicidal capacity of macrophages, as measured by reactive oxygen metabolite production and lysozyme release. These findings suggest that PI(20:4/20:4) is a novel bioactive inositol phospholipid molecule that regulates innate immune responses in macrophages. PMID:23567931

Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Astudillo, Alma M; Meana, Clara; Rubio, Julio M; Guijas, Carlos; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

2013-05-15

71

Immune adherence reactivity of rat alveolar macrophages following inhalation of crocidolite asbestos.  

PubMed Central

The immune adherence phenomenon was used to demonstrate the in vivo deposition of complement on membranes of alveolar macrophages from rats chronically exposed to crocidolite asbestos dust. Pre-treatment of macrophage cualtures with anti-C3 antiserum greatly diminished the level of immune adherence reactivity. Alveolar macrophages exposed to crocidolite asbestos in vitro did not exhibit significant levels of immune adherence reactivity. These results may reflect an in-vivo antigen-antibody-complement interaction on the surface of a alveolar macrophages from animals which have inhaled asbestos dust. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Miller, K; Kagan, E

1977-01-01

72

Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: exercise-induced modulation of macrophage function.  

PubMed

Macrophages are important effector cells involved in phagocytosis, microbial killing and antitumour activity. Macrophages also display accessory cell function, in that they can present antigen to foster the development of T lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Recent work, including studies from this group, has demonstrated that acute and chronic exercise can affect many facets of macrophage biology. Manifestation of these effects depends on exercise intensity and duration, the function measured, the timing of measurement in relation to exercise and the concentration of the macrophage-activating stimulus. Exercise has potent stimulatory effects on phagocytosis, antitumour activity, reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolism, and chemotaxis. Indeed, it has been shown that exercise training can increase macrophage antitumour activity in mice of different ages. However, not all functions are enhanced by exercise. Exercise-induced reductions in macrophage MHC II expression and antigen-presentation capacity have been documented. These findings bring up the possibility that exercise, and perhaps other stressors, activate macrophages for effector functions while downregulating accessory cell functions. To a large extent, the mechanisms responsible for the exercise-induced changes in macrophage function remain unknown, but may depend on exercise-induced changes in neuroendocrine factors. Future studies need to explore the effects in a mechanistic way and provide documentation as to their physiological significance. PMID:11050538

Woods, J; Lu, Q; Ceddia, M A; Lowder, T

2000-10-01

73

Modulation of macrophage phenotype by cell shape.  

PubMed

Phenotypic polarization of macrophages is regulated by a milieu of cues in the local tissue microenvironment. Although much is known about how soluble factors influence macrophage polarization, relatively little is known about how physical cues present in the extracellular environment might modulate proinflammatory (M1) vs. prohealing (M2) activation. Specifically, the role of cell shape has not been explored, even though it has been observed that macrophages adopt different geometries in vivo. We and others observed that macrophages polarized toward different phenotypes in vitro exhibit dramatic changes in cell shape: M2 cells exhibit an elongated shape compared with M1 cells. Using a micropatterning approach to control macrophage cell shape directly, we demonstrate here that elongation itself, without exogenous cytokines, leads to the expression of M2 phenotype markers and reduces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, elongation enhances the effects of M2-inducing cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and protects cells from M1-inducing stimuli LPS and IFN-?. In addition shape- but not cytokine-induced polarization is abrogated when actin and actin/myosin contractility are inhibited by pharmacological agents, suggesting a role for the cytoskeleton in the control of macrophage polarization by cell geometry. Our studies demonstrate that alterations in cell shape associated with changes in ECM architecture may provide integral cues to modulate macrophage phenotype polarization. PMID:24101477

McWhorter, Frances Y; Wang, Tingting; Nguyen, Phoebe; Chung, Thanh; Liu, Wendy F

2013-10-22

74

Modulation of macrophage phenotype by cell shape  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic polarization of macrophages is regulated by a milieu of cues in the local tissue microenvironment. Although much is known about how soluble factors influence macrophage polarization, relatively little is known about how physical cues present in the extracellular environment might modulate proinflammatory (M1) vs. prohealing (M2) activation. Specifically, the role of cell shape has not been explored, even though it has been observed that macrophages adopt different geometries in vivo. We and others observed that macrophages polarized toward different phenotypes in vitro exhibit dramatic changes in cell shape: M2 cells exhibit an elongated shape compared with M1 cells. Using a micropatterning approach to control macrophage cell shape directly, we demonstrate here that elongation itself, without exogenous cytokines, leads to the expression of M2 phenotype markers and reduces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, elongation enhances the effects of M2-inducing cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and protects cells from M1-inducing stimuli LPS and IFN-?. In addition shape- but not cytokine-induced polarization is abrogated when actin and actin/myosin contractility are inhibited by pharmacological agents, suggesting a role for the cytoskeleton in the control of macrophage polarization by cell geometry. Our studies demonstrate that alterations in cell shape associated with changes in ECM architecture may provide integral cues to modulate macrophage phenotype polarization.

McWhorter, Frances Y.; Wang, Tingting; Nguyen, Phoebe; Chung, Thanh; Liu, Wendy F.

2013-01-01

75

Effect of PDT-treated apoptotic cells on macrophages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the long-term immunological effects of photodynamic therapy have attracted much attention. PDT induced immune response was mainly initiated through necrotic cells and apoptotic cells, as well as immune cells such as macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) as an important regulatory factor in signal transfer between cells has been wildly studied for generation, development, and metastasis of tumors. NO synthase is a key enzyme in nitric oxide synthesis. However, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is usually activated under pathological conditions, such as stress and cancer, which can produce high levels of nitric oxide and contribute to tumor cytotoxicity. In addition, increased NO production by iNOS has been associated with the host immune response and cell apoptosis, which play an important role in many carcinogenesis and anti-carcinoma mechanisms. This study focuses on the NO production in macrophages, induced by mouse breast carcinoma apoptotic cells treated by PDT in vitro, and on the effects of immune response induced by apoptotic cells in tumor cells growth.

Song, Sheng; Xing, Da; Zhou, Fei-Fan; Chen, Wei R.

2009-02-01

76

To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

2012-12-01

77

Effects of the Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore systems on the regulation of macrophage immune effector pathways and iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen, which is responsible for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Iron plays an essential role for the growth and proliferation of A. fumigatus. This fungus synthesizes three major siderophores. It excretes triacetylfusarinine C to capture iron, while it accumulates ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin for hyphal and conidial iron storage, respectively. Herein, we investigated the role of the siderophore system of A. fumigatus in the modulation of immune effector pathways and iron homeostasis in macrophages. We set up a co-culture system consisting of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and either A. fumigatus wild type or a siderophore-deficient mutant (DeltasidA). We used real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses to study the expression of macrophage iron metabolism and innate immune response genes in response to pathogen challenge. Infection of macrophages with A. fumigatus wild type, but not with the DeltasidA mutant, induced expression of TNF and phagocyte oxidase subunit 47 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, infection with A. fumigatus wild type, but not with the DeltasidA mutant, compromised macrophage iron homeostasis. Infection with wild-type A. fumigatus decreased expression of the two cellular iron importers, the divalent metal transporter-1 and the transferrin receptor, and the only known iron exporter ferroportin. At the same time, it increased macrophage iron retention and ferritin synthesis. These data indicate that A. fumigatus affects the regulation of macrophage iron homeostasis and innate immune effector pathways via its siderophore system. The changes in immune response may be a consequence of macrophage iron restriction. PMID:18926292

Seifert, M; Nairz, M; Schroll, A; Schrettl, M; Haas, H; Weiss, G

2008-01-01

78

IL-1? Promotes Antimicrobial Immunity in Macrophages by Regulating TNFR Signaling and caspase-3 activation*  

PubMed Central

In vivo control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) reflects the balance between host-immunity and bacterial evasion strategies. Effector TH1 cells that mediate protective immunity by depriving the bacterium of its intracellular niche are regulated to prevent over exuberant inflammation. One key immunoregulatory molecule is Tim3. Although Tim3 is generally recognized to down regulate TH1 responses, we recently described that its interaction with Galectin-9 expressed by Mtb infected macrophages stimulates IL-1? secretion, which is essential for survival in the mouse model. Why IL-1? is required for host resistance to Mtb infection is unknown. Here we show that IL-1? directly kills Mtb in murine and human macrophages and does so through the recruitment of other antimicrobial effector molecules. IL-1? directly augments TNF signaling in macrophages through the upregulation of TNF secretion and TNFR1 cell surface expression, and results in activation of caspase-3. Thus, IL-1? and downstream TNF production leads to caspase-dependent restriction of intracellular Mtb growth.

Jayaraman, Pushpa; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Anderson, Ana C.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Remold, Heinz G.; Behar, Samuel M.

2013-01-01

79

Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.  

PubMed

Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice. PMID:9682967

Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

1998-06-01

80

A critical role for alveolar macrophages in elicitation of pulmonary immune fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Hapten immune pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (HIPIF) is induced by a recall cell-mediated immune response against the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in the lung. Studies here dissect the role of the cellular components of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells (alveolar macrophages [AMs] versus monocytes and immature dendritic cells) in the fibrogenic inflammatory response. BAL cells from HIPIF mice were generally more activated and produced a greater amount of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) than controls. Liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) that was inoculated intranasally (i.n.) into mice selectively depleted AMs. Following AM depletion, the number of TNF-?-containing cells was reduced, and both the number of immune inflammatory cells recruited into the alveolar space and the subsequent collagen deposition (hydroxyproline) were decreased in the sensitized and intratracheally (i.t.) challenged mice. In conclusion, AMs are required, in part, for the development of pulmonary fibrosis in HIPIF because AM-derived factors such as TNF-? are needed for initiation of chemokine and cytokine pathways and accumulation of immune inflammatory cells.

Zhang-Hoover, J; Sutton, A; van Rooijen, N; Stein-Streilein, J

2000-01-01

81

Immune cells tracing using quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs), have potential to be applied to molecular biology and bioimaging, since some nanocrystals emit higher and longer lasting fluorescence than conventional organic probes do. Here we report an example of labeling immune cells by QDs. We collected splenic CD4+ T-lymphocyte and peritoneal macrophages from mice. Then cells were labeled with QDs. QDs are incorporated into the T-lymphocyte and macrophages immediately after addition and located in the cytoplasm via endocytosis pathway. The fluorescence of QDs held in the endosomes was easily detected for more than a week. In addition, T-lymphocytes labeled with QDs were stable and cell proliferation or cytokine production including IL-2 and IFN-? was not affected. When QD-labeled T-lymphocytes were adoptively transferred intravenously to mice, they remained in the peripheral blood and spleen up to a week. Using QD-labeled peritoneal macrophages, we studied cell traffic during inflammation on viscera in peritoneum cavity. QD-labeled macrophages were transplanted into the peritoneum of the mouse, and colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of a hapten, trinitrobenzensulfonic acid. With the aid of stong signals of QDs, we found that macrophage accumuled on the inflammation site of the colon. These results suggested that fluorescent probes of QDs might be useful as bioimaging tools for tracing target cells in vivo.

Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko; Yasuhara, Masato; Dohi, Taeko; Yamamoto, Kenji

2006-03-01

82

Innate Immune Cells in Liver Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair.

Liaskou, Evaggelia; Wilson, Daisy V.; Oo, Ye H.

2012-01-01

83

Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

Schafer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

2014-01-01

84

Contrasting roles of macrophages and dendritic cells in controlling initial pulmonary Brucella infection.  

PubMed

Control of pulmonary pathogens constitutes a challenging task as successful immune responses need to be mounted without damaging the lung parenchyma. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we analyzed in the mouse the initial innate immune response that follows intranasal inoculation of Brucella abortus. Bacteria were absent from parenchymal dendritic cells (DC) but present in alveolar macrophages in which they replicated. When the number of alveolar macrophages was reduced prior to Brucella infection, small numbers of pulmonary DC were infected and a massive recruitment of TNF-?- and iNOS-producing DC ensued. Coincidentally, Brucella disseminated to the lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (LN) where they replicated in both migratory DC and migratory alveolar macrophages. Together, these results demonstrate that alveolar macrophages are critical regulators of the initial innate immune response against Brucella within the lungs and show that pulmonary DC and alveolar macrophages play rather distinct roles in the control of microbial burden. PMID:21108467

Archambaud, Cristel; Salcedo, Suzana P; Lelouard, Hugues; Devilard, Elisabeth; de Bovis, Beatrice; Van Rooijen, Nico; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Malissen, Bernard

2010-12-01

85

Isolation of Adipose Tissue Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

The discovery of increased macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue (AT) of obese rodents and humans has led to an intensification of interest in immune cell contribution to local and systemic insulin resistance. Isolation and quantification of different immune cell populations in lean and obese AT is now a commonly utilized technique in immunometabolism laboratories; yet extreme care must be taken both in stromal vascular cell isolation and in the flow cytometry analysis so that the data obtained is reliable and interpretable. In this video we demonstrate how to mince, digest, and isolate the immune cell-enriched stromal vascular fraction. Subsequently, we show how to antibody label macrophages and T lymphocytes and how to properly gate on them in flow cytometry experiments. Representative flow cytometry plots from low fat-fed lean and high fat-fed obese mice are provided. A critical element of this analysis is the use of antibodies that do not fluoresce in channels where AT macrophages are naturally autofluorescent, as well as the use of proper compensation controls.

Orr, Jeb S.; Kennedy, Arion J.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

2013-01-01

86

Induction of Rapid T Cell Death and Phagocytic Activity by Fas-Deficient lpr Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Peripheral T cells are maintained by the apoptosis of activated T cells through the Fas–Fas ligand system. Although it is well known that normal T cells fail to survive in the Fas-deficient immune condition, the molecular mechanism for the phenomenon has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that rapid cell death and clearance of normal T cells were induced by Fas-deficient lpr macrophages. Transfer of normal T cells into lpr mice revealed that Fas expression on donor T cells was promptly enhanced through the IFN-?/IFN-?R. In addition, Fas ligand expression and phagocytic activity of lpr macrophages were promoted through increased NF-?B activation. Controlling Fas expression on macrophages plays an essential role in maintaining T cell homeostasis in the peripheral immune system. Our data suggest a critical implication to the therapeutic strategies such as transplantation and immunotherapy for immune disorder or autoimmunity related to abnormal Fas expression.

Oura, Ritsuko; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Kudo, Yasusei; Tanaka, Eiji; Hayashi, Yoshio

2013-01-01

87

Macromolecular inhibitory factor for lymphoid cells produced by mouse macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Supernatants of high density cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages were inhibitory to homologous lymphoid cells in vitro by a number of parameters: proliferation and survival of lymphoma cells was impaired, the immune response of spleen cells to sheep red cells and to Concanavalin A (Con A) was decreased. Inhibition was due to factor(s) with mol. wt of approximately 110,000 as estimated by gel filtration. Activity was stable to heating at 56 degrees, and was resistant to trypsin but not to pronase.

Chen, P C; Gaetjens, E; Broome, J D

1977-01-01

88

NOD macrophages produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines upon encounter of apoptotic or necrotic cells.  

PubMed

During the development of type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta-cells are subject to an immune attack, leading to their apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Apoptotic beta-cells are also present during periods of tissue remodeling, such as in early life. Macrophages should clear apoptotic cells silently without production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytokine pattern of NOD macrophages exposed to apoptotic or necrotic cells in vitro. In contrast to the limited response of macrophages from C57BL/6 or NOR mice, NOD macrophages reacted aberrantly to both necrotic and apoptotic cells, with secretion of inappropriately high amounts of IL1beta and TNFalpha. Further exploration of the macrophage behavior showed an excessive response of NOD macrophages when exposed to LPS (high iNOS and IL12p40 levels), accompanied by hyper-activation of NF-kappaB(p65). In contrast, NOD macrophages failed to up-regulate IL1beta and IL12p40 in response to IFNgamma. This failure correlated with low protein levels and a low phosphorylation state of STAT1alpha. We conclude that NOD macrophages have severely aberrant cytokine expression patterns that could contribute to the initiation or continuation of an immune attack towards the pancreatic beta-cells and thus onset and progression of type 1 diabetes. PMID:15236748

Stoffels, K; Overbergh, L; Giulietti, A; Kasran, A; Bouillon, R; Gysemans, C; Mathieu, C

2004-08-01

89

?? T Cell and Other Immune Cells Crosstalk in Cellular Immunity  

PubMed Central

?? T cells have been recognized as effectors with immunomodulatory functions in cellular immunity. These abilities enable them to interact with other immune cells, thus having the potential for treatment of various immune-mediated diseases with adoptive cell therapy. So far, the interactions between ?? T cell and other immune cells have not been well defined. Here we will discuss the interactivities among them and the perspective on ?? T cells for their use in immunotherapy could be imagined. The understanding of the crosstalk among the immune cells in immunopathology might be beneficial for the clinical application of ?? T cell.

He, Ying; Wu, Kangni; Hu, Yongxian; Sheng, Lixia; Tie, Ruxiu; Wang, Binsheng; Huang, He

2014-01-01

90

Epithelial cells in fetal intestine produce chemerin to recruit macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are first seen in the fetal intestine at 11–12 wk and rapidly increase in number during the 12- to 22-wk period of gestation. The development of macrophage populations in the fetal intestine precedes the appearance of lymphocytes and neutrophils and does not require the presence of dietary or microbial antigens. In this study, we investigated the role of chemerin, a recently discovered, relatively selective chemoattractant for macrophages, in the recruitment of macrophage precursors to the fetal intestine. Chemerin mRNA/protein expression was measured in jejunoileal tissue from 10- to 24-wk human fetuses, neonates operated for intestinal obstruction, and adults undergoing bariatric surgery. The expression of chemerin in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was confirmed by using cultured primary IECs and IEC-like cell lines in vitro. The regulatory mechanisms involved in chemerin expression were investigated by in silico and immunolocalization techniques. IECs in the fetal, but not mature, intestine express chemerin. Chemerin expression peaked in the fetal intestine at 20–24 wk and then decreased to original low levels by full term. During the 10- to 24-wk period, chemerin accounted for most of the macrophage chemotactic activity of cultured fetal IECs. The maturational changes in chemerin expression correlated with the expression of retinoic acid receptor-? in the intestine. Chemerin is an important mediator of epithelial-macrophage cross talk in the fetal/premature, but not in the mature, intestine. Understanding the regulation of the gut macrophage pool is an important step in development of novel strategies to boost mucosal immunity in premature infants and other patient populations at risk of microbial translocation.

Maheshwari, Akhil; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; Shaik, Sadiq S.; Kelly, David R.; Hartman, Yolanda; Zhang, Wei; Dimmitt, Reed; Saeed, Shehzad; Randolph, David A.; Aprahamian, Charles; Datta, Geeta; Ohls, Robin K.

2009-01-01

91

Phenotypic Skewing of Macrophages In Vitro by Secreted Factors from Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are cells with many important functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses and have been shown to play a complex role in tumor progression since they harbour both tumor preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. In many human cancers, infiltrating macrophages have been associated with a poor patient prognosis, and therefore suggested to be mainly of an M2 phenotype. However, we and others have previously shown that increased macrophage density in colorectal cancer (CRC) instead is correlated with an improved prognosis. It is an intriguing question if the different roles played by macrophages in various cancers could be explained by variations in the balance between M1 and M2 macrophage attributes, driven by tumor- or organ-specific factors in the tumor microenvironment of individual cancers. Here, we utilized an in vitro cell culture system of macrophage differentiation to compare differences and similarities in the phenotype (morphology, antigen-presentation, migration, endocytosis, and expression of cytokine and chemokine genes) between M1/M2 and tumor activated macrophages (TAMs), that could explain the positive role of macrophages in CRC. We found that secreted factors from CRC cells induced TAMs of a “mixed” M1/M2 phenotype, which in turn could contribute to a “good inflammatory response”. This suggests that re-education of macrophages might allow for important therapeutic advances in the treatment of human cancer.

Edin, Sofia; Wikberg, Maria L.; Rutegard, Jorgen; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Palmqvist, Richard

2013-01-01

92

The interaction between CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and Leishmania-infected macrophages  

PubMed Central

Leishmania is resident within the macrophages of its vertebrate host. In any intramacrophage infection, where the pathogen is present in a form capable of mediating cell to cell transmission, the contribution of a cytotoxic T cell response to protective immunity is questionable. This study presents data from an in vitro model designed to elucidate the outcome of an interaction between CD8+, cytotoxic T cells and infected macrophages. Experiments were conducted with an H-2d- restricted, cytotoxic CD8+ T cell clone and Leishmania parasites present in mixed macrophage cultures, with the parasites confined to either histocompatible BALB/c macrophages, or incompatible CBA macrophages. Initial experiments indicated that the viability of Leishmania was unaffected by the lysis of its host macrophage by cytotoxic T cells. However, extended experiments showed that the parasites were killed between 24 and 72 h. The same results were obtained regardless of whether the parasites were resident in the target, BALB/c, macrophages or the bystander, CBA, macrophages. Addition of neutralizing, anti-IFN-g antibody to the cultures ablated most of the leishmanicidal behavior, indicating that parasite death was attributable to macrophage activation, resulting from cytokine secretion from the T cells following the initial recognition event.

1991-01-01

93

Consequences of the crosstalk between monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

The interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and different other immune cells like T cells and dendritic cells is well-described, but the crosstalk with monocytes or macrophages and the nature of ligands/receptors implicated are just emerging. The macrophage-NK interaction is a major first-line defense against pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites). The recruitment and the activation of NK cells to perform cytotoxicity or produce cytokines at the sites of inflammation are important to fight infections. The two main mechanisms by which macrophages can prime NK cells are (1) activation through soluble mediators such as IL-12, IL-18, and (2) stimulation through direct cell-to-cell contact. We will discuss the progress in matters of modulation of NK cell functions by monocytes and macrophages, in the steady state and during diseases.

Michel, Tatiana; Hentges, Francois; Zimmer, Jacques

2013-01-01

94

Activated Macrophages Migrate to the Subcutaneous Tumor Site via the Peritoneum: A Novel Route of Cell Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous regression of AK-5 tumor in syngeneic hosts reported earlier involves the interplay of Th1-type cytokines and cell-mediated immunity. Upon subcutaneous transplantation of AK-5 cells, there was accumulation of immune cells in the peritoneum, of which macrophages were the predominant type and were found to be in a hyperactive state. They released macrophage-derived tumoricidal mediators like NO, O?2, and ONOO?

Sraboni Bhaumik; Roshni Mitra; Ch Varalakshmi; Ashok Khar

2001-01-01

95

Uropathogenic E. coli Induce Different Immune Response in Testicular and Peritoneal Macrophages: Implications for Testicular Immune Privilege  

PubMed Central

Infertility affects one in seven couples and ascending bacterial infections of the male genitourinary tract by Escherichia coli are an important cause of male factor infertility. Thus understanding mechanisms by which immunocompetent cells such as testicular macrophages (TM) respond to infection and how bacterial pathogens manipulate defense pathways is of importance. Whole genome expression profiling of TM and peritoneal macrophages (PM) infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) revealed major differences in regulated genes. However, a multitude of genes implicated in calcium signaling pathways was a common feature which indicated a role of calcium-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. UPEC-dependent NFAT activation was confirmed in both cultured TM and in TM in an in vivo UPEC infectious rat orchitis model. Elevated expression of NFATC2-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines was found in TM (IL-4, IL-13) and PM (IL-3, IL-4, IL-13). NFATC2 is activated by rapid influx of calcium, an activity delineated to the pore forming toxin alpha-hemolysin by bacterial mutant analysis. Alpha-hemolysin suppressed IL-6 and TNF-? cytokine release from PM and caused differential activation of MAP kinase and AP-1 signaling pathways in TM and PM leading to reciprocal expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines in PM (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6 downregulated) and TM (IL-1?, IL-6 upregulated). In addition, unlike PM, LPS-treated TM were refractory to NF?B activation shown by the absence of degradation of I?B? and lack of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-6, TNF-?). Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism to the conundrum by which TM initiate immune responses to bacteria, while maintaining testicular immune privilege with its ability to tolerate neo-autoantigens expressed on developing spermatogenic cells.

Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hossain, Hamid; Lu, Yongning; Geisler, Andreas; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Schuler, Gerhard; Klug, Jorg; Pilatz, Adrian; Wagenlehner, Florian; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

2011-01-01

96

The polarization of immune cells in the tumour environment by TGF?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by tumour cells and immune cells that can polarize many components of the immune system. This Review covers the effects of TGF? on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CD8+ and CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and NKT cells in animal tumour models and in patients with cancer.

Shomyseh Sanjabi; Stephen H. Wrzesinski; Paula Licona-Limón; Richard A. Flavell

2010-01-01

97

Effects of T-2 Toxin on Cytokine Production by Mice Peritoneal Macrophages and Lymph Node T-Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera such as Fusarium species. Mycotoxins can affect both cell mediated and humoral immune compartments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investi- gate the effect of T-2 toxin on cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages and lymph node T cells. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages

Kazem Ahmadi; Majid Riazipour

98

Immune Regulation by Rapamycin: Moving Beyond T Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a multifunctional kinase that promotes cell growth and division in response to growth factor and nutrient signals. Rapamycin exerts its potent immunosuppressive effects in part through direct effects on antigen-specific lymphocytes; however, rapamycin also modulates adaptive immunity through its effects on innate immune cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Studies have established rapamycin-sensitive functions of mTOR, downstream of Toll-like receptors, in shaping the cytokine response of myeloid cells and driving the production of interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. These findings point to new strategies for boosting or suppressing specific immune responses.

Matthew R. Janes (Irvine;University of California REV); David A. Fruman (Irvine;University of California REV)

2009-04-21

99

Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization.  

PubMed

Macrophages are critical immune effector cells of the tumor microenvironment that promote seeding, extravasation and persistent growth of tumor cells in primary tumors and metastatic sites. Tumor progression and metastasis are affected by dynamic changes in the specific phenotypes of macrophage subpopulations; however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells modulate macrophage polarization remain incompletely understood. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is a central adaptor protein of innate immune responses to extracellular pathogens. We report that increased CARD9 expression is primarily localized in infiltrated macrophages and significantly associated with advanced histopathologic stage and the presence of metastasis. Using CARD9-deficient (CARD9(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived CARD9 promotes liver metastasis of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that CARD9 contributes to tumor metastasis by promoting metastasis-associated macrophage polarization through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that tumor cell-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor facilitates spleen tyrosine kinase activation in macrophages, which is necessary for formation of the CARD9-B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 complex. Taken together, our results indicating that CARD9 is a regulator of metastasis-associated macrophages will lead to new insights into evolution of the microenvironments supporting tumor metastasis, thereby providing targets for anticancer therapies. PMID:24722209

Yang, M; Shao, J-H; Miao, Y-J; Cui, W; Qi, Y-F; Han, J-H; Lin, X; Du, J

2014-08-01

100

Catecholamines in a macrophage cell line.  

PubMed

This study provides the first evidence for catecholamine synthesis and release in the RAW264.7 cell line, an important macrophage model. Although catecholamines were low in unstimulated cells, activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and increased extracellular norepinephrine and intracellular dopamine within 48 h. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (alpha-mpt) decreased extracellular norepinephrine levels, suggesting release and rapid turnover of newly synthesized norepinephrine. High concentrations of dopamine or norepinephrine (>/=100 microM) decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of macrophages. These anti-proliferative effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid. Pre-incubation with a glutathione synthesis inhibitor (L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine [L-BSO]) increased sensitivity to catecholamine-stimulated apoptosis, suggesting that glutathione protects macrophages from both endogenous and exogenous catecholamines. PMID:12576223

Brown, Scott W; Meyers, Randall T; Brennan, Karen M; Rumble, Julie M; Narasimhachari, Nedathur; Perozzi, Edmund F; Ryan, John J; Stewart, Jennifer K; Fischer-Stenger, Krista

2003-02-01

101

Sex hormone modulation of cell growth and apoptosis of the human monocytic\\/macrophage cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex hormones seem to modulate the immune\\/inflammatory responses by different mechanisms in female and male rheumatoid arthritis patients. The effects of 17?-oestradiol and of testosterone were tested on the cultured human monocytic\\/macrophage cell line (THP-1) activated with IFN-? in order to investigate their role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activated human THP-1 cells were cultured in the presence of 17?-oestradiol

Maurizio Cutolo; Silvia Capellino; Paola Montagna; Paola Ghiorzo; Alberto Sulli; Barbara Villaggio

2005-01-01

102

HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells induce NO production in macrophage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) provides a new stimulator to trigger cell apoptosis, and it is well known that apoptotic cells provide antigens to effectively trigger recognition by the immune system. In order to investigate the effect of HF-LPLI on the professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) function, in our primary study, we focused our attention on the effect of HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells on macrophages phagocytosis and NO production. Both confocal microscopy and flowcytometry analysis showed that HF-LPLI (120 J/cm2) induced significantly EMT6 death. Further experiments showed that HF-LPLI-treated EMT6 cells could be phagocyted by the murine macrophage cells RAW264.7, and could induce NO production in macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells effectively regulated the immune system. The HF-LPLI effect on the APC function needs to be further studied.

Lu, Cuixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

2013-02-01

103

Facilitative glucose transporter gene expression in human lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages: a role for GLUT isoforms 1, 3, and 5 in the immune response and foam cell formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular glucose uptake is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) exhibiting differences in kinetics, substrate specificity, and tissue-specific expression. GLUT isoform expression has not been comprehensively studied in human leukocytes, which participate in immune and inflammatory responses and are critical for host defense. Therefore, we studied the regulated expression of GLUT 1–5 mRNA and protein in isolated

Yuchang Fu; Lidia Maianu; Barry R Melbert; W. Timothy Garvey

2004-01-01

104

Role of Macrophages in the Altered Epithelial Function during a Type 2 Immune Response Induced by Enteric Nematode Infection  

PubMed Central

Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a “lean” epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells.

Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C.; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A.; McLean, Leon P.; Madden, Kathleen B.; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F.; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

2014-01-01

105

Fisetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation and dendritic cell maturation.  

PubMed

Macrophages and dendritic cells are required for initiating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Aberrant activation of macrophages and dendritic cells can cause detrimental immune responses; thus, agents effectively modulating their functions are of great clinical value. We herein investigated whether fisetin, a flavonoid prevalently present in fruits and vegetables, could inhibit macrophage activation and dendritic cell maturation. Fisetin suppressed LPS-induced NF-?B activation, expression of pro-inflammatory proteins (TNF-? and iNOS), MMP-9 activity, and phagocytic activity in macrophages. Furthermore, upon LPS-induced dendritic cell maturation, fisetin at nontoxic concentrations suppressed the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-?), and the endocytic activity of dendritic cells. Fisetin treatment significantly attenuated migration of dendritic cells into spleens and dendritic cell-mediated T cell activation in LPS-treated mice. Collectively, our data reveal that fisetin inhibits macrophage activation and impairs functional maturation of dendritic cells. PMID:20923145

Liu, Sheng-Hung; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chou, Jen-Hwey; Chi, Chin-Wen; Fu, Shu-Ling

2010-10-27

106

Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in mucosal T cells or macrophages. Images

Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

1997-01-01

107

Human macrophage hybrid forming spontaneous giant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Thymidine kinase-deficient clones of the human monocyte\\/ macrophage cell line U-937 were established and used for fusion experiments\\u000a with separated normal human blood monocytes. A hybrid (H 29) was generated during HAT-selection procedure, about 50% of which\\u000a formed spontaneous giant cells, as shown by morphological, immunocytochemical, and chromosomal analyses. It is concluded that\\u000a giant cells originate from monocytes and display

Mohammad R. Parwaresch; Hans Kreipe; Heinz J. Radzun

1986-01-01

108

SELECTION OF MACROPHAGE-RESIS TANT PROGRESSOR TUMOR VARIANTS BY THE NORMAL HOST Requirement for Concomitant T Cell-mediated Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary progression from an initial carcinogen-expos ed target cell to a cancer cell is characterized by a series of alterations in heritable phenotypic properties of the cells (1). Obviously, malignant cells that succeed in forming progressive tumors must have developed some means of subverting relevant host defenses and homeostatic control mechanisms. Thus, an analysis of how potentialiy malignant ceils

JAMES L. URBAN; HANS SCHREIBER

109

Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell

David E Gyorki; Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat; Nico van Rooijen; Geoffrey J Lindeman; Jane E Visvader

2009-01-01

110

Apoptotic Cells Can Deliver Chemotherapeutics to Engulfing Macrophages and Suppress Inflammatory Cytokine Production*  

PubMed Central

Immunosuppression via cell-cell contact with apoptotic cells is a well studied immunological phenomenon. Although the original studies of immune repression used primary cells, which undergo spontaneous cell death or apoptosis in response to irradiation, more recent studies have relied on chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis in cell lines. In this work, we demonstrate that Jurkat cells induced to die with actinomycin D suppressed inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages, whereas cells treated with etoposide did not. This immune repression mediated by actinomycin D-treated cells did not require phagocytosis or cell-cell contact and thus occurs through a different mechanism from that seen with primary apoptotic neutrophils. Moreover, cells induced to die with etoposide and then treated for a short time with actinomycin D also suppressed macrophage responses, indicating that suppression was mediated by actinomycin D independent of the mechanism of cell death. Finally, phagocytosis of actinomycin D-treated cells caused apoptosis in macrophages, and suppression could be blocked by inhibition of caspase activity in the target macrophage. Together, these data indicate that apoptotic cells act as “Trojan horses,” delivering actinomycin D to engulfing macrophages. Suppression of cytokine production by macrophages is therefore due to exposure to actinomycin D from apoptotic cells and is not the result of cell-receptor interactions. These data suggest that drug-induced death may not be an appropriate surrogate for the immunosuppressive activity of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, these effects of cytotoxic drugs on infiltrating immune phagocytes may have clinical ramifications for their use as antitumor therapies.

Perez, Beatriz; Paquette, Nicholas; Paidassi, Helena; Zhai, Bo; White, Kristin; Skvirsky, Rachel; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.

2012-01-01

111

Macrophages Help NK Cells to Attack Tumor Cells by Stimulatory NKG2D Ligand but Protect Themselves from NK Killing by Inhibitory Ligand Qa-1  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells and their crosstalk with other immune cells are important for innate immunity against tumor. To explore the role of the interaction between NK cells and macrophages in the regulation of anti-tumor activities of NK cells, we here demonstrate that poly I:C-treated macrophages increased NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target tumor cells in NKG2D-dependent manner. In addition, IL-15, IL-18, and IFN-? secreted by poly I:C-treated macrophages are also involved in NKG2D expression and NK cell activation. Interestingly, the increase in expression of NKG2D ligands on macrophages induced a highly NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells, but not against macrophages themselves. Notably, a high expression level of Qa-1, a NKG2A ligand, on macrophages may contribute to such protection of macrophages from NK cell-mediated killing. Furthermore, Qa-1 or NKG2A knockdown and Qa-1 antibody blockade caused the macrophages to be sensitive to NK cytolysis. These results suggested that macrophages may activate NK cells to attack tumor by NKG2D recognition whereas macrophages protect themselves from NK lysis via preferential expression of Qa-1.

