Sample records for immune cells macrophages

  1. Metabolic reprogramming in macrophages and dendritic cells in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Beth; O'Neill, Luke AJ

    2015-01-01

    Activation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) by pro-inflammatory stimuli causes them to undergo a metabolic switch towards glycolysis and away from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), similar to the Warburg effect in tumors. However, it is only recently that the mechanisms responsible for this metabolic reprogramming have been elucidated in more detail. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) plays an important role under conditions of both hypoxia and normoxia. The withdrawal of citrate from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been shown to be critical for lipid biosynthesis in both macrophages and DCs. Interference with this process actually abolishes the ability of DCs to activate T cells. Another TCA cycle intermediate, succinate, activates HIF-1? and promotes inflammatory gene expression. These new insights are providing us with a deeper understanding of the role of metabolic reprogramming in innate immunity. PMID:26045163

  2. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2003-11-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus control or virus-induced T-cell-dependent inflammation. Thus, MIP-1alpha is not mandatory for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity. PMID:14581577

  3. Innate immune responses of porcine macrophage cell line (Cdelts2+) to virus-associated virulence determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to define the changes in the expression of immune genes in response to virus-associated virulence determinants. We stimulated a monocyte-derived porcine macrophage cell line (Cdelta2+) for 3 and 24h with Imiquimod, Poly IC and Poly IC with Lyovec. Cell lysates were process...

  4. Interleukin-10 Receptor Signaling in Innate Immune Cells Regulates Mucosal Immune Tolerance and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Shouval, Dror S.; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A.; McCann, Katelyn; Conaway, Evan; Redhu, Naresh S.; Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Adham, Ziad Al; Lavoie, Sydney; Ibourk, Mouna; Nguyen, Deanna D.; Samsom, Janneke N.; Escher, Johanna C.; Somech, Raz; Weiss, Batia; Beier, Rita; Conklin, Laurie; Ebens, Christen L.; Santos, Fernanda GMS; Ferreira, Alexandre R.; Sherlock, Mary; Bhan, Atul K.; Müller, Werner; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Quintana, Francisco J.; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M.; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Snapper, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intact interkeulin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type CD4+ T cell transfer, Rag2?/?Il10rb?/? mice developed severe colitis in association with profound defects in generation and function of Treg cells. Moreover, loss of IL-10R signaling impaired the generation and function of anti-inflammatory intestinal and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and their ability to secrete IL-10. Importantly, transfer of wild-type but not Il10rb?/? anti-inflammatory macrophages ameliorated colitis induction by wild-type CD4+ T cells in Rag2?/?Il10rb?/? mice. Similar alterations in the generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages were observed in IL-10R-deficient patients with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. Collectively, our studies define innate immune IL-10R signaling as a key factor regulating mucosal immune homeostasis in mice and humans. PMID:24792912

  5. Macrophages and immune cells in atherosclerosis: recent advances and novel concepts.

    PubMed

    Cochain, Clément; Zernecke, Alma

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerotic lesion-related thrombosis is the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, which together constitute the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The inflammatory response is considered as a predominant driving force in atherosclerotic plaque formation, growth and progression towards instability and rupture. Notably, accumulation of macrophages in the intima and emergence of a pro-inflammatory milieu are a characteristic feature of plaque progression, and these processes can be modulated by adaptive immune responses. Recently, novel evidences of onsite proliferation of macrophages in lesions and transdifferentiation of smooth muscle cells to macrophages have challenged the prevalent paradigm that macrophage accumulation mostly relies on recruitment of circulating monocytes to plaques. Furthermore, previously unrecognized roles of inflammatory cell subsets such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells, innate response activator B cells or CD8(+) T cells in atherosclerosis have emerged, as well as novel mechanisms by which regulatory T cells or natural killer T cells contribute to lesion formation. Here, we review and discuss these recent advances in our understanding of inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis. PMID:25947006

  6. In vitro immune toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptosis and immune cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia; Yang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are often detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, presenting potential threats to ecosystem and human health. PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, data on PBDE immunotoxicity are limited, and the toxicity mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both immune cell death and dysfunction can modulate the responses of the immune system. This study examined the toxic effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the immune system by using peritoneal macrophages as the model. The macrophages were exposed to PBDEs, and cell death was determined through flow cytometry and immunochemical blot. The results showed that after 24h of exposure, BDE-47 (>5 ?M) and BDE-209 (>20 ?M) induced cell apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and depleted glutathione. BDE-47 was more potent than BDE-209; the cytotoxic concentrations for BDE-47 and BDE-209 were determined to be 5 ?M and 20 ?M, respectively, during 24h of exposure. However, pretreatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) partially reversed the cytotoxic effects. Further gene expression analyses on Caspase-3,-8,-9, TNFR1, and Bax revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. More importantly, non-cytotoxic concentrations BDE-47 (<2 ?M) and BDE-209 (<10 ?M) could impair macrophage accessory cell function in a concentration-dependent manner, but no effects were observed on phagocytic responses. These revealed effects of PBDEs on macrophages may shed light on the toxicity mechanisms of PBDEs and suggest the necessity of evaluating cellular functionality during the risk assessment of PBDE immunotoxicity. PMID:25462306

  7. Host macrophages are involved in systemic adoptive immunity against tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Van Loveren; Margriet Snoek; W. Den Otter

    1982-01-01

    Summary The positive systemic therapeutic results obtained with adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells could not be reproduced in macrophage depleted mice. Thus, host macrophages are involved in systemic adoptive immunity against tumors.

  8. Microparticles released by Listeria monocytogenes-infected macrophages are required for dendritic cell-elicited protective immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ruihua; Zhang, Huafeng; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhuoshun; Xu, Pingwei; Cai, Wenqian; Lu, Geming; Cui, Miao; Schwendener, Reto A; Shi, Huang-Zhong; Xiong, Huabao; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Interplay between macrophages and dendritic cells in the processing and presentation of bacterial antigens for T-cell immune responses remains poorly understood. Using a Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection model, we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) require the support of macrophages to elicit protective immunity against Lm infection. DCs themselves were inefficient at taking up Lm but capable of taking up microparticles (MPs) released by Lm-infected macrophages. These MPs transferred Lm antigens to DCs, allowing DCs to present Lm antigen to effector T cells. MP-mediated Lm antigen transfer required MHC class I participation, since MHC class I deficiency in macrophages resulted in a significant reduction of T-cell activation. Moreover, the vaccination of mice with MPs from Lm-infected macrophages produced strong protective immunity against Lm infection. We here identify an intrinsic antigen transfer program between macrophages and DCs during Lm infection, and emphasize that macrophages also play an essential role in DC-elicited Lm-specific T-cell responses. PMID:23064105

  9. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  10. Immune activation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells inhibits HIV replication in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Wang, Xu; Ye, Li; Zhou, Yu; Persidsky, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells (ECs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and their innate immunity against HIV. We examined whether brain ECs can be immunologically activated to produce antiviral factors that inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. Human brain microvascular ECs expressed functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) that could be activated by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), resulting in the induction of endogenous interferon-? (IFN-?) and IFN-?. The TLR3 activation of ECs also induced the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7, the key regulators of IFN signaling pathway. When supernatant (SN) of PolyI:C-activated EC cultures was applied to infected macrophage cultures, HIV replication was significantly suppressed. This SN action of ECs on HIV was mediated through both IFN-? and IFN-? because antibodies to their receptors could neutralize the SN-mediated anti-HIV effect. The role of IFNs in EC-mediated anti-HIV activity is further supported by the observation that treatment with SN from EC cultures induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs: ISG56, OAS-1, and MxA) in macrophages. These observations indicate that brain microvascular ECs may be a key regulatory bystander, playing a crucial role in the BBB innate immunity against HIV infection. PMID:23401273

  11. MANGANESE CHLORIDE ENHANCES NATURAL CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE EFFECTOR CELL FUNCTION: EFFECTS ON MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single intramuscular injection of MnCl2 in mice caused an increase in macrophage functional activity. Spleen cell antibody-dependent cellmediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against both chicken erythrocytes and P815 tumor cell targets was enhanced 24 hours following a single injection...

  12. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells as Actors in the Immune Reaction of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Christiane Silke; Bruns, Heiko; Daniel, Christoph; Distel, Luitpold Valentin; Hartmann, Arndt; Gerbitz, Armin; Buettner, Maike Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The inflammatory infiltrate plays a pivotal role in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here, we focussed on the role of macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DC). Methods M? and DC infiltration was investigated in 106 cHL specimens using immunohistochemistry and cytokine expression was analyzed in a subset by real-time PCR. Human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, DC, M? stimulated with GM-CSF (M?GM-CSF, pro-inflammatory M?-1-model) or M-CSF (M?M-CSF, immunomodulatory M?-2-model) were incubated with cHL cell line (L1236, HDLM2) supernatants (SN). DC maturation or M? polarization were investigated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the impact of DC or M? on cHL cell proliferation was analyzed by BrdU/CFSE assay. Results In cHL tissues mature myeloid (m)DC and M? predominated. High numbers of CD83+ mDC and low numbers of CD163+ M? were associated with improved disease specific survival. In numerous cHL specimens increased levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of IL13 and GM-CSF were observed compared to reactive lymphadenopathies. Maturation of DC and induction and maintenance of an immunomodulatory M? phenotype were promoted by SN derived from cHL cell lines. TNF? neutralization in SN resulted in a significant inhibition of mDC maturation. DC and pro-inflammatory M? inhibited the proliferation of cHL cells. Conclusion Adopting an immunomodulatory phenotype is a potential mechanism for how M? promote immune evasion in cHL. Mature DC, in contrast, might participate in antitumoral immunity. PMID:25470820

  13. Porcine macrophage Cdelta2+ and Cdelta2- cell lines support influenza virus infection and replication and Cdelta2+ cells mount innate immune responses to influenza virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory epithelial cells are the first cells which are infected with influenza virus and these cells play a major role in influenza pathogenesis. However, many studies have shown that alveolar macrophages also play a very important role in the pathogenesis and immunity to influenza infection. Un...