Zhou, Zhixia; Zhang, Cai; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Zhigang

2012-01-01

112

IL-2/CD40-activated macrophages rescue age and tumor-induced T cell dysfunction in elderly mice.  

PubMed

The role of macrophages and their interactions with T cells during aging is not well understood. We determined if activating elderly-derived macrophages could rescue age-related and tumor-induced T cell dysfunction. Healthy elderly (18-24 months) Balb/c contained significantly more splenic IL-10-secreting M2-macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells than young (6-8 weeks) mice. Exposure to syngeneic mesothelioma or lung carcinoma-conditioned media polarized peritoneal macrophages into suppressive M2-macrophages regardless of age. Tumor-exposed, elderly, but not young-derived, macrophages produced high levels of IL-4 and could not induce T cell IFN-? production. We attempted to rescue tumor-exposed macrophages with LPS/IFN-? (M1 stimulus) or IL-2/agonist anti-CD40 antibody. Tumor-exposed, M1-stimulated macrophages retained high CD40 expression, yet TNF-? and IFN-? production were diminished relative to non-tumor-exposed, M1-stimulated controls. These macrophages induced young and elderly-derived T cell proliferation however, T cells did not secrete IFN-?. In contrast, tumor-exposed, IL-2/CD40-stimulated macrophages rescued elderly-derived T cell IFN-? production, suggesting that IL-2/CD40-activated macrophages could rescue T cell immunity in aging hosts. PMID:24744051

Jackaman, C; Dye, D E; Nelson, D J

2014-06-01

113

TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leprosy enables investigation of mechanisms by which the innate immune system contributes to host defense against infection, because in one form, the disease progresses, and in the other, the infection is limited. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of human monocytes induces rapid differentiation into two distinct subsets: DC-SIGN+ CD16+ macrophages and CD1b+ DC-SIGN? dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ phagocytic macrophages

Stephan R Krutzik; Belinda Tan; Huiying Li; Maria Teresa Ochoa; Philip T Liu; Sarah E Sharfstein; Thomas G Graeber; Peter A Sieling; Yong-Jun Liu; Thomas H Rea; Barry R Bloom; Robert L Modlin

2005-01-01

114

Suppression of Measles Virus Expression by Noncytolytic Antibody in an Immortalized Macrophage Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune regulation of measles virus (MV) expression was studied in a persistently infected mouse macro- phage cell line. Synthesis of both membrane-associated and internal MV antigens was suppressed when infected macrophages were treated with polyclonal rabbit anti-MV antibody that was specific for MV proteins. Persistently infected macrophages were treated for 3, 5, or 7 days with increasing doses of anti-MV

MARGARET B. GOLDMAN; THOMAS A. O'BRYAN; DAVID J. BUCKTHAL; LINDA M. TETOR; ANDJOHN N. GOLDMAN

1995-01-01

115

Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

2003-01-01

116

Catecholamines in a macrophage cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first evidence for catecholamine synthesis and release in the RAW264.7 cell line, an important macrophage model. Although catecholamines were low in unstimulated cells, activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and increased extracellular norepinephrine and intracellular dopamine within 48 h. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor ?-methyl-para-tyrosine (?-mpt) decreased extracellular norepinephrine levels, suggesting release and rapid

Scott W Brown; Randall T Meyers; Karen M Brennan; Julie M Rumble; Nedathur Narasimhachari; Edmund F Perozzi; John J Ryan; Jennifer K Stewart; Krista Fischer-Stenger

2003-01-01

117

Altered Polarization, Morphology, and Impaired Innate Immunity Germane to Resident Peritoneal Macrophages in Mice with Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with perturbed innate immunity. Macrophages, bridging innate immunity and metabolic disturbances, play important roles in controlling immune homeostasis. However, the effect of long-term diabetic milieu (DM) on the functions and phenotypes of macrophages is still not clear. In this study, we used resident peritoneal macrophages (RPMs) from 5-month-old db/db mice to investigate the changes of macrophages. It was found that RPMs in db/db mice significantly reduced phagocytosis and adhesion capacity. After standardization with body weight, the number of F4/80+?RPMs markedly reduced in db/db mice, and, furthermore, the macrophages skewed to M2-polarizated macrophages. The results of morphology found that the RPMs shape of db/db mice was nearly round, but the RPMs shape of control mice was spindle-shaped and irregular. In this study, we found the cell numbers, morphology, and innate immunity functions of RPMs in 5-month-old type 2 diabetic mice (db/db mice) obtained by abdominal cavity lavage were significantly altered. Importantly, we also found the remarkably increased M2-RPMs in diabetic mice for the first time.

Liu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Hu, Qi-Xian; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Fan, Jia-Yan; Zhan, Ming; Chen, Feng-Ling

2012-01-01

118

Immunity to Onchocerciasis: Cells from Putatively Immune Individuals Produce Enhanced Levels of Interleukin5, Gamma Interferon, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Response to Onchocerca volvulus Larval and Male Worm Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5), gamma interferon (IFN-g), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stim- ulating factor (GM-CSF) responses in individuals living in an area of hyperendemicity for onchocerciasis in Cameroon were examined. The responses against antigens prepared from Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae (L3), molting L3 (mL3), and crude extract from adult males (M-OvAg) were compared to the responses against antigens from adult female worms and

PRASAD S. D. TURAGA; TRACY J. TIERNEY; KRISTINE E. BENNETT; MAGGIE C. MCCARTHY; SCOTT C. SIMONEK; PETER A. ENYONG; DANIEL W. MOUKATTE; SARA LUSTIGMAN

2000-01-01

119

An early response to lipopolysaccharide is the elicitation of macrophages specialized for antigen degradation with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses.  

PubMed Central

The ability of macrophages to catabolize antigens is relevant both as a means to process complex antigens before presentation to T cells and as a way to down-regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations in mind, we investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of 125I-labeled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes after their uptake by macrophages. We compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected intraperitoneally with saline or LPS and found that LPS-elicited macrophages displayed a greatly enhanced (threefold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaked 3 days after LPS injection and slowly declined thereafter, approaching a base-line level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity was under Lps gene control. Macrophages that were elicited 3 days after intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly destroyed the antigenicity of bacterial antigens, expressed low levels of Ia molecules, and processed and presented antigen slowly when tested as antigen-presenting cells in vitro. We also showed that an injection of LPS before infection with L. monocytogenes resulted in diminished development of T-cell reactivity to this organism. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions, with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses.

Cluff, C W; Ziegler, H K

1987-01-01

120

Functions of C2D macrophage cells after adoptive transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage function depends on their in situ location. To test this hypothesis, we exam- ined functional changes of the C2D macrophage cell line after adoptive transfer. In vitro, C2D mac- rophages reside early in the macrophage lineage and show little functional activity. After in vivo i.p. culture, C2D macrophage cells switch their cyto- kine\\/chemokine profile from primarily Th2 cyto- kines

Betsey E. Potts; Stephen K. Chapes

2007-01-01

121

The effects of ?-glucan on human immune and cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Non-prescriptional use of medicinal herbs among cancer patients is common around the world. The alleged anti-cancer effects of most herbal extracts are mainly based on studies derived from in vitro or in vivo animal experiments. The current information suggests that these herbal extracts exert their biological effect either through cytotoxic or immunomodulatory mechanisms. One of the active compounds responsible for the immune effects of herbal products is in the form of complex polysaccharides known as ?-glucans. ?-glucans are ubiquitously found in both bacterial or fungal cell walls and have been implicated in the initiation of anti-microbial immune response. Based on in vitro studies, ?-glucans act on several immune receptors including Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6 and trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive response can be modulated by ?-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis. In animal studies, after oral administration, the specific backbone 1?3 linear ?-glycosidic chain of ?-glucans cannot be digested. Most ?-glucans enter the proximal small intestine and some are captured by the macrophages. They are internalized and fragmented within the cells, then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. The small ?-glucans fragments are eventually released by the macrophages and taken up by other immune cells leading to various immune responses. However, ?-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency. Careful selection of appropriate ?-glucans is essential if we wish to investigate the effects of ?-glucans clinically. So far, no good quality clinical trial data is available on assessing the effectiveness of purified ?-glucans among cancer patients. Future effort should direct at performing well-designed clinical trials to verify the actual clinical efficacy of ?-glucans or ?-glucans containing compounds.

Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Chan, Wing Keung; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen

2009-01-01

122

Nitric oxide-mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2?/? macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2?/? macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-?) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2?/? macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages

Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian

2013-01-01

123

Macrophage and T Cell Produced IL-10 Promotes Viral Chronicity  

PubMed Central

Chronic viral infections lead to CD8+ T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c+ cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c+ cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4+ T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4+ T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10.

Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A.; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A.; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

2013-01-01

124

Macrophage and T cell produced IL-10 promotes viral chronicity.  

PubMed

Chronic viral infections lead to CD8(+) T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c(+) cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c(+) cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4(+) T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4(+) T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10. PMID:24244162

Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

2013-11-01

125

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AGAINST BESNOITIA AND TOXOPLASMA IN SPECIFICALLY AND CROSS-IMMUNIZED HAMSTERS AND IN CULTURES  

PubMed Central

The capacity of hamster peritoneal cell populations to control viability and growth of Besnoitia and Toxoplasma organisms was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Immunized hamsters reduced the homologous organisms 100- to 10,000-fold over a 5-day period, but the heterologous infection increased 100- to 1,000-fold in numbers, similar as in the nonimmune controls. Passively administered antibody was ineffective although lytic cofactors were supplied by hamsters. In cultures, peritoneal cells from Besnoitia-immune hamsters delayed the growth of homologous parasites to an average of 38.5 h per division; however, in Toxoplasma-immune and nonimmune cells, Besnoitia divided every 12.8 h. Specificity of immunity was pronounced against both infections. With cross-infections, Toxoplasma-immune cultures did not effectively delay Besnoitia growth; however, Besnoitia-immune cultures reduced Toxoplasma growth by one-half. Co-cultivation experiments demonstrated that specifically committed lymphocytes could instruct macrophages to reduce the homologous organism 10-fold, whereas heterologous organisms were reduced only 2-fold. Lymphocyte supernatants initiated hypersensitivity as indicated by macrophage activation and giant cell formation in culture. However, these supernatants did not transfer infection immunity. Lymphokines could account for the hypersensitivity phenomena, but cell-mediated infection immunity in this model required close lymphocyte-macrophage proximity. These studies indicate that a number of distinct processes including delayed hypersensitivity, macrophage activation, and specific cellular immunity are acting simultaneously during latent Besnoitia infection of hamsters. All three processes are mediated by lymphoid cells and appear to be specifically induced. Although activated macrophages develop some heightened nonspecific capabilities, these were several orders of magnitude below the specific effects.

Hoff, Richard L.; Frenkel, J. K.

1974-01-01

126

Training modifies innate immune responses in blood monocytes and in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.  

PubMed

In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules. Lower airway diseases are also a common problem in sport and racing horses. Because innate immunity plays an essential role in lung defense mechanisms, we assessed the effect of acute exercise and training on innate immune responses in two different compartments. Blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were collected from horses in untrained, moderately trained, intensively trained, and deconditioned states before and after a strenuous exercise test. The cells were analyzed for TLR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression by real-time PCR in vitro, and cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with TLR ligands was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that training, but not acute exercise, modified the innate immune responses in both compartments. The mRNA expression of TLR3 was down-regulated by training in both cell types, whereas the expression of TLR4 was up-regulated in monocytes. Monocytes treated with LPS and a synthetic diacylated lipoprotein showed increased cytokine secretion in trained and deconditioned subjects, indicating the activation of cells at the systemic level. The production of TNF-? and IFN-? in nonstimulated and stimulated PAMs was decreased in trained and deconditioned horses and might therefore explain the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Our study reports a dissociation between the systemic and the lung response to training that is probably implicated in the systemic inflammation and in the pulmonary susceptibility to infection. PMID:24502337

Frellstedt, Linda; Waldschmidt, Ingrid; Gosset, Philippe; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Farnir, Frédéric; Franck, Thierry; Dupuis-Tricaud, Marie-Capucine; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

2014-07-01

127

Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage's Appetite  

PubMed Central

Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells.

A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andres

2014-01-01

128

TIM-3 Regulates Innate Immune Cells to Induce Fetomaternal Tolerance  

PubMed Central

TIM-3 is constitutively expressed on subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. Its expression on other cells of the innate immune system and its role in fetomaternal tolerance has not yet been explored. Here we investigate the role of TIM-3 expressing innate immune cells in the regulation of tolerance at the fetomaternal interface (FMI) using an allogeneic mouse model of pregnancy. Blockade of TIM-3 results in accumulation of inflammatory granulocytes and macrophages at the utero-placental interface and up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, TIM-3 blockade inhibits the phagocytic potential of uterine macrophages resulting in a build up of apoptotic bodies at the utero-placental interface that elicits a local immune response. In response to inflammatory cytokines, Ly-6ChiGneg M-MDSCs (monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells) expressing iNOS and arginase 1 are induced. However, these suppressive cells fail to down-regulate the inflammatory cascade induced by inflammatory granulocytes (Ly-6Cint Ghi) and apoptotic cells; the increased production of IFN? and TNF? by inflammatory granulocytes leads to abrogation of tolerance at the fetomaternal interface and fetal rejection. These data highlight the interplay between cells of the innate immune system at the FMI and their influence on successful pregnancy in mice.

Chabtini, Lola; Mfarrej, Bechara; Mounayar, Marwan; Zhu, Bing; Batal, Ibrahim; Dakle, Pranal J; Smith, Brian D; Boenisch, Olaf; Najafian, Nader; Akiba, Hisaya; Yagita, Hideo; Guleria, Indira

2012-01-01

129

Respiratory syncytial virus induces interleukin-10 by human alveolar macrophages. Suppression of early cytokine production and implications for incomplete immunity.  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes repeated infections thought to be due to an ineffective immune response. We examined the hypothesis that incomplete immunity may result, in part, from RSV-infected alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 which can interfere with the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We also assessed whether RSV induced the expression of the 2',5' oligoadenylate (2-5A)-dependent RNase L, an endoribonuclease involved in the antiviral activities of interferons. Human alveolar macrophages were exposed to medium (uninfected control), RSV, LPS, and RSV + LPS then were assessed for expression of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, IL-10, as well as 2-5A-dependent RNase L. LPS up-regulated the expression of protein and mRNA for all cytokines. RSV stimulated the protein levels of TNF-alpha, did not alter IL-1 beta, and decreased IL-8. RSV markedly stimulated protein expression of IL-10 and 2-5A-dependent RNase L. RSV had minor effects on the steady state mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8, yet potently induced IL-10. Cells costimulated with RSV + LPS demonstrated reduced protein and mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 but synergistically increased IL-10 levels compared to RSV- or LPS-activated cells. Kinetic analysis indicated that RSV induced a delayed and sustained increase in IL-10 transcripts. Furthermore, RSV-infected alveolar macrophage supernatants suppressed IL-1 beta and IL-8 production by LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages as did recombinant IL-10. Anti-IL-10 neutralized these effects. These studies indicate that RSV is capable of suppressing production of early immunoregulatory cytokines through induction of IL-10 perhaps mediated by 2-5A-dependent RNase L (or other endoribonucleases) accounting for the ineffective immune response to this virus. Images

Panuska, J R; Merolla, R; Rebert, N A; Hoffmann, S P; Tsivitse, P; Cirino, N M; Silverman, R H; Rankin, J A

1995-01-01

130

Respiratory syncytial virus induces interleukin-10 by human alveolar macrophages. Suppression of early cytokine production and implications for incomplete immunity.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes repeated infections thought to be due to an ineffective immune response. We examined the hypothesis that incomplete immunity may result, in part, from RSV-infected alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 which can interfere with the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We also assessed whether RSV induced the expression of the 2',5' oligoadenylate (2-5A)-dependent RNase L, an endoribonuclease involved in the antiviral activities of interferons. Human alveolar macrophages were exposed to medium (uninfected control), RSV, LPS, and RSV + LPS then were assessed for expression of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, IL-10, as well as 2-5A-dependent RNase L. LPS up-regulated the expression of protein and mRNA for all cytokines. RSV stimulated the protein levels of TNF-alpha, did not alter IL-1 beta, and decreased IL-8. RSV markedly stimulated protein expression of IL-10 and 2-5A-dependent RNase L. RSV had minor effects on the steady state mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8, yet potently induced IL-10. Cells costimulated with RSV + LPS demonstrated reduced protein and mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 but synergistically increased IL-10 levels compared to RSV- or LPS-activated cells. Kinetic analysis indicated that RSV induced a delayed and sustained increase in IL-10 transcripts. Furthermore, RSV-infected alveolar macrophage supernatants suppressed IL-1 beta and IL-8 production by LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages as did recombinant IL-10. Anti-IL-10 neutralized these effects. These studies indicate that RSV is capable of suppressing production of early immunoregulatory cytokines through induction of IL-10 perhaps mediated by 2-5A-dependent RNase L (or other endoribonucleases) accounting for the ineffective immune response to this virus. PMID:7593633

Panuska, J R; Merolla, R; Rebert, N A; Hoffmann, S P; Tsivitse, P; Cirino, N M; Silverman, R H; Rankin, J A

1995-11-01

131

Basal-like breast cancer cells induce phenotypic and genomic changes in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Basal-like breast cancer (BBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that has no biologically-targeted therapy. The interactions of BBCs with stromal cells are important determinants of tumor biology, with inflammatory cells playing well-recognized roles in cancer progression. Despite the fact that macrophage-BBC communication is bidirectional, important questions remain about how BBCs affect adjacent immune cells. This study investigated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and polarization, and gene expression in response to coculture with basal-like versus luminal breast cancer cells. Changes induced by coculture were compared to changes observed under classical differentiation and polarization conditions. Monocytes (THP-1 cells) exposed to BBC cells in coculture had altered gene expression with upregulation of both M1 and M2 macrophage markers. Two sets of M1 and M2 markers were selected from the PCR profiles and used for dual immunofluorescence staining of BBC versus luminal cocultured THP-1s, and cancer-adjacent, benign tissue sections from patients diagnosed with BBC or luminal breast cancer confirming the differential expression patterns. Relative to luminal breast cancers, BBCs also increased differentiation of monocytes to macrophages and stimulated macrophage migration. Consistent with these changes in cellular phenotype, a distinct pattern of cytokine secretion was evident in macrophage-BBC cocultures, including upregulation of NAP-2, Osteoprotegerin, MIG, MCP-1, MCP-3 and IL-1?. Application of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) to cocultures attenuated BBC-induced macrophage migration. These data contribute to an understanding of the BBC-mediated activation of the stromal immune response, implicating specific cytokines that are differentially expressed in basal-like microenvironments and suggesting plausible targets for modulating immune responses to BBC.

Stewart, Delisha A.; Yang, Yinmeng; Makowski, Liza; Troester, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

132

The innate NK cells and macrophages recognize and reject allogeneic non-self in vivo via different mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the allograft response. But how the innate immune cells respond to allotransplants remains poorly defined. In the present study, we examined the role of NK cells and macrophages in recognizing and rejecting allogeneic cells in vivo. We found that in naïve mice NK cells are the primary effector cells in killing of allogeneic cells via “the missing self” recognition. However, in alloantigen pre-sensitized mice, NK cells are dispensable. Instead, macrophages become alloreactive and readily recognize and reject allogeneic non-self. This effect requires help from activated CD4+ T cells and involves CD40/CD40L engagement, as blocking CD40/CD40L interactions prevents macrophage mediated rejection of allogeneic cells. Conversely, actively stimulating CD40 triggers macrophage-mediated rejection in the absence of CD4+ T cells. Importantly, alloantigen primed and CD4+ T cell-helped macrophages (licensed macrophages) exhibit potent regulatory function in vivo in an acute GVHD model. Together, our data uncover an important role for macrophages in the alloimmune response and may have important clinical implications.

Liu, Wentao; Xiao, Xiang; Demirci, Gulcin; Madsen, Joren; Li, Xian C.

2012-01-01

133

Depletion of Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages Perturbs the Innate Immune Response to Surgery and Reduces Postoperative Memory Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background According to rodent models of postoperative cognitive decline, activation of the innate immune response following aseptic surgical trauma results in the elaboration of hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, which are capable of disrupting long-term potentiation, the neurobiologic correlate of memory. We hypothesize that hippocampal recruitment of bone marrow-derived (BMD) macrophages plays a causal role in these processes, resulting in memory dysfunction. Methods Clodrolip injection (liposomal formulation of clodronate) prior to stabilized tibial fracture under general anesthesia was used to deplete BMD macrophages. Systemic and neuroinflammation were studied on postoperative day 1, and memory in a fear-trace conditioning paradigm was assessed on postoperative day 3. CX3CR1GFP/+ CCR2RFP/+ mice were used to identify BMD macrophages. Results Clodrolip effectively depleted splenic CCR2+ BMD macrophages. It also attenuated the surgery-induced increase of interleukin-6 in the serum and the hippocampus, and prevented hippocampal infiltration of CCR2+ cells without affecting the number of CX3CR1+ microglia. It did not alter the surgery-induced increase in hippocampal MCP-1, the recruitment signal for CCR2+ cells. Clodrolip prevented surgery-induced memory dysfunction, as evidenced by a significant increase in freezing time (29%, 95% CI: 21 to 38% vs. 48%, 95% CI: 38 to 58%, n= 20, P = 0.004), but did not affect memory in nonsurgical mice. Conclusion Depletion of BMD macrophages prevents hippocampal neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction after experimental tibial fracture. These data suggest that the hippocampal recruitment of BMD macrophages is a necessary mechanism in murine postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Interventions designed to prevent its activation and/or migration into the brain may represent a feasible preemptive strategy.

Degos, Vincent; Vacas, Susana; Han, Zhenying; van Rooijen, Nico; Gressens, Pierre; Su, Hua; Young, William L.; Maze, Mervyn

2013-01-01

134

Splenic PGE2-releasing macrophages regulate Th1 and Th2 immune responses in mice treated with heat-killed BCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hosts infected with low doses of myco- bacteria develop T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immu- nity, but at relatively higher doses, a switch to Th2 immunity occurs. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a pro- posed mediator of the Th1-to-Th2 shift of immune responses, and mycobacterial products induce PGE2- releasing macrophages (PGE2-MA) in the mouse spleen in a dose-dependent manner. Splenic

Yoshimi Shibata; Ruth Ann Henriksen; Ikuro Honda; Reiko M. Nakamura; Quentin N. Myrvik

2005-01-01

135

Monoclonal antibody to macrophages (EMB/11) labels macrophages and microglial cells in human brain.  

PubMed Central

Normal and diseased human central nervous system (CNS) tissues were studied immunohistochemically by a monoclonal antibody to human macrophages (EBM/11), antisera to glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT). EBM/11 reacted with brain macrophages located mainly around blood vessels in normal brain; it also reacted with resting microglia in normal brain and with numerous reactive microglia and macrophages in brain tumours and inflammatory lesions. Microglia did not react with anti-GFAP or alpha 1-ACT. An EBM/11 positive phenotype, therefore, is shared by microglia and macrophages and suggests that microglial cells form a specialised part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Images

Esiri, M M; McGee, J O

1986-01-01

136

NKT cells in mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal tract allows the residence of an almost enumerable number of bacteria. To maintain homeostasis, the mucosal immune system must remain tolerant to the commensal microbiota and eradicate pathogenic bacteria. Aberrant interactions between the mucosal immune cells and the microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we

S Middendorp; E E S Nieuwenhuis; EES Nieuwenhuis

2009-01-01

137

CD56+ T cells inhibit HIV-1 infection of macrophages  

PubMed Central

CD56+ T cells, the crucial component of the host innate immune system, play an important role in defense against viral infections. We investigated the noncytolytic anti-HIV-1 activity of primary CD56+ T cells. SNs collected from CD56+ T cell cultures inhibited HIV-1 infection and replication. This CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV-1 activity was broad-spectrum, as CD56+ T SNs could inhibit infections by laboratory-adapted and clinical strains of HIV-1. The antibody to IFN-? could partially block the CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV effect. Investigation of mechanism(s) of the CD56+ T cell action on HIV-1 showed that although CD56+ T SN had little effect on HIV-1 entry coreceptor CCR5 expression, CD56+ T SN induced the expression of CC-chemokines, the ligands for CCR5. The antibodies to CC-chemokines also significantly blocked CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, CD56+ T SN up-regulated the expression of STAT-1/-2 and enhanced the expression of IRF1, -3, -7, and -9, resulting in the induction of endogenous IFN-?/? expression in macrophages. Moreover, CD56+ T SN up-regulated intracellular expression of APOBEC3G/3F, the recently identified HIV-1 restriction factors. These findings provide compelling evidence that CD56+ T cells may have a critical role in innate immunity against HIV-1 infection.

Hou, Wei; Ye, Li; Ho, Wen-Zhe

2012-01-01

138

Modulators affecting the immune dialogue between human immune and colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The link between chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer has been well established. The events proceeding along tumorigenesis are complicated and involve cells activated at the cancer microenvironment, tumor infiltrating polymorphonuclears, immune cells including lymphocyte subtypes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as tumor-associated macrophages. The immune cells generate inflammatory cytokines, several of them playing a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Additional factors, such as gene expression regulated by cytokines, assembling of tumor growth- and transforming factors, accelerated angiogenesis, delayed apoptosis, contribute all to initiation, development and migration of tumor cells. Oxygen radical species originating from the inflammatory area promote cell mutation and cancer proliferation. Tumor cells may over-express pro-inflammatory mediators that in turn activate immune cells for inflammatory cytokines production. Consequently, an immune dialogue emerges between immune and cancer cells orchestrated through a number of activated molecular pathways. Cytokines, encompassing migration inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor-?, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23 have been reported to be involved in human cancer development. Some cytokines, namely IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-22 and growth factors promote tumor development and metastasis, and inhibit apoptosis via activation of signal transducer activator transcription-3 transcription factor. Colon cancer environment comprises mesenchymal, endothelial and immune cells. Assessment of the interaction between components in the tumor environment and malignant cells requires a reconsideration of a few topics elucidating the role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis, the function of the immune cells expressed by inflammatory cytokine production, the immunomodulation of cancer cells and the existence of a cross-talk between immune and malignant cells leading to a balance in cytokine production. It is conceivable that the prevalence of anti-inflammatory cytokine production by PBMC in the affected colonic mucosa will contribute to the delay, or even to halt down malignant expansion. Targeting the interplay between immune and cancer cells by mediators capable to alter cytokine secretion toward increased anti-inflammatory cytokine release by PBMC and tumor associated macrophages, may serve as an additional strategy for treatment of malignant diseases. This review will focus on the inflammatory events preceding tumorigenesis in general, and on a number of modulators capable to affect colon cancer cell-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by PBMC through alteration of the immune cross-talk between PBMC and cancer cells.

Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

2014-01-01

139

Immune Responsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Promotes Endotoxin Tolerance by Increasing A20 Expression in Macrophages through Reactive Oxygen Species*  

PubMed Central

Sepsis-associated immunosuppression (SAIS) is regarded as one of main causes for the death of septic patients at the late stage because of the decreased innate immunity with a more opportunistic infection. LPS-tolerized macrophages, which are re-challenged by LPS after prior exposure to LPS, are regarded as the common model of hypo-responsiveness for SAIS. However, the molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance and SAIS remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, negative regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory response needs further investigation. Here we show that expression of immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was highly up-regulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients and in LPS-tolerized mouse macrophages. IRG1 significantly suppressed TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-? in LPS-tolerized macrophages, with the elevated expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and A20. Moreover, ROS enhanced A20 expression by increasing the H3K4me3 modification of histone on the A20 promoter domain, and supplement of the ROS abrogated the IRG1 knockdown function in breaking endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression. Our results demonstrate that inducible IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression through ROS, indicating a new molecular mechanism regulating hypoinflammation of sepsis and endotoxin tolerance.

Li, Yingke; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengcai; Han, Chaofeng; Meng, Jun; Liu, Xingguang; Xu, Sheng; Li, Nan; Wang, Qingqing; Shi, Xueyin; Cao, Xuetao

2013-01-01

140

The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

2011-12-15

141

The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter.  

PubMed

Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 ?m or less, PM(10)) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 ?m or less, PM(2.5)) and ultrafine particles (0.1 ?m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-?B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-?] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-?B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile. PMID:21951342

Miyata, Ryohei; van Eeden, Stephan F

2011-12-01

142

Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity.  

PubMed

The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca(2+) waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca(2+)-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. PMID:24463523

Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A; Islam, Mohammad N; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S; Prince, Alice S; Bhattacharya, Jahar

2014-02-27

143

Improved Method for Culturing Guinea-Pig Macrophage Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proper nutrients and periodic changes in culture medium maintain cell viability for a longer period. New method uses a thioglycolate solution, instead of mineral oil, to induce macrophage cells in guinea pigs and also uses an increased percent of fetal-calf bovine serum in cultivation medium. Macrophage cells play significant roles in the body's healing and defense systems.

Savage, J.

1982-01-01

144

Methadone Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Human Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Opiate abuse has been postulated to be a cofactor in the immunopathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study evaluated whether methadone, a drug widely prescribed for the treatment of drug abusers with opioid dependence, affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of human immune cells. When added to human fetal microglia and blood monocyte–derived macrophage cultures, methadone significantly enhanced HIV infection of these cells. This enhancement was associated with the up-regulation of expression of CCR5, a primary coreceptor for macrophage-tropic HIV entry into macrophages. Most importantly, the addition of methadone to the cultures of latently infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients enhanced viral activation and replication. Although the in vivo relevance of these findings remains to be determined, the data underscore the necessity of further studies to define the role of opioids, including methadone, in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection and AIDS.

Li, Yuan; Wang, Xu; Tian, Sha; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Douglas, Steven D.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

2014-01-01

145

Cortisol modulates the induction of inflammatory gene expression in a rainbow trout macrophage cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid actions on the immune system are diverse and cell type dependent, and little is known about cell type-specific interactions and cross-talk between hormones and cytokines. In this study we have analyzed the gene expression patterns of the rainbow trout macrophage cell line RTS-11 by quantitative PCR, after exposure to combinations of cortisol plus a pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. recombinant trout

Rosario Castro; Jun Zou; Christopher J. Secombes; Samuel A. M. Martin

2011-01-01

146

Production of Immune Interferon by an Interleukin 2Independent Murine T Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interleukin 2-independent murine T cell line (BFS) was isolated that produced immune interferon after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The BFS cell line did not produce detectable levels of interleukin 1, interleukin 2, B cell growth factor, macrophage-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage-activating factor, or T cell replacing factor. Maximal interferon was induced 48 hr after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate

William R. Benjamin; Patricia S. Steeg; John J. Farrar

1982-01-01

147

Antagonism by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against the suppression by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells on macrophage.  

PubMed

It is well-documented that macrophages have the functions to regulate antitumor immune response. Antitumor response can be launched by a series of events, starting with inflammation mediated by monocyte/macrophages, which stimulates natural killer and dendritic cells and finally activates the cytotoxic lymphoid system. Monocytes/macrophages may be the first line of defense in tumors. However, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy for human cancer has shown no success or limited success in clinical trials. Part of the reasons attribute to tumor-derived soluble factors that suppress functions of immune cells or induce apoptosis of these cells, including macrophages. Therefore, antagonism of the suppression on the macrophages is an important goal for tumor immunotherapy. To achieve this purpose, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities were used on mouse peritoneal macrophages incubating with culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS). It was shown that the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by B16F10-CS, while the suppressions were fully or partially antagonized by Gl-PS. In conclusion, B16F10-CS is suppressive to the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages while Gl-PS had the antagonistic effects against this suppression, suggesting this potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23519930

Lu, Jie; Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Yang, Ning; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Min; Li, Wei-Dong

2014-02-01

148

Emerging Role of Mast Cells and Macrophages in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are essential in allergic immune responses. Recent discoveries have revealed their direct participation in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Although more sophisticated mechanisms are still unknown, data from animal studies suggest that mast cells act similarly to macrophages and other inflammatory cells and contribute to human diseases through cell–cell interactions and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteases to induce inflammatory cell recruitment, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, and matrix protein remodeling. Reduced cardiovascular complications and improved metabolic symptoms in animals receiving over-the-counter antiallergy medications that stabilize mast cells open another era of mast cell biology and bring new hope to human patients suffering from these conditions.

Xu, Jia-Ming

2012-01-01

149

Modulation of Intracellular Restriction Factors Contributes to Methamphetamine-Mediated Enhancement of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus Infection of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (METH), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. In vitro studies have determined that METH enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and macrophages. In addition, animal studies have also showed that METH treatment increases brain viral load of SIV-infected monkeys and promotes HIV replication and viremia in HIV/hu-CycT1 transgenic mice. However, the mechanisms (s) of METH actions on HIV remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the impact of METH on intracellular restriction factors against HIV and SIV. We demonstrated that METH treatment of human blood mononuclear phagocytes significantly affected the expression of anti-HIV microRNAs and several key elements (RIG-I, IRF-3/5, SOCS-2, 3 and PIAS-1, 3, X, Y) in the type I IFN pathway. The suppression of these innate restriction factors was associated with a reduced production of type I IFNs and the enhancement of HIV or SIV infection of macrophages. These findings indicate that METH use impairs intracellular innate antiviral mechanism(s) in macrophages, contributing to cell susceptibility to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus infection.

Wang, Xu; Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Sinem; Ho, Wenzhe

2014-01-01

150

Mechanisms of protective immunity in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis of the guinea-pig. I. Lack of effects of immune lymphocytes and of activated macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Leishmania enriettii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite which infects guinea-pigs and resides in macrophages. Subcutaneous inoculation produces a skin infection which heals spontaneously and leaves the animal immune to reinfection. Experiments have been performed to explore the mechanisms of parasite destruction in the recovering and immune animal. Using quantitative techniques to assess parasite survival it was found that L. enriettii is not killed in vitro in macrophages from immune guinea-pigs. Inocubation of monolayers of parasitized macrophages with lymphocytes from Leishmania-immune animals had no effect on the intracellular parasites. Finally, macrophages activated to destroy Listeria monocytogenes did not impair intracellular survival of L. enriettii. The possible significance of these findings in explaining the course of infection is discussed.

Mauel, J; Behin, R; Biroum-Noerjasin; Rowe, D S

1975-01-01

151

Macrophage metalloelastase: stretching therapeutic opportunities.  

PubMed

While tissue macrophages are at the first line of microbial host defense, they are also convenient hideouts for pathogens escaping immune attack. Houghton et al. discovered that alveolar macrophage mobilizes macrophage metalloelastase to destroy bacteria present inside the cell. PMID:19679644

He, Jeannie Q; Campagne, Menno van Lookeren

2009-12-01

152

Lipopolysaccharide induces calcitonin gene-related peptide in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed and plays important roles in a wide array of biological functions. It is enriched in primary sensory neurons and hence involved in nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Recent studies have shown that CGRP can be produced by immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages following inflammatory stimulation, suggesting a role in innate immunity. However, it is unclear how CGRP is up-regulated in macrophages and if it plays a role in macrophage functions such as the production of cytokines and chemokines. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and multiplex ELISA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to induce CGRP in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. LPS-induced inflammatory mediators such as nerve growth factor (NGF), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signalling are involved in inducing CGRP, whereas the NGF receptor trkA and CGRP receptor signalling pathways are unexpectedly involved in suppressing LPS-induced CGRP, which leads to the fine-tune regulation of CGRP release. Exogenous CGRP and CGRP receptor antagonists, in a concentration-dependent manner, stimulated, inhibited or had no effect on basal or LPS-induced release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-1?, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-? and IL-10 in RAW macrophages. The ligand-concentration-dependent regulation of the production of inflammatory mediators by CGRP receptor signalling is a novel mechanism underlying the stimulating and suppressing role of CGRP in immune and inflammatory responses. Together, our data suggest that monocytes/macrophages are an important source of CGRP. Inflammation-induced CGRP has a positive or negative reciprocal effect on the production of other pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Thereby CGRP plays both facilitating and suppressing roles in immune and inflammatory responses.

Ma, Weiya; Dumont, Yvan; Vercauteren, Freya; Quirion, Remi

2010-01-01

153

Natural killer cell and macrophage cooperation in MyD88-dependent innate responses to Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

IFN- secretion by natural killer (NK) cells is pivotal to several tumor and viral immune responses, during which NK and dendritic cells cooperation is required. We show here that macrophages are mandatory for NK cell IFN- secretion in response to erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), a causative agent of human malaria. In addition, direct sensing of Pf infection by

Myriam Baratin; Sophie Roetynck; Catherine Lépolard; Christine Falk; Serge Sawadogo; Satoshi Uematsu; Shizuo Akira; Bernhard Ryffel; Jean-Gérard Tiraby; Lena Alexopoulou; Carsten J. Kirschning; Jürg Gysin; Eric Vivier; Sophie Ugolini

2005-01-01

154

T cells down-regulate macrophage TNF production by IRAK1-mediated IL-10 expression and control innate hyperinflammation.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia is caused by excessive inflammation, but the immune system has various mechanisms to avoid collateral organ damage in endotoxemia. A handful of reports have shown that innate immune responses are suppressed by the adaptive immune system. However, the molecular mechanism by which adaptive immune cells suppress innate inflammatory responses is not clear. Here, we report that T cells are shown to interact with macrophages at the early stage of enodotoxemia and to prolong survival of mice through controlling TNF and IL-10 levels by macrophage CD40 stimulation. The cross-talk between CD40 and toll-like receptor (TLR4) signaling first mediates IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) nuclear translocation and its binding to the IL-10 gene promoter in macrophages, without interfering with the NF?B pathway. IL-10 is then detected by macrophages in an autocrine fashion to destabilize Tnfa mRNA. To induce IRAK1-mediated IL-10 expression, signals from both CD40 and TLR4 are essential. CD40 signaling induces IRAK1 sumoylation in the presence of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and intracellular isoform of osteopontin (iOPN) whereas TLR4 signaling provides IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) as a chaperone for sumoylated IRAK1 nuclear translocation. Interaction of T cells with macrophages was observed in the spleen in vivo after endotoxemia induction with LPS injection. Our study demonstrates a mechanistic basis for the immunosuppressive role of macrophage CD40 in LPS endotoxemia. PMID:24706909

Inoue, Makoto; Arikawa, Tomohiro; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Price, Michael; Brown, Michael; Perfect, John R; Shinohara, Mari L

2014-04-01

155

The immunity of splenic and peritoneal F4\\/80 + resident macrophages in mouse mixed allogeneic chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed allogeneic chimeras are emerging as a prospective approach to induce immune tolerance in clinics. However, the immunological\\u000a function of macrophages in mixed chimeras has not been evaluated. Using a B6?BALB\\/c mixed chimera model, we investigated the\\u000a phenotype and function of F4\\/80+ resident peritoneal exudate macrophage (PEMs) and splenic macrophages (SPMs) in vitro and in vivo. Recipient F4\\/80+PEMs and SPMs

Guangwei Liu; Haixia Ma; Lingling Jiang; Jianxia Peng; Yong Zhao

2007-01-01

156

Regulation of HSP70 on activating macrophages using PDT-induced apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

While anti-tumor immunological responses have been mainly associated with necrosis, apoptosis-associated immune responses have been recently suggested as well. In this study, we investigated anti-tumor immune responses and regulatory mechanisms of HSP70 using apoptotic cells induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The relationships between HSP70 release, HSP70 translocation, and macrophage responses were studied using confocal fluorescence microscopy, FACS, and ELISA. Macrophages incubated with apoptotic cells as well as necrotic tumor cells showed a high level of TNF? secretion. Apoptotic cells but not the apoptotic cell supernatants induced TNF? secretion. During both necrosis and apoptosis processes, the TNF? production was diminished drastically when HSP70 or TLR-2 was inhibited. After the PDT treatment, cytoplasmic HSP70 was released from the necrotic cells, while HSP70 rapidly translocated to the surface of the apoptotic cells. Furthermore, the TNF? secretion and the tumor cytotoxicity of splenocytes from mice immunized with apoptotic cells appeared similar to that of splenocytes immunized with necrotic cells. Our in vitro and in vivo results show that apoptosis can potentially have higher impact in inducing immunological responses, hence clarifying the immunological regulatory mechanisms of HSP70 under cell apoptosis and necrosis induced by PDT treatment. These findings could lead to an optimal PDT treatment based on immunological responses.

Zhou, Feifan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

2009-01-01

157

STAT1 Signaling Regulates Tumor-Associated Macrophage-Mediated T Cell Deletion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that tumor progression is associated with the accumulation of myeloid suppressive cells, which in mice include Gr-1 immature myeloid cells and F4\\/80 macrophages. The paradox is that with the exception of terminal stages of the disease or chemotherapy treatment, tumor-bearing mice or cancer patients do not display a profound systemic immune suppression. We therefore raised the

Sergei Kusmartsev; Dmitry I. Gabrilovich

158

Pluripotent Stem Cells: Immune to the Immune system?  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Embryonic stem cells (ESC) which were initially characterized as immune privileged subsequently have proven susceptible to immune recognition. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been proposed as an autologous source of pluripotent cells; however, more recent data now suggest that even autologous iPSCs may be targets of immune rejection. With numerous clinical trials on the horizon, it is imperative that the immunology of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) be definitively understood.

Pearl, Jeremy I.; Kean, Leslie S.; Davis, Mark M.; Wu, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

159

Engagement of the Mannose Receptor by Tumoral Mucins Activates an Immune Suppressive Phenotype in Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are abundantly present in the stroma of solid tumors and modulate several important biological processes, such as neoangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and suppression of adaptive immune responses. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) constitute a large family of transmembrane carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize pathogens as well as endogenous glycoproteins. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that some CLRs can inhibit the immune response. In this study we investigated TAM-associated molecules potentially involved in their immune suppressive activity. We found that TAMs isolated from human ovarian carcinoma samples predominantly express the CLRs Dectin-1, MDL-1, MGL, DCIR, and most abundantly the Mannose Receptor (MR). Components of carcinomatous ascites and purified tumoral mucins (CA125 and TAG-72) bound the MR and induced its internalization. MR engagement by tumoral mucins and by an agonist anti-MR antibody modulated cytokine production by TAM toward an immune-suppressive profile: increase of IL-10, absence of IL-12, and decrease of the Th1-attracting chemokine CCL3. This study highlights that tumoral mucin-mediated ligation of the MR on infiltrating TAM may contribute to their immune suppressive phenotype.

Allavena, P.; Chieppa, M.; Bianchi, G.; Solinas, G.; Fabbri, M.; Laskarin, G.; Mantovani, A.

2010-01-01

160

Does khat chewing increases the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by macrophage immune modulation?  

PubMed

Drug abuse is a serious problem associated with different pathological outcomes including modulating the immune system. Drug abuse is rising in Saudi Arabia and so as TB, a disease of worldwide significance, caused by immunological modulation in the host system. Khat chewing is a common practice in Arabian Peninsula which is now gaining momentum in other parts of the world. It is considered as an addiction. It has been associated with different adverse outcomes such as periodontitis, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer and also has shown to promote apoptotic cell death through cysteine proteases. The active ingredient of khat, cathinone is shown to have immunomodulatory effect. In principle, this leads to enhanced susceptibility to various infections. The present study is designed to delineate the mechanism of immunomodulation produced by khat/cathinone in human/mouse macrophage. Further, this activity will be evaluated both in vivo and in vitro in response to infection with Mycobacterium smegmatis to get an insight if there exists a co relation between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and khat chewing. PMID:24661941

Alvi, Ayesha; Rizwan, Mohammed; Al Sunosi, Rashad; Jerah, Ahmed Bin Ali

2014-06-01

161

Disruption of SIRP? signaling in macrophages eliminates human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells in xenografts  

PubMed Central

Although tumor surveillance by T and B lymphocytes is well studied, the role of innate immune cells, in particular macrophages, is less clear. Moreover, the existence of subclonal genetic and functional diversity in some human cancers such as leukemia underscores the importance of defining tumor surveillance mechanisms that effectively target the disease-sustaining cancer stem cells in addition to bulk cells. In this study, we report that leukemia stem cell function in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on SIRP?-mediated inhibition of macrophages through engagement with its ligand CD47. We generated mice expressing SIRP? variants with differential ability to bind human CD47 and demonstrated that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of AML stem cells depend on absent SIRP? signaling. We obtained independent confirmation of the genetic restriction observed in our mouse models by using SIRP?-Fc fusion protein to disrupt SIRP?–CD47 engagement. Treatment with SIRP?-Fc enhanced phagocytosis of AML cells by both mouse and human macrophages and impaired leukemic engraftment in mice. Importantly, SIRP?-Fc treatment did not significantly enhance phagocytosis of normal hematopoietic targets. These findings support the development of therapeutics that antagonize SIRP? signaling to enhance macrophage-mediated elimination of AML.

Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Jin, Liqing; Cheng, Po-Yan; Prasolava, Tatiana K.; Malko, Andrei V.; Ho, Jenny M.; Poeppl, Armando G.; van Rooijen, Nico; Minden, Mark D.; Danska, Jayne S.; Dick, John E.

2012-01-01

162

Tityus serrulatus venom and toxins Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6 induce macrophage activation and production of immune mediators.  

PubMed

Scorpion envenomation induces a systemic immune response, and neurotoxins of venom act on specific ion channels, modulating neurotransmitter release or activity. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of crude venom from scorpion Tityus serrulatus (TsV) or its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6) in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of TsV and its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6), J774.1 cells were stimulated with different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL) of venom or toxins pre-stimulated or not with LPS (0.5 ?g/mL). Macrophage cytotoxicity was assessed, and nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production were analyzed utilizing the culture supernatants. TsV and its toxins did not produce cytotoxic effects. Depending on the concentrations used, TsV, Ts1 and Ts6 stimulated the production of NO, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in J774.1 cells, which were enhanced under LPS co-stimulation. However, LPS + Ts2 inhibited NO, IL-6 and TNF-? production, and Ts2 alone stimulated the production of IL-10, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity for this toxin. Our findings are important for the basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in macrophage activation following envenomation; additionally, these findings may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic compounds to treat immune-mediated diseases. PMID:21549737

Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Secatto, Adriana; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueredo; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

2011-06-01

163

In vitro activation of rat neutrophils and alveolar macrophages with IgA and IgG immune complexes. Implications for immune complex-induced lung injury.  

PubMed Central

In the rat, both IgG and IgA immune complexes induce oxygen radical mediated lung injury that is partially complement-dependent. In vivo studies have suggested that the chief sources of oxygen radicals in IgG and IgA immune complex-induced lung injury are neutrophils and tissue macrophages, respectively. The current studies have been designed to provide additional insights into these two models of tissue injury. Preformed monoclonal IgG and IgA immune complexes stimulated dose-dependent O2-. and H2O2 production by alveolar macrophages. In contrast, neutrophils exhibited O2-. production and lysosomal enzyme secretion in response to IgG immune complexes, but not in response to IgA complexes. There is evidence that C5a significantly amplifies these responses. Purified human C5a enhanced the O2-. responses of neutrophils activated with IgG immune complexes and alveolar macrophages activated with either IgG or IgA immune complexes. Addition of C5a alone to neutrophils or alveolar macrophages had no direct stimulatory effect as measured by O2-. production. The observation that O2-. responses of immune complex-activated alveolar macrophages can be significantly enhanced by the presence of C5a and that C5a can also enhance O-2. responses of IgG immune complex-stimulated neutrophils suggests a potential amplification mechanism through which complement may participate in both IgG and IgA immune complex-induced lung injury. The present data corroborate in vivo studies which suggest that IgG immune complex lung injury is primarily neutrophil-mediated, whereas IgA complex lung injury is predominantly macrophage-mediated.

Warren, J. S.; Kunkel, S. L.; Johnson, K. J.; Ward, P. A.

1987-01-01

164

Highly Successful Therapeutic Vaccinations Combining Dendritic Cells and Tumor Cells Secreting Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to induce potent immune antitumor activities, we investigated, within the rat 9L gliosarcoma model, distal therapeutic vaccinations associating three therapies: dendritic cell vaccination, intratumoral granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM- CSF) gene transfer, and tumor apoptosis induction. Vaccines of den- dritic cells coinjected with processed GM-CSF secreting 9L cells in- duced systemic responses, resulting in the complete regression

Gregory Driessens; Malika Hamdane; Vincent Cool; Thierry Velu; Catherine Bruyns

165

Innate immune collectin surfactant protein D enhances the clearance of DNA by macrophages and minimizes anti-DNA antibody generation.  

PubMed

Dying microbes and necrotic cells release highly viscous DNA that induces inflammation and septic shock, and apoptotic cells display DNA, a potential autoantigen, on their surfaces. However, innate immune proteins that mediate the clearance of free DNA and surface DNA-containing cells are not clearly established. Pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP-) A and D are innate immune pattern recognition collectins that contain fibrillar collagen-like regions and globular carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). We have recently shown that collectins SP-A, SP-D, and mannose binding lectin recognize DNA and RNA via their collagen-like regions and CRDs. Here we show that SP-D enhances the uptake of Cy3-labeled fragments of DNA and DNA-coated beads by U937 human monocytic cells, in vitro. Analysis of DNA uptake by freshly isolated mouse alveolar macrophages shows that SP-D, but not SP-A, deficiency results in reduced clearance of DNA, ex vivo. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid shows that SP-D- but not SP-A-deficient mice are defective in clearing free DNA from the lung. Additionally, both SP-A- and SP-D-deficient mice accumulate anti-DNA Abs in sera in an age-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that collectins such as SP-A and SP-D reduce the generation of anti-DNA autoantibody, which may be explained in part by the defective clearance of DNA from the lungs in the absence of these proteins. Our findings establish two new roles for these innate immune proteins and that SP-D enhances efficient pinocytosis and phagocytosis of DNA by macrophages and minimizes anti-DNA Ab generation. PMID:15905582

Palaniyar, Nades; Clark, Howard; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Shih, Michael J; Hawgood, Samuel; Reid, Kenneth B M

2005-06-01

166

Innate immune cells as homeostatic regulators of the hematopoietic niche.  

PubMed

Two cellular systems of paramount importance for mammalian physiology, the myeloid and the hematopoietic, have received a great deal of attention in the past decade. Myeloid leukocytes, classically involved in mediating innate immune responses, are now known to regulate other important aspects of the organism's physiology, from development to regulation of metabolic functions. In parallel, many diverse cellular and molecular components have been identified in the bone marrow (BM) that are required for the regulation and lifelong preservation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). Since the production of blood and immune elements by these multipotent cells responds to environmental signals, it is not entirely surprising that the hematopoietic niches in which HSPC are located can in turn be regulated by the immune system. We review here recent evidence demonstrating that two components of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, regulate the function of the hematopoietic niche in ways that may favor both the retention and the release of HSPC from the BM. We propose that the highly migratory nature of neutrophils, the presence of a network of tissue-resident macrophages in the BM and possibly in other tissues, and the superb capacity of these innate immune cells to respond to stress endow them with regulatory functions that are ultimately relayed to the hematopoietic niche. PMID:24634109

Casanova-Acebes, María; A-González, Noelia; Weiss, Linnea A; Hidalgo, Andrés

2014-06-01

167

The Cell Surface Receptor SLAM Controls T Cell and Macrophage Functions  

PubMed Central

Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), a glycoprotein expressed on activated lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, has been shown to be a coregulator of antigen-driven T cell responses and is one of the two receptors for measles virus. Here we show that T cell receptor–induced interleukin (IL)-4 secretion by SLAM?/? CD4+ cells is down-regulated, whereas interferon ? production by CD4+ T cells is only slightly up-regulated. Although SLAM controls production of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by macrophages, SLAM does not regulate phagocytosis and responses to peptidoglycan or CpG. Thus, SLAM acts as a coreceptor that regulates signals transduced by the major LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 on the surface of mouse macrophages. A defective macrophage function resulted in an inability of SLAM?/? C57Bl/6 mice to remove the parasite Leishmania major. We conclude that the coreceptor SLAM plays a central role at the interface of acquired and innate immune responses.

Wang, Ninghai; Satoskar, Abhay; Faubion, William; Howie, Duncan; Okamoto, Susumu; Feske, Stefan; Gullo, Charles; Clarke, Kareem; Sosa, Miriam Rodriguez; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Terhorst, Cox

2004-01-01

168

Comparative Analysis of the Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with Human Dendritic Cells, Macrophages, and Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori may cause chronic gastritis, gastric cancer, or lymphoma. Myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are most likely involved in the induction and expression of the underlying inflammatory responses. To study the interaction of human APC subsets with H. pylori, we infected monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived (classically activated; M1) macrophages with H. pylori and analyzed phenotypic alterations, cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, and immunostimulation. Since we detected CD163+ (alternatively activated; M2) macrophages in gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori-positive patients, we also included monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in the study. Upon H. pylori infection, monocytes secreted interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12p40 (partially secreted as IL-23) but not IL-12p70. Infected DCs became activated, as shown by the enhanced expression of CD25, CD80, CD83, PDL-1, and CCR7, and secreted IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and IL-23. However, infection led to significantly downregulated CD209 and suppressed the constitutive secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). H. pylori-infected M1 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD32, downregulated CD11b and HLA-DR, and secreted mainly IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-23. Activation of DCs and M1 macrophages correlated with increased capacity to induce T-cell proliferation and decreased phagocytosis of dextran. M2 macrophages upregulated CD14 and CD206 and secreted IL-10 but produced less of the proinflammatory cytokines than M1 macrophages. Thus, H. pylori affects the functions of human APC subsets differently, which may influence the course and the outcome of H. pylori infection. The suppression of MIF in DCs constitutes a novel immune evasion mechanism exploited by H. pylori.

Fehlings, Michael; Drobbe, Lea; Moos, Verena; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Hagen, Jana; Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Pang, Ervinna; Belogolova, Elena; Churin, Yuri; Schneider, Thomas; Meyer, Thomas F.; Aebischer, Toni

2012-01-01

169

The Synthetic Immunomodulator Murabutide Controls Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication at Multiple Levels in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages and dendritic cells are known to play an important role in the establishment and persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Besides antiretroviral therapy, several immune-based interventions are being evaluated with the aim of achieving better control of virus replication in reservoir cells. Murabutide is a safe synthetic immunomodulator presenting a capacity to enhance nonspecific resistance against viral infections

EDITH C. A. DARCISSAC; M.-J. Truong; J. Dewulf; Y. Mouton; A. Capron; G. M. Bahr

2000-01-01

170

Development and optimization of near-IR contrast agents for immune cell tracking  

PubMed Central

Gold nanorods (NRs) are attractive for in vivo imaging due to their high optical cross-sections and tunable absorbance. However, the feasibility of using NRs for cell tracking has not been fully explored. Here, we synthesized dye doped silica-coated NRs as multimodal contrast agents for imaging of macrophagesimmune cells which play an important role in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We showed the importance of silica coating in imaging of NR-labeled cells. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of NRs labeled macrophages showed high sensitivity. Therefore, these results provide foundation for applications of silica-coated NRs and PA imaging in tracking of immune cells.

Joshi, Pratixa P.; Yoon, Soon Joon; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

2013-01-01

171

Expression of ?-defensin 1 and 2 mRNA by human monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Human ?-defensins are broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides known to be produced by epithelial cells. It was recently shown that ?-defensins also display chemotactic activity for dendritic cells (DC) and T cells, and thus may serve to link innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of the present study was to explore expression of mRNA for these peptides in mononuclear phagocytes and DC. The results revealed that monocytes, monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM), and monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (DC) all express human-?-defensin-1 (hBD-1) mRNA. hBD-1 mRNA expression by monocytes and MDM was increased after activation with interferon-? (IFN-?) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Alveolar macrophages showed an intense hBD-1 expression, which could not be further increased. Expression of hBD-1 mRNA by immature DC was low, and increased considerably after maturation. Monocytes, MDM, alveolar macrophages and DC showed a limited expression of human ?-defensin-2 (hBD-2) mRNA, which could only be increased in monocytes and alveolar macrophages by IFN-? and/or LPS in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemical stainings demonstrated the expression of hBD-2 peptide by freshly isolated blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages in cytospin preparations.

Duits, Louise A; Ravensbergen, Bep; Rademaker, Mirjam; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Nibbering, Peter H

2002-01-01

172

Accumulation of Macrophages with Dendritic Cell Characteristics in the Pulmonary Response to Listeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary immunity reflects a balance between proinflammatory and immunosuppressive factors in the lung. To determine the immune activities of exudate macrophages in the pulmonary immune re- sponse, Lewis rats were injected intratracheally with heat-killed Listeria (HKL), labeled ex vivo with the lipophilic dye PKH-26. At 24 h, macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were purified on the basis of their surface

RICHARD L. KRADIN; HIDEO SAKAMOTO; FREDERIC I. PREFFER; DAVID DOMBKOWSKI; KIM M. SPRINGER; CAROL P. LEARY

2000-01-01

173

A novel compound, RS-1178, specifically inhibits neuronal cell death mediated by beta-amyloid-induced macrophage activation in vitro.  

PubMed

beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta), a major component of senile plaques, the formation of which is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is believed to induce inflammation in the brain leading to cell loss and cognitive decline. Accumulating evidence shows Abeta activates microglia, which play the role of the brain's immune system, and mediates inflammatory responses in the brain. Thus, a compound inhibiting Abeta-induced activation of microglia may lead to a novel therapy for AD. However, the compound should not inhibit natural immune responses during events such as bacterial infections. We investigated the effect of a synthesized compound, 7,8-dihydro-5-methyl-8-(1-phenylethyl)-6H-pyrrolo [3,2-e] [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (RS-1178) on macrophage activation induced by various stimulants. The activation of macrophages was determined by nitric oxide or tumor necrosis factor alpha production. RS-1178 inhibited Abeta-induced macrophage activation but did not inhibit zymosan A- nor lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation. Moreover, RS-1178 attenuated neurotoxicity due to Abeta-induced macrophage activation in neuron-macrophage co-cultures but not neurotoxicity due to zymosan A- or LPS-induced macrophage activation. In conclusion, RS-1178 showed a specific inhibitory effect on Abeta-induced macrophage activation. Although the exact mechanisms of this effect remain unknown, RS-1178 may provide a novel therapy for AD. PMID:12137934

Uryu, Shigeko; Tokuhiro, Shinya; Murasugi, Takako; Oda, Tomiichiro

2002-08-16

174

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine currently used for the reversal of\\u000a neutropenia associated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, bone marrow and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. GM-CSF also modulates\\u000a the function of differentiated white blood cells. In the context of local inflammatory responses, GM-CSF stimulates macrophages\\u000a for antimicrobial and antitumor effects. GM-CSF further enhances healing and repair by its actions

Philip E. Tarr

1996-01-01

175

Fate of conidia of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after ingestion by resident macrophages or cytokine-treated macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Conidia ingested by resident macrophages had an enhanced percentage of transformation to yeast cells compared with those in culture medium without macrophages. The yeast cells subsequently grew intracellularly by budding. Macrophages treated with cytokines from antigen-stimulated spleen cells from immunized mice significantly inhibited transformation of ingested conidia.

Cano, L E; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A; Restrepo, A

1992-01-01

176

Human mesangial cells express inducible macrophage scavenger receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mesangial cells express inducible macrophage scavenger receptor.BackgroundType A scavenger receptors (Scr) mediate the uptake of modified low-density lipoproteins by macrophages. The accumulation of lipids via this process is thought to lead to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Human mesangial cells (HMCs) have not been previously shown to express Scr in normal culture. We therefore investigated whether there is

Xiong Z. Ruan; Zac Varghese; Stephen H. Powis; John F. Moorhead

1999-01-01

177

Differentiation of C2D Macrophage Cells after Adoptive Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 8 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 7 October 2007\\/Accepted 5 December 2007 C2D macrophage cells protect immunocompromised mice from experimentally induced pneumonias after intraperitoneal (i.p.) adoptive transfer. These macrophage cells are immature and display minimal activity in vitro. Therefore, we wanted to understand how adoptive transfer affected these cells. We believe that the in vivo environment affects the phenotypic and

Betsey E. Potts; Marcia L. Hart; Laura L. Snyder; Dan Boyle; Derek A. Mosier; Stephen K. Chapes

2008-01-01

178

An essential regulatory role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in T-cell activation.  

PubMed Central

The protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was one of the first cytokines to be discovered and was described 30 years ago to be a T-cell-derived factor that inhibited the random migration of macrophages in vitro. A much broader role for MIF has emerged recently as a result of studies that have demonstrated it to be released from the anterior pituitary gland in vivo. MIF also is the first protein that has been identified to be secreted from monocytes/macrophages upon glucocorticoid stimulation. Once released, MIF acts to "override" or counter-regulate the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids on macrophage cytokine production. We report herein that MIF plays an important regulatory role in the activation of T cells induced by mitogenic or antigenic stimuli. Activated T cells produce MIF and neutralizing anti-MIF antibodies inhibit T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production in vitro, and suppress antigen-driven T-cell activation and antibody production in vivo. T cells also release MIF in response to glucocorticoid stimulation and MIF acts to override glucocorticoid inhibition of T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 and interferon gamma production. These studies indicate that MIF acts in concert with glucocorticoids to control T-cell activation and assign a previously unsuspected but critical role for MIF in antigen-specific immune responses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Bacher, M; Metz, C N; Calandra, T; Mayer, K; Chesney, J; Lohoff, M; Gemsa, D; Donnelly, T; Bucala, R

1996-01-01

179

Immunogenic potential of irradiated lymphoma cells is enhanced by adjuvant immunotherapy and modulation of local macrophage populations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of irradiated lymphoma cells in vivo and determine whether immunogenicity can be enhanced by modulation of the host immune system. Syngeneic murine lymphoma models irradiated ex vivo were used as an orthotopic cellular vaccination prior to challenge with viable tumor cells. We demonstrate that irradiated lymphoma cells are poorly immunogenic and that protective anti-tumor CD8 T-cell responses require the addition of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibody as an immune adjuvant, and increased frequency of antigen exposure by multiple vaccinations. Furthermore, we show the potential importance of macrophages in regulating immunogenicity of irradiated lymphoma cells and demonstrate that depletion of macrophages using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes considerably enhances primary vaccination efficacy in the presence of adjuvant anti-CD40 antibody. Our results demonstrate that the immunogenic potential of poorly immunogenic lymphoma cells dying after radiation therapy can be improved by modulation of the host immune system. PMID:23339450

Honeychurch, Jamie; Melis, Monique H M; Dovedi, Simon J; Mu, Lijun; Illidge, Timothy M

2013-09-01

180

Distinct sub-populations of epithelial ovarian cancer cells can differentially induce macrophages and T regulatory cells towards a pro-tumor phenotype  

PubMed Central

Problem The presence of immune infiltrates in the tumor does not always correlate with an anti-tumoral immune response. We previously identified two sub-populations of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells with differential cytokine profile. We hypothesize that these two sub-populations of EOC cells may differentially regulate the immune phenotype in the tumor microenvironment and therefore affect the immune response. Method of Study Macrophages derived from CD14+ monocytes and naive CD4+T cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) from two sub-populations of EOC cells. Differentiation markers and phagocytic activity was measured by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were quantified using xMAP technology. Results Type I EOC cells are able to enhance macrophages' capacity for tumor repair and renewal by enhancing expression of scavenger receptors and by promoting the secretion of cytokines associated with tissue repair. On the other hand, Type II EOC cells are able to create a tolerant microenvironment and prevent an immune response by inducing macrophages' to secrete IL-10 and by promoting the generation of T regs. Conclusion We demonstrate that each ovarian cancer cell sub-population can induce a unique phenotype of macrophages and T cells, both associated with tumor-supportive function.

Alvero, Ayesha B.; Montagna, Michele K.; Craveiro, Vinicius; Liu, Lanzhen; Mor, Gil

2013-01-01

181

THE COLLABORATIVE PHENOTYPE OF SECONDARY B CELLS IS DETERMINED BY T LYMPHOCYTES DURING IN VIVO IMMUNIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that the gene products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 1 are important in allowing effective collaborative interactions between T and B cells in humoral immune responses. Results from several experimental systems have demonstrated that T cells are restricted to collaborating with B cells or macrophages derived from inbred murine strains that share genes within the

NANCY A. SPECK; SUSAN K. PIERCE

2010-01-01

182

In the Absence of Endogenous Gamma Interferon, Mice Acutely Infected with Neospora caninum Succumb to a Lethal Immune Response Characterized by Inactivation of Peritoneal Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following infection with Neospora caninum, BALB\\/c mice were shown to be resistant to an acute infection but developed a latent chronic infection. However, BALB\\/c background gamma interferon (IFN-g)-deficient mice were sensitive to the acute infection. Since the immune response in IFN-g-deficient mice is scantly known, we examined the function of macrophages, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, T-cell responses,

YOSHIFUMI NISHIKAWA; KHAJORNSAK TRAGOOLPUA; NOBORU INOUE; LEVI MAKALA; HIDEYUKI NAGASAWA; HARUKI OTSUKA; TAKESHI MIKAMI

2001-01-01

183

Macrophages-Key cells in the response to wear debris from joint replacements.  

PubMed

The generation of wear debris is an inevitable result of normal usage of joint replacements. Wear debris particles stimulate local and systemic biological reactions resulting in chronic inflammation, periprosthetic bone destruction, and eventually, implant loosening, and revision surgery. The latter may be indicated in up to 15% patients in the decade following the arthroplasty using conventional polyethylene. Macrophages play multiple roles in both inflammation and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. As sentinels of the innate immune system, they are central to the initiation of this inflammatory cascade, characterized by the release of proinflammatory and pro-osteoclastic factors. Similar to the response to pathogens, wear particles elicit a macrophage response, based on the unique properties of the cells belonging to this lineage, including sensing, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and adaptive stimulation. The biological processes involved are complex, redundant, both local and systemic, and highly adaptive. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are implicated in this phenomenon, ultimately resulting in differentiation and activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts. Simultaneously, other distinct macrophage populations inhibit inflammation and protect the bone-implant interface from osteolysis. Here, the current knowledge about the physiology of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells is reviewed. In addition, the pattern and consequences of their interaction with wear debris and the recent developments in this field are presented. PMID:23568608

Nich, Christophe; Takakubo, Yuya; Pajarinen, Jukka; Ainola, Mari; Salem, Abdelhakim; Sillat, Tarvo; Rao, Allison J; Raska, Milan; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Takagi, Michiaki; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Goodman, Stuart B; Gallo, Jiri

2013-10-01

184

Biodegradable microspheres alone do not stimulate murine macrophages in vitro, but prolong antigen presentation by macrophages in vitro and stimulate a solid immune response in mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential of various types of biodegradable microspheres (MS) (i) to activate in vitro cell line-derived macrophages (RAW 264.7, Mphi), and primary peritoneal and bone marrow-derived mouse Mphi, to prolong the release and presentation of microencapsulated synthetic malaria antigens by Mphi after uptake of antigen-loaded MS, and (ii) to stimulate an immune response in mice against a microencapsulated synthetic malaria antigen. The MS were made of various types of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate. PLGA, but not chitosan MS, were efficiently ingested by Mphi. Upon exposure to the various MS types, Mphi increased only the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), while the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the expression of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), the cell surface markers MHC class I and II, and CD 86 remained unaffected. In vitro release of the microencapsulated antigen from PLGA50:50 MS followed a pulsatile pattern and extended over 14 weeks. This prolonged antigen release was also mirrored in the significantly prolonged antigen presentation over more than 7 days by Mphi after uptake of antigen-loaded PLGA MS. Finally, antigen-loaded PLGA MS induced a solid immune response in mice after a single s.c.-injection, which was only slightly inferior to the antibody titers measured with the control formulation with Montanide ISA720. These results suggest that MS are well tolerated by Mphi. The prolonged antigen presentation by Mphi, as measured in vitro, along with the capacity to induce a strong immune response in animals emphasize that biodegradable MS are a very promising delivery system for both preventive and immunotherapeutic vaccines. PMID:16269200

Luzardo-Alvarez, Asteria; Blarer, Natalia; Peter, Katrin; Romero, Jackeline F; Reymond, Christophe; Corradin, Giampietro; Gander, Bruno

2005-12-01

185

Molecular imaging of innate immune cell function in transplant rejection  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical detection of transplant rejection by repeated endomyocardial biopsy requires catheterization and entails risks. Recently developed molecular and cellular imaging techniques that visualize macrophage host responses could provide a noninvasive alternative. Yet, which macrophage functions may provide useful markers for detecting parenchymal rejection remains uncertain. Methods and Results We transplanted isografts from B6 mice and allografts from Balb/c mice heterotopically into B6 recipients. In this allograft across major histocompatability barriers, the transplanted heart undergoes predictable progressive rejection leading to graft failure after 1 week. During rejection, crucial macrophage functions including phagocytosis and release of proteases render these abundant innate immune cells attractive imaging targets. Two or six days after transplantation, we injected either a fluorescent protease sensor or a magneto-fluorescent phagocytosis marker. Histological and flow cytometric analyses established that macrophages function as the major cellular signal source. In vivo, we obtained a 3D functional map of macrophages showing higher phagocytic uptake of magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles during rejection using MRI and higher protease activity in allografts than in isografts using tomographic fluorescence. We further assessed the sensitivity of imaging to detect the degree of rejection. In vivo imaging of macrophage response correlated closely with gradually increasing allograft rejection and attenuated rejection in recipients with a genetically impaired immune response resulting from a deficiency in recombinase-1 (RAG-1-/-). Conclusions Molecular imaging reporters of either phagocytosis or protease activity can detect cardiac allograft rejection noninvasively, promise to enhance the search for novel tolerance-inducing strategies, and have translational potential.