  14. T-cell-mediated concomitant immunity to syngeneic tumors. I. Activated macrophages as the expressors of nonspecific immunity to unrelated tumors and bacterial parasites

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Progressive growth of the SA1 sarcoma was shown to result in the generation of a state of concomitant resistance to growth of a second implant of the same tumor. The responding lymph nodes of concomitantly immune mice were shown to contain theta-positive T cells that could specifically neutralize the growth of tumor cells in a normal test recipient. Nevertheless, the concomitantly immune host itself was capable to a limited extent of suppressing the growth of unrelated tumors. The generation of immunity, moreover, was associated with the generation of a powerful state of macrophage-mediated, nonspecific resistance to the bacterial parasite, Listeria monocytogenes. It was concluded that systemic macrophage activation was the consequence of the generation of T-cell-mediated immunity to the progressively growing tumor, and that this not only gave the host the capacity to inhibit the growth of unrelated tumors, but also to protect itself against microbial infection. The results gives credence to the view that macrophages play a central role in defense against microbial and neoplastic growth. PMID:401860

  15. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  16. Fc and Complement Receptor-Dependent Degradation of Soluble Immune Complexes and Stable lmmunoglobulin Aggregates by Guinea Pig Monocytes, Peritoneal Macrophages, and Kupifer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed R. Daha; Leendert A. van Es

    The degradation of soluble immune complexes (ICx) and stable soluble immu- noglobulin aggregates was studied in vitro. To obtain insight into the capacity of phagocytes from different organs to degrade soluble lCx we studied mono- cytes, peritoneal macrophages, and Kupifer cells. Peritoneal macrophages and Kupifer cells degrade similar amounts of aggregated guinea pig IgG2 (AlgG) and ICx per cell. Monocytes

  17. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Bau, Gabriela; Platt, Andrew M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Albert, Matthew L.; Ingersoll, Molly A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder. PMID:26182347

  18. Cutting edge: role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in inhibiting NK cell activity and preserving immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Apte, R S; Sinha, D; Mayhew, E; Wistow, G J; Niederkorn, J Y

    1998-06-15

    The absence of MHC class I Ags on the corneal endothelium, which lines the anterior chamber of the eye, makes this cell layer potentially vulnerable to lysis by NK cells. However, aqueous humor (AH), which bathes the corneal endothelium, contains a 12-kDa protein which inhibits the NK-mediated lysis of corneal endothelial cells. An amino acid sequence analysis of AH revealed that this factor shared >90% homology with macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The NK inhibitory effect of AH was neutralized with anti-human MIF Ab. Moreover, mouse rMIF produced a similar inhibition of NK cell activity. However, neither rMIF nor AH inhibited the CTL-mediated Lysis of allogeneic cells. rMIF prevented the release of perforin granules by NK cells but not CTLs. Although MIF displays proinflammatory properties, these results indicate that it can also inhibit at least one immune effector element, NK cells, and thereby contribute to immune privilege in the eye. PMID:9637476

  19. The influence of macrophage inflammatory protein-1? on protective immunity mediated by antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; Price, David A; Dahm-Vicker, Michaela; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Klenerman, Paul; Gallimore, Awen

    2003-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), a member of the CC-chemokine subfamily, is known to induce chemotaxis of a variety of cell types in vivo. Although the role of MIP-1? in inflammatory responses generated following primary infection of mice with many different pathogens has been characterized, the influence of this chemokine on the generation of antigen-specific T-cell responses in vivo is less well understood. This is important, as virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) play a crucial role in defence against viral infections, both acutely and in the long term. In this study, we compared the ability of wild-type and MIP-1?-deficient (MIP-1??/?) mice to mount CTL responses specific for the immunodominant epitope derived from influenza nucleoprotein (NP366–374). Influenza-specific CTL responses were compared with respect to frequency, cytotoxic activity and ability to clear subsequent infections with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the influenza NP. The results indicate that antiviral CTL generated in MIP-1??/? mice are slightly impaired in their ability to protect against a subsequent infection. However, impaired in vivo CTL-mediated antiviral protection was found to be associated with reduced cytotoxicity rather than with a failure of the CTL to migrate to peripheral sites of infection. PMID:12709019

  20. The Prognostic Implications of Macrophages Expressing Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Breast Cancer Depend on Immune Context

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael J.; Wolf, Denise; Mukhtar, Rita A.; Tandon, Vickram; Yau, Christina; Au, Alfred; Baehner, Frederick; van’t Veer, Laura; Berry, Donald; Esserman, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are recruited from the circulation to the tumor site, and can undergo a spectrum of phenotypic changes, with two contrasting activation states described in the literature: the M1 and M2 phenotypes. We previously identified a population of TAMs that express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and are associated with high grade, hormone receptor negative breast cancers and poor outcomes. In the present exploratory study we again found that high PCNA+ TAM counts in pre-treatment tumor biopsies (102 invasive breast cancer cases from the I-SPY 1 Trial, a prospective neoadjuvant trial with serial core biopsies and gene array data) were associated with high grade, hormone receptor negativity, and decreased recurrence free survival. We explored the association of these PCNA+ TAMs with the expression of M1 and M2 related genes and, contrary to expectation, observed that high PCNA+ TAM levels were associated with more M1- than M2-related genes. An immune gene signature, derived from cytotoxic T cell and MHC Class II genes (Tc/ClassII), was developed and we found that high PCNA+ TAM counts, in the context of a low Tc/ClassII signature score, were associated with significantly worse recurrence free survival in all cases and in hormone receptor negative only cases. We observed similar results using a gene signature-proxy for PCNA+ TAMs in a larger independent set of 425 neoadjuvant-treated breast cancer cases. The results of this exploratory study indicate that high numbers of PCNA+ TAMs, in the absence of an anti-tumor immune microenvironment (as indicated by a low Tc/ClassII signature score), are associated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This, along with the observation that PCNA+ TAMs were associated predominantly with M1-related genes, may provide new insights into the role of the immune microenvironment in breast cancer. PMID:24205370