Christen, Thomas; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Wildgruber, Moritz; Swirski, Filip K.; Aikawa, Elena; Waterman, Peter; Shimizu, Koichi; Weissleder, Ralph; Libby, Peter

2009-01-01

186

T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Mycobacterium antigen-pulsed autologous macrophages in leprosy patients.  

PubMed Central

The involvement of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the defense mechanisms against intracellular pathogens is widely recognized. Little information is available on the generation and specificity of the cytotoxic cells that eliminate human monocytes/macrophages infected with mycobacteria. In this work, we tested whether mononuclear cells from leprosy patients could generate cytotoxic T-cell activity against autologous macrophages pulsed with Mycobacterium leprae or purified protein derivative (PPD) in a 4-h 51Cr release assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal Mycobacterium bovis BCG-immunized controls or from leprosy patients stimulated with antigen for 7 days were used as effector cells. Paucibacillary (PB) patients and normal controls yielded more active effector cells in this system than multibacillary (MB) patients. MB patients were able to develop cytotoxicity against M. leprae, BCG, or PPD, in contrast with the immunological anergy widely described. We did not find cytotoxicity against unpulsed macrophages. Cross-reactivity was observed between PPD, BCG, and M. leprae. Only antigen-pulsed autologous macrophages were suitable as target cells. M. leprae-induced cytotoxic cells were found in both CD4+ CD8- and CD4- CD8+ T-cell subsets, whereas CD4+ cells were the main component of PPD-induced cytotoxicity. In MB patients, BCG-induced cytotoxic cells were better killers of M. leprae-pulsed macrophages than cells induced by M. leprae. This is an interesting finding in view of the ongoing vaccination trials. The involvement of CD4- or CD8-mediated cytotoxicity may be important in the balance between protection and tissue or nerve damage.

Sasiain, M C; de la Barrera, S; Minnucci, F; Valdez, R; de Elizalde de Bracco, M M; Balina, L M

1992-01-01

187

Essential role of toll-like receptor 4 in Acinetobacter baumannii-induced immune responses in immune cells.  

PubMed

TLR4 is a membrane sensor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 on innate immune responses in immune cells against Acinetobacter baumannii. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs) were isolated from WT and TLR4-deficient mice and infected with A. baumannii ATCC 15150. ELISA assay revealed that the production of IL-6 and TNF-? by A. baumannii was impaired in TLR4-deficient macrophages. However, absence of TLR2 did not affect A. baumannii-induced cytokines production in BMDMs. In addition, TLR4 was required for the optimal production of IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-12 in BMDCs in response to A. baumannii. Western blot analysis showed that A. baumannii leads to the activation of NF-?B and MAPKs (p38, ERK, and JNK) in macrophages via TLR4-dependent pathway. mRNA expression of iNOS and NO production was elicited in WT BMDMs in response to A. baumannii, which was abolished in TLR4-deficienct cells. Bacterial killing ability against A. baumannii was impaired in TLR4-deficient BMDMs. In addition, A. baumannii induced apoptosis in BMDMs via TLR4-independent pathway. Our results demonstrate that TLR4 is essential for initiating innate immune response of macrophages against A. baumannii infection. PMID:22982140

Kim, Chang-Hwan; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Junglim; Jeon, Soo-Jin; Park, Se-Ra; Kang, Min-Jung; Park, Jae-Hak; Park, Jong-Hwan

2013-01-01

188

Interaction of Apoptotic Cells with Macrophages Upregulates COX-2/PGE2 and HGF Expression via a Positive Feedback Loop  

PubMed Central

Recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages is crucial for resolution of inflammation, immune tolerance, and tissue repair. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in the tissue repair process. We investigated the characteristics of macrophage COX-2 and PGE2 expression mediated by apoptotic cells and then determined how macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo orchestrate the interaction between COX-2/PGE2 and HGF signaling pathways. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells and primary peritoneal macrophages to apoptotic cells resulted in induction of COX-2 and PGE2. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppressed apoptotic cell-induced PGE2 production. Both NS-398 and COX-2-siRNA, as well as the PGE2 receptor EP2 antagonist, blocked HGF expression in response to apoptotic cells. In addition, the HGF receptor antagonist suppressed increases in COX-2 and PGE2 induction. The in vivo relevance of the interaction between the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF pathways through a positive feedback loop was shown in cultured alveolar macrophages following in vivo exposure of bleomycin-stimulated lungs to apoptotic cells. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition.

Byun, Ji Yeon; Youn, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Woo, So-Yeon; Kang, Jihee Lee

2014-01-01

189

Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens, as an immune modulator, can promote the activity of macrophages and up-regulate antibody response to particulate antigen.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens is a newly discovered Corynebacterium species with no known pathogenic components such as diphtheria toxin and tuberculostearic acid, and it has similar biological properties to Propionibacterium acnes, but its role of immunoregulation is drawing people's attention. In this work, based on the role of macrophages in removal of pathogenic bacteria as a primary scavenger and particulate antigen-presenting cell, the stimulation of macrophages by C. pyruviciproducens was analyzed through detecting the levels of cytokine secretion and expression of membrane molecules, and the effect of C. pyruviciproducens in promoting antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in vivo was detected. In vitro, C. pyruviciproducens led to a sharp release of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-? and encouraged the activation of macrophages including enhanced expressions of MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo, it enhanced the humoral immune response against SRBC, a particulate antigen. These observations suggest that C. pyruviciproducens, as an immunoregulator, can promote the host humoral immune response to pathogenic microorganisms by regulating macrophage function. PMID:23239443

Tong, Jia; Han, Qingzhen; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Shen, Pei; Xia, Sheng; Huang, Xinxiang; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Huaxi

2012-11-01

190

Macrophages promote fibroblast growth factor receptor-driven tumor cell migration and invasion in a Cxcr2-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Infiltration of immune cells, specifically macrophages, into the tumor microenvironment has been linked to increased mammary tumor formation and progression. Activation of growth factor receptor signaling pathways within mammary epithelial cells, such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) pathway, induces recruitment of macrophages to the mammary epithelium. These macrophages promote increased epithelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. However, the specific mechanisms by which these macrophages are regulated by the preneoplastic epithelial cells and the mechanisms of action of the macrophages within the developing FGFR1-driven tumor microenvironment remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of inducible FGFR1 in mammary glands leads to decreased activity of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF?)/Smad3 pathway in macrophages associated with early stage lesions. Further studies demonstrate that macrophages have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines that bind Cxcr2 following exposure to conditioned media from mammary epithelial and tumor cells in which the FGF pathway had been activated. The increase in these ligands is inhibited following activation of the TGF? pathway, suggesting that decreased TGF? signaling contributes to the upregulation of these chemokines. Using co-culture studies, we further demonstrate that macrophages are capable of promoting epithelial and tumor cell migration and invasion through activation of Cxcr2. These results indicate that macrophage-derived Cxcr2 ligands may be important for promoting mammary tumor formation regulated by FGFR signaling. Furthermore, these results suggest that targeting Cxcr2 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancers that are associated with high levels of infiltrating macrophages.

Bohrer, Laura R.; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

2013-01-01

191

Impaired alternative macrophage differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from obese subjects  

PubMed Central

Visceral obesity, a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease, predisposes to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. Adipose tissue is not a passive storehouse for fat, but an endocrine organ synthesizing and releasing a variety of bioactive molecules, some of which are produced by infiltrated immune-inflammatory cells including macrophages. Two different sub-populations of macrophages have been identified in adipose tissue: pro-inflammatory “classical” M1 and anti-inflammatory “alternative” M2 macrophages and their ratio is suggested to influence the metabolic complications of obesity. These macrophages derive primarily from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We hypothesized that obesity and the metabolic syndrome modulate PBMC functions. Therefore, alteration of the monocyte response, and more specifically their ability to differentiate toward alternative anti-inflammatory macrophages was assessed in PBMC isolated from lean and obese subjects with or without alterations in glucose homeostasis. Our results indicate that PBMC from obese subjects have an altered expression of M2 markers and that their monocytes are less susceptible to differentiate toward an alternative phenotype. Thus PBMC in obesity are programmed, which may contribute to the inflammatory dysregulation and increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in these patients.

Bories, Gael; Caiazzo, Robert; Derudas, Bruno; Copin, Corinne; Raverdy, Violeta; Pigeyre, Marie; Pattou, Francois; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

2012-01-01

192

Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Distinct Macrophage- and Tick Cell-Specific Morphological Stages of Ehrlichia chaffeensis  

PubMed Central

Background Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Despite the induction of an active host immune response, the pathogen has evolved to persist in its vertebrate and tick hosts. Understanding how the organism progresses in tick and vertebrate host cells is critical in identifying effective strategies to block the pathogen transmission. Our recent molecular and proteomic studies revealed differences in numerous expressed proteins of the organism during its growth in different host environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed to assess morphological changes in the bacterium within macrophages and tick cells. The stages of pathogen progression observed included the attachment of the organism to the host cells, its engulfment and replication within a morulae by binary fission and release of the organisms from infected host cells by complete host cell lysis or by exocytosis. E. chaffeensis grown in tick cells was highly pleomorphic and appears to replicate by both binary fission and filamentous type cell divisions. The presence of Ehrlichia-like inclusions was also observed within the nucleus of both macrophages and tick cells. This observation was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. Conclusions/Significance Morphological differences in the pathogen’s progression, replication, and processing within macrophages and tick cells provide further evidence that E. chaffeensis employs unique host-cell specific strategies in support of adaptation to vertebrate and tick cell environments.

Dedonder, Sarah E.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Willard, Lloyd H.; Boyle, Daniel L.; Ganta, Roman R.

2012-01-01

193

The Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Macrophage Cells  

PubMed Central

Silica nanoparticles, which are applicable in many industrial fields, have been reported to induce cellular changes such as cytotoxicity in various cells and fibrosis in lungs. Because the immune system is the primary targeting organ reacting to internalized exogenous nanoparticles, we tried to figure out the immunostimulatory effect of silica nanoparticles in macrophages using differently sized silica nanoparticles. Using U937 cells we assessed cytotoxicity by CCK-8 assay, ROS generation by CM-H2DCFDA, intracellular Ca++ levels by staining with Fluo4-AM and IL-8 production by ELISA. At non-toxic concentration, the intracellular Ca++ level has increased immediately after exposure to 15 nm particles, not to larger particles. ROS generation was detected significantly in response to 15 nm particles. However, all three different sizes of silica nanoparticles induced IL-8 production. 15 nm silica nanoparticles are more stimulatory than larger particles in cytotoxicity, intracellular Ca++ increase and ROS generation. But IL-8 production was induced to same levels with 50 or 100 nm particles. Therefore, IL-8 production induced by silica nanoparticles may be dependent on other mechanisms rather than intracellular Ca++ increase and ROS generation.

Kim, Seungjae; Jang, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Kangtaek

2012-01-01

194

Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

Charriere, Guillaume M. [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Cousin, Beatrice [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Arnaud, Emmanuelle [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Saillan-Barreau, Corinne [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Andre, Mireille [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Massoudi, Ali [UMR 6543 CNRS, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Dani, Christian [UMR 6543 CNRS, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Penicaud, Luc [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Casteilla, Louis [UMR 5018 CNRS-UPS, IFR31, Bat L1, CHU Rangueil, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

2006-10-15

195

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Iron-Limiting Innate Immune Defenses in Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. The gonococcus can survive extracellularly and intracellularly, but in both environments the bacteria must acquire iron from host proteins for survival. However, upon infection the host uses a defensive response by limiting the bioavailability of iron by a number of mechanisms including the enhanced expression of hepcidin, the master iron-regulating hormone, which reduces iron uptake from the gut and retains iron in macrophages. The host also secretes the antibacterial protein NGAL, which sequesters bacterial siderophores and therefore inhibits bacterial growth. To learn whether intracellular gonococci can subvert this defensive response, we examined expression of host genes that encode proteins involved in modulating levels of intracellular iron. We found that N. gonorrhoeae can survive in association (tightly adherent and intracellular) with monocytes and macrophages and upregulates a panel of its iron-responsive genes in this environment. We also found that gonococcal infection of human monocytes or murine macrophages resulted in the upregulation of hepcidin, NGAL, and NRAMP1 as well as downregulation of the expression of the gene encoding the short chain 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2); BDH2 catalyzes the production of the mammalian siderophore 2,5-DHBA involved in chelating and detoxifying iron. Based on these findings, we propose that N. gonorrhoeae can subvert the iron-limiting innate immune defenses to facilitate iron acquisition and intracellular survival.

Zughaier, Susu M.; Kandler, Justin L.; Shafer, William M.

2014-01-01

196

Are macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells and neutrophils mediators of local suppression in healthy and cancerous tissues in aging hosts?  

PubMed

Most cancers emerge in elderly and immune-comprised hosts implying an important role for cancer immune surveillance. Here, we focus on the role of tissue-associated innate immune cells including antigen presenting cells (i.e. dendritic cells and macrophages), myeloid derived suppressor cells and neutrophils in healthy and cancer-bearing elderly hosts. Most cancers, including the cancers that we are interested in, i.e. lung carcinomas and mesothelioma, emerge in aging populations at a time when naïve T cell function is declining. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical anti-tumor effector cells, and their diminished function may contribute to cancer escape mechanisms in the elderly. Therefore, we compare the likely consequences of innate immune cell interactions with T cells in young versus elderly hosts. We examine data showing that elderly-derived innate cells are highly immunosuppressive and may provide a more tumorigenic milieu than their younger counterparts. Standard chemotherapy often only provides these patients a few extra months survival time. Recent evidence has shown that standard chemotherapy is not as effective in hosts devoid of T cells. Therefore, T cell dysfunction in the elderly may contribute to poor treatment outcomes. However, there is also evidence that T cell immunity can be rejuvenated via activated dendritic cells and/or macrophages. Combining 'rejuvenation' immunotherapy with standard chemotherapy may offer an improved outcome for elderly cancer patients. We explore this potential herein. PMID:24291067

Jackaman, Connie; Nelson, Delia J

2014-06-01

197

Estradiol Reduces Susceptibility of CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages to HIV-Infection  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-?-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4+ T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4+ T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2–treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1? secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms.

Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V.; Barr, Fiona D.; Crist, Sarah G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V.; Wira, Charles R.

2013-01-01

198

Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles up-regulate inflammatory mediator synthesis by human airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane fragments shed by virtually all eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis that play a significant role in physiologically relevant processes, including coagulation and inflammation. We investigated whether MP derived from monocytes/macrophages have the potential to modulate human airway epithelial cell activation. Monocytes/macrophages were isolated from the buffy coats of blood donors by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, followed by overnight culture of the mononuclear cell fraction. Adherent cells were washed and incubated with the calcium ionophore, A23187, or with histamine. The MP-containing supernatant was incubated with cells of the human bronchial epithelial line BEAS-2B and of the human alveolar line A549. IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was assessed by ELISA and by RT-PCR. In some experiments, monocytes/macrophages were stained with the fluorescent lipid intercalating dye PKH67, and the supernatant was analyzed by FACS. Stimulation of monocytes/macrophages with A23187 caused the release of particles that retain their fluorescent lipid intercalating label, indicating that they are derived from cell membranes. Incubation with A549 and BEAS-2B cells up-regulate IL-8 synthesis. Ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation of the material abolished the effect, indicating that particulate matter, rather than soluble molecules, is responsible for it. Up-regulation of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 was also demonstrated in A549 cells. Similar results were obtained with histamine. Our data show that human monocytes/macrophages release MP that have the potential to sustain the innate immunity of the airway epithelium, as well as to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the lungs through up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:16849511

Cerri, Chiara; Chimenti, Daniele; Conti, Ilaria; Neri, Tommaso; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

2006-08-01

199

Estradiol reduces susceptibility of CD4+ T cells and macrophages to HIV-infection.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-?-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4(+) T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4(+) T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4(+) T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2-treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1? secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms. PMID:23614015

Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V; Barr, Fiona D; Crist, Sarah G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

2013-01-01

200

Macrophages pulsed with Streptococcus pneumoniae elicit a T cell-dependent antibody response upon transfer into na?ve mice  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are less effective than DC at priming naïve CD4+ T cells, suggesting that DC are unique in initiating T cell-dependent antibody responses. We compared the ability of DC and macrophages, pulsed in vitro with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn), to elicit protein- and polysaccharide (PPS)-specific Ig isotype production upon adoptive transfer into naïve mice. Pn-activated DC secreted more pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, expressed higher levels of surface MHC-II and CD40, and presented Pn or recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to a PspA-specific T hybridoma more efficiently than macrophages. However, upon adoptive transfer into naïve mice, Pn-pulsed macrophages elicited an IgM and/or IgG anti-PspA and anti-PPS response comparable in serum titers and IgG isotype distribution to that induced by DC. The IgG anti-PspA, in contrast to the IgG anti-PPS, response to Pn-pulsed macrophages was T cell-dependent. Pn-pulsed macrophages that were paraformaldehyde-fixed prior to transfer or lacking expression of MHC-II or CD40 were highly defective in eliciting an anti-PspA response, although the anti-PPS response was largely unaffected. To our knowledge, these data are the first to indicate that macrophages can play an active role in the induction of a T cell-dependent humoral immune response in a naïve host.

Vasilevsky, Sam; Colino, Jesus; Puliaev, Roman; Canaday, David H.; Snapper, Clifford M.

2008-01-01

201

Transient ablation of alveolar macrophages leads to massive pathology of influenza infection without affecting cellular adaptive immunity.  

PubMed

Alveolar macrophages (AMs), localized at the pulmonary air-tissue interface, are one of the first lines of defense that interact with inhaled airborne pathogens such as influenza viruses. By using a new CD169-DTR transgenic mouse strain we demonstrate that specific and highly controlled in vivo ablation of this myeloid cell subset leads to severe impairment of the innate, but not adaptive, immune responses and critically affects the progression of the disease. In fact, AM-ablated mice, infected with a normally sublethal dose of PR8 influenza virus, showed dramatically increased virus load in the lungs, severe airway inflammation, pulmonary edema and vascular leakage, which caused the death of the infected animals. Our data highlight the possibilities for new therapeutic strategies focusing on modulation of AMs, which may efficiently boost innate responses to influenza infections. PMID:24687623

Purnama, Christina; Ng, See Liang; Tetlak, Piotr; Setiagani, Yolanda Aphrilia; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Baalasubramanian, Sivasankar; Karjalainen, Klaus; Ruedl, Christiane

2014-07-01

202

Specific mediation of cellular immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in somatic cells of mice.  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytes from mice immunized against Toxoplasma gondii protected T. gondii-infected macrophage and kidney cell cultures. After contact with antigens, supernatants of such immune lymphocytes, also contained a factor protective for T. gondii-infected macrophages and kidney cells. Supernatants were protective only when the lymphocytes and kidneys cells were isogeneic. Protection was specific in that supernatants from only T. gondii-immune, but not Besnoitia jellisoni-immune, lymphocytes provided protection against toxoplasmosis. Sixteen to 24 h were required for an appreciable amount of protective factor to be secreted; a similar absorption time was necessary for kidney cells to be protected. Peritoneal lymphocyte lysates, prepared as transfer factor, contained protective substances with a potency similar to that of lymphocyte supernatants, which were also strain restricted in their effect.

Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

1984-01-01

203

Secreted Candida parapsilosis lipase modulates the immune response of primary human macrophages.  

PubMed

Candida parapsilosis is an important opportunistic pathogen with increasing prevalence. Extracellular lipases have been shown to play an important role in the virulence of pathogenic Candida species. However, studying the role of secreted lipase in C. albicans is challenging due to the lack of a mutant strain deficient in all 10 lipase genes. In contrast, we have previously constructed a lipase mutant C. parapsilosis strain lacking both CpLIP1 and CpLIP2, and shown that it has significantly decreased virulence in various infection models, and is killed more efficiently by mouse macrophages. In the present study, we compared the response of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages to a wild type (wt) as well as a lipase-deficient (lip(-/-)) C. parapsilosis strain that has been previously established in our lab. Although macrophages phagocytosed both strains with similar efficiency, lipase mutants were killed more efficiently according to fluorescent microscopic analysis. The more efficient killing of lip(-/-) cells was confirmed by CFU-determinations. Phagocytosis of wt and lip(-/-)C. parapsilosis was also examined by flow cytometry, revealing that both strains were internelized to the similar extent by macrophages. Additionally, quantitative imaging analysis revealed that the rate of phagolysosome fusion was higher in case of lip(-/-)C. parapsilosis. Interestingly, macrophages stimulated with lip(-/-)C. parapsilosis showed at least 1.5-fold higher expression of TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and PTGS-2 after 12 h compared with those infected with wt C. parapsilosis, as determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the lip(-/-)C. parapsilosis strain induced significantly higher TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10 protein production in macrophages after 24 h compared with the wt strain. These findings confirm the role of fungal lipases as important virulence factors during C. parapsilosis infection. PMID:24626151

Tóth, Adél; Németh, Tibor; Csonka, Katalin; Horváth, Péter; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Vizler, Csaba; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Gácser, Attila

2014-05-15

204

Molecular chaperoning by glucose-regulated protein 170 in the extracellular milieu promotes macrophage-mediated pathogen sensing and innate immunity  

PubMed Central

Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate immune receptors is essential for host defense responses. Although extracellular stress proteins are considered as indicators of the stressful conditions (e.g., infection or cell injury), the exact roles of these molecules in the extracellular milieu remain less defined. We found that glucose-regulated protein 170 (Grp170), the largest stress protein and molecular chaperone, is highly efficient in binding CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), the microbial DNA mimetic sensed by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Extracellular Grp170 markedly potentiates the endocytosis and internalization of CpG-ODN by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and directly interacts with endosomal TLR9 on cell entry. These molecular collaborations result in the synergistic activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling and enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in mouse primary macrophages as well as human THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages, suggesting that Grp170 released from injured cells facilitates the sensing of pathogen-associated “danger” signals by intracellular receptors. This CpG-ODN chaperone complex-promoted innate immunity confers increased resistance in mice to infection of Listeria monocytogenes compared with CpG-ODN treatment alone. Our studies reveal a previously unrecognized attribute of Grp170 as a superior DNA-binding chaperone capable of amplifying TLR9 activation on pathogen recognition, which provides a conceptual advance in understanding the dynamics of ancient chaperoning functions inside and outside the cell.—Zuo, D., Yu, X., Guo, C., Yi, H., Chen, X., Conrad, D. H., Guo, T. L., Chen, Z., Fisher, P. B., Subjeck, J. R., Wang, X.-Y. Molecular chaperoning by glucose-regulated protein 170 in the extracellular milieu promotes macrophage-mediated pathogen sensing and innate immunity.

Zuo, Daming; Yu, Xiaofei; Guo, Chunqing; Yi, Huanfa; Chen, Xing; Conrad, Daniel H.; Guo, Tai L.; Chen, Zhengliang; Fisher, Paul B.; Subjeck, John R.; Wang, Xiang-Yang

2012-01-01

205

CXCL5 limits macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The ELR(+)-CXCL chemokines have been described typically as potent chemoattractants and activators of neutrophils during the acute phase of inflammation. Their role in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory vascular disease, has been largely unexplored. Using a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we found that CXCL5 expression was upregulated during disease progression, both locally and systemically, but was not associated with neutrophil infiltration. Unexpectedly, inhibition of CXCL5 was not beneficial but rather induced a significant macrophage foam cell accumulation in murine atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, we demonstrated that CXCL5 modulated macrophage activation, increased expression of the cholesterol efflux regulatory protein ABCA1, and enhanced cholesterol efflux activity in macrophages. These findings reveal a protective role for CXCL5, in the context of atherosclerosis, centered on the regulation of macrophage foam cell formation. PMID:23376791

Rousselle, Anthony; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Leukel, Lisa; Yilmaz, Rüstem; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Sihn, Gabin; Bader, Michael; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Duchene, Johan

2013-03-01

206

CXCL5 limits macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The ELR+-CXCL chemokines have been described typically as potent chemoattractants and activators of neutrophils during the acute phase of inflammation. Their role in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory vascular disease, has been largely unexplored. Using a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we found that CXCL5 expression was upregulated during disease progression, both locally and systemically, but was not associated with neutrophil infiltration. Unexpectedly, inhibition of CXCL5 was not beneficial but rather induced a significant macrophage foam cell accumulation in murine atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, we demonstrated that CXCL5 modulated macrophage activation, increased expression of the cholesterol efflux regulatory protein ABCA1, and enhanced cholesterol efflux activity in macrophages. These findings reveal a protective role for CXCL5, in the context of atherosclerosis, centered on the regulation of macrophage foam cell formation.

Rousselle, Anthony; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Leukel, Lisa; Yilmaz, Rustem; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Sihn, Gabin; Bader, Michael; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Duchene, Johan

2013-01-01

207

Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells  

PubMed Central

It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.

2014-01-01

208

Gadd45a and Gadd45b modulate innate immune functions of granulocytes and macrophages by differential regulation of p38 and JNK signaling.  

PubMed

Gadd45 proteins function as stress sensors in response to various physiological and environmental stressors, interacting with other cellular proteins implicated in cellular stress responses, including p38 and JNK. This study shows that mice lacking either Gadd45a or Gadd45b are defective in the recruitment of granulocytes and macrophages to the intra-peritoneal cavity following intra-peritoneal administration of the bacterial cell wall pathogen-associated molecular pattern lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bone marrow derived granulocytes and macrophages lacking either Gadd45a or Gadd45b are shown to be impaired in their chemotactic response to LPS, as well as other inflammatory stimuli such as N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine and IL-8. Evidence was obtained also implicating Gadd45a and Gadd45b in other myeloid innate immune functions, including reactive oxygen species production, phagocytosis, and adhesion. Gadd45a and Gadd45b activation of p38 kinase was implicated in the response of granulocytes to LPS mediated chemotaxis, whereas Gadd45a and Gadd45b curtailment of JNK activation was linked to chemotaxis of macrophages in response to LPS. Collectively, these data highlight a novel role for both Gadd45a and Gadd45b in myeloid innate immune functions by differential modulation of p38 and JNK signaling in granulocytes compared to macrophages. PMID:22307729

Salerno, Dominic M; Tront, Jennifer S; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

2012-11-01

209

Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act

Nobuto Yamamoto; Venkateswara R Naraparaju

1998-01-01

210

Anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages primes an effective antitumor T-cell response.  

PubMed

Mobilization of the T-cell response against cancer has the potential to achieve long-lasting cures. However, it is not known how to harness antigen-presenting cells optimally to achieve an effective antitumor T-cell response. In this study, we show that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages can initiate an antitumor T-cell immune response. Using the ovalbumin model antigen system, anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages resulted in increased priming of OT-I T cells [cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8(+))] but decreased priming of OT-II T cells (CD4(+)). The CD4(+) T-cell response was characterized by a reduction in forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells. Macrophages following anti-CD47-mediated phagocytosis primed CD8(+) T cells to exhibit cytotoxic function in vivo. This response protected animals from tumor challenge. We conclude that anti-CD47 antibody treatment not only enables macrophage phagocytosis of cancer but also can initiate an antitumor cytotoxic T-cell immune response. PMID:23690610

Tseng, Diane; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Willingham, Stephen B; Contreras-Trujillo, Humberto; Fathman, John W; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; Seita, Jun; Inlay, Matthew A; Weiskopf, Kipp; Miyanishi, Masanori; Weissman, Irving L

2013-07-01

211

Anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages primes an effective antitumor T-cell response  

PubMed Central

Mobilization of the T-cell response against cancer has the potential to achieve long-lasting cures. However, it is not known how to harness antigen-presenting cells optimally to achieve an effective antitumor T-cell response. In this study, we show that anti-CD47 antibody–mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages can initiate an antitumor T-cell immune response. Using the ovalbumin model antigen system, anti-CD47 antibody–mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages resulted in increased priming of OT-I T cells [cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8+)] but decreased priming of OT-II T cells (CD4+). The CD4+ T-cell response was characterized by a reduction in forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells. Macrophages following anti-CD47–mediated phagocytosis primed CD8+ T cells to exhibit cytotoxic function in vivo. This response protected animals from tumor challenge. We conclude that anti-CD47 antibody treatment not only enables macrophage phagocytosis of cancer but also can initiate an antitumor cytotoxic T-cell immune response.

Tseng, Diane; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Willingham, Stephen B.; Contreras-Trujillo, Humberto; Fathman, John W.; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B.; Seita, Jun; Inlay, Matthew A.; Weiskopf, Kipp; Miyanishi, Masanori; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

212

Piscirickettsia salmonis induces apoptosis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) which causes significant losses in salmon production in Chile and other and in other regions in the southern hemisphere. As the killing of phagocytes is an important pathogenic mechanism for other bacteria to establish infections in vertebrates, we investigated whether P. salmonis kills trout macrophages by apoptosis. Apoptosis in infected macrophages was demonstrated by techniques based on morphological changes and host cell DNA fragmentation. Transmission electron microcopy showed classic apoptotic characteristics and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling showed fragmented DNA. Programmed cell death type I was further confirmed by increased binding of annexin V to externalized phosphatidylserine in infected macrophages. Moreover, significant increases of caspase 3 activation were detected in infected cells and treatment with caspase inhibitor caused a decrease in levels of apoptosis. This is the first evidence that P. salmonis induces cell death in trout macrophages. This could lead to bacterial survival and evasion of the host immune response and play an important role in the establishment of infection in the host. PMID:20432244

Rojas, Verónica; Galanti, Norbel; Bols, Niels C; Jiménez, Verónica; Paredes, Rodolfo; Marshall, Sergio H

2010-05-15

213

Dendritic cells in intestinal immune regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown in intestinal homeostasis can result in chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut including inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and allergy. Dendritic cells, through their ability to orchestrate protective immunity and immune tolerance in the host, have a key role in shaping the intestinal immune response. The mechanisms through which dendritic cells can respond to environmental cues in the

Janine L. Coombes; Fiona Powrie

2008-01-01

214

Induction of a Potential Paracrine Angiogenic Loop between Human THP1 Macrophages and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells during Bartonella henselae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartonella henselae is responsible for various disease syndromes that loosely correlate with the immune sta- tus of the host. In the immunocompromised individual, B. henselae-induced angiogenesis, or bacillary angio- matosis, is characterized by vascular proliferative lesions similar to those in Kaposi's sarcoma. We hypothesize that B. henselae-mediated interaction with immune cells, namely, macrophages, induces potential angiogenic growth factors and cytokines

Sandra I. Resto-Ruiz; Michael Schmiederer; Debra Sweger; Catherine Newton; Thomas W. Klein; Herman Friedman; Burt E. Anderson

2002-01-01

215

Structurally distinct phosphatases CD45 and CD148 both regulate B cell and macrophage immunoreceptor signaling  

PubMed Central

The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) CD148 is thought to have an inhibitory function in signaling and proliferation in non-hematopoietic cells. However, its role in the immune system has not been thoroughly studied. Our analysis of CD148 loss of function mice suggests that CD148 has a positive regulatory function in B-cells and macrophages, similar to the role of CD45 as a positive regulator of Src-family kinases (SFKs). Analysis of CD148/CD45 doubly-deficient B cells and macrophages revealed hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine of SFKs accompanied by substantial alterations in B and myeloid lineage development and defective immunoreceptor signaling. These findings suggest the C-terminal tyrosine of SFKs is a common substrate for both CD148 and CD45 phosphatases and that a reassessment of the function of CD45 in the B and myeloid lineages is warranted.

Zhu, Jing W.; Brdicka, Tomas; Katsumoto, Tamiko R.; Lin, Joseph; Weiss, Arthur

2008-01-01

216

Targeted delivery of lipid antigen to macrophages via the CD169/sialoadhesin endocytic pathway induces robust invariant natural killer T cell activation  

PubMed Central

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells induce a protective immune response triggered by foreign glycolipid antigens bound to CD1d on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A limitation of using glycolipid antigens to stimulate immune responses in human patients has been the inability to target them to the most effective APCs. Recent studies have implicated phagocytic CD169+ macrophages as major APCs in lymph nodes for priming iNKT cells in mice immunized with glycolipid antigen in particulate form. CD169 is known as sialoadhesin (Sn), a macrophage-specific adhesion and endocytic receptor of the siglec family that recognizes sialic acid containing glycans as ligands. We have recently developed liposomes decorated with glycan ligands for CD169/Sn suitable for targeted delivery to macrophages via CD169/Sn-mediated endocytosis. Here we show that targeted delivery of a lipid antigen to CD169+ macrophages in vivo results in robust iNKT cell activation in liver and spleen using nanogram amounts of antigen. Activation of iNKT cells is abrogated in Cd169?/? mice and is macrophage-dependent, demonstrating that targeting CD169+ macrophages is sufficient for systemic activation of iNKT cells. When pulsed with targeted liposomes, human monocyte–derived dendritic cells expressing CD169/Sn activated human iNKT cells, demonstrating the conservation of the CD169/Sn endocytic pathway capable of presenting lipid antigens to iNKT cells.

Kawasaki, Norihito; Vela, Jose Luis; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Rademacher, Christoph; Khurana, Archana; van Rooijen, Nico; Crocker, Paul R.; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Paulson, James C.

2013-01-01

217

CD4+ T Cells Regulate Pulmonary Metastasis of Mammary Carcinomas by Enhancing Protumor Properties of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Summary During breast cancer development, increased presence of leukocytes in neoplastic stroma parallels disease progression; however, the functional significance of leukocytes in regulating protumor versus antitumor immunity in the breast remains poorly understood. Utilizing the MMTV-PyMT model of mammary carcinogenesis, we demonstrate that IL-4-expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes indirectly promote invasion and subsequent metastasis of mammary adenocarcinomas by directly regulating the phenotype and effector function of tumor-associated CD11b+Gr1-F4/80+ macrophages that in turn enhance metastasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in malignant mammary epithelial cells. Together, these data indicate that antitumor acquired immune programs can be usurped in protumor microenvironments and instead promote malignancy by engaging cellular components of the innate immune system functionally involved in regulating epithelial cell behavior.

DeNardo, David G.; Barreto, Jairo B.; Andreu, Pauline; Vasquez, Lesley; Tawfik, David; Kolhatkar, Nikita; Coussens, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

218

NFIL3 is a regulator of IL-12 p40 in macrophages and mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

Regulation of innate inflammatory responses against the enteric microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Key participants in innate defenses are macrophages. In these studies, the basic leucine zipper protein, NFIL3, is identified as a regulatory transcription factor in macrophages, controlling IL-12 p40 production induced by bacterial products and the enteric microbiota. Exposure to commensal bacteria and bacterial products induced NFIL3 in cultured macrophages and in vivo. The Il12b promoter has a putative DNA-binding element for NFIL3. Basal and LPS-activated NFIL3 binding to this site was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. LPS-induced Il12b promoter activity was inhibited by NFIL3 expression and augmented by NFIL3-short hairpin RNA in an Il12b-bacterial artificial chromosome-GFP reporter macrophage line. Il12b inhibition by NFIL3 does not require IL-10 expression, but a C-terminal minimal repression domain is necessary. Furthermore, colonic CD11b(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells from Nfil3(-/-) mice spontaneously expressed Il12b mRNA. Importantly, lower expression of NFIL3 was observed in CD14(+) lamina propria mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients compared with control subjects. Likewise, no induction of Nfil3 was observed in colons of colitis-prone Il10(-/-) mice transitioned from germ-free to a conventional microbiota. In conclusion, these experiments characterize NFIL3 as an Il12b transcriptional inhibitor. Interactions of macrophages with the enteric microbiota induce NFIL3 to limit their inflammatory capacity. Furthermore, altered intestinal NFIL3 expression may have implications for the pathogenesis of experimental and human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21383239

Kobayashi, Taku; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Sheikh, Shehzad Z; Elloumi, Houda Z; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Hansen, Jonathan J; Doty, Kevin R; Pope, Scott D; Smale, Stephen T; Hibi, Toshifumi; Rothman, Paul B; Kashiwada, Masaki; Plevy, Scott E

2011-04-15

219

Macrophages Are Critical for Cross-Protective Immunity Conferred by Babesia microti against Babesia rodhaini Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Although primary infection of mice with Babesia microti has been shown to protect mice against subsequent lethal infection by Babesia rodhaini, the mechanism behind the cross-protection is unknown. To unravel this mechanism, we investigated the influence of primary infection of mice with nonlethal B. microti using different time courses on the outcome of subsequent lethal B. rodhaini infection. Simultaneous infections of mice with these parasites resulted in rapid increases in parasitemia, with 100% mortality in BALB/c mice, as observed with control mice infected with B. rodhaini alone. In contrast, mice with acute, resolving, and chronic-phase B. microti infections were completely protected against B. rodhaini, resulting in low parasitemia and no mortalities. Mice immunized with dead B. microti were not protected from B. rodhaini infection, although high antibody responses were induced. Interestingly, the protected mice had significantly decreased levels of antibody response, cytokines (including gamma interferon [IFN-?], interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12), and nitric oxide levels after infection with B. rodhaini. SCID mice and IFN-?-deficient mice with chronic B. microti infections demonstrated protective responses comparable to those of immunocompetent mice. Likewise, in vivo NK cell depletion did not significantly impair the protective responses. Conversely, macrophage depletion resulted in increased susceptibility to B. rodhaini infection associated with changes in their antibody and cytokines profiles, indicating that macrophages contribute to the protection against this challenge infection. We conclude that future development of vaccines against Babesia should include a strategy that enhances the appropriate activation of macrophages.

Li, Yan; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Luo, Yuzi; Ooka, Hideo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yu, Longzheng; Cao, Shinuo; Sun, Yongfeng; Yamagishi, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

2012-01-01

220

Identification of an immune-regulated phagosomal Rab cascade in macrophages  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Interferon-? (IFN-?) has been shown to regulate phagosome trafficking and function in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we identify Rab20 as part of the machinery by which IFN-? controls phagosome maturation. We found that IFN-? stimulates the association of Rab20 with early phagosomes in macrophages. By using imaging of single phagosomes in live cells, we found that Rab20 induces an early delay in phagosome maturation and extends the time for which Rab5a and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) remain associated with phagosomes. Moreover, Rab20 depletion in macrophages abrogates the delay in phagosome maturation induced by IFN-?. Finally, we demonstrate that Rab20 interacts with the Rab5a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex-5 (also known as RABGEF1) and that Rab20 knockdown impairs the IFN-?-dependent recruitment of Rabex-5 and Rab5a into phagosomes. Taken together, here, we uncover Rab20 as a key player in the Rab cascade by which IFN-? induces a delay in phagosome maturation in macrophages.

Pei, Gang; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

2014-01-01

221

MicroRNAs Transfer from Human Macrophages to Hepato-Carcinoma Cells and Inhibit Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Recent research has indicated a new mode of intercellular communication facilitated by the movement of RNA between cells. There is evidence that RNA can transfer between cells in a multitude of ways, including in complex with proteins, lipids or in vesicles including apoptotic bodies and exosomes. However, there remains little understanding of the function of nucleic acid transfer between human cells. Here, we report that human macrophages transfer microRNAs (miRNAs) to hepato-carcinoma cells (HCCs) in a manner that required intercellular contact and involved gap junctions. Two specific miRNAs efficiently transferred between these cells - miR-142 and miR-223 - both endogenously expressed in macrophages and not HCCs. Transfer of these miRNAs influenced post-transcriptional regulation of proteins in HCCs, including decreased expression of reporter proteins and endogenously expressed stathmin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Importantly, transfer of miRNAs from macrophages functionally inhibited proliferation of these cancerous cells. Thus, these data lead us to propose that intercellular transfer of miRNA from immune cells could serve as a new defense against unwanted cell proliferation or tumor growth.

Aucher, Anne; Rudnicka, Dominika; Davis, Daniel M.

2013-01-01

222

Identification of macrophage cell-surface binding sites for cationized bovine serum albumin.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of autoantibodies often restricted to host proteins exhibiting charge rich domains. Charged polypeptides elicit strong immune responses, and cationized bovine serum albumin and other cationic proteins are significantly more immunogenic than their less charged counterparts. These phenomena may involve enhanced protein uptake by macrophages, resulting in greater processing and presentation of antigenic peptide-MHC complexes to T-cells. We compared macrophage cell-surface binding and uptake of native and cationized bovine serum albumin. Specific binding of [125I]cationized bovine serum albumin to THP-1 macrophages in vitro was 11-16 fold greater than for native albumin. Half-maximal inhibition of [125I]cationized albumin binding was observed at 10-7M ligand. The specificity of [125I]cationized bovine serum albumin binding and uptake was further studied in terms of competitive inhibition of proteolysis by proteins of varying charge content. Cationized bovine serum albumin, but not native albumin, inhibited proteolysis of [125I]cBSA. Calf thymus histones also inhibited cBSA degradation. High concentration of myelin basic protein was moderately effective at blocking cBSA degradation, while myoglobin and beta lactalbumin showed no inhibition. These results indicate that specific cell-surface binding sites which occur on macrophages may mediate selective uptake of certain proteins with highly charged domains including some autoantigens. PMID:1721810

Dohlman, J G; Pillion, D J; Rokeach, L A; Ramprasad, M P

1991-12-16

223

Macrophages and Leydig cells in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men.  

PubMed

A number of studies have indicated that testicular macrophages play an important role in regulating steroidogenesis of Leydig cells and maintain homeostasis within the testis. The current paper deals with macrophages (CD68 positive cells) and Leydig cells in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Methods employed included histological analysis on semi- and ultrathin sections, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and hormone analysis in the blood serum. Histological analysis pointed out certain structural changes of macrophages and Leydig cells in NOA group of patients when compared to controls. In the testis interstitium, an increased presence of CD68 positive cells has been noted. Leydig cells in NOA patients displayed a kind of a mosaic picture across the same bioptic sample: both normal and damaged Leydig cells with pronounced vacuolisation and various intensity of expression of testosterone have been observed. Stereological analysis indicated a significant increase in volume density of both CD68 positive and vacuolated Leydig cells and a positive correlation between the volume densities of these cell types. The continuous gonadotropin overstimulation of Leydig cells, together with a negative paracrine action of macrophages, could result in the damage of steroidogenesis and deficit of testosterone in situ. PMID:24895614

Goluža, Trpimir; Boscanin, Alexander; Cvetko, Jessica; Kozina, Viviana; Kosovi?, Marin; Bernat, Maja Marija; Kasum, Miro; Kaštelan, Zeljko; Ježek, Davor

2014-01-01

224

Macrophages and Leydig Cells in Testicular Biopsies of Azoospermic Men  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have indicated that testicular macrophages play an important role in regulating steroidogenesis of Leydig cells and maintain homeostasis within the testis. The current paper deals with macrophages (CD68 positive cells) and Leydig cells in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Methods employed included histological analysis on semi- and ultrathin sections, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and hormone analysis in the blood serum. Histological analysis pointed out certain structural changes of macrophages and Leydig cells in NOA group of patients when compared to controls. In the testis interstitium, an increased presence of CD68 positive cells has been noted. Leydig cells in NOA patients displayed a kind of a mosaic picture across the same bioptic sample: both normal and damaged Leydig cells with pronounced vacuolisation and various intensity of expression of testosterone have been observed. Stereological analysis indicated a significant increase in volume density of both CD68 positive and vacuolated Leydig cells and a positive correlation between the volume densities of these cell types. The continuous gonadotropin overstimulation of Leydig cells, together with a negative paracrine action of macrophages, could result in the damage of steroidogenesis and deficit of testosterone in situ.

Goluza, Trpimir; Cvetko, Jessica; Bernat, Maja Marija; Kasum, Miro; Kastelan, Zeljko; Jezek, Davor

2014-01-01

225

Hydrogen peroxide produced by oral Streptococci induces macrophage cell death.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by members of the mitis group of oral streptococci plays important roles in microbial communities such as oral biofilms. Although the cytotoxicity of H2O2 has been widely recognized, the effects of H2O2 produced by oral streptococci on host defense systems remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H2O2 produced by Streptococcus oralis on human macrophage cell death. Infection by S. oralis was found to stimulate cell death of a THP-1 human macrophage cell line at multiplicities of infection greater than 100. Catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2, inhibited the cytotoxic effect of S. oralis. S. oralis deletion mutants lacking the spxB gene, which encodes pyruvate oxidase, and are therefore deficient in H2O2 production, showed reduced cytotoxicity toward THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, H2O2 alone was capable of inducing cell death. The cytotoxic effect seemed to be independent of inflammatory responses, because H2O2 was not a potent stimulator of tumor necrosis factor-? production in macrophages. These results indicate that streptococcal H2O2 plays a role as a cytotoxin, and is implicated in the cell death of infected human macrophages. PMID:23658745

Okahashi, Nobuo; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

2013-01-01

226

Hydrogen Peroxide Produced by Oral Streptococci Induces Macrophage Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by members of the mitis group of oral streptococci plays important roles in microbial communities such as oral biofilms. Although the cytotoxicity of H2O2 has been widely recognized, the effects of H2O2 produced by oral streptococci on host defense systems remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H2O2 produced by Streptococcus oralis on human macrophage cell death. Infection by S. oralis was found to stimulate cell death of a THP-1 human macrophage cell line at multiplicities of infection greater than 100. Catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2, inhibited the cytotoxic effect of S. oralis. S. oralis deletion mutants lacking the spxB gene, which encodes pyruvate oxidase, and are therefore deficient in H2O2 production, showed reduced cytotoxicity toward THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, H2O2 alone was capable of inducing cell death. The cytotoxic effect seemed to be independent of inflammatory responses, because H2O2 was not a potent stimulator of tumor necrosis factor-? production in macrophages. These results indicate that streptococcal H2O2 plays a role as a cytotoxin, and is implicated in the cell death of infected human macrophages.

Okahashi, Nobuo; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

2013-01-01

227

The predominance of alternatively activated macrophages following challenge with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide after prior infection with Sporothrix schenckii.  

PubMed

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This disease generally occurs within the skin and subcutaneous tissues, causing lesions that can spread through adjacent lymphatic vessels and sometimes leading to systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages are crucial for proper immune responses against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, macrophages can play different roles in response to different microorganisms and forms of activation, and they can be divided into "classic" or "alternatively" activated populations, as also known as M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 cells can lead to tissue injury and contribute to pathogenesis, whereas M2 cells promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in a sporotrichosis model. Toward this end, we performed phenotyping of peritoneal exudate cells and evaluated the concomitant production of several immunomediators, including IL-12, IL-10, TGF-?, nitric oxide, and arginase-I activity, which were stimulated ex vivo with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide. Our results showed the predominance of the M2 macrophage population, indicated by peaks of arginase-I activity as well as IL-10 and TGF-? production during the 6th and 8th weeks after infection. These results were consistent with cellular phenotyping that revealed increases in CD206-positive cells over this period. This is the first report of the participation of M2 macrophages in sporotrichosis infections. PMID:23686275

Alegranci, Pamela; de Abreu Ribeiro, Livia Carolina; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Tansini, Aline; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

2013-08-01

228

Cancer cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer as vaccines for the treatment of genitourinary malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

When irradiated and administered intradermally as vaccines, cancer cells engineered to secrete high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by gene transfer elicit potent anticancer immune responses in a variety of animal tumor models. Upon vaccination, antigens present in the cancer cells are phagocytosed and processed by skin dendritic cells. These dendritic cells then prime anticancer immune responses by presenting

William G. Nelson; Jonathan W. Simons; Bahar Mikhak; Ju-Fay Chang; Angelo M. DeMarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Michael Kim; Christine E. Weber; Angelo A. Baccala; Marti A. Goeman; Shirley M. Clift; Dale G. Ando; Hyam I. Levitsky; Lawrence K. Cohen; Martin G. Sanda; Richard C. Mulligan; Alan W. Partin; H. Ballentine Carter; Steven Piantadosi; Fray F. Marshall

2000-01-01

229

Mu opioid receptor gene expression in immune cells.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that administering morphine sulfate to rhesus monkeys alters the cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses of these primates. Furthermore, morphine treatment greatly reduces the chemotactic and phagocytotic activities of primate polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. The present study describes the identification and isolation of mRNA encoding the mu opioid receptor gene sequence from human and monkey immune cells. Through the use of primer sequences designed from the human brain mu opioid receptor cDNA sequence, specific opioid receptor segments in mRNA transcripts were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The mu opioid receptor gene was therefore found expressed in the following cell types: CEM x174 (a hybrid of human T and B cells), Raji (human B cells), human CD4+ cells, human monocytes/macrophages, human PMN, monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monkey PMN. These studies present the first evidence to demonstrate that cells of human and monkey immune systems constitutively express mu opioid receptor mRNA. PMID:7488213

Chuang, T K; Killam, K F; Chuang, L F; Kung, H F; Sheng, W S; Chao, C C; Yu, L; Chuang, R Y

1995-11-22

230

Macrophages, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The macrophage plays a diverse array of roles in atherogenesis and lipoprotein metabolism. The macrophage functions as a scavenger cell, an immune mediator cell, and as a source of chemotactic molecules and cytokines. Chemokines have been implicated in promoting migration of monocytes into the arterial intima. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) attracts monocytes bearing the chemokine receptor CCR-2. Macrophage expression of cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme in inflammation, promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. In the arterial intima, monocytes differentiate into macrophages, which accumulate cholesterol esters to form lipid-laden foam cells. Foam cell formation can be viewed as an imbalance in cholesterol homeostasis. The uptake of atherogenic lipoproteins is mediated by scavenger receptors, including SR-A and CD36. In the macrophage, ACAT-1 is responsible for esterifying free cholesterol with fatty acids to form cholesterol esters. Surprisingly, deficiency of macrophage ACAT-1 promotes atherosclerosis in LDLR-deficient mice. A number of proteins have been implicated in the process of promoting the efflux of free cholesterol from the macrophage, including apoE, ABCA1, and SRB-1. Macrophage-derived foam cells express the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), aP2, a cytoplasmic FABP that plays an important role in regulating systemic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. ApoE-deficient mice null for macrophage aP2 expression develop significantly less atherosclerosis than controls wild type for macrophage aP2 expression. These results demonstrate a significant role for macrophage aP2 in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions independent of its role in systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, macrophages deficient in aP2 display alterations in inflammatory cytokine production. Through its distinct actions in adipocytes and macrophages, aP2 links features of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, obesity, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. PMID:14704742

Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

2003-12-01

231

The Metastasis-Promoting Roles of Tumor-Associated Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor metastasis is driven not only by the accumulation of intrinsic alterations in malignant cells, but also by the interactions of cancer cells with various stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, inflammation and infiltration of the tumor tissue by host immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells have been shown to support tumor growth in addition to invasion and metastasis. Each step of tumor development, from initiation through metastatic spread, is promoted by communication between tumor and immune cells via the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and proteases that remodel the tumor microenvironment. Invasion and metastasis requires neovascularization, breakdown of the basement membrane, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix for tumor cell invasion and extravasation into the blood and lymphatic vessels. The subsequent dissemination of tumor cells to distant organ sites necessitates a treacherous journey through the vasculature, which is fostered by close association with platelets and macrophages. Additionally, the establishment of the pre-metastatic niche and specific metastasis organ tropism is fostered by neutrophils and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic immune progenitor cells and other inflammatory cytokines derived from tumor and immune cells, which alter the local environment of the tissue to promote adhesion of circulating tumor cells. This review focuses on the interactions between tumor cells and immune cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment, and examines the factors allowing these cells to promote each stage of metastasis.

Smith, Heath A.; Kang, Yibin

2013-01-01

232

Memory-T-Cell-Derived Interferon-? Instructs Potent Innate Cell Activation for Protective Immunity.  

PubMed

Cells of the innate immune system are essential for host defenses against primary microbial pathogen infections, yet their involvement in effective memory responses of vaccinated individuals has been poorly investigated. Here we show that memory T cells instruct innate cells to become potent effector cells in a systemic and a mucosal model of infection. Memory T cells controlled phagocyte, dendritic cell, and NK or NK T cell mobilization and induction of a strong program of differentiation, which included their expression of effector cytokines and microbicidal pathways, all of which were delayed in nonvaccinated hosts. Disruption of IFN-? signaling in Ly6C(+) monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages impaired these processes and the control of pathogen growth. These results reveal how memory T cells, through rapid secretion of IFN-?, orchestrate extensive modifications of host innate immune responses that are essential for effective protection of vaccinated hosts. PMID:24931122

Soudja, Saïdi M'Homa; Chandrabos, Ceena; Yakob, Ernest; Veenstra, Mike; Palliser, Deborah; Lauvau, Grégoire

2014-06-19

233

``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

2009-03-01

234

Targeted Immune Cells Shrink Tumors in Mice  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have generated altered immune cells that are able to shrink, and in some cases eradicate, large tumors in mice. The immune cells target mesothelin, a protein that is highly expressed, or translated in large amounts from the mesothelin gene, on the surface of several types of cancer cells.

235

Serratia marcescens Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Host Immune Cells via a Lipopolysaccharide- and Flagella-dependent Mechanism*  

PubMed Central

Injection of Serratia marcescens into the blood (hemolymph) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), followed by caspase activation and apoptosis of blood cells (hemocytes). This process impaired the innate immune response in which pathogen cell wall components, such as glucan, stimulate hemocytes, leading to the activation of insect cytokine paralytic peptide. S. marcescens induced apoptotic cell death of silkworm hemocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. We searched for S. marcescens transposon mutants with attenuated ability to induce apoptosis of silkworm hemocytes. Among the genes identified, disruption mutants of wecA (a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis), and flhD and fliR (essential genes in flagella synthesis) showed reduced motility and impaired induction of mouse macrophage cell death. These findings suggest that S. marcescens induces apoptosis of host immune cells via lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent motility, leading to the suppression of host innate immunity.

Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Takano, Shinya; Usui, Kimihito; Suzuki, Kazushi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2012-01-01

236

Induction of Rapid Cell Death by an Environmental Isolate of Legionella pneumophila in Mouse Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent for Legionnaires' disease, is ubiquitous in the aqueous environment, where it replicates as an intracellular parasite of free-living protozoa. Our understanding of L. pneumophila pathogenicity is obtained mostly from study of derivatives of several clinical isolates, which employ almost identical virulent determinants to exploit host functions. To determine whether environmental L. pneumophila isolates interact similarly with the model host systems, we analyzed intracellular replication of several recently isolated such strains and found that these strains cannot productively grow in bone marrow-derived macrophages of A/J mice, which are permissive for all examined laboratory strains. By focusing on one strain called LPE509, we found that its deficiency in intracellular replication in primary A/J macrophages is not caused by the lack of important pathogenic determinants because this strain replicates proficiently in two protozoan hosts and the human macrophage U937 cell. We also found that in the early phase of infection, the trafficking of this strain in A/J macrophages is similar to that of JR32, a derivative of strain Philadelphia 1. Furthermore, infection of these cells by LPE509 caused extensive cell death in a process that requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Finally, we showed that the cell death is caused neither by the activation of the NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasome nor by the recently described caspase 11-dependent pathway. Our results revealed that some environmental L. pneumophila strains are unable to overcome the defense conferred by primary macrophages from mice known to be permissive for laboratory L. pneumophila strains. These results also suggest the existence of a host immune surveillance mechanism differing from those currently known in responding to L. pneumophila infection.

Tao, Lili; Zhu, Wenhan; Hu, Bi-Jie

2013-01-01

237

Induction of rapid cell death by an environmental isolate of Legionella pneumophila in mouse macrophages.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent for Legionnaires' disease, is ubiquitous in the aqueous environment, where it replicates as an intracellular parasite of free-living protozoa. Our understanding of L. pneumophila pathogenicity is obtained mostly from study of derivatives of several clinical isolates, which employ almost identical virulent determinants to exploit host functions. To determine whether environmental L. pneumophila isolates interact similarly with the model host systems, we analyzed intracellular replication of several recently isolated such strains and found that these strains cannot productively grow in bone marrow-derived macrophages of A/J mice, which are permissive for all examined laboratory strains. By focusing on one strain called LPE509, we found that its deficiency in intracellular replication in primary A/J macrophages is not caused by the lack of important pathogenic determinants because this strain replicates proficiently in two protozoan hosts and the human macrophage U937 cell. We also found that in the early phase of infection, the trafficking of this strain in A/J macrophages is similar to that of JR32, a derivative of strain Philadelphia 1. Furthermore, infection of these cells by LPE509 caused extensive cell death in a process that requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Finally, we showed that the cell death is caused neither by the activation of the NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasome nor by the recently described caspase 11-dependent pathway. Our results revealed that some environmental L. pneumophila strains are unable to overcome the defense conferred by primary macrophages from mice known to be permissive for laboratory L. pneumophila strains. These results also suggest the existence of a host immune surveillance mechanism differing from those currently known in responding to L. pneumophila infection. PMID:23753633

Tao, Lili; Zhu, Wenhan; Hu, Bi-Jie; Qu, Jie-Ming; Luo, Zhao-Qing

2013-09-01

238

Glycosylation in immune cell trafficking  

PubMed Central

Summary Leukocyte recruitment encompasses cell adhesion and activation steps that enable circulating leukocytes to roll, arrest, and firmly adhere on the endothelial surface before they extravasate into distinct tissue locations. This complex sequence of events relies on adhesive interactions between surface structures on leukocytes and endothelial cells and also on signals generated during the cell-cell contacts. Cell surface glycans play a crucial role in leukocyte recruitment. Several glycosyltransferases such as ?1,3 fucosyltransferases, ?2,3 sialyltransferases, core 2 N-acetylglucosaminlytransferases, ?1,4 galactosyltransferases and polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases have been implicated in the generation of functional selectin ligands that mediate leukocyte rolling via binding to selectins. Recent evidence also suggests a role of ?2,3 sialylated carbohydrate determinants in triggering chemokine-mediated leukocyte arrest and influencing ?1 integrin function. Additional mechanisms by galectin- and siglec-dependent processes contribute to the growing number of reports emphasizing the significant role of glycans for the successful recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Advancing the knowledge on glycan function into appropriate pathology models is likely to suggest interesting new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases.

Sperandio, Markus; Gleissner, Christian A.; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

239

Immunological aspects of acute ureteral obstruction: Immune cell infiltrate in the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunological aspects of acute ureteral obstruction: Immune cell infiltrate in the kidney. Kidneys from rats subjected to bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO), unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and UUO with subsequent release were analyzed for leukocyte infiltration. A time-dependent influx of leukocytes, predominantly macrophages and suppressor T lymphocytes, occurred in both the cortex and medulla following obstruction, and disappeared with release of

George F Schreiner; Kevin P G Harris; Mabel L Purkerson; Saulo Klahr

1988-01-01

240

Cytokines and cell adhesion receptors in the regulation of immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathophysiology of Chagas’ disease is not completely defined, although innate and adaptative immune responses are crucial. In acute infection some parasite antigens can activate macrophages, and this may result in pro-inflammatory cytokine production, nitric oxide synthesis, and consequent control of parasitemia and mortality. Cell-mediated immunity in Trypanosoma cruzi infection is also modulated by cytokines, but in addition to parasite-specific responses,

Wilson Savino; Déa Maria S. Villa-Verde; Daniella Areas Mendes-da-Cruz; Elizangela Silva-Monteiro; Ana Rosa Perez; María del Pilar Aoki; Oscar Bottasso; Natalia Guiñazú; Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa; Susana Gea

2007-01-01

241

Peripheral innate immune challenge exaggerated microglia activation, increased the number of inflammatory CNS macrophages, and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Repeated social defeat (RSD) activates neuroendocrine pathways that have a significant influence on immunity and behavior. Previous studies from our lab indicate that social defeat enhances the inflammatory capacity of CD11b+ cells in the brain and promotes anxiety-like behavior in an interleukin (IL)-1 and ?-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which mice subjected to RSD were more responsive to a secondary immune challenge. Therefore, RSD or control (HCC) mice were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of brain CD11b+ cells and behavioral responses were determined. Peripheral LPS (0.5 mg/kg) injection caused an extended sickness response with exaggerated weight loss and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice. LPS injection also amplified mRNA expression of IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD14 in enriched CD11b+ cells isolated from socially defeated mice. In addition, IL-1? mRNA levels in enriched CD11b+ cells remained elevated in socially defeated mice 24 h and 72 h after LPS. Moreover, microglia and CNS macrophages isolated from socially defeated mice had the highest CD14 expression after LPS injection. Both social defeat and LPS injection increased the percentage of CD11b+/CD45high macrophages in the brain and the number of inflammatory macrophages (CD11b+/CD45high/CCR2+) was highest in RSD-LPS mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased by social defeat, but was not exacerbated by the LPS challenge. Nonetheless, reduced locomotor activity and increased social withdrawal were still present in socially defeated mice 72 h after LPS. Last, LPS-induced microglia activation was most evident in the hippocampus of socially defeated mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated social defeat enhanced the neuroinflammatory response and caused prolonged sickness following innate immune challenge.

Wohleb, Eric S.; Fenn, Ashley M.; Pacenta, Ann M.; Powell, Nicole D.; Sheridan, John F.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

2012-01-01

242

Induction of M2-like macrophages in recipient NOD-scid mice by allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintaining host immune tolerance via regulation of the phenotype and function of the innate and adaptive immune cells. Whether allogeneic CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs can regulate recipient mouse macrophages is unknown. The effect of allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs on recipient mouse resident F4/80(+)macrophages was investigated using a mouse model in which allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs were adoptively transferred into the peritoneal cavity of host NOD-scid mice. The phenotype and function of the recipient macrophages were then assayed. The peritoneal F4/80(+) macrophages in the recipient mice that received the allogeneic CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs expressed significantly higher levels of CD23 and programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-L1) and lower levels of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC II molecules compared to the mice that received either allogeneic CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells (Teffs) or no cells. The resident F4/80(+) macrophages of the recipient mice injected with the allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs displayed significantly increased phagocytosis of chicken red blood cells (cRBCs) and arginase activity together with increased IL-10 production, whereas these macrophages also showed decreased immunogenicity and nitric oxide (NO) production. Blocking arginase partially but significantly reversed the effects of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs with regard to the induction of the M2 macrophages in vivo. Therefore, the allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs can induce the M2 macrophages in recipient mice at least in part via an arginase pathway. We have provided in vivo evidence to support the unknown pathways by which allogeneic donor CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs regulate innate immunity in recipient mice by promoting the differentiation of M2 macrophages. PMID:23085944

Hu, Xuelian; Liu, Guangwei; Hou, Yuzhu; Shi, Jianfeng; Zhu, Linnan; Jin, Di; Peng, Jianxia; Zhao, Yong

2012-11-01

243

Innate Immunity, Decidual Cells, and Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia (PE) manifested by hypertension and proteinuria complicates 3% to 8% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of fetal–maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may lead to intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and long-term sequelae in women and fetuses, and consequently cause socioeconomic burden to the affected families and society as a whole. Balanced immune responses are required for the maintenance of successful pregnancy. Although not a focus of most studies, decidual cells, the major resident cell type at the fetal–maternal interface, have been shown to modulate the local immune balance by interacting with other cell types, such as bone marrow derived-immune cells, endothelial cells, and invading extravillous trophoblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalanced innate immunity, facilitated by decidual cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. Thus, this review will discuss the role of innate immunity and the potential contribution of decidual cells in the pathogenesis of PE.

Yeh, Chang-Ching; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Huang, S. Joseph

2013-01-01

244

TLR4 Activation Under Lipotoxic Conditions Leads to Synergistic Macrophage Cell Death Through a TRIF-Dependent Pathway1  

PubMed Central

Macrophage dysfunction in obesity and diabetes may predispose to the development of diabetic complications such as infection and impaired healing after tissue damage. Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are present at elevated concentrations in the plasma of patients with metabolic disease and may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its sequelae. To examine the effect of lipid excess on macrophage inflammatory function, we determined the influence of palmitate on LPS-mediated responses in peritoneal macrophages. Palmitate and LPS led to a profound synergistic cell death response in both primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cell death had features of apoptosis and necrosis and was not dependent on ER stress, ceramide generation, or reactive oxygen species production. Instead, we uncovered a macrophage death pathway that required TLR4 signaling via TRIF, but was independent of NF-?B, MAP kinases, and IRF3. A significant decrease in macrophage lysosomal content was observed early in the death pathway, with evidence of lysosomal membrane damage occurring later in the death response. Over-expression of the transcription factor TFEB, which induces a lysosomal biogenic program, rescued the lysosomal phenotype and improved viability in palmitate and LPS treated cells. Our findings provide new evidence for crosstalk between lipid metabolism and the innate immune response that converges on the lysosome.

Schilling, Joel D.; Machkovech, Heather M.; He, Li; Diwan, Abhinav; Schaffer, Jean E.

2012-01-01

245

An instructive role of donor macrophages in mixed chimeras in the induction of recipient CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune regulatory function of macrophages (Møs) in mixed chimeras has not been determined. In the present study, with a multi-lineage B6-to-BALB\\/c mixed chimeric model, we examined the ability of donor-derived splenic Møs in the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg). B6 splenic Møs from mixed chimeras induced significantly less cell proliferation, more IL-10 and TGF-?, and less IL-2 and

Guangwei Liu; Kaizhong Duan; Haixia Ma; Zeqing Niu; Jianxia Peng; Yong Zhao; Y Zhao

2011-01-01

246

Differential impact of L-arginine deprivation on the activation and effector functions of T cells and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of the amino acid L- arginine is emerging as a crucial mechanism for the regulation of immune responses. Here, we charac- terized the impact of L-arginine deprivation on T cell and macrophage (M) effector functions: We show that whereas L-arginine is required uncondi- tionally for T cell activation, M can up-regulate activation markers and produce cytokines and che-

B.-S. Choi; I. Clara Martinez-Falero; C. Corset; M. Munder; M. Modolell; I. Muller; P. Kropf

2009-01-01

247

B cells regulate macrophage phenotype and response to chemotherapy in squamous carcinomas.  

PubMed

B cells foster squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development through deposition of immunoglobulin-containing immune complexes in premalignant tissue and Fc? receptor-dependent activation of myeloid cells. Because human SCCs of the vulva and head and neck exhibited hallmarks of B cell infiltration, we examined B cell-deficient mice and found reduced support for SCC growth. Although ineffective as a single agent, treatment of mice bearing preexisting SCCs with B cell-depleting ?CD20 monoclonal antibodies improved response to platinum- and Taxol-based chemotherapy. Improved chemoresponsiveness was dependent on altered chemokine expression by macrophages that promoted tumor infiltration of activated CD8(+) lymphocytes via CCR5-dependent mechanisms. These data reveal that B cells, and the downstream myeloid-based pathways they regulate, represent tractable targets for anticancer therapy in select tumors. PMID:24909985

Affara, Nesrine I; Ruffell, Brian; Medler, Terry R; Gunderson, Andrew J; Johansson, Magnus; Bornstein, Sophia; Bergsland, Emily; Steinhoff, Martin; Li, Yijin; Gong, Qian; Ma, Yan; Wiesen, Jane F; Wong, Melissa H; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Irving, Bryan; Coussens, Lisa M

2014-06-16

248

Molecular mechanism of PDT-induced apoptotic cells stimulation NO production in macrophages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that apoptotic cells (AC) participate in immune response. The immune response induced by AC, either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive, have been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of the immunostimulatory effects induced by PDT-treated AC remain unclear. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal transduction molecule and has been implicated in a variety of functions. It has also been found to play an important role not only as a cytotoxic effector but an immune regulatory mediator. In this study, we demonstrate that the PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells stimulate the production of NO in macrophages by up-regulating expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, we show that AC, through toll-like receptors (TLRs), can activate myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), indicating that AC serves as an intercellular signal to induce iNOS expression in immune cells after PDT treatment. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

Song, Sheng; Zhou, Fei-Fan; Yang, Si-Hua; Chen, Wei R.

2011-02-01

249

Mathematical model of macrophage-facilitated breast cancer cells invasion.  

PubMed

Mortality from breast cancer stems from its tendency to invade into surrounding tissues and organs. Experiments have shown that this metastatic process is facilitated by macrophages in a short-ranged chemical signalling loop. Macrophages secrete epidermal growth factor, EGF, and respond to the colony stimulating factor 1, CSF-1. Tumor cells secrete CSF-1 and respond to EGF. In this way, the cells coordinate aggregation and cooperative migration. Here we investigate this process in a model for in vitro interactions using two distinct but related mathematical approaches. In the first, we analyze and simulate a set of partial differential equations to determine conditions for aggregation. In the second, we use a cell-based discrete 3D simulation to follow the fates and motion of individual cells during aggregation. Linear stability analysis of the PDE model reveals that decreasing the chemical secretion, chemotaxis coefficients or density of cells or increasing the chemical degradation in the model could eliminate the spontaneous aggregation of cells. Simulations with the discrete model show that the ratio between tumor cells and macrophages in aggregates increases when the EGF secretion parameter is increased. The results also show how CSF-1/CSF-1R autocrine signalling in tumor cells affects the ratio between the two cell types. Comparing the continuum results with simulations of a discrete cell-based model, we find good qualitative agreement. PMID:24810842

Knútsdóttir, Hildur; Pálsson, Eirikur; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

2014-09-21

250

Tissue-resident macrophages  

PubMed Central

Tissue-resident macrophages are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. These range from dedicated homeostatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing, to central roles in tissue immune-surveillance, response to infection and the resolution of inflammation. Recent studies highlight marked heterogeneity in the origins of tissue macrophages that arise from hematopoietic versus self-renewing embryo-derived populations. We discuss the tissue–niche-specific factors that dictate cell phenotype, the definition of which will allow novel strategies to promote the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that dictate tissue macrophage heterogeneity should explain why simplified paradigms of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo.