  1. Bacillus cereus immune escape: a journey within macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tran, Seav-Ly; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-10-01

    During bacterial infection, professional phagocytes are attracted to the site of infection, where they constitute a first line of host cell defense. Their function is to engulf and destroy the pathogens. Thus, bacteria must withstand the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, including macrophages to counteract the host immune system. Bacillus cereus infections are characterized by bacteremia despite the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of infection. This implies that the bacteria have developed means of resisting the host immune system. Bacillus cereus spores survive, germinate, and multiply in contact with macrophages, eventually producing toxins that kill these cells. However, the exact mechanism by which B. cereus evades immune attack remains unclear. This review addresses the interaction between B. cereus and macrophages, highlighting, in particular, the ways in which the bacteria escape the microbicidal activities of professional phagocytes. PMID:23827020

  2. High-Dose Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Producing Vaccines Impair the Immune Response through the Recruitment of Myeloid Suppressor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Serafini; Rebecca Carbley; Kimberly A. Noonan; Gladys Tan; Vincenzo Bronte; Ivan Borrello

    2004-01-01

    Tumor vaccines have shown promise in early clinical trials. Among them, tumor cells genetically engineered to secrete biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can gener- ate a systemic antitumor immune response. Although the minimal re- quired GM-CSF dose produced by modified tumor cells to achieve a measurable antitumor effect is well known, no data examined whether an upper therapeutic limit

  3. GPC3 expression in mouse ovarian cancer induces GPC3-specific T cell-mediated immune response through M1 macrophages and suppresses tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    LUO, CHENHONG; SHIBATA, KIYOSUMI; SUZUKI, SHIRO; KAJIYAMA, HIROAKI; SENGA, TAKESHI; KOYA, YOSHIHIRO; DAIMON, MINA; YAMASHITA, MAMORU; KIKKAWA, FUMITAKA

    2014-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is specifically expressed in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and melanoma and lung cancer. GPC3 is being explored as a potential candidate for OCCC and HCC immunotherapy. As a tumor-associated antigen, induction of immune response of GPC3 in ovarian cancer remains elusive. We established a GPC3 transgenic mouse ovarian cancer cell line, OV2944-HM-1 (HM-1), and used the intraperitoneal ovarian cancer mouse model to investigate immune response in GPC3-expressing tumor. We found that GPC3 expression in the tumor increased F4/80+CD86+ macrophage (M1) proportion and caused GPC3-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses, and prolonged mouse survival. Our results demonstrated that GPC3 expression induced T cell-mediated immune response in this mouse ovarian cancer model and also provided supportive evidence that GPC3 is an ideal target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24992906

  4. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, E.

    2015-01-01

    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population. PMID:25883791

  5. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Linehan, E; Fitzgerald, D C

    2015-03-01

    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population. PMID:25883791

  6. Tumor immunity: a balancing act between T cell activation, macrophage activation and tumor-induced immune suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratima Sinha; Virginia K. Clements; Seth Miller; Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg

    2005-01-01

    The mouse 4T1 mammary carcinoma is a BALB\\/c-derived tumor that spontaneously metastasizes and induces immune suppression. Although >95% of wild type BALB\\/c mice die from metastatic 4T1 tumor even if the primary mammary tumor is surgically removed, >65% of BALB\\/c mice with a deleted Signal Transducer Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6) gene survive post-surgery. STAT6-deficiency also confers enhanced immunity against

  7. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Th2 immunity is essential for the host protection against nematode infection, while detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. Although many of the details regarding the cellular and molecular events in Th2 immunity have been described, the specific cell types and effector molecules involved i...

  8. The role of macrophages in the cytotoxic killing of tumour cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Ptak, W.; Hanczakowska, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Lymph node and spleen cells from normal mice were cultured for 3 days with polyoma virus-induced tumour, Ehrlich's ascites tumour or leukaemia L 1210 cells. This resulted in in vitro immunization of the lymphocytes, which were then transferred to irradiated target cells labelled with 51Cr. Normal, i.e. non-immune thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were also added to some tubes. Non-immune macrophages mixed with immunized lymphocytes showed a significantly increased ability to destroy tumour cells as compared with macrophages in the absence of immunized lymphocytes. The immunized lymphocytes were almost entirely inactive alone. When the number of macrophages was kept constant the cytotoxicity was dependent on the number of viable immunized lymphocytes placed on the target cells. Immunized lymphocytes, in the presence of macrophages, only exhibited strong killing of the target cells against which they had been immunized; some lysis of `bystander' cells was, however, seen provided specific target cells were present. Macrophage monolayers exposed to immunized lymphocytes upon contact with specific antigen became `armed' and showed a significant cytotoxicity for specific target cells. When immunized lymphocytes and normal macrophages were treated with actinomycin D and puromycin, cytotoxicity was inhibited in the immunized lymphocytes but not in the macrophages. The possible mechanism of normal macrophage cooperation with immunized lymphocytes in the cytotoxic killing reaction is discussed. Results presented in this paper favour the view that immunologically specific cytophilic factor (presumptive cytophilic antibody) is involved in the macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in the system studied. PMID:4356674

  9. Tumor-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor regulates myeloid inflammation and T cell immunity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Lauren J.; Beatty, Gregory L.; Jhala, Nirag; Clark, Carolyn E.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cancer-associated inflammation is thought to be a barrier to immune surveillance, particularly in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells are a key feature of cancer inflammation in PDA, but remain poorly understood. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of PDA, we show that tumor-derived GM-CSF is necessary and sufficient to drive the development of Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells that suppressed antigen-specific T cells. In vivo, abrogation of tumor-derived GM-CSF inhibited the recruitment of Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells to the tumor microenvironment and blocked tumor development - a finding that was dependent on CD8+ T cells. In humans, PDA tumor cells prominently expressed GM-CSF in vivo. Thus, tumor-derived GM-CSF is an important regulator of inflammation and immune suppression within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22698406

  10. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  11. High-dose granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-producing vaccines impair the immune response through the recruitment of myeloid suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Paolo; Carbley, Rebecca; Noonan, Kimberly A; Tan, Gladys; Bronte, Vincenzo; Borrello, Ivan

    2004-09-01

    Tumor vaccines have shown promise in early clinical trials. Among them, tumor cells genetically engineered to secrete biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can generate a systemic antitumor immune response. Although the minimal required GM-CSF dose produced by modified tumor cells to achieve a measurable antitumor effect is well known, no data examined whether an upper therapeutic limit may exist for this vaccination strategy. Because recent data demonstrate an immunosuppressive effect of GM-CSF produced by growing tumors, we thus sought to determine whether high GM-CSF doses administered in a vaccine formulation could impair antitumor immunity. Using a vaccine strategy involving a GM-CSF-producing bystander cell line (B78H1-GM) admixed with autologous tumor, we assessed the impact of varying doses of GM-CSF while maintaining a constant antigen dose. Our results defined a threshold above which a GM-CSF-based vaccine not only lost its efficacy, but more importantly for its clinical implications resulted in substantial immunosuppression in vivo. Above this threshold, GM-CSF induced Gr1+/CD11b+ myeloid suppressor cells that substantially impaired antigen-specific T-cell responses and adversely affected antitumor immune responses in vivo. The dual effects of GM-CSF are mediated by the systemic and not local concentration of this cytokine. Myeloid suppressor cell-induced immunosuppression is mediated by nitric oxide production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) because the specific iNOS inhibitor, l-NMMA, restored antigen-specific T-cell responsiveness in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrated the negative impact of supra-therapeutic vaccine doses of GM-CSF and underscored the importance of identifying these critical variables in an effort to increase the therapeutic efficacy of tumor vaccines. PMID:15342423

  12. Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring.

    PubMed

    Onore, Charity E; Schwartzer, Jared J; Careaga, Milo; Berman, Robert F; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation (MIA) models. More recently, permanent changes in T cell cytokine responses were reported in children with autism and in offspring of MIA mice; however, the cytokine responses of other immune cell populations have not been thoroughly investigated in these MIA models. Similar to changes in T cell function, we hypothesized that following MIA, offspring will have long-term changes in macrophage function. To test this theory, we utilized the poly (I:C) MIA mouse model in C57BL/6J mice and examined macrophage cytokine production in adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given either a single injection of 20mg/kg polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, poly (I:C), or saline delivered intraperitoneally on gestational day 12.5. When offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams reached 10weeks of age, femurs were collected and bone marrow-derived macrophages were generated. Cytokine production was measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated for 24h in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/LPS, or IFN-?/LPS. Following stimulation with LPS alone, or the combination of IFN-?/LPS, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams produced higher levels of IL-12(p40) (p<0.04) suggesting an increased M1 polarization. In addition, even without the presence of a polarizing cytokine or LPS stimulus, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams exhibited a higher production of CCL3 (p=0.05). Moreover, CCL3 levels were further increased when stimulated with LPS, or polarized with either IL-4/LPS or IFN-?/LPS (p<0.05) suggesting a general increase in production of this chemokine. Collectively, these data suggest that MIA can produce lasting changes in macrophage function that are sustained into adulthood. PMID:24566386

  13. Replicating Adenovirus-Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Vectors Efficiently Prime SIV-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses by Targeting Myeloid Dendritic Cells and Persisting in Rectal Macrophages, Regardless of Immunization Route