Davies, Luke C.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Allen, Judith E.; Taylor, Philip R.

2014-01-01

251

p47phox Directs Murine Macrophage Cell Fate Decisions  

PubMed Central

Macrophage differentiation and function are pivotal for cell survival from infection and involve the processing of microenvironmental signals that determine macrophage cell fate decisions to establish appropriate inflammatory balance. NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)–deficient chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mice that lack the gp91phox (gp91phox?/?) catalytic subunit show high mortality rates compared with wild-type mice when challenged by infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), whereas p47phox-deficient (p47phox?/?) CGD mice show survival rates that are similar to those of wild-type mice. We demonstrate that such survival results from a skewed macrophage differentiation program in p47phox?/? mice that favors the production of higher levels of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) compared with levels of either wild-type or gp91phox?/? mice. Furthermore, the adoptive transfer of AAMacs from p47phox?/? mice can rescue gp91phox?/? mice during primary Lm infection. Key features of the protective function provided by p47phox?/? AAMacs against Lm infection are enhanced production of IL-1? and killing of Lm. Molecular analysis of this process indicates that p47phox?/? macrophages are hyperresponsive to IL-4 and show higher Stat6 phosphorylation levels and signaling coupled to downstream activation of AAMac transcripts in response to IL-4 stimulation. Notably, restoring p47phox protein expression levels reverts the p47phox-dependent AAMac phenotype. Our results indicate that p47phox is a previously unrecognized regulator for IL-4 signaling pathways that are important for macrophage cell fate choice.

Yi, Liang; Liu, Qi; Orandle, Marlene S.; Sadiq-Ali, Sara; Koontz, Sherry M.; Choi, Uimook; Torres-Velez, Fernando J.; Jackson, Sharon H.

2012-01-01

252

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits macrophage-derived foam cell formation.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) exerts an antiatherogenic effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Formation of macrophage-derived foam cells is a crucial event in the development of atherosclerosis. Thus, we explore the effect of H(2)S on the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Incubation of monocyte-derived macrophages with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) alone caused significant increases both in intracellular lipids revealed by Oil-red O staining and in intracellular total cholesterol (TC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) concentrations assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H(2)S donor) remarkably abrogated oxLDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, and attenuated TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio, whereas dl-propargylglycine (PPG) (a H(2)S-generating enzyme cystathionine gamma lyase inhibitor) exacerbated lipid accumulation and augmented TC and EC concentrations and EC/TC ratio. Incubation of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-oxLDL led to lipoprotein binding and uptake of macrophages, which was blunted by NaHS, but enhanced by PPG. Furthermore, OxLDL markedly induced CD36, scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) expressions in macrophages, which was suppressed by NaHS (50-200 ?mol/L). Finally, the down-regulations of TC and EC concentrations as well as CD36 and ACAT-1 expressions by NaHS were suppressed by glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, but facilitated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor. These results suggested that H(2)S inhibits foam cell formation by down-regulating CD36, SR-A and ACAT1 expressions via the K(ATP)/ERK1/2 pathway in human monocyte-derived macrophages. PMID:21321313

Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Wang, Zuo; Li, Guo-Hua; Wang, Ren; Tan, Jian-Miao; Cao, Xuan; Suo, Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

2011-02-01

253

Development of CD4+ macrophages from intrathymic T cell progenitors is induced by thymic epithelial cells.  

PubMed

It was recently demonstrated that there are CD4(+) macrophages, which exhibit strong phagocytic activity, in the thymus. They are suggested to play an important role for the elimination of apoptotic thymocytes. However, the origin and nature of CD4(+) macrophages in the thymus remain unexplored. In this study, we describe that the most immature intrathymic progenitors (CD25(-)/CD44(+)/FcR(+)) give rise to CD4(+) macrophages by oncostatin M-responsive thymic epithelial cells (ORTEC) in an IL-7-dependent manner. Neither conditioned medium of ORTEC nor a mixture of cytokines induced CD4(+) macrophages, and oncostatin M receptor was not expressed in thymocytes, suggesting that the development of CD4(+) macrophages from the immature thymocytes requires a direct interaction with ORTEC. These results collectively suggest that the development of CD4(+) macrophages from the intrathymic T cell progenitors is induced by thymic epithelial cells. PMID:15383565

Esashi, Eiji; Ito, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Hirano, Toshio; Koyasu, Shigeo; Miyajima, Atsushi

2004-10-01

254

Alternatively Activated Macrophages Revisited: New Insights into the Regulation of Immunity, Inflammation and Metabolic Function following Parasite Infection  

PubMed Central

The role of macrophages in homeostatic conditions and the immune system range from clearing debris to recognizing and killing pathogens. While classically activated macrophages (CAMacs) are induced by T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines and exhibit microbicidal properties, Th2 cytokines promote alternative activation of macrophages (AAMacs). AAMacs contribute to the killing of helminth parasites and mediate additional host-protective processes such as regulating inflammation and wound healing. Yet, other parasites susceptible to Th1 type responses can exploit alternative activation of macrophages to diminish Th1 immune responses and prolong infection. In this review, we will delineate the factors that mediate alternative activation (e.g. Th2 cytokines and chitin) and the resulting downstream signaling events (e.g. STAT6 signaling). Next, the specific AAMac-derived factors (e.g. Arginase1) that contribute to resistance or susceptibility to parasitic infections will be summarized. Finally, we will conclude with the discussion of additional AAMac functions beyond immunity to parasites, including the regulation of inflammation, wound healing and the regulation of metabolic disorders.

Jang, Jessica C.; Nair, Meera G.

2014-01-01

255

Impact of Host Membrane Pore Formation by the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion System on the Macrophage Innate Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are used by Gram-negative pathogens to form pores in host membranes and deliver virulence-associated effector proteins inside host cells. In pathogenic Yersinia, the T3SS pore-forming proteins are YopB and YopD. Mammalian cells recognize the Yersinia T3SS, leading to a host response that includes secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?), Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent expression of the stress-associated transcription factor Egr1 and the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and host cell death. The known Yersinia T3SS effector proteins are dispensable for eliciting these responses, but YopB is essential. Three models describe how the Yersinia T3SS might trigger inflammation: (i) mammalian cells sense YopBD-mediated pore formation, (ii) innate immune stimuli gain access to the host cytoplasm through the YopBD pore, and/or (iii) the YopB-YopD translocon itself or its membrane insertion is proinflammatory. To test these models, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant expressing YopD devoid of its predicted transmembrane domain (YopD?TM) and lacking the T3SS cargo proteins YopHEMOJTN. This mutant formed pores in macrophages, but it could not mediate translocation of effector proteins inside host cells. Importantly, this mutant did not elicit rapid host cell death, IL-1? secretion, or TLR-independent Egr1 and TNF-? expression. These data suggest that YopBD-mediated translocation of unknown T3SS cargo leads to activation of host pathways influencing inflammation, cell death, and response to stress. As the YopD?TM Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant formed somewhat smaller pores with delayed kinetics, an alternative model is that the wild-type YopB-YopD translocon is specifically sensed by host cells.

Kwuan, Laura; Adams, Walter

2013-01-01

256

Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU) and its subchains induce nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage cells.  

PubMed

Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important effector functions of innate immune cells. Although several reports have indicated mistletoe lectins induce immune cells to produce cytokines, studies regarding the activities of the lectins in the production of NO have been very limited. Here, we report on the induction of NO synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, by Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU). When the macrophage cells were treated with KML-IIU in the presence of a suboptimal concentration of IFN-gamma, NO production was induced in a concentration-dependent manner. Significantly higher levels of NO were induced by subchains of the KML-IIU (A and B), which have lower toxicities, as compared to the hololectin. Furthermore, expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was elevated in accordance with the level of NO production. When the synthase was inhibited by iNOS inhibitors (L-NIL and L-NAME), NO production was specifically reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Our studies demonstrate that the KML-IIU and its subchains induce NO production in murine macrophage cells via activation of the iNOS gene expression, suggesting that the KML-IIU subchains may be used as an immunomodulator to enhance the effector functions of innate immune cells. PMID:17940853

Kang, Tae Bong; Yoo, Yung Choon; Lee, Kwan Hee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Her, Erk; Kim, Jong Bae; Song, Seong Kyu

2008-03-01

257

CELLS INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE  

PubMed Central

By appropriate irradiation and cell transfer experiments, a direct correlation was observed between the presence of viable and immunologically active antigen-reactive cells and the capacity of the rabbits to respond following immunization. Rabbits given 800 R total body irradiation were unable to elicit a humoral immune response nor did they possess significant numbers of antigen-reactive cells. The ability to respond with humoral antibody formation did not reappear until antigen-reactive cells could be detected. These results strongly indicate that the presence of competent antigen-reactive cells are necessary for the successful induction of the humoral immune response in the rabbit.

Abdou, Nabih I.; Rose, Bram; Richter, Maxwell

1969-01-01

258

Generation of dendritic cells and macrophages from human induced pluripotent stem cells aiming at cell therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. iPS cell-derived DC (iPS-DC) exhibited the morphology of typical DC and function of T-cell stimulation and antigen presentation. iPS-DC loaded with cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide induced vigorous expansion of CMV-specific autologous CD8+ T cells. Macrophages (iPS-MP) with activity of zymosan phagocytosis and C5a-induced chemotaxis

S Senju; M Haruta; K Matsumura; Y Matsunaga; S Fukushima; T Ikeda; K Takamatsu; A Irie; Y Nishimura

2011-01-01

259

Bisphosphonates target B cells to enhance humoral immune responses  

PubMed Central

Summary Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that are widely used to inhibit loss of bone mass in patients. We show here that the administration of clinically relevant doses of bisphosphonates in mice increases antibody responses to live and inactive viruses, proteins, haptens and existing commercial vaccine formulations. Bisphosphonates exert this adjuvant-like activity in the absence of CD4+ and ?? T cells, neutrophils or dendritic cells and their effect does not rely on local macrophage depletion nor does it depend upon Toll-like receptor signaling or the inflammasome. Rather, bisphosphonates target directly B cells and enhance B cell expansion and antibody production upon antigen encounter. These data establish bisphosphonates as a novel class of adjuvants that boost humoral immune responses.

Tonti, Elena; Jimenez de Oya, Nereida; Galliverti, Gabriele; Moseman, E. Ashley; Di Lucia, Pietro; Amabile, Angelo; Sammicheli, Stefano; De Giovanni, Marco; Sironi, Laura; Chevrier, Nicolas; Sitia, Giovanni; Gennari, Luigi; Guidotti, Luca G.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Iannacone, Matteo

2013-01-01

260

Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory and immune cells in tumour angiogenesis and arteriogenesis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer progression is associated with and dependent upon robust neovascularization. It is becoming clear that tumour-associated 'normal' cells, such as immune/inflammatory cells, endothelial cells and stromal cells, conspire with cancer cells in promoting this process. In particular, infiltrating immune/inflammatory cells secrete a diverse repertoire of growth factors and proteases that enable them to enhance tumour growth by stimulating angiogenesis and, as we suggest here, by promoting 'tumour arteriogenesis' – enlargement of feeding vessels supplying the expanding tumour capillary bed. Macrophages and their chemoattractants (e.g. macrophage chemoattractant protein-1) are critical for the arteriogenic process in ischaemia, and probably also in breast neoplasia. A better understanding of these various cellular and molecular constituents of breast cancer neovascularization may be useful in designing more effective therapies.

Yu, Joanne L; Rak, Janusz W

2003-01-01

261

Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance.

Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

2012-01-01

262

Hematopoietic stem cells: interplay with immunity  

PubMed Central

Ample evidence indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) receive signaling from infection or other immune responses to adjust their differentiation and self-renewal. More recent reports also suggested that, while the bone marrow microenvironment or niche may provide the immune privilege for HSCs, HSCs can present surface immune inhibitors per se to suppress innate immunity and adaptive immunity to evade potential immune surveillance and attack. These findings support the hypothesis that HSCs are capable of interacting with the immune system as signal “receivers” and signal “providers”. On the one hand, HSCs are capable of directly sensing the signals from the immune system through their surface receptors to modulate their self-renewal and differentiation (“in” signaling); on the other hand, HSCs display surface immune inhibitory molecules to evade the attack from the innate and adaptive immune systems (“out” signaling). The continuing investigation of the interplay between HSCs and immunity may lead to the open-up of a new research filed – the immunology of stem cells.

Zhang, Cheng Cheng

2012-01-01

263

Characterization of Tumor Binding by the IC21 Macrophage Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if the SV40-transformed murine macrophage cell line IC-21 is a suitable model to study the selective high avidity binding of tumor cells by subpopulations of activated macrophages. IC-21 macrophages bound P815, RBL5, and EL-4 murine tumor cells with high avidity, as measured by the inverted centrifugation method. Tumor binding by IC-21 macrophages

Eric K. Crawford; Patricia S. Latham; Eliza M. Shah; Jeffrey D. Hasday

1990-01-01

264

Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility.  

PubMed

Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor ? (ER?KO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ER? signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ER?-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434

Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A; Korach, Kenneth S; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

2014-06-01

265

Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility  

PubMed Central

Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor ? (ER?KO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ER? signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ER?-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility.

Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

266

Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells.

Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandao, Ana S.; Leitao, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Angela Raquel; Sucena, Elio; Jacinto, Antonio; Zaidman-Remy, Anna

2013-01-01

267

Immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing Histoplasma capsulatum activates functional CD8(+) T cells to protect against histoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We have previously revealed the protective role of CD8(+) T cells in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum in animals with CD4(+) T cell deficiency and demonstrated that sensitized CD8(+) T cells are restimulated in vitro by dendritic cells that have ingested apoptotic macrophage-associated Histoplasma antigen. Here we show that immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing heat-killed Histoplasma efficiently activated functional CD8(+) T cells whose contribution was equal to that of CD4(+) T cells in protection against Histoplasma challenge. Inhibition of macrophage apoptosis due to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) deficiency or by caspase inhibitor treatment dampened the CD8(+) T cell but not the CD4(+) T cell response to pulmonary Histoplasma infection. In mice subcutaneously immunized with viable Histoplasma yeasts whose CD8(+) T cells are protective against Histoplasma challenge, there was heavy granulocyte and macrophage infiltration and the infiltrating cells became apoptotic. In mice subcutaneously immunized with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled apoptotic macrophages containing heat-killed Histoplasma, the CFSE-labeled macrophage material was found to localize within dendritic cells in the draining lymph node. Moreover, depleting dendritic cells in immunized CD11c-DTR mice significantly reduced CD8(+) T cell activation. Taken together, our results revealed that phagocyte apoptosis in the Histoplasma-infected host is associated with CD8(+) T cell activation and that immunization with apoptotic phagocytes containing heat-killed Histoplasma efficiently evokes a protective CD8(+) T cell response. These results suggest that employing apoptotic phagocytes as antigen donor cells is a viable approach for the development of efficacious vaccines to elicit strong CD8(+) T cell as well as CD4(+) T cell responses to Histoplasma infection. PMID:21911464

Hsieh, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jr-Shiuan; Huang, Juin-Hua; Wu, Shang-Yang; Chu, Ching-Liang; Kung, John T; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

2011-11-01

268

Neutrophils and Macrophages: the Main Partners of Phagocyte Cell Systems  

PubMed Central

Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), grouped mononuclear cells but excluded neutrophils, creating an unacceptable situation. As neutrophils are archetypical phagocytes that must be members of comprehensive phagocyte systems, Silva recently proposed the creation of a myeloid phagocyte system (MYPS) that adds neutrophils to the MPS. The phagocytes grouped in the MYPS include the leukocytes neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, macrophages, and immature myeloid DCs. Here the justifications behind the inclusion of neutrophils in a phagocyte system is expanded and the MYPS are further characterized as a group of dedicated phagocytic cells that function in an interacting and cooperative way in the host defense against microbial infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are considered the main arms of this system.

Silva, Manuel T.; Correia-Neves, Margarida

2012-01-01

269

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3 a Is Expressed at Inflamed Epithelial Surfaces and Is the Most Potent Chemokine Known in Attracting Langerhans Cell Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) form a network comprising different populations that initiate and differ- entially regulate immune responses. Langerhans cells (LCs) represent a unique population of DCs colonizing epithelium, and we present here observations suggesting that macrophage in- flammatory protein (MIP)-3 a plays a central role in LC precursor recruitment into the epithe- lium during inflammation. (a) Among DC populations, MIP-3

Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean; Catherine Massacrier; Bernhard Homey; Béatrice Vanbervliet; Jean-Jacques Pin; Alain Vicari; Serge Lebecque; Colette Dezutter-Dambuyant; Daniel Schmitt; Albert Zlotnik; Christophe Caux

270

Immune responses of TLR5 + lamina propria dendritic cells in enterobacterial infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 has been shown\\u000a to recognize bacterial flagellin. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 is not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages.\\u000a By contrast, TLR5 is mainly expressed on intestinal CD11c+ lamina propria cells (LPCs), which do not express TLR4. These cells detect pathogenic bacteria and secreted proinflammatory\\u000a cytokines,

Satoshi Uematsu; Shizuo Akira

2009-01-01

271

Electrochemical biosensors for on-chip detection of oxidative stress from immune cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seamless integration of biological components with electrochemical sensors is critical in the development of microdevices for cell analysis. The present paper describes the integration miniature Au electrodes next to immune cells (macrophages) in order to detect cell-secreted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Photopatterning of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels was used to both immobilize horseradish peroxidase molecules onto electrodes and to define regions

Jun Yan; Valber A. Pedrosa; James Enomoto; Aleksandr L. Simonian; Alexander Revzin

2011-01-01

272

Modulation of Murine Macrophage TLR7/8-Mediated Cytokine Expression by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play anti-inflammatory roles during innate immune responses. However, little is known about the effect of MSCs or their secretions on the ligand response of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8, receptors that recognize viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response to ssRNA virus infection; therefore, we investigated the effect of MSC-conditioned medium on cytokine expression in macrophages following stimulation with TLR7/8 ligands. After stimulation with TLR7/8 ligand, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured with MSCs or in MSC-conditioned medium expressed lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interleukin (IL) 6 and higher levels of IL-10 compared to macrophages cultured without MSCs or in control medium, respectively. The modulations of cytokine expression were associated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secreted by the MSCs. PGE2 enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling and suppressed nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling. Enhanced ERK signaling contributed to enhanced IL-10 production, and suppression of NF-?B signaling contributed to the low production of TNF-?. Collectively, these results indicate that MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium modulate the cytokine expression profile in macrophages following TLR7/8-mediated stimulation, which suggests that MSCs play an immunomodulatory role during ssRNA virus infection.

Asami, Takahiro; Ishii, Makoto; Fujii, Hideki; Namkoong, Ho; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Matsushita, Kenichi; Ishii, Ken; Yagi, Kazuma; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Yohei; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

2013-01-01

273

Surfactant protein D inhibits TNF-? production by macrophages and dendritic cells in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Surfactant protein (SP) D shares target cells with the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?, an important autocrine stimulator of dendritic cells and macrophages in the airways. Objective We sought to study the mechanisms by which TNF-? and SP-D can affect cellular components of the pulmonary innate immune system. Methods Cytokine and SP-D protein and mRNA expression was assessed by means of ELISA, Western blotting, and real-time PCR, respectively, by using in vivo models of allergic airway sensitization. Macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes were analyzed by means of FACS analysis. Maturation of bone marrow–derived dendritic cells was investigated in vitro. Results TNF-?, elicited either by allergen exposure or pulmonary overexpression, induced SP-D, IL-13, and mononuclear cell influx in the lung. Recombinant IL-13 by itself was also capable of enhancing SP-D in vivo and in vitro, and the SP-D response to allergen challenge was impaired in IL-13– deficient mice. Allergen-induced increase of SP-D in the airways coincided with resolution of TNF-? release and cell influx. SP-D–deficient mice had constitutively high numbers of alveolar mononuclear cells expressing TNF-?, MHC class II, CD86, and CD11b, characteristics of proinflammatory, myeloid dendritic cells. Recombinant SP-D significantly suppressed all of these molecules in bone marrow–derived dendritic cell cultures. Conclusions TNF-? can contribute to enhanced SP-D production in the lung indirectly through inducing IL-13. SP-D, on the other hand, can antagonize the proinflammatory effects of TNF-? on macrophages and dendritic cells, at least partly, by inhibiting production of this cytokine.

Krytska, Kateryna; Zhu, Xiaoping; Das, Anuk M.; Poulain, Francis; Haczku, Angela

2014-01-01

274

Modulation of T cell and innate immune responses by retinoic Acid.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA) is produced by a number of cell types, including macrophages and dendritic cells, which express retinal dehydrogenases that convert vitamin A to its main biologically active metabolite, all-trans RA. All-trans RA binds to its nuclear retinoic acid receptors that are expressed in lymphoid cells and act as transcription factors to regulate cell homing and differentiation. RA production by CD103(+) dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages functions with TGF-? to promote conversion of naive T cells into Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and, thereby, maintain mucosal tolerance. Furthermore, RA inhibits the differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 cells. However, Th1 and Th17 responses are constrained during vitamin A deficiency and in nuclear RA receptor ?-defective mice. Furthermore, RA promotes effector T cell responses during infection or autoimmune diseases. Thus, RA plays a role in immune homeostasis in the steady-state but activates pathogenic T cells in conditions of inflammation. PMID:24659788

Raverdeau, Mathilde; Mills, Kingston H G

2014-04-01

275

The immune cells in adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Although the pathological role of the immune system in several metabolic disorders, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Addison's disease, has long been recognized and studied, only in the last decade has it become apparent that the immune system plays a broad and more subtle role in local and systemic metabolism. It is now apparent that the immune system monitors and responds to specific metabolic cues in both pathologic and non-pathologic settings through a set of processes dubbed immunometabolism. Expansion of adipose tissue mass, activation of lipolysis, eating a high fat diet and even non-shivering thermogenesis all lead to the recruitment and activation of immune cells in key metabolic tissues. The responses are complex and not completely defined, and indeed, as is typical of rapidly evolving research areas, there are some conflicting reports, especially related to the metabolic consequences of manipulation of immune function. However, what is clear is the consensus that metabolic processes, especially obesity and obesity-related complications, activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Canonical immune processes consist of discrete steps: surveillance, recognition, effector action and resolution. Over the last decade evidence for each part of the immune response has been found at the intersection of the immune system with metabolism. Although evidence for immune surveillance and modulation of metabolism has been found in the liver, muscle, hypothalamus and pancreas, immune cell function has been most intensively studied and best understood in adipose tissue where studies continue to provide insights into the intersection of the metabolic and immune systems. Here we review the modulation of immune cell populations in adipose tissue and discuss regulatory processes implicated in controlling the interface between metabolism and immunologic function. PMID:24003919

Ferrante, A W

2013-09-01

276

Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity - a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line.  

PubMed

Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, as a precursor of the coenzymes FAD and FMN, has an indirect influence on many metabolic processes and determines the proper functioning of several systems, including the immune system. In the human population, plasma riboflavin concentration varies from 3·1 nM (in a moderate deficiency, e.g. in pregnant women) to 10·4 nM (in healthy adults) and 300 nM (in cases of riboflavin supplementation). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of riboflavin concentration on the activity and viability of macrophages, i.e. on one of the immunocompetent cell populations. The study was performed on the murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultured in medium with various riboflavin concentrations (3·1, 10·4, 300 and 531 nM). The results show that riboflavin deprivation has negative effects on both the activity and viability of macrophages and reduces their ability to generate an immune response. Signs of riboflavin deficiency developed in RAW 264.7 cells within 4 d of culture in the medium with a low riboflavin concentration (3·1 nM). In particular, the low riboflavin content reduced the proliferation rate and enhanced apoptotic cell death connected with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The riboflavin deprivation impaired cell adhesion, completely inhibited the respiratory burst and slightly impaired phagocytosis of the zymosan particles. In conclusion, macrophages are sensitive to riboflavin deficiency; thus, a low riboflavin intake in the diet may affect the immune system and may consequently decrease proper host immune defence. PMID:23415257

Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Buchala, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

2013-08-28

277

Phosphorylation of immunity-related GTPases by a Toxoplasma gondii secreted kinase promotes macrophage survival and virulence  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Macrophages are specialized to detect and destroy intracellular microbes and yet a number of pathogens have evolved to exploit this hostile niche. Here we demonstrate that the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii disarms macrophage innate clearance mechanisms by secreting a serine threonine kinase called ROP18, which binds to and phosphorylates immunity-related GTPases (IRGs). Substrate profiling of ROP18 revealed a preference for a conserved motif within switch region I of the GTPase domain, a modification predicted to disrupt IRG function. Consistent with this, expression of ROP18 was both necessary and sufficient to block recruitment of Irgb6, which was in turn required for parasite destruction. ROP18 phosphorylation of IRGs prevented clearance within inflammatory monocytes and IFN-?-activated macrophages, conferring parasite survival in vivo and promoting virulence. IRGs are implicated in clearance of a variety of intracellular pathogens, suggesting that other virulence factors may similarly thwart this innate cellular defense mechanism.

Fentress, Sarah J.; Behnke, Michael S.; Dunay, Ildiko R.; Mashayekhi, Mona; Rommereim, Leah M.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.; Taylor, Gregory A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Townsend, R. Reid; Qiu, Wei; Hui, Raymond; Beatty, Wandy L.; Sibley, L. David

2010-01-01

278

Rabies Virus Stimulates Nitric Oxide Production and CXC Chemokine Ligand 10 Expression in Macrophages through Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages represent an essential part of innate immunity, and the viral infection of macrophages results in the release of multiple proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines. This study was undertaken to define the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation in response to rabies virus (RV) infection. In RAW264 murine macrophage cells, a well-characterized macrophage model, RV rep-

Kazuo Nakamichi; Satoshi Inoue; Tomohiko Takasaki; Kinjiro Morimoto; Ichiro Kurane

2004-01-01

279

Mediation of immunity to intracellular infection (Toxoplasma and Besnoitia) within somatic cells.  

PubMed Central

Antigen-treated lymphocytes from immune hamsters specifically protected not only macrophages, but also cultured fibroblasts and kidney cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii or Besnoitia jellisoni. Macrophages were not necessary for the protection of fibroblasts and kidney cells. A mediator that inhibited the intracellular proliferation of these microbes was obtained from immune lymphocytes in contact with specific antigen. Again, macrophages were not necessary for the elaboration of this mediator or its activity in kidney cells or fibroblasts. The mediator was microbe and host specific, had a molecular weight between 4,000 and 5,000, was resistant to heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and was sensitive to chymotrypsin, but resistant to ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease. A single injection of Besnoitia mediator afforded better protection to hamsters infected with Besnoitia than did antibody. Whereas antibody lysed extracellular organisms, the microbe-specific mediators conferred immunity not only on macrophages, but also on other cells of the body, apparently the first such demonstration. Images

Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

1978-01-01

280

Macrophage Contact Dependent and Independent TLR4 Mechanisms Induce ?-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is evolving into a global disease and patients have a systemic low-grade inflammation, yet the role of this inflammation is still not established. One plausible mechanism is enhanced expression and activity of the innate immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and the function of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on pancreatic ?-cells in primary mouse islets and on the murine ?-cell line MIN6 in the presence or absence of macrophages. Diabetic islets have 40% fewer TLR4 positive ?-cells, but twice the number of TLR4 positive macrophages as compared to healthy islets. Healthy and diabetic islets respond to a TLR4 challenge with enhanced production of cytokines (5–10-fold), while the TLR4 negative ?-cell line MIN6 fails to produce cytokines. TLR4 stimulation induces ?-cell dysfunction in mouse islets, measured as reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetic macrophages from 4-months old mice have acquired a transient enhanced capacity to produce cytokines when stimulated with LPS. Interestingly, this is lost in 6-months old diabetic mice. TLR4 activation alone does not induce apoptosis in islets or MIN-6 cells. In contrast, macrophages mediate TLR4-dependent cell-contact dependent (3-fold) as well as cell-contact independent (2-fold) apoptosis of both islets and MIN-6 cells. Importantly, diabetic macrophages have a significantly enhanced capacity to induce ?-cell apoptosis compared to healthy macrophages. Taken together, the TLR4 responsiveness is elevated in the diabetic islets and mainly mediated by newly recruited macrophages. The TLR4 positive macrophages, in both a cell-contact dependent and independent manner, induce apoptosis of ?-cells in a TLR4 dependent fashion and TLR4 activation directly induces ?-cell dysfunction. Thus, targeting either the TLR4 pathway or the macrophages provides a novel attractive treatment regime for T2D.

Cucak, Helena; Mayer, Christopher; Tonnesen, Morten; Thomsen, Lise H?j; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

2014-01-01

281

Regulatory T cells: immune suppression and beyond  

PubMed Central

Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immunosuppressive functions of Tregs are widely acknowledged and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have revealed many diverse roles of Tregs in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory response. This review will discuss our efforts as well as the efforts of others towards understanding the multifaceted function of Tregs in immune regulation.

Wan, Yisong Y

2010-01-01

282

Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin ?M (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

2014-01-01

283

Comprehensive expression profiles of genes for protein tyrosine phosphatases in immune cells.  

PubMed

The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of signaling molecules play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including immune responses. To date, the global expression profile of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in various immune cells has not been described. With the RefDIC (Reference Genomics Database of Immune Cells) database compiled by RIKEN (Rikagaku Kenkyusho), we examined the expression patterns of PTP-encoding genes in mice and identified between 57 and 64 PTP-encoding genes (depending on cutoff values) that were commonly expressed in immune cells. Cells of different lineages contained additional, unique PTP-encoding genes, which resulted in a total of 58 to 76 genes. Compared with cells from nonimmune tissues, immune cells exhibited enhanced expression of the genes encoding 8 PTP-encoding genes, including Ptprc, Ptpn6, and Ptpn22, but had barely detectable expression of 11 PTP-encoding genes, including Ptprd and Tns1. Each immune cell lineage had between 2 and 18 PTP-encoding genes expressed at relatively high or low extents relative to the average expression among immune cells; for example, Ptprj in B cells, Dusp3 in macrophages, Ptpro in dendritic cells, and Ptprg in mast cells. These PTPs potentially play important roles in each cell lineage, and our analysis provides insight for future functional studies. PMID:20807954

Arimura, Yutaka; Yagi, Junji

2010-01-01

284

Cortisol modulates the induction of inflammatory gene expression in a rainbow trout macrophage cell line.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid actions on the immune system are diverse and cell type dependent, and little is known about cell type-specific interactions and cross-talk between hormones and cytokines. In this study we have analyzed the gene expression patterns of the rainbow trout macrophage cell line RTS-11 by quantitative PCR, after exposure to combinations of cortisol plus a pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. recombinant trout IL-1?, IFN-?), type I IFN or a PAMP (LPS or poly I:C). Several key genes of the inflammatory process were targetted to assess whether any modulation of their expression occurred due to the addition of cortisol to this cell line. Incubation of macrophages for 3 or 6 h with a physiological concentration of cortisol caused a decrease in expression of IL-6 and IL-8, but no significant changes were observed for the other genes examined. Co-stimulation of cortisol with the inflammatory agents resulted in a general suppression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Cortisol inhibited the up-regulation of IL-8 by all the stimulants after 3 h of co-incubation. Suppression of the up-regulation of IL-6 by rIL-1?, rIFN-? and poly I:C, of ?IP by rIFN-? or poly I:C, and of Cox-2 by rIL-1? was seen after 6 h. In contrast, cortisol in combination with the pro-inflammatory agents has a synergistic effect on IL-10 expression, an anti-inflammatory molecule, suggesting that the activation of certain macrophage functions that lead to the resolution of inflammation occurs in fish macrophages in response to cortisol treatment. PMID:20965252

Castro, Rosario; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

2011-01-01

285

?-1,4-mannobiose stimulates innate immune responses and induces TLR4-dependent activation of mouse macrophages but reduces severity of inflammation during endotoxemia in mice.  

PubMed

?-1,4-Mannobiose (MNB) has been shown to exert prebiotic activity and modulate mucosal gene expression. In this study, the immune-modulating effect of MNB in healthy and endotoxemic mice and its role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4-mediated macrophage activation were investigated. Mice were supplemented daily with MNB (0, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg) for 14 d. To examine the effect of MNB during endotoxemia, mice were supplemented with or without MNB (25 mg/kg) for 14 d, followed by challenge with intraperitoneal LPS or saline. MNB induced expression of both T helper (Th) 1- and Th2-type cytokines in the ileum (P < 0.05) and increased fecal IgA production and splenic NK cell activity (P < 0.05) in healthy mice. In endotoxemic mice, MNB reduced the expression of Tnfa, Il-6, iNos (P < 0.05), and Il-10 (P < 0.05), and reduced LPS-induced weight loss but increased Ifng, Il-12p40, Il-5, and Ifna expression (P < 0.05) and NK cell activity relative to positive control (LPS) mice. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with MNB induced TNF-? and IL-6 secretion (P < 0.05), and this effect was abrogated by inhibiting TLR4, but not TLR2, signaling. Pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with MNB induced tolerance to TLR2 and TLR4 agonists, reducing TNF-? production (P < 0.05) upon secondary stimulation with LPS or lipoteichoic acid. These results indicate that MNB can modulate intestinal and systemic immune responses in healthy and endotoxemic mice and prevent LPS-induced immune suppression, as well as directly stimulating innate immune mechanisms in vitro as a TLR4 agonist. PMID:23343679

Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Kanatani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Ibuki, Masahisa; Mine, Yoshinori

2013-03-01

286

Mouse lung and spleen natural killer cells have phenotypic and functional differences, in part influenced by macrophages.  