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L. Jean; Kuate, Seraphin; Daltabuit-Test, Mara; Li, Qingsheng; Xiao, Peng; McKinnon, Katherine; DiPasquale, Janet; Cristillo, Anthony; Venzon, David; Haase, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Although priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, followed by HIV/SIV envelope boosting, has proven highly immunogenic, resulting in protection from SIV/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenges, Ad5hr recombinant distribution, replication, and persistence have not been examined comprehensively in nonhuman primates. We utilized Ad5hr-green fluorescent protein and Ad5hr-SIV recombinants to track biodistribution and immunogenicity following mucosal priming of rhesus macaques by the intranasal/intratracheal, sublingual, vaginal, or rectal route. Ad recombinants administered by all routes initially targeted macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and rectal tissue, later extending to myeloid dendritic cells in BAL fluid with persistent expression in rectal mucosa 25 weeks after the last Ad immunization. Comparable SIV-specific immunity, including cellular responses, serum binding antibody, and mucosal secretory IgA, was elicited among all groups. The ability of the vector to replicate in multiple mucosal sites irrespective of delivery route, together with the targeting of macrophages and professional antigen-presenting cells, which provide potent immunogenicity at localized sites of virus entry, warrants continued use of replicating Ad vectors. PMID:22441384

  14. Natural immune regulation of activated cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna A. Chow; Ricky Kraut; Xiaowei Wang

    2001-01-01

    The natural immune system provides a prompt first-line of defense against invading pathogens. It is comprised of both cellular and humoral mediators including macrophages, NK and T cells, natural antibodies, complement and interferon. Unlike the exquisitely specific, adaptive immune system, natural immunity is polyspecific, recognizing highly conserved homologous or crossreactive epitopes (homotopes), and does not require previous exposure to antigen

  15. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the genitourinary tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Iijima; J M Thompson; A Iwasaki

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are important in innate immune defense as well as in the generation and regulation of adaptive immunity against a wide array of pathogens. The genitourinary (GU) tract, which serves an important reproductive function, is constantly exposed to numerous agents of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To combat these STIs, several subsets

  16. Progress reports on immune gene therapy for stage IV renal cell cancer using lethally irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced autologous renal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenzaburo Tani; Yukoh Nakazaki; Hidenori Hase; Keisuke Takahashi; Miyuki Azuma; Junko Ohata; Reiko Kitamura; Fumihiko Komine; Maki Oiwa; Atsuko Masunaga; Taira Maekawa; Noriharu Satoh; Daiki Adachi; Yasushi Soda; Utako Machida; Muneomi Endo; Tomoko Yamazaki; Kiyoshi Watari; Arinobu Tojo; Naohide Yamashita; Shinji Tomikawa; Masazumi Eriguchi; Hirofumi Hamada; Yoshiaki Wakumoto; Kisaburo Hanazawa; Koh Okumura; Makoto Fujime; Taro Shuin; Kouji Kawai; Hideyuki Akaza; Shirley Clift; Dale Ando; Stephan Sherwin; Richard Mulligan; Shigetaka Asano

    2000-01-01

    There is no effective treatment for patients with stage IV renal cell cancer (RCC), although the introduction of new therapy is imminent. Cancer gene therapy is currently considered to be one of the most promising therapeutic modalities in the field of cancer treatment. Based on the results of animal studies, vaccination using autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced renal cancer cells appears

  17. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile ?- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS. PMID:24786833

  18. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-01-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile ?- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS. PMID:24786833

  19. Intracellular survival of Candida glabrata in macrophages: immune evasion and persistence.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Lydia; Seider, Katja; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a successful human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic infections. During infection, C. glabrata has to cope with cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, which belong to the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Candida glabrata is able to survive and even replicate inside macrophages while causing surprisingly low damage and cytokine release. Here, we present an overview of recent studies dealing with the interaction of C. glabrata with macrophages, from phagocytosis to intracellular growth and escape. We review the strategies of C. glabrata that permit intracellular survival and replication, including poor host cell activation, modification of phagosome maturation and phagosome pH, adaptation to antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms to overcome the nutrient limitations within the phagosome. In summary, these studies suggest that survival within macrophages may be an immune evasion and persistence strategy of C. glabrata during infection. PMID:26066553

  20. Role of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure in innate immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Yang, Ivana V; Hui, Lucy; Patel, Jay A; Evans, Christopher M; Prikeris, Rytis; Kobzik, Lester; O'Connor, Brian P; Schwartz, David A

    2013-06-15

    Macrophages play a key role in host defense against microbes, in part, through phagocytosis. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a scavenger receptor on the cell surface of macrophages that mediates opsonin-independent phagocytosis. The goal of our study is to investigate the role of MARCO in LPS or lipotechoic acid-induced macrophage tolerance. Although it has been established that expression of MARCO and phagocytosis is increased in tolerant macrophages, the transcriptional regulation and biological role of MARCO in tolerant macrophages have not been investigated. In this study, we confirm that tolerized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) selectively increase expression of MARCO (both transcript and cell surface receptor) and increase phagocytosis. We found that H3K4me3 dynamic modification of a promoter site of MARCO was increased in tolerized BMDM. Blocking methylation by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in reduced H3K4me3 binding in the promoter of MARCO, decreased expression of MARCO, and impaired phagocytosis in tolerized BMDM. However, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine had no effect on the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance. In aggregate, we found that histone methylation was critical to MARCO expression and phagocytosis in tolerized macrophages, but did not affect the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance. PMID:23667110

  1. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. II. Peritoneal macrophage function

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, G.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.