PubMed

NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system which are a first line of defense against infections and tumor cells, in bone marrow and peripheral organs like lung and spleen. The lung is an organ in contact with respiratory pathogens and the site of inflammatory disorders triggered by the respiratory environment. In contrast, spleen is a lymphatic organ connected to the blood system which regulates the systemic immune response. Here we compare NK cell maturation and expansion as well as expression of NK cell receptors in spleen and lung compartments. We show that spleen and lung NK cells differ in phenotypic and functional characteristics due to a difference of maturity and cellular microenvironment. Indeed we observe that spleen and lung macrophages have the capacity to influence the cytotoxicity of NK cells by cell-to-cell contact. This suggests that the differences of NK cell subsets are in part due to a modulation by the organ environment. PMID:23227255

Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Domingues, Olivia; Mauffray, Marion; Thérésine, Maud; Brons, Nicolaas H C; Hentges, François; Zimmer, Jacques

2012-01-01

287

An evolving new paradigm: endothelial cells - conditional innate immune cells  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cells (ECs) are a heterogeneous population that fulfills many physiological processes. ECs also actively participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses. ECs are one of the first cell types to detect foreign pathogens and endogenous metabolite-related danger signals in the bloodstream, in which ECs function as danger signal sensors. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide activates ECs, causing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which amplify the immune response by recruiting immune cells. Thus, ECs function as immune/inflammation effectors and immune cell mobilizers. ECs also induce cytokine production by immune cells, in which ECs function as immune regulators either by activating or suppressing immune cell function. In addition, under certain conditions, ECs can serve as antigen presenting cells (antigen presenters) by expressing both MHC I and II molecules and presenting endothelial antigens to T cells. These facts along with the new concept of endothelial plasticity suggest that ECs are dynamic cells that respond to extracellular environmental changes and play a meaningful role in immune system function. Based on these novel EC functions, we propose a new paradigm that ECs are conditional innate immune cells. This paradigm provides a novel insight into the functions of ECs in inflammatory/immune pathologies.

2013-01-01

288

Orchestration of Angiogenesis by Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The TUMIC involves many “players” going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune, and endothelial cells (ECs). The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can “orchestrate” the “symphony” of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy. Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the ECs, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here, we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here, we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the “conductors” of this “orchestra.” We also suggest that interrupting the immune???inflammation???angiogenesis???tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease.

Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Albini, Adriana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Noonan, Douglas M.; Mortara, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

289

Antitumor Immunity Produced by the Liver Kupffer Cells, NK Cells, NKT Cells, and CD8+ CD122+ T Cells  

PubMed Central

Mouse and human livers contain innate immune leukocytes, NK cells, NKT cells, and macrophage-lineage Kupffer cells. Various bacterial components, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and an NKT cell ligand (?-galactocylceramide), activate liver Kupffer cells, which produce IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF. IL-12 activates hepatic NK cells and NKT cells to produce IFN-?, which further activates hepatic T cells, in turn activating phagocytosis and cytokine production by Kupffer cells in a positive feedback loop. These immunological events are essentially evoked to protect the host from bacterial and viral infections; however, these events also contribute to antitumor and antimetastatic immunity in the liver by activated liver NK cells and NKT cells. Bystander CD8+CD122+ T cells, and tumor-specific memory CD8+T cells, are also induced in the liver by ?-galactocylceramide. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments have revealed that activated liver lymphocytes may migrate to other organs to inhibit tumor growth, such as the lungs and kidneys. The immunological mechanism underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic livers in hepatitis C patients and liver innate immunity as a double-edged sword (hepatocyte injury/regeneration, septic shock, autoimmune disease, etc.) are also discussed.

Seki, Shuhji; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Manabu

2011-01-01

290

Cellular immunity of mice to Leishmania donovani in vitro: lymphokine-mediated killing of intracellular parasites in macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Leishmania donovani, an intracellular protozoan, causes kala-azar by parasitizing the macrophages of its mammalian host. Outbred NCS and CD-1 mice develop immunity to this parasite. This immunity was demonstrable when supernatant fluids from cultured splenic lymphocytes were added to infected macrophages. Only the lymphokine preparations from infected mice showed significant leishmanicidal activity. Mice receiving multiple inocula were more potent producers of leishmanicidal lymphokines than were those receiving single inocula. The expression of leishmanicidal activity in our system required continuous presence of the lymphokine preparation and was independent of trypsin- or neuraminidase-sensitive receptors of the macrophages. Light and electron microscopy revealed that, in the presence of lymphokines, macrophages appeared to be "activated," and intracellular leishmanias developed specific subcellular lesions in the kinetoplast-mitochondria. A time-course study showed that cultivation of the lymphocytes for 1 1/2 days completed the release of their leishmanicidal lymphokines which were heat-labile molecules larger than 50,000 daltons. Images

Chang, K P; Chiao, J W

1981-01-01

291

Antigen-specific suppressor T-cell activity in genetically restricted immune spleen cells  

PubMed Central

Virgin spleen cells develop comparable primary antibody responses in vitro to syngeneic or allogeneic macrophages (Mphi) bearing the terpolymer L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 (GAT), whereas immune spleen cells primed with syngeneic or allogeneic GAT-Mphi develop secondary responses preferentially when stimulated with GAT- Mphi syngeneic to the GAT-Mphi used for priming in vivo. These restrictions are mediated by products of the I-A subregion of the H-2 complex and are operative at the level of the GAT-Mphi-immune helper T- cell interactions. To investigate why these immune spleen cells fail to develop a significant antibody response to GAT-Mphi other than those used for in vivo immunization and determine the mechanism by which the restriction is maintained, spleen cells from virgin and syngeneic or allogeneic GAT-Mphi-primed mice were co-cultured in the presence of GAT- Mphi of various haplotypes. Antibody responses to GAT developed only in the presence of GAT-Mphi syngeneic to the Mphi used for in vivo priming; responses in cultures with GAT-Mphi allogeneic to the priming Mphi, whether these Mphi were syngeneic or allogeneic with respect to the responding spleen cells, were suppressed. The suppression was mediated by GAT-specific radiosensitive T cells. Thus, development of GAT-specific suppressor T cells appears to be a natural consequence of the immune response to GAT in responder as well as nonresponder mice. The implications of stimulation of genetically restricted immune helper T cells, and antigen-specific, but unrestricted, suppressor T cells after immunization with GAT-Mphi in vivo are discussed in the context of regulatory mechanisms in antibody responses.

1978-01-01

292

Interactions between macrophages and cell wall oligosaccharides of Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The fungal cell wall is the armour that protects the cell from changes in the external environment. The wall of Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, is also the immediate point of contact with the host immune system and contains most of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognised by innate immune cells. Along with the use of mutants altered in cell wall composition, the isolation and purification of cell wall components has proven useful in the identification of receptors involved in the sensing of these molecules, and assessment of the relative relevance of ligand-receptor interactions during the sensing of C. albicans by the immune system. Here, we describe protocols for the isolation of cell wall chitin, N-linked and O-linked mannans from C. albicans, and how they can subsequently be used to assess immunological activities such as phagocytosis and cytokine production by myeloid cells. PMID:22328379

Mora-Montes, Héctor M; McKenzie, Christopher; Bain, Judith M; Lewis, Leanne E; Erwig, Lars P; Gow, Neil A R

2012-01-01

293

Differentiation of Monocytes to Macrophages Primes Cells for Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation via Accumulation of Cytoplasmic Nuclear Factor kB  

Microsoft Academic Search

During infection, circulating blood monocytes migrate from the vasculature to the extravascular compart- ments where they mature into tissue macrophages. The maturation process prepares the cell to actively participate in the inflammatory and the immune responses, and many transcription factors have been found to be involved. Here we report on a novel role for nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) in this

SHOGO TAKASHIBA; THOMAS E. VAN DYKE; SALOMON AMAR; YOJI MURAYAMA; AUBREY W. SOSKOLNE; LIOR SHAPIRA

1999-01-01

294

Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases.

Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

2014-01-01

295

Cytokine secretion by immune cells in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured, bone marrow-derived macro- phages, murine spleen and lymph node cells, and human lymphocytes were tested for their ability to secrete cyto- kines in space. Lipopolysaccharide-activated bone mar- row macrophages were found to secrete significantly more interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor when stimulated in space than when stimulated on earth. Murine spleen cells stimulated with poly I:C in space released

Stephen K. Chapes; Dennis R. Morrison; James A. Guikema; Marian L. Lewis; Brian S. Spooner

1992-01-01

296

Macrophage Autophagy in Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play crucial roles in atherosclerotic immune responses. Recent investigation into macrophage autophagy (AP) in atherosclerosis has demonstrated a novel pathway through which these cells contribute to vascular inflammation. AP is a cellular catabolic process involving the delivery of cytoplasmic contents to the lysosomal machinery for ultimate degradation and recycling. Basal levels of macrophage AP play an essential role in atheroprotection during early atherosclerosis. However, AP becomes dysfunctional in the more advanced stages of the pathology and its deficiency promotes vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and plaque necrosis. In this paper, we will discuss the role of macrophages and AP in atherosclerosis and the emerging evidence demonstrating the contribution of macrophage AP to vascular pathology. Finally, we will discuss how AP could be targeted for therapeutic utility.

Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Grassia, Gianluca; Platt, Andrew M.; Carnuccio, Rosa; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale

2013-01-01

297

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induce alternative activation of human monocytes/macrophages  

PubMed Central

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent suppressors of the adaptive immune system, but their effects on innate immune cells are less well known. Here we demonstrate a previously uncharacterized function of Tregs, namely their ability to steer monocyte differentiation toward alternatively activated macrophages (AAM). AAM are cells with strong antiinflammatory potential involved in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, parasite killing, and tumor promotion. We show that, after coculture with Tregs, monocytes/macrophages display typical features of AAM, including up-regulated expression of CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor) and CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor), an increased production of CCL18, and an enhanced phagocytic capacity. In addition, the monocytes/macrophages have reduced expression of HLA-DR and a strongly reduced capacity to respond to LPS in terms of proinflammatory mediator production (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1?, TNF-?), NF?B activation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. Mechanistic studies reveal that CD4+CD25+CD127lowFoxp3+ Tregs produce IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 and that these cytokines are the critical factors involved in the suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine response. In contrast, the Treg-mediated induction of CD206 is entirely cytokine-independent, whereas the up-regulation of CD163, CCL18, and phagocytosis are (partly) dependent on IL-10 but not on IL-4/IL-13. Together these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, namely their ability to induce alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, the data suggest that the Treg-mediated induction of AAM partly involves a novel, cytokine-independent pathway.

Tiemessen, Machteld M.; Jagger, Ann L.; Evans, Hayley G.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; John, Susan; Taams, Leonie S.

2007-01-01

298

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induce alternative activation of human monocytes/macrophages.  

PubMed

CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent suppressors of the adaptive immune system, but their effects on innate immune cells are less well known. Here we demonstrate a previously uncharacterized function of Tregs, namely their ability to steer monocyte differentiation toward alternatively activated macrophages (AAM). AAM are cells with strong antiinflammatory potential involved in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, parasite killing, and tumor promotion. We show that, after coculture with Tregs, monocytes/macrophages display typical features of AAM, including up-regulated expression of CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor) and CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor), an increased production of CCL18, and an enhanced phagocytic capacity. In addition, the monocytes/macrophages have reduced expression of HLA-DR and a strongly reduced capacity to respond to LPS in terms of proinflammatory mediator production (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1alpha, TNF-alpha), NFkappaB activation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. Mechanistic studies reveal that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)Foxp3(+) Tregs produce IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 and that these cytokines are the critical factors involved in the suppression of the proinflammatory cytokine response. In contrast, the Treg-mediated induction of CD206 is entirely cytokine-independent, whereas the up-regulation of CD163, CCL18, and phagocytosis are (partly) dependent on IL-10 but not on IL-4/IL-13. Together these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized function of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs, namely their ability to induce alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, the data suggest that the Treg-mediated induction of AAM partly involves a novel, cytokine-independent pathway. PMID:18042719

Tiemessen, Machteld M; Jagger, Ann L; Evans, Hayley G; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; John, Susan; Taams, Leonie S

2007-12-01

299

The increase in intra-macrophage thiols induced by new pro-GSH molecules directs the Th1 skewing in ovalbumin immunized mice.  

PubMed

In the present work, the capacity of new pro-GSH molecules to increase the intra-macrophage thiol content in vitro and in vivo as well as to shift the immune response to Th1 in ovalbumin (Ova)-sensitized mice were examined. The molecules were the N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and beta-mercaptoethylamine (MEA), I-152. In vitro, 2h-incubation with both molecules was found to increase intra-macrophage thiol content; in vivo, Ova-sensitized mice pre-treated by intraperitoneal administration of the pro-GSH molecules showed an increase in plasma anti-Ova IgG2a and IgG2b, characterizing Th1 immune response, and a decrease in IgG1, typical of the Th2 response. Such findings were connected to a shift to a Th1 response also involving splenocyte IFN-? production as revealed by ELISPOT assay and higher levels of IL-12 in circulation. Although immune responses are in vivo mediated both by dendritic cells and macrophages, the data reported in this paper corroborate the suggestion that the pro-GSH molecules, increasing the intra-cellular thiol pool, modulate the Th1/Th2 balance favouring Th1-type responses and may be employed as Th1-directing adjuvants in new vaccination protocols and as immunomodulators in those diseases where Th1 response patterns are compromised in favour of Th2. PMID:20875491

Fraternale, Alessandra; Paoletti, Maria Filomena; Dominici, Sabrina; Caputo, Antonella; Castaldello, Arianna; Millo, Enrico; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Smietana, Michaël; Clayette, Pascal; Oiry, Joël; Benatti, Umberto; Magnani, Mauro

2010-11-10

300

Macrophages in the development of protective immunity against experimental Brugia malayi infection.  

PubMed

The present report compares the macrophage function in rodent hosts susceptible and resistant to the human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi. Macrophages from both mastomys (resistant) and gerbil (susceptible) infected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the infective larvae (L3) of B. malayi were isolated from peritoneal lavage at different time-intervals and formation rate of NO, H2O2, O2-, TNF-alpha, glutathione peroxidase and reductase was assayed. NO release was found to be significantly increased in resistant mastomys as compared to gerbils and the release was markedly suppressed by i.p. administration of the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). The AG-treated mastomys also demonstrated significantly greater establishment of larvae which correlated well with suppressed formation of NO. Nitric oxide synergizes with superoxide to form peroxynitrite radical (potent oxidant), which is known to be more toxic per se than NO. Results indicate the possible involvement of peroxynitrite in the rapid killing of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mastomys. In contrast, the production of H2O2 was found to be enhanced in both species indicating that B. malayi L3 could withstand the toxic effects of H2O2. The higher level of glutathione peroxidase and reductase, as observed in mastomys compared with the gerbil after larval introduction, possibly protects the cell against the injurious effect of H2O2. The TNF-alpha level remained virtually unchanged in both the hosts, suggesting an insignificant role for this cytokine in parasite establishment. PMID:15471006

Gupta, R; Bajpai, P; Tripathi, L M; Srivastava, V M L; Jain, S K; Misra-Bhattacharya, S

2004-09-01

301

Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

2001-01-01

302

From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP’s ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP’s ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP’s interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages.

2014-01-01

303

Immunization with Leishmania receptor for macrophages protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

The Leishmania major receptor for macrophages is a lipid-containing glycoconjugate that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody WIC-79.3. When L. major promastigotes were incubated with Fab fragments of WIC-79.3 prior to injection into genetically susceptible mice, their infectivity was decreased. Fab fragments from an irrelevant control antibody of the same class had no effect. The L. major glycolipid was purified from detergent-solubilized promastigotes by affinity chromatography on immobilized WIC-79.3 and used to vaccinate mice that are genetically resistant or susceptible to disease. Genetically resistant mice could be protected totally from cutaneous disease with as little as 5 micrograms of glycolipid. A high but not absolute level of resistance was also induced in the susceptible mice, in which the disease is otherwise fatal. No protection was obtained with the carbohydrate fragment of the glycolipid alone or by injection of the glycolipid in the absence of adjuvant. Genetically susceptible mice, immunized and protected from disease as a result of multiple injections of live avirulent cloned promastigotes of L. major, produced antibodies to the glycolipid of L. major. No antibodies were detected in serum from chronically diseased mice. The data suggest that this functionally important antigen of L. major is a candidate vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Handman, E; Mitchell, G F

1985-01-01

304

Inflammatory Mediator Profiling Reveals Immune Properties of Chemotactic Gradients and Macrophage Mediator Production Inhibition during Thioglycollate Elicited Peritoneal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Understanding of spatiotemporal profiling of inflammatory mediators and their associations with M? accumulation is crucial to elucidate the complex immune properties. Here, we used murine thioglycollate elicited peritonitis to determine concentrations of 23 inflammatory mediators in peritoneal exudates and plasma before (day 0) and after (days 1 and 3) thioglycollate administration to peritoneal cavities; these mediators included TNF-?, FGF-9, IFN-?, IP-10, RANTES, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12p70, IL-17A, lymphotactin, OSM, KC/GRO, SCF, MIP-1?, MIP-2, TIMP-1, VEGF-A, MCP-1, MCP-3, and MCP-5. Our results showed that concentrations of most mediators in exudates and plasma reached peak levels on day 1 and were significantly reduced on day 3. Conversely, M? numbers started to increase on day 1 and reached peak levels on day 3. Moreover, LPS treatment in vitro significantly induced mediator productions in cell culture media and lysates from M? isolated on day 3. Our results also showed that on day 0, concentrations of many mediators in plasma were higher than those in exudates, whereas on day 1, the trend was reversed. Overall, the findings from thioglycollate elicited peritonitis reveal that reversible chemotactic gradients between peritoneal exudates and blood exist in basal and inflamed conditions and the inflammatory mediator production in vivo is disassociated with macrophage accumulation during inflammation resolution.

Lam, Derek; Harris, Devon

2013-01-01

305

Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators  

SciTech Connect

Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

Orona, N.S. [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D.R., E-mail: deborah.tasat@unsam.edu.ar [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, M. T. de Alvear 2142 (1122), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-06-15

306

Mechanisms of NK Cell-Macrophage Bacillus anthracis Crosstalk: A Balance between Stimulation by Spores and Differential Disruption by Toxins  

PubMed Central

NK cells are important immune effectors for preventing microbial invasion and dissemination, through natural cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. Bacillus anthracis spores can efficiently drive IFN-? production by NK cells. The present study provides insights into the mechanisms of cytokine and cellular signaling that underlie the process of NK-cell activation by B. anthracis and the bacterial strategies to subvert and evade this response. Infection with non-toxigenic encapsulated B. anthracis induced recruitment of NK cells and macrophages into the mouse draining lymph node. Production of edema (ET) or lethal (LT) toxin during infection impaired this cellular recruitment. NK cell depletion led to accelerated systemic bacterial dissemination. IFN-? production by NK cells in response to B. anthracis spores was: i) contact-dependent through RAE-1-NKG2D interaction with macrophages; ii) IL-12, IL-18, and IL-15-dependent, where IL-12 played a key role and regulated both NK cell and macrophage activation; and iii) required IL-18 for only an initial short time window. B. anthracis toxins subverted both NK cell essential functions. ET and LT disrupted IFN-? production through different mechanisms. LT acted both on macrophages and NK cells, whereas ET mainly affected macrophages and did not alter NK cell capacity of IFN-? secretion. In contrast, ET and LT inhibited the natural cytotoxicity function of NK cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The subverting action of ET thus led to dissociation in NK cell function and blocked natural cytotoxicity without affecting IFN-? secretion. The high efficiency of this process stresses the impact that this toxin may exert in anthrax pathogenesis, and highlights a potential usefulness for controlling excessive cytotoxic responses in immunopathological diseases. Our findings therefore exemplify the delicate balance between bacterial stimulation and evasion strategies. This highlights the potential implication of the crosstalk between host innate defences and B. anthracis in initial anthrax control mechanisms.

Klezovich-Benard, Maria; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jusforgues-Saklani, Helene; Fiole, Daniel; Burjek, Nick; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L.

2012-01-01

307

Thyroid signaling in immune organs and cells of the teleost fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones are involved in modulating the immune system in mammals. In contrast, there is no information on the role played by these hormones in the immune system of teleost fish. Here we provide initial evidence for the presence of active thyroid signaling in immune organs and cells of teleosts. We demonstrate that immune organs (head kidney and spleen) and isolated leukocytes (from head kidney and peripheral blood) of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) express both thyroid receptor ? (THRA) and ? (THRB). Absolute mRNA levels of THRA were significantly higher than those of THRB. THRA showed higher expression in immune organs and isolated immune cells compared to the reference organ, liver, while THRB showed the opposite. In vivo exposure of trout to triiodothryronine (T3) or the anti-thyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) altered THR expression in immune organs and cells. Effect of T3 and PTU over the relative expression of selected marker genes of immune cell subpopulations was also studied. Treatments changed the relative expression of markers of cytotoxic, helper and total T cells (cd4, cd8a, trb), B lymphocytes (mIgM) and macrophages (csf1r). These findings suggest that the immune system of rainbow trout is responsive to thyroid hormones. PMID:24657316

Quesada-García, A; Valdehita, A; Kropf, C; Casanova-Nakayama, A; Segner, H; Navas, J M

2014-05-01

308

Recognition and blocking of innate immunity cells by Candida albicans chitin.  

PubMed

Chitin is a skeletal cell wall polysaccharide of the inner cell wall of fungal pathogens. As yet, little about its role during fungus-host immune cell interactions is known. We show here that ultrapurified chitin from Candida albicans cell walls did not stimulate cytokine production directly but blocked the recognition of C. albicans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine macrophages, leading to significant reductions in cytokine production. Chitin did not affect the induction of cytokines stimulated by bacterial cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), indicating that blocking was not due to steric masking of specific receptors. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and Mincle (the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were not required for interactions with chitin. Dectin-1 was required for immune blocking but did not bind chitin directly. Cytokine stimulation was significantly reduced upon stimulation of PBMCs with heat-killed chitin-deficient C. albicans cells but not with live cells. Therefore, chitin is normally not exposed to cells of the innate immune system but is capable of influencing immune recognition by blocking dectin-1-mediated engagement with fungal cell walls. PMID:21357722

Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Netea, Mihai G; Ferwerda, Gerben; Lenardon, Megan D; Brown, Gordon D; Mistry, Anita R; Kullberg, Bart Jan; O'Callaghan, Chris A; Sheth, Chirag C; Odds, Frank C; Brown, Alistair J P; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R

2011-05-01

309

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-lc Activates Basophlh and Mast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP) is a recently cloned cytokine that causes neutrophilic infiltration and induces an inflammatory response. We studied the effect of MIP-lo~ on histamine secretion from basophils and mast cells. Leukocytes from allergic and normal subjects were studied. MIP-loe caused dose-dependent release of histamine from basophils of 14 of 20 allergic donors at concentrations of 10-9-10 -7

Rafeul Alam; Patricia A. Forsythe; Susan Stafford; Michael A. Lett-Brown; J. Andrew Grant

310

Role of endometrial immune cells in implantation  

PubMed Central

Implantation of an embryo occurs during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, known as the "implantation window." During this implantation period, there are significant morphologic and functional changes in the endometrium, which is followed by decidualization. Many immune cells, such as dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells, increase in number in this period and early pregnancy. Recent works have revealed that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and NK cells are involved in vascular remodeling of spiral arteries in the decidua and lack of APCs leads to failure of pregnancy. Paternal and fetal antigens may play a role in the induction of immune tolerance during pregnancy. A balance between effectors (i.e., innate immunity and helper T [Th] 1 and Th17 immunity) and regulators (Th2 cells, regulatory T cells, etc.) is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The highly complicated endocrine-immune network works in decidualization of the endometrium and at the fetomaternal interface. We will discuss the role of immune cells in the implantation period and during early pregnancy.

Lee, Ji Yeong; Lee, Millina

2011-01-01

311

Donor Immune Cells Attack Metastatic Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In patients with metastatic breast cancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.

312

Cell-mediated immunity against connective tissue in experimental pulmonary fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-mediated immunity against an extract of homologous normal lung connective tissue was determined in vitro in spleen cells\\u000a from CD1 mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Blastoid transformation and macrophage migration inhibitory factor\\u000a (MIF) were measured at intervals in spleen lymphocytes for a total of seven weeks after the initiation of the fibrogenic process.\\u000a MIF production was evident from the third

R. E. Carvajal; R. González; M. Selman

1982-01-01

313

Distinct pathways for signaling maturation in macrophages and dendritic cells after infection with paramyxovirus simian virus 5.  

PubMed

Professional antigen-presenting cells are critical components of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Although dendritic cells (DCs) are generally thought to be the primary activators of naive T cells, macrophages have also been shown to fulfill this role. As with DCs, the capacity to induce optimal activation of T cells requires that macrophages undergo a process that results in the increased expression of costimulatory molecules, such as CD40, CD80, and CD86, and the production of cytokines. In this study we analyzed the effect of infection of macrophages generated from BALB/c mice with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5). Here we have shown that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) are not productively infected at any multiplicity of infection tested. Analysis of activation markers revealed that SV5-infected BMMs robustly upregulated CD40 and modestly upregulated CD86, but did not upregulate the expression of CD80. Further, SV5-infected BMMs secreted low levels of interferon-beta and interleukin (IL)-12p40, but high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6. Intriguingly, upregulation of these molecules on BMMs, unlike our previous results using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, was not dependent on live virus. These findings provide evidence that different professional antigen-presenting cells can detect and respond to virus via distinct mechanisms. PMID:17425423

Pejawar-Gaddy, Sharmila; Gitiban-Vaghefi, Negin; Parks, Griffith D; Alexander-Miller, Martha A

2007-01-01

314

T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

2004-03-01

315

Inhibition of lipoxygenase pathway in macrophages co-cultivated with tumor cells.  

PubMed

Although there is a great deal of interest in the role played by tumor-associated macrophages in tumor progression, the knowledge of the biological mediators involved in the interplay between macrophages and tumor cells is still limited. In the present study, we investigated whether the lipoxygenase pathway in resident murine peritoneal macrophages is affected by contact with tumor cells of a different origin, e.g. murine B16 melanoma and L929 fibrosarcoma cells, and human Hs294T melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Our experiments have been carried out by using macrophages co-cultivated with tumor cells at different ratios, in order to simulate the relative proportions between macrophages and tumor cells during the in vivo development of a tumor. Reverse phase HPLC analyses of the lipoxygenase products of resident peritoneal macrophages revealed a rather complex profile characterized by a high level of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid followed by leukotriene B(4), 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and lipoxins. Macrophages co-cultivated with tumor cells, both murine and human, showed a marked reduction of lipoxygenase products, mainly in the co-cultures where tumor cells prevailed over macrophages. The characteristic profile of macrophage lipoxygenase products was re-established after removal of tumor cells from the co-cultures. The inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase pathways exerted by tumor cells, was not seen when macrophages were co-cultivated with normal primary murine and human fibroblasts. PMID:15890248

Calorini, Lido; Bianchini, Francesca; Mannini, Antonella; Mugnai, Gabriele; Ruggieri, Salvatore

2005-06-01

316

Differential rates of replacement of human dermal dendritic cells and macrophages during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Animal models of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been used to analyze the turnover of bone marrow–derived cells and to demonstrate the critical role of recipient antigen-presenting cells (APC) in graft versus host disease (GVHD). In humans, the phenotype and lineage relationships of myeloid-derived tissue APC remain incompletely understood. It has also been proposed that the risk of acute GVHD, which extends over many months, is related to the protracted survival of certain recipient APC. Human dermis contains three principal subsets of CD45+HLA-DR+ cells: CD1a+CD14? DC, CD1a?CD14+ DC, and CD1a?CD14+FXIIIa+ macrophages. In vitro, each subset has characteristic properties. After transplantation, both CD1a+ and CD14+ DC are rapidly depleted and replaced by donor cells, but recipient macrophages can be found in GVHD lesions and may persist for many months. Macrophages isolated from normal dermis secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Although they stimulate little proliferation of naive or memory CD4+ T cells, macrophages induce cytokine expression in memory CD4+ T cells and activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells. These observations suggest that dermal macrophages and DC are from distinct lineages and that persistent recipient macrophages, although unlikely to initiate alloreactivity, may contribute to GVHD by sustaining the responses of previously activated T cells.

Haniffa, Muzlifah; Ginhoux, Florent; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Bigley, Venetia; Abel, Michal; Dimmick, Ian; Bullock, Sarah; Grisotto, Marcos; Booth, Trevor; Taub, Peter; Hilkens, Catharien; Merad, Miriam

2009-01-01

317

Transfer of extracellular vesicles during immune cell-cell interactions.  

PubMed

The transfer of molecules between cells during cognate immune cell interactions has been reported, and recently a novel mechanism of transfer of proteins and genetic material such as small RNA between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been described, involving exchange of extracellular vesicles (EVs) during the formation of the immunological synapse (IS). EVs, a term that encompasses exosomes and microvesicles, has been implicated in cell-cell communication during immune responses associated with tumors, pathogens, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on EV transfer as a mechanism for the exchange of molecules during immune cell-cell interactions. PMID:23278745

Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Mittelbrunn, María; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

2013-01-01

318

Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop beta-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune

Melanie M. Marketon; R. William DePaolo; Kristin L. DeBord; Bana Jabri; Olaf Schneewind

2005-01-01

319

A Critical Role for the TLR4/TRIF Pathway in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Rejection by Innate Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

We show for the first time that signaling through the TLR4/TRIF pathway plays a critical role in allogeneic bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection. This appears to be unique to BMC as organ allografts are rejected mainly via MyD88 signaling. Using T or T/B cell-deficient mice, we found that BMC allorejection occurred early before T cell activation and was T and B cell-independent, suggesting an effector role for innate immune cells in BMC rejection. We further demonstrated the innate immune signaling in BMC allorejection by showing superior engraftment in mice deficient in TRIF or TLR4 but not MyD88 or TLR3. The restored cytotoxicity in TRIF deficient recipients transferred with wildtype F4/80+ or NK1.1+ cells suggests TRIF signaling dependence on macrophages or NK cells in early BMC rejection. Production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TRIF relevant chemokine MCP-1 was significantly increased early after bone marrow transplantation. In vivo specific depletion of macrophages or NK innate immune cells in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin resulted in additive-enhanced allogeneic engraftment. The requirement for irradiation was completely eliminated when both macrophages and NK cells were depleted in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin to target T and B cells, supporting the hypothesis that two barriers involving innate and adaptive immunity exist in mediating rejection of allogeneic BMC. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for innate immunity in BMC allorejection via signaling through a unique MyD88-independent TLR4/TRIF mechanism. These findings may have direct clinical impact on strategies for conditioning recipients for stem cell transplantation.

Xu, Hong; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Ziqiang; Hussain, Lala-Rukh; Huang, Yiming; Ding, Chuanlin; Bozulic, Larry D.; Wen, Yujie; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

2013-01-01

320

Innate immune activation in the pathogenesis of a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

Globoid cell leukodystrophy is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the loss of galactocerebrosidase. Galactocerebrosidase loss leads to the accumulation of psychosine and subsequent oligodendrocyte cell death, demyelination, macrophage recruitment, and astroglial activation and proliferation. To date, no studies have elucidated the mechanism of glial cell activation and cytokine and chemokine up-regulation and release. We explored a novel explanation for the development of the pathological changes in the early stages of globoid cell leukodystrophy associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 up-regulation in the hindbrain and cerebellum as a response to dying oligodendrocytes. TLR2 up-regulation on microglia/macrophages coincided with morphological changes consistent with activation at 2 and 3 weeks of age. TLR2 up-regulation on activated microglia/macrophages resulted in astrocyte activation and marked up-regulation of cytokines/chemokines. Because oligodendrocyte cell death is an important feature of globoid cell leukodystrophy, we tested the ability of TLR2 reporter cells to respond to oligodendrocyte cell death. These reporter cells responded in vitro to medium conditioned by psychosine-treated oligodendrocytes, indicating the likelihood that oligodendrocytes release a TLR2 ligand during apoptosis. TLRs are a member of the innate immune system and initiate immune and inflammatory events; therefore, the identification of TLR2 as a potential driver in the activation of central nervous system glial activity in globoid cell leukodystrophy may provide important insight into its pathogenesis. PMID:24316110

Snook, Eric R; Fisher-Perkins, Jeanne M; Sansing, Hope A; Lee, Kim M; Alvarez, Xavier; MacLean, Andrew G; Peterson, Karin E; Lackner, Andrew A; Bunnell, Bruce A

2014-02-01

321

Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: role of immune cells in the corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The immune system is essential for optimal function of the reproductive system. The corpus luteum (CL) is an endocrine organ that secretes progesterone, which is responsible for regulating the length of the estrous cycle, and for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. This paper reviews literature that addresses 2 areas; i) how immune cells are recruited to the CL, and ii) how immune cells communicate with luteal cells to affect the formation, development, and regression of the CL. Immune cells, primarily recruited to the ovulatory follicle from lymphoid organs after the LH surge, facilitate ovulation and populate the developing CL. During the luteal phase, changes in the population of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes occur at critical functional stages of the CL. In addition to their role in facilitating ovulation, immune cells may have an important role in luteal function. Evidence shows that cytokines secreted by immune cells modulate both luteotropic and luteolytic processes. However, the decision to pursue either function may depend on the environment provided by luteal cells. It is suggested that understanding the role immune cells play could lead to identification of new strategies to improve fertility in dairy cattle and other species. PMID:23422006

Walusimbi, S S; Pate, J L

2013-04-01

322

Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

2011-11-01

323

Cytokine Treatment of Macrophage Suppression of T Cell Activation  

PubMed Central

High M?:T cell ratios suppress the immune response to the retroviral superantigen Mls by IFN?-triggered production of the arg- and trp-consuming enzymes iNOS and IDO. Attempts to reverse suppression by treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines revealed that IL-6 improved the T cell response to Mls and the pro-hematopoietic cyokines IL-3 and GM-CSF increased suppression. GM-CSF treatment increased M? expression of CD80, a ligand for the immune suppressive B7H1 and CTLA-4 receptors. These results illustrate potential strategies for reversing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity characteristic of the high M?:T cell ratios found in many tumors.

Silberman, Daniel; Bucknum, Amanda; Kozlowski, Megan; Matlack, Robin; Riggs, James

2009-01-01

324

A raf/myc virus immortalized macrophage cell line which supports the growth of B-cell and B-cell hybridomas.  

PubMed

Using a combination of raf and myc oncogenes co-expressed by the recombinant retrovirus J-2 we have generated and characterized a cell line which very efficiently supports the growth of B-cells and B-cell hybridomas. Murine spleen cells were cultured under in vitro immunization conditions favoring the short term proliferation of splenic B lymphocytes and infected with J-2 virus. Screening of immortalized spleen cell pools for the capability to support long term B cell growth in vitro led to the selection of a clonal cell line termed alpha ChyJ2. The presence of macrophage specific features and surface markers suggest that alpha ChyJ2 belongs to the macrophage lineage. alpha ChyJ2 cells constitutively produce low levels of IL-1 like activity and high levels of IL-6. Expression of specific mRNAs as well as production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 are inducible with LPS. Expression or production of other cytokines including IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, TGF beta and GM-CSF could not be detected. As the biological effects of alpha ChyJ2 supernatant cannot be fully explained by the described pattern of cytokine production, participation of other, yet uncharacterized, factors is possible. Using alpha ChyJ2 as feeder cells for in vitro as well as in vivo immunizations increased the number of antibody secreting B-cell clones 2 to 15 fold, respectively. PMID:2216460

Mischak, H; Kolch, W; Hofer, F; Weissinger, E; Gessl, A; Davidson, W F; Aiello, F B; Blaas, D; Rapp, U R

1990-09-01

325

Murine myeloid dendritic cells that phagocytose apoptotic T cells inhibit the immune response via NO.  