  2. Macrophage Depletion Disrupts Immune Balance and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Qiao, Liping; Kinney, Brice; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Shao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Increased macrophage infiltration in tissues including white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle has been recognized as a pro-inflammatory factor that impairs insulin sensitivity in obesity. However, the relationship between tissue macrophages and energy metabolism under non-obese physiological conditions is not clear. To study a homeostatic role of macrophages in energy homeostasis, we depleted tissue macrophages in adult mice through conditional expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor and DT-induced apoptosis. Macrophage depletion robustly reduced body fat mass due to reduced energy intake. These phenotypes were reversed after macrophage recovery. As a potential mechanism, severe hypothalamic and systemic inflammation was induced by neutrophil (NE) infiltration in the absence of macrophages. In addition, macrophage depletion dramatically increased circulating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) which is indispensable for NE production and tissue infiltration. Our in vitro study further revealed that macrophages directly suppress G-CSF gene expression. Therefore, our study indicates that macrophages may play a critical role in integrating immune balance and energy homeostasis under physiological conditions. PMID:24911652

  3. Liposomal Cholesterol Delivery Activates the Macrophage Innate Immune Arm To Facilitate Intracellular Leishmania donovani Killing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, June; Guha, Rajan; Das, Shantanabha

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by infecting the monocyte/macrophage lineage and residing inside specialized structures known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The protozoan parasite has adopted several means of escaping the host immune response, with one of the major methods being deactivation of host macrophages. Previous reports highlight dampened macrophage signaling, defective antigen presentation due to increased membrane fluidity, and the downregulation of several genes associated with L. donovani infection. We have reported previously that the defective antigen presentation in infected hamsters could be corrected by a single injection of a cholesterol-containing liposome. Here we show that cholesterol in the form of a liposomal formulation can stimulate the innate immune arm and reactivate macrophage function. Augmented levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), along with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), corroborate intracellular parasite killing. Cholesterol incorporation kinetics is favored in infected macrophages more than in normal macrophages. Such an enhanced cholesterol uptake is associated with preferential apoptosis of infected macrophages in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent manner. All these events are coupled with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, while inhibition of such pathways resulted in increased parasite loads. Hence, liposomal cholesterol is a potential facilitator of the macrophage effector function in favor of the host, independently of the T-cell arm. PMID:24478076

  4. Interplay of macrophages and T cells in the lung vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia; Kratzer, Adelheid; Sidiakova, Asya; Salys, Jonas; Zamora, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), vascular lesions are composed of phenotypically altered vascular and inflammatory cells that form clusters or tumorlets. Because macrophages are found in increased numbers in intravascular and perivascular space in human PAH, here we address the question whether macrophages play a role in pulmonary vascular remodeling and whether accumulation of macrophages in the lung vasculature could be compromised by the immune system. We used the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 because these cells are resistant to apoptosis, have high proliferative capacity, and resemble cells in the plexiform lesions that tend to pile up instead of maintaining a monolayer. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry with cell surface markers (Lycopersicon Esculentum Lectin, CD117, CD133, FVIII, CD31, VEGFR-2, and S100). Activated, but not quiescent, T cells were able to suppress RAW 264.7 cell proliferative and migration activity in vitro. The carboxyfluorescein diacetate-labeled RAW 264.7 cells were injected into the naïve Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and athymic nude rat. Twelve days later, cells were found in the lung vasculature of athymic nude rats that lack functional T cells, contributing to vascular remodeling. No labeled RAW 264.7 cells were detected in the lungs of immune-competent SD rats. Our data demonstrate that T cells can inhibit in vitro migration and in vivo accumulation of macrophage-like cells. PMID:22387295

  5. OxLDL immune complexes activate complement and induce cytokine production by MonoMac 6 cells and human macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio F. Saad; Gabriel Virella; Charlyne Chassereau; Robert J. Boackle; Maria F. Lopes-Virella

    2006-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is im- munogenic and induces autoimmune responses in humans. OxLDL antibodies are predominantly of the proinflamma- tory IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes. We tested the capacity of im- mune complexes prepared with copper-oxidized human LDL and affinity chromatography-purified human OxLDL antibodies (OxLDL-immune complexes (ICs)) to activate complement and to induce cytokine release by MonoMac 6 (MM6)

  6. WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION INVITED LECTURE Avian Macrophage and Immune Response: An Overview1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Qureshi

    Macrophages belong to the mononuclear phagocytic system lineage. This cell type is unique in that it is a crucial player in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The material described in this over- view is a brief description of what I presented as a World's Poultry Science Association-sponsored lecture at the an-

  7. Mechanism of Immunologically Specific Killing of Tumour Cells by Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Evans; P. Alexander

    1972-01-01

    THE increase in anti-microbial activity of macrophages which occurs in animals that have been infected with living microorganisms is frequently non-specific1. In contrast, the anti-tumour activity of macrophages from immunized animals has been demonstrated in vitro to be immunologically specific2,3. The experiments to be described may throw light on this paradox. They show that the killing of tumour cells by