PubMed

The contraction phase of antigen-specific immune responses involves the apoptotic loss of numerous activated lymphocytes. While apoptotic cells are known to induce immune suppression, the mechanisms involved therein are still ambiguous. Some reports have speculated that macrophages can induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) after engulfing apoptotic cells. In this study, we showed that dendritic cells (DCs) that phagocytose apoptotic T cells acquire inhibitory function (named DCapos) toward CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These inhibitory DCs could not induce the generation of Tregs, but they were found to directly inhibit mDCs that initiate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Soluble factors including NO play a role in the DCapos-induced suppression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation. Further results showed that STAT3 phosphorylation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generation were enhanced when DCs were co-cultured with apoptotic cells. Both iNOS transcription and NO secretion were inhibited in the presence of the specific p-STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124. All the data indicated that apoptotic cells could turn DCs to inhibitory DCs, which might play important roles in the suppression of immune responses. STAT3 activation and the consequent release of NO are responsible for the inhibitory functions of DCapos. PMID:23166651

Zhong, Kaili; Song, Wengang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chao; Liu, Xi; Chen, Dongwei; Zhu, Zhongli; Wu, Yiqing; Zhang, Weijing; Zhang, Minghui

2012-01-01

326

Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumours express a range of antigens, including self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are crucial for maintaining T-cell tolerance to self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are thought to dampen T-cell immunity to tumour-associated antigens and to be the main obstacle tempering successful immunotherapy and active vaccination. In this Review, I consider the nature and characteristics of regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment

Weiping Zou

2006-01-01

327

IL-15 protects NKT cells from inhibition by tumor-associated macrophages and enhances antimetastatic activity  

PubMed Central

V?24-invariant NKT cells inhibit tumor growth by targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Tumor progression therefore requires that TAMs evade NKT cell activity through yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we report that a subset of cells in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines and primary tumors expresses membrane-bound TNF-? (mbTNF-?). These proinflammatory tumor cells induced production of the chemokine CCL20 from TAMs via activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway, an effect that was amplified in hypoxia. Flow cytometry analyses of human primary NB tumors revealed selective accumulation of CCL20 in TAMs. Neutralization of the chemokine inhibited in vitro migration of NKT cells toward tumor-conditioned hypoxic monocytes and localization of NKT cells to NB grafts in mice. We also found that hypoxia impaired NKT cell viability and function. Thus, CCL20-producing TAMs served as a hypoxic trap for tumor-infiltrating NKT cells. IL-15 protected antigen-activated NKT cells from hypoxia, and transgenic expression of IL-15 in adoptively transferred NKT cells dramatically enhanced their antimetastatic activity in mice. Thus, tumor-induced chemokine production in hypoxic TAMs and consequent chemoattraction and inhibition of NKT cells represents a mechanism of immune escape that can be reversed by adoptive immunotherapy with IL-15–transduced NKT cells.

Liu, Daofeng; Song, Liping; Wei, Jie; Courtney, Amy N.; Gao, Xiuhua; Marinova, Ekaterina; Guo, Linjie; Heczey, Andras; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Kim, Eugene; Dotti, Gianpietro; Metelitsa, Leonid S.

2012-01-01

328

Antitumor immune responses mediated by dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of adaptive immune responses against malignant cells by virtue of their capacity to effectively cross-present exogenous antigens to T lymphocytes. Dying cancer cells are indeed a rich source of antigens that may be harnessed for the development of DC-based vaccines. In particular, malignant cells succumbing to apoptosis, rather than necrosis, appear to release antigens in a manner that allows for the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the processes that mediate the cross-presentation of antigens released by apoptotic cancer cells to CD8+ T lymphocytes, resulting in the activation of protective tumor-specific immune responses.

Spel, Lotte; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Nierkens, Stefan; Boes, Marianne

2013-01-01

329

Effect of interaction of vitamin C on macrophage immune response to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis affecting humans and livestock. Like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), M. bovis can persist in cattle without causing overt symptoms after entering a non-replicating persistent (NRP) state. Given that M.tb enters NRP under stress conditions, we sought to find the effects of vitamin C (VC) on M. bovis in vitro and in vivo (VC could mimic stresses like hypoxia by O2 scavenging and acidic conditions in phagosome). M. bovis was cultured in a medium with VC for 48 h. The differential expression of five genes (dosR, dosS, dosT, icl, and hspX of M. bovis) implicated in the M. bovis NRP state was measured with real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of all five genes was increased by VC. Relative to the control, VC-exposed bacteria appeared smaller and more rounded in shape with a much thicker inner envelope. A lower number of viable bacteria were found in comparison with those of the control. We infected macrophage cell line ANA-1 with M. bovis and cultured it in VC-added medium (MC group) for 24h and 48 h. Expression of il-10, il-6, tnf-?, and il-? was examined and compared with expression by cells infected by M. bovis only without VC treatment (MB group), uninfected cells in the medium treated with VC (VC group), and cells in the medium only without VC. Il-1?, tnf-?, and il-6 transcription were up-regulated significantly in MC group. IL-10 gene expression in MB and MC groups was less than in the control at 24h, but that of MC group increased more than the MB group at 48 h. The numbers of intracellular M. bovis in the MC group were lower than that in the other groups. Slower growth was found in VC-treated M. bovis, and macrophages were more bactericidal for intracellular VC-stimulated M. bovis than for M. bovis with no VC treatment. PMID:22762523

Wang, J; Zhou, X; Zhang, Z; Xu, L; Yin, X; Yang, L; Zhao, D

2012-01-01

330

Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

Sherry, Christina Lynn

2009-01-01

331

Prostaglandin E2 does not inhibit tumoricidal activity of mouse macrophages against adherent tumor cells.  

PubMed

We determined whether endogenously produced PGE2 can down-regulate the tumoricidal properties of macrophages by a negative feedback mechanism. Peritoneal exudate macrophages or resident peritoneal macrophages of mice were incubated in medium (control) or in medium containing IFN-gamma and LPS. Activated macrophages were highly tumoricidal against syngeneic melanoma cells and secreted high levels of PGE2. Treatment with indomethacin or diclofenac sodium (voltaren) completely inhibited the production and secretion of PGE2 but not the tumoricidal activity of activated macrophages measured either immediately after activation or 1 to 3 days thereafter. Finally, the addition of exogenous PGE2 did not alter the ability of peritoneal exudate macrophages to respond to IFN-gamma or of LPS to produce high levels of tumor cell lysis. Collectively, these results show that PGE2 produced by activated macrophages is not a down-regulator of their tumoricidal activity against adherent tumor cells. PMID:2005391

Utsugi, T; Fidler, I J

1991-03-15

332

Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-?? receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution

Christiane E. Wobus; Stephanie M. Karst; Larissa B. Thackray; Kyeong-Ok Chang; Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev; Gaël Belliot; Anne Krug; Jason M. Mackenzie; Kim Y. Green; Herbert W. Virgin

2004-01-01

333

Retroviral transformation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells: macrophage-like and microvascular endothelial cell properties.  

PubMed

We report that L-cell-conditioned medium (LCM) transforms porcine cerebral microvascular (PCMV) endothelial cells into cells with macrophage-like properties. LCM is known to contain both cytokine(s) and the L-cell virus, a murine retrovirus found in the L929 cell and LCM. Our evidence suggests that both LCM cytokine(s) and the L-cell virus are involved in this PCMV endothelial cell transformation. Criteria for transformation include focus formation, decreased serum requirements for growth, changes in morphology including nonadherence, propagation in suspension culture, and a decreased growth response to stimulation with a known endothelial cell mitogen. Macrophage-like characteristics of this transformed cell, designated as RVTE, include pinocytosis of low-density lipoprotein, Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, phagocytosis of bacteria and zymosan, the expression of macrophage enzyme markers, and constitutive production of colony-stimulating factor 1. However, the transformed cell retains several properties of the nontransformed cell including the expression of FVIII:RAg and in vitro self-organization into capillary-like structures. Cloning of RVTE cells clearly shows that both macrophage-like and cerebral microvascular endothelial cell properties are present in the same cell. During self-organization, nontransformed cells express morphologic and functional characteristics classically associated with the macrophage. These findings suggest that some brain capillary pathophysiologies could involve macrophage-like cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the "reticuloendothelial" phenotypic repertoire expressed by this transformed cerebral microvascular endothelial cell may show that the cerebral capillary endothelial cell in vivo is derived from a hematopoietic and/or phagocytic precursor. PMID:1985696

Robinson, D H; Warren, M K; Liang, L T; Oprandy, J J; Nielsen, T B; Kang, Y H

1991-01-15

334

Productive infection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout, a possible survival strategy.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), an endemic disease which causes significant losses in salmon production. This intracellular bacterium is normally cultured in salmonid epithelial cell lines inducing characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs). In this study we demonstrate that P. salmonis is able to infect, survive, replicate, and propagate in the macrophages/monocytes cell line RTS11 derived from rainbow trout spleen, without inducing the characteristic CPEs and the host cells showing the same expression levels as non-infected control cell. On the other hand, bacteria were capable of expressing specific proteins within infected cells. Infected macrophages cease proliferation and a fraction of them detached from the plate, transform to non-adhesive, monocyte-like cells with proliferative activity. Productive infection of P. salmonis into salmonid macrophage/monocyte cells in culture provides an excellent model for the study of host-pathogen interactions, almost unknown in the case of P. salmonis. Our results suggest that the infection of cells from the salmonid innate immune system without inducing an important cell death response should lead to the persistence of the bacteria and consequently their dissemination to other tissues, favoring the evasion of the first line of defense against pathogens. PMID:19681041

Rojas, Verónica; Galanti, Norbel; Bols, Niels C; Marshall, Sergio H

2009-10-15

335

Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.  

PubMed

Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

2014-04-01

336

T Cells and Macrophages Responding to Oxidative Damage Cooperate in Pathogenesis of a Mouse Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major disease affecting central vision, but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood. Using a mouse model, we examined the relationship of two factors implicated in AMD development: oxidative stress and the immune system. Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) is a lipid peroxidation product associated with AMD in humans and AMD-like pathology in mice. Previously, we demonstrated that CEP immunization leads to retinal infiltration of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages before overt retinal degeneration. Here, we provide direct and indirect mechanisms for the effect of CEP on macrophages, and show for the first time that antigen-specific T cells play a leading role in AMD pathogenesis. In vitro, CEP directly induced M1 macrophage polarization and production of M1-related factors by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In vivo, CEP eye injections in mice induced acute pro-inflammatory gene expression in the retina and human AMD eyes showed distinctively diffuse CEP immunolabeling within RPE cells. Importantly, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing CEP-specific T cells were identified ex vivo after CEP immunization and promoted M1 polarization in co-culture experiments. Finally, T cell immunosuppressive therapy inhibited CEP-mediated pathology. These data indicate that T cells and M1 macrophages activated by oxidative damage cooperate in AMD pathogenesis.

Cruz-Guilloty, Fernando; Saeed, Ali M.; Duffort, Stephanie; Cano, Marisol; Ebrahimi, Katayoon B.; Ballmick, Asha; Tan, Yaohong; Wang, Hua; Laird, James M.; Salomon, Robert G.; Handa, James T.; Perez, Victor L.

2014-01-01

337

T cells and macrophages responding to oxidative damage cooperate in pathogenesis of a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major disease affecting central vision, but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood. Using a mouse model, we examined the relationship of two factors implicated in AMD development: oxidative stress and the immune system. Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) is a lipid peroxidation product associated with AMD in humans and AMD-like pathology in mice. Previously, we demonstrated that CEP immunization leads to retinal infiltration of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages before overt retinal degeneration. Here, we provide direct and indirect mechanisms for the effect of CEP on macrophages, and show for the first time that antigen-specific T cells play a leading role in AMD pathogenesis. In vitro, CEP directly induced M1 macrophage polarization and production of M1-related factors by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In vivo, CEP eye injections in mice induced acute pro-inflammatory gene expression in the retina and human AMD eyes showed distinctively diffuse CEP immunolabeling within RPE cells. Importantly, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing CEP-specific T cells were identified ex vivo after CEP immunization and promoted M1 polarization in co-culture experiments. Finally, T cell immunosuppressive therapy inhibited CEP-mediated pathology. These data indicate that T cells and M1 macrophages activated by oxidative damage cooperate in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24586307

Cruz-Guilloty, Fernando; Saeed, Ali M; Duffort, Stephanie; Cano, Marisol; Ebrahimi, Katayoon B; Ballmick, Asha; Tan, Yaohong; Wang, Hua; Laird, James M; Salomon, Robert G; Handa, James T; Perez, Victor L

2014-01-01

338

Alterations in Marginal Zone Macrophages and Marginal Zone B Cells in Old Mice  

PubMed Central

Marginal zones (MZs) are architecturally organized for clearance of and rapid response against blood-borne Ags entering the spleen. MZ macrophages (MZMs) and MZ B cells are particularly important in host defense against T-independent pathogens and may be crucial for the prevention of diseases, such as streptococcal pneumonia, that are devastating in older patients. Our objective was to determine whether there are changes in the cellular components of the MZ between old and young mice. Using immunocytochemistry and a blinded scoring system, we observed gross architectural changes in the MZs of old mice, including reduction in the abundance of MZMs surrounding the MZ sinus as well as disruptions in positioning of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1)+ sinus lining cells and metallophilic macrophages. Loss of frequency of MZMs was corroborated by flow cytometry. A majority of old mice also showed reduced frequency of MZ B cells, which correlated with decreased abundance of MZM in individual old mice. The spleens of old mice showed less deposition of intravenously injected dextran particles within the MZ, likely because of the decreased frequency in MZMs, because SIGN-R1 expression was not reduced on MZM from old mice. The phagocytic ability of individual MZMs was examined using Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles, and no differences in phagocytosis were found between macrophages from young or old spleens. In summary, an anatomical breakdown of the MZ occurs in advanced age, and a reduction in frequency of MZM may affect the ability of the MZM compartment to clear blood-borne Ags and mount proper T-independent immune responses.

Birjandi, Shirin Z.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Ramadorai, Anand K.; Witte, Pamela L.

2012-01-01

339

Mast Cell Regulation of the Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are well known as principle effector cells of type I hypersensitivity responses. Beyond this role in allergic disease, these cells are now appreciated as playing an important role in many inflammatory conditions. This review summarizes the support for mast cell involvement in resisting bacterial infection, exacerbating autoimmunity and atherosclerosis, and promoting cancer progression. A commonality in these conditions is the ability of mast cells to elicit migration of many cell types, often through the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor. However, recent data also demonstrates that mast cells can suppress the immune response through interleukin-10 production. The data encourage those working in this field to expand their view of how mast cells contribute to immune homeostasis.

2009-01-01

340

Generation of HIV-1 resistant and functional macrophages from hematopoietic stem cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have radically advanced the field of regenerative medicine by making possible the production of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells from adult individuals. By developing iPSCs to treat HIV, there is the potential for generating a continuous supply of therapeutic cells for transplantation into HIV-infected patients. In this study, we have used human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate anti-HIV gene expressing iPSCs for HIV gene therapy. HSCs were dedifferentiated into continuously growing iPSC lines with four reprogramming factors and a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector containing a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and a human/rhesus chimeric TRIM5? gene. Upon directed differentiation of the anti-HIV iPSCs toward the hematopoietic lineage, a robust quantity of colony-forming CD133(+) HSCs were obtained. These cells were further differentiated into functional end-stage macrophages which displayed a normal phenotypic profile. Upon viral challenge, the anti-HIV iPSC-derived macrophages exhibited strong protection from HIV-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate the ability of iPSCs to develop into HIV-1 resistant immune cells and highlight the potential use of iPSCs for HIV gene and cellular therapies. PMID:21119622

Kambal, Amal; Mitchell, Gaela; Cary, Whitney; Gruenloh, William; Jung, Yunjoon; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Nacey, Catherine; McGee, Jeannine; Lindsey, Matt; Fury, Brian; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A; Anderson, Joseph S

2011-03-01

341

Generation of HIV-1 Resistant and Functional Macrophages From Hematopoietic Stem Cell-derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have radically advanced the field of regenerative medicine by making possible the production of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells from adult individuals. By developing iPSCs to treat HIV, there is the potential for generating a continuous supply of therapeutic cells for transplantation into HIV-infected patients. In this study, we have used human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate anti-HIV gene expressing iPSCs for HIV gene therapy. HSCs were dedifferentiated into continuously growing iPSC lines with four reprogramming factors and a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector containing a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and a human/rhesus chimeric TRIM5? gene. Upon directed differentiation of the anti-HIV iPSCs toward the hematopoietic lineage, a robust quantity of colony-forming CD133+ HSCs were obtained. These cells were further differentiated into functional end-stage macrophages which displayed a normal phenotypic profile. Upon viral challenge, the anti-HIV iPSC-derived macrophages exhibited strong protection from HIV-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate the ability of iPSCs to develop into HIV-1 resistant immune cells and highlight the potential use of iPSCs for HIV gene and cellular therapies.

Kambal, Amal; Mitchell, Gaela; Cary, Whitney; Gruenloh, William; Jung, Yunjoon; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Nacey, Catherine; McGee, Jeannine; Lindsey, Matt; Fury, Brian; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A; Anderson, Joseph S

2011-01-01

342

APC, T Cells, and the Immune Synapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a CD4+ T cells engage different activating cells during their generation in the bone marrow and thymus and during their homeostasis\\u000a and activation in the periphery. During these processes, T cells or their precursors establish a molecular platform for communication\\u000a in the interface between the two cells that is called immune synapse (IS). Here we review the current knowledge about those

Peter Reichardt; Bastian Dornbach; Matthias Gunzer

343

Neem leaf glycoprotein suppresses regulatory T cell mediated suppression of monocyte/macrophage functions.  

PubMed

We have shown that neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) inhibits the regulatory T cell (Tregs) induced suppression of tumoricidal functions of CD14(+)CD68(+) monocyte/macrophages (MO/M?) from human peripheral blood. Cytotoxic efficacy of MO/M? toward macrophage sensitive cells, U937, is decreased in presence of Tregs (induced), however, it was increased further by supplementation of NLGP in culture. Associated Treg mediated inhibition of perforin/granzyme B expression and nitric oxide release from MO/M? was normalized by NLGP. Altered status of signature cytokines, like, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, TNF? from MO/M? under influence of Tregs is also rectified by NLGP. Tregs significantly enhanced the expression of altered marker, mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells that was downregulated upon NLGP exposure. In addition to tumoricidal functions, antigen presenting ability of MO/M? is hampered by Treg induced downregulation of CD80, CD86 and HLA-ABC. NLGP upregulated these molecules in MO/M? even in the presence of Tregs. Treg mediated inhibition of MO/M? chemotaxis in contact dependent manner was also normalized partially by NLGP, where participation of CCR5 was documented. Overall results suggest that Treg influenced pro-tumor MO/M? functions are rectified in a significant extent by NLGP to create an anti-tumor immune environment. PMID:22210373

Chakraborty, Tathagata; Bose, Anamika; Goswami, Kuntal Kanti; Goswami, Shyamal; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Baral, Rathindranath

2012-02-01

344

Structurally distinct phosphatases CD45 and CD148 both regulate B cell and macrophage immunoreceptor signaling.  

PubMed

The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) CD148 is thought to have an inhibitory function in signaling and proliferation in nonhematopoietic cells. However, its role in the immune system has not been thoroughly studied. Our analysis of CD148 loss-of-function mice showed that CD148 has a positive regulatory function in B cells and macrophages, similar to the role of CD45 as a positive regulator of Src family kinases (SFKs). Analysis of CD148 and CD45 doubly deficient B cells and macrophages revealed hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine of SFKs accompanied by substantial alterations in B and myeloid lineage development and defective immunoreceptor signaling. Because these findings suggest the C-terminal tyrosine of SFKs is a common substrate for both CD148 and CD45 phosphatases and imply a level of redundancy not previously appreciated, a reassessment of the function of CD45 in the B and myeloid lineages based on prior data from the CD45-deficient mouse is warranted. PMID:18249142

Zhu, Jing W; Brdicka, Tomas; Katsumoto, Tamiko R; Lin, Joseph; Weiss, Arthur

2008-02-01

345

Hypoxic macrophages impair autophagy in epithelial cells through Wnt1: relevance in IBD.  

PubMed

A defective induction of epithelial autophagy may have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. This process is regulated mainly by extracellular factors such as nutrients and growth factors and is highly induced by diverse situations of stress. We hypothesized that epithelial autophagy is regulated by the immune response that in turn is modulated by local hypoxia and inflammatory signals present in the inflamed mucosa. Our results reveal that HIF-1? and Wnt1 were co-localized with CD68 in cells of the mucosa of IBD patients. We have observed increased protein levels of ?-catenin, phosphorylated mTOR, and p62 and decreased expression of LC3II in colonic epithelial crypts from damaged mucosa in which ?-catenin positively correlated with phosphorylated mTOR and negatively correlated with autophagic protein markers. In cultured macrophages, HIF-1 mediated the increase in Wnt1 expression induced by hypoxia, which enhanced protein levels of ?-catenin, activated mTOR, and decreased autophagy in epithelial cells in co-culture. Our results demonstrate a HIF-1-dependent induction of Wnt1 in hypoxic macrophages that undermines autophagy in epithelial cells and suggest a role for Wnt signaling and mTOR pathways in the impaired epithelial autophagy observed in the mucosa of IBD patients. PMID:24301659

Ortiz-Masiá, D; Cosín-Roger, J; Calatayud, S; Hernández, C; Alós, R; Hinojosa, J; Apostolova, N; Alvarez, A; Barrachina, M D

2014-07-01

346

Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy.

Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

2010-01-01

347

Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent

A Trajman; T T MacDonald; C C Elia

1997-01-01

348

Smac mimetics induce inflammation and necrotic tumour cell death by modulating macrophage activity  

PubMed Central

Smac mimetics (SMs) comprise a class of small molecules that target members of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of pro-survival proteins, whose expression in cancer cells hinders the action of conventional chemotherapeutics. Herein, we describe the activity of SM83, a newly synthesised dimeric SM, in two cancer ascites models: athymic nude mice injected intraperitoneally with IGROV-1 human ovarian carcinoma cells and immunocompetent BALB/c mice injected with murine Meth A sarcoma cells. SM83 rapidly killed ascitic IGROV-1 and Meth A cells in vivo (prolonging mouse survival), but was ineffective against the same cells in vitro. IGROV-1 cells in nude mice were killed within the ascites by a non-apoptotic, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent mechanism. SM83 administration triggered a rapid inflammatory event characterised by host secretion of TNF, interleukin-1? and interferon-?. This inflammatory response was associated with the reversion of the phenotype of tumour-associated macrophages from a pro-tumoural M2- to a pro-inflammatory M1-like state. SM83 treatment was also associated with a massive recruitment of neutrophils that, however, was not essential for the antitumoural activity of this compound. In BALB/c mice bearing Meth A ascites, SM83 treatment was in some cases curative, and these mice became resistant to a second injection of cancer cells, suggesting that they had developed an adaptive immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that, in vivo, SM83 modulates the immune system within the tumour microenvironment and, through its pro-inflammatory action, leads cancer cells to die by necrosis with the release of high-mobility group box-1. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that SMs could be more therapeutically active than expected by stimulating the immune system.

Lecis, D; De Cesare, M; Perego, P; Conti, A; Corna, E; Drago, C; Seneci, P; Walczak, H; Colombo, M P; Delia, D; Sangaletti, S

2013-01-01

349

Tetherin Can Restrict Cell-Free and Cell-Cell Transmission of HIV from Primary Macrophages to T Cells  

PubMed Central

Bst-2/Tetherin inhibits the release of HIV by tethering newly formed virus particles to the plasma membrane of infected cells. Although the mechanisms of Tetherin-mediated restriction are increasingly well understood, the biological relevance of this restriction in the natural target cells of HIV is unclear. Moreover, whether Tetherin exerts any restriction on the direct cell-cell spread of HIV across intercellular contacts remains controversial. Here we analyse the restriction endogenous Tetherin imposes on HIV transmission from primary human macrophages, one of the main targets of HIV in vivo. We find that the mRNA and protein levels of Tetherin in macrophages are comparable to those in T cells from the same donors, and are highly upregulated by type I interferons. Improved immunocytochemistry protocols enable us to demonstrate that Tetherin localises to the cell surface, the trans-Golgi network, and the macrophage HIV assembly compartments. Tetherin retains budded virions in the assembly compartments, thereby impeding the release and cell-free spread of HIV, but it is not required for the maintenance of these compartments per se. Notably, using a novel assay to quantify cell-cell spread, we show that Tetherin promotes the transfer of virus clusters from macrophages to T cells and thereby restricts the direct transmission of a dual-tropic HIV-1. Kinetic analyses provide support for the notion that this direct macrophage-T cell spread is mediated, at least in part, by so-called virological synapses. Finally, we demonstrate that the viral Vpu protein efficiently downregulates the cell surface and overall levels of Tetherin, and thereby abrogates this HIV restriction in macrophages. Together, our study shows that Tetherin, one of the most potent HIV restriction factors identified to date, can inhibit virus spread from primary macrophages, regardless of the mode of transmission.

Giese, Sebastian; Marsh, Mark

2014-01-01

350

STAT6 Transcription Factor Is a Facilitator of the Nuclear Receptor PPAR?-Regulated Gene Expression in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a lipid-activated transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These immune cells exposed to distinct inflammatory milieu show cell type specification as a result of altered gene expression. We demonstrate here a mechanism how inflammatory molecules modulate PPAR? signaling in distinct subsets of cells. Proinflammatory molecules inhibited whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulated PPAR? activity in macrophages and DCs. Furthermore, IL-4 signaling augmented PPAR? activity through an interaction between PPAR? and signal transducer and activators of transcription 6 (STAT6) on promoters of PPAR? target genes, including FABP4. Thus, STAT6 acts as a facilitating factor for PPAR? by promoting DNA binding and consequently increasing the number of regulated genes and the magnitude of responses. This interaction, underpinning cell type-specific responses, represents a unique way of controlling nuclear receptor signaling by inflammatory molecules in immune cells.

Szanto, Attila; Balint, Balint L.; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S.; Barta, Endre; Dezso, Balazs; Pap, Attila; Szeles, Lajos; Poliska, Szilard; Oros, Melinda; Evans, Ronald M.; Barak, Yaacov; Schwabe, John; Nagy, Laszlo

2010-01-01

351

Dendritic Cells: A Link Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) constitute a unique system of cells able to induce primary immune responses. As a component of the innate immune system, DC organize and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DC can induce such contrasting states as active immune responsiveness or immunological tolerance. Recent years have brought a wealth of

Karolina Palucka; Jacques Banchereau

1999-01-01

352

Global Transcriptome Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Response to Innate Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

The potent phagocytic and microbicidal activities of neutrophils and macrophages are among the first lines of defense against bacterial infections. Yet Staphylococcus aureus is often resistant to innate immune defense mechanisms, especially when organized as a biofilm. To investigate how S. aureus biofilms respond to macrophages and neutrophils, gene expression patterns were profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The addition of macrophages to S. aureus static biofilms led to a global suppression of the biofilm transcriptome with a wide variety of genes downregulated. Notably, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall synthesis/structure, and transcription/translation/replication were among the most highly downregulated, which was most dramatic at 1 h compared to 24 h following macrophage addition to biofilms. Unexpectedly, few genes were enhanced in biofilms after macrophage challenge. Unlike coculture with macrophages, coculture of S. aureus static biofilms with neutrophils did not greatly influence the biofilm transcriptome. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms differentially modify their gene expression patterns depending on the leukocyte subset encountered.

Scherr, Tyler D.; Roux, Christelle M.; Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Dunman, Paul M.

2013-01-01

353

Nitric oxide and interleukins are involved in cell proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages activated by viili exopolysaccharides.  

PubMed

Viili has been traditionally regarded as healthy food; viili exopolysaccharides (VEPS) function as antioxidants, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms, especially its immune functions, remain largely unclear. To assess VEPS's immunological roles, VEPS were separated by Sevage's method and purified by anion exchange chromatography. Cell proliferation, phagocytosis, releases of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and iNOS protein by Western blotting, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)/VEPS-stimulated and non-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were analyzed. VEPS increased cell proliferation at 50-200 ?g/mL. The uptake of neutral red for the indication of phagocytosis and releases of NO, IL-6, and IL-1? were enhanced after exposure to LPS and VEPS. Gene expressions of iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1? and protein expressions of iNOS were increased with VEPS. The RAW264.7 cell treated with VEPS became flattened, a strong indication of the activation of macrophages. We concluded that VEPS promoted the activation of macrophages in which NO, IL-6, and IL-1? were involved; the release of NO and other cytokines may eventually activate lymphocytes, increasing nonspecific (innate) and specific immunity in humans. PMID:23515856

Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Liu, Ling; An, Qi; Zhang, Jinlu; Zhang, Jingkai; Li, Meiling; Duan, Weigang; Liu, Dequan; Li, Zhenjing; Luo, Cheng

2013-08-01

354

Mechanism of Suppression of Cell-Mediated Immunity by Measles Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms underlying the profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) accompanying measles are unclear. Interleukin-12 (IL-12), derived principally from monocytes and macrophages, is critical for the generation of CMI. Measles virus (MV) infection of primary human monocytes specifically down-regulated IL-12 production. Cross-linking of CD46, a complement regulatory protein that is the cellular receptor for MV, with antibody or with the

Christopher L. Karp; Maria Wysocka; Larry M. Wahl; Joseph M. Ahearn; Peter J. Cuomo; Barbara Sherry; Giorgio Trinchieri; Diane E. Griffin

1996-01-01

355

Complement bound to tumor target cells enhances their sensitivity to macrophage-mediated killing  

SciTech Connect

Tumor cells are known to be susceptible to destruction by a variety of immune effector mechanisms including complement (C) and activated macrophages (M theta). The authors have chosen to study the interaction of these two effector systems by examining the effects of bound mouse C on the antibody-independent M theta-mediated lysis of the P815 mouse mastocytoma cell line. Hemolytically active normal mouse serum (NMS) was used to deposit C on tumor targets by an alternative pathway mechanism in the absence of added antibody. C3 was quantitated on the P815 cells by a cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. C. parvum-activated macrophages produced tumor cytolysis which was measured in a serum-free 16 hour /sup 51/Cr-release assay. Target cells which had been incubated with NMS for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C demonstrated a 30% increase in specific /sup 51/Cr-release at a 1:1 effector to target (E:T) ratio, as compared to targets incubated with heat-inactivated (56/sup 0/C, 30 min) NMS. The treatment of target cells with NMS alone did not cause lysis. At higher E:T ratios specific /sup 51/Cr-release approached a maximum level which was not increased further by C treatment of the target cells. However, at low E:T ratios, NMS increased the specific /sup 51/Cr-release in a dose-dependent fashion; this increase was abrogated by 10 mM EDTA. The kinetics of lysis of C-treated P815 cells by activated M theta does not differ from that of control P815 cells. These results indicate that target-bound C may enhance M theta-mediated killing of tumor cells.

Bara, S.; Lint, T.F.

1986-03-05

356

1Autoreactive pre-plasma cells break tolerance in the absence of regulation by dendritic cells and macrophages  

PubMed Central

The ability to induce antibody responses to pathogens while maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive cells is an important aspect of immune tolerance. During activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MFs) repress autoantibody production through their secretion of IL-6 and soluble CD40L (sCD40L). These soluble mediators selectively repress B cells chronically exposed to antigen, but not naïve cells, suggesting a means to maintain tolerance during TLR4 stimulation, yet allow immunity. In this study, we identify TNF? as a third repressive factor, which together with IL-6 and CD40L, account for nearly all the repression conferred by DCs and MFs. Like IL-6 and sCD40L, TNF? did not alter B cell proliferation or survival. Rather, it reduced the number of antibody secreting cells. To address whether the soluble mediators secreted by DCs and MFs functioned in vivo, we generated mice lacking IL-6, CD40L and TNF?. Compared to wildtype mice, these mice showed prolonged anti-nuclear antibody responses following TLR4 stimulation. Further, adoptive transfer of autoreactive B cells into chimeric IL-6-/- × CD40L-/- × TNF?-/- mice showed that pre-plasma cells secreted autoantibodies independent of germinal center formation or extrafollicular foci. These data indicate that in the absence of genetic predisposition to autoimmunity, loss of endogenous IL-6, CD40L, and TNF? promotes autoantibody secretion during TLR4 stimulation.

Gilbert, Mileka R.; Wagner, Nikki J.; Jones, Shannon Z.; Wisz, Amanda B.; Roques, Jose R.; Krum, Kristen N.; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Nickeleit, Volker; Hulbert, Chrys; Thomas, James W.; Gauld, Stephen B.; Vilen, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

357

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the differentiation of murine erythroleukaemia cells into dendritic cells.  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) within the immune system and antigen-pulsed DC can be used as an effective vaccine for active immunotherapy of cancer. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays an important role in the generation of DC. We previously showed that GM-CSF can induce murine erythroleukaemia cells (FBL-3) to differentiate into monocyte-like cells. To develop a new vaccinating method to stimulate the host immune response to leukaemia, we further investigate whether FBL-3 cells induced by GM-CSF can differentiate into DC in the present study. After being treated with GM-CSF, FBL-3 cells expressed high levels of 33D1 and NLDC-145, which are the specific markers of DC. The expression of MHC-II, B7-1, B7-2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was up-regulated markedly; the typical morphology of DC were also observed by electron microscopy. Functionally, the GM-CSF-induced FBL-3 cells could apparently stimulate the proliferation of naive allogeneic and autologous T lymphocytes and induce the generation of specific CTL more efficiently than the wild-type FBL-3 cells. Mice immunized with GM-CSF-induced FBL-3 cells could resist the subsequent challenge with the wild-type FBL-3 cells. Collectively, these data indicate that GM-CSF differentiates murine erythroleukaemia cells into DC phenotypically, morphologically and functionally. FBL-3-derived DC can be used as a new type of vaccine. Our results may have important implications for the immunotherapy of leukaemia. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Cao, X; Zhao, Y; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, M; Zhang, W; Wang, J

1998-01-01

358

Fine tuning inflammation at the front door: macrophage complement receptor 3-mediates phagocytosis and immune suppression for Francisella tularensis.  

PubMed

Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation, and increased MKP-1, which limits TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. These data indicate that while the highly virulent F. tularensis uses CR3 for efficient uptake, optimal engagement of this receptor down-regulates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting MAPK activation through o