  8. Expression of type I interferon by splenic macrophages suppresses adaptive immunity during sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, Timo; Schumak, Beatrix; Gielen, Gerrit H; Jüngerkes, Frank; Schmidbauer, Patricia; Klocke, Katrin; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; van Rooijen, Niko; Kraal, Georg; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Franken, Lars; Wehner, Sven; Kalff, Jörg C; Weber, Olaf; Kirschning, Carsten; Coch, Christoph; Kalinke, Ulrich; Wenzel, Jörg; Kurts, Christian; Zawatzky, Rainer; Holzmann, Bernhard; Layland, Laura; Schultze, Joachim L; Burgdorf, Sven; den Haan, Joke MM; Knolle, Percy A; Limmer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Early during Gram-negative sepsis, excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause septic shock that is often followed by a state of immune paralysis characterized by the failure to mount adaptive immunity towards secondary microbial infections. Especially, the early mechanisms responsible for such immune hypo-responsiveness are unclear. Here, we show that TLR4 is the key immune sensing receptor to initiate paralysis of T-cell immunity after bacterial sepsis. Downstream of TLR4, signalling through TRIF but not MyD88 impaired the development of specific T-cell immunity against secondary infections. We identified type I interferon (IFN) released from splenic macrophages as the critical factor causing T-cell immune paralysis. Early during sepsis, type I IFN acted selectively on dendritic cells (DCs) by impairing antigen presentation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results reveal a novel immune regulatory role for type I IFN in the initiation of septic immune paralysis, which is distinct from its well-known immune stimulatory effects. Moreover, we identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention to overcome impairment of T-cell immunity after sepsis. PMID:22036947

  9. Function of macrophages in antigen recognition by guinea pig T lymphocytes. II. Role of the macrophage in the regulation of genetic control of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Shevach, E M; Rosenthal, A S

    1973-11-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that the main functional role of the product of the immune response (Ir) genes is in the process of antigen recognition by the T lymphocyte. The observation in the accompanying report that the interaction of macrophage-associated antigen with immune T lymphocytes requires that both cells share histocompatibility antigens raised the question as to whether the macrophage played a role in the genetic control of the immune response or even if the macrophage were the primary cell in which the product of the Ir gene is expressed. In the current study, parental macrophages were pulsed with an antigen, the response to which is controlled by an Ir gene lacking in that parent; these macrophages were then mixed with T cells derived from the (nonresponder x responder)F(1) and the resultant stimulation was measured. No stimulation was seen when column-purified F(1) lymph node lymphocytes were mixed with antigen-pulsed macrophages from the nonresponder parent. However, when the highly reactive peritoneal exudate lymphocyte population was used as the indicator cells, parental macrophages pulsed with an antigen whose Ir gene they lacked were capable of initiating F(1) T-cell proliferation. The magnitude of stimulation was approximately 1/10 that seen when macrophages from either the responder parent or the F(1) were used. In order to explain this observation, we hypothesize that antigen recognition sites on the T lymphocyte are physically related to a macrophage-binding site and both are linked to the serologically determined histocompatibility antigens. Thus, parental macrophages pulsed with an antigen, whose Ir gene they lack, activate F(1) cells poorly because the recognition sites for the antigen are physically related to the macrophage-binding site of the responder parent while the main contacts between the cells are at the nonresponder binding sites. Experiments performed with alloantisera lend support to this hypothesis. Thus, when parental macrophages are pulsed with any antigen and added to F(1) T cells, an alloantiserum directed against parental histocompatibility antigens reacts with both the lymphocyte and the macrophage and thereby inhibits macrophage-lymphocyte interaction and abolishes antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation. When the alloantisera are directed at determinants present solely on the T lymphocyte, they only inhibit the recognition of antigens controlled by the Ir gene linked to the histocompatibility antigen against which they are directed. We conclude from these studies that antigen recognition by the T lymphocyte is a complex multicellular event involving more than simple antigen binding to a specific lymphocyte receptor. PMID:4126770

  10. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting AntiTumor Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Dranoff; Elizabeth Jaffee; Audrey Lazenby; Paul Golumbek; Hyam Levitsky; Katja Brose; Valerie Jackson; Hirofumi Hamada; Drew Pardoll; Richard C. Mulligan

    1993-01-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells

  11. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  12. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  13. Homolog of allograft inflammatory factor-1 induces macrophage migration during innate immune response in leech.

    PubMed

    Schorn, Tilo; Drago, Francesco; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Vizioli, Jacopo; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-03-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a 17-kDa cytokine-inducible calcium-binding protein that, in vertebrates, plays an important role in the allograft immune response. Its expression is mostly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Until recently, AIF-1 was assumed to be a novel molecule involved in inflammatory responses. To clarify this aspect, we have investigated the expression of AIF-1 after bacterial challenge and its potential role in regulating the innate immune response in an invertebrate model, the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis). Analysis of an expressed sequence tag library from the central nervous system of Hirudo revealed the presence of the gene Hmaif-1/alias Hmiba1, showing high homology with vertebrate aif-1. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-HmAIF-1 polyclonal antibody revealed the constitutive presence of this protein in spread CD68(+) macrophage-like cells. A few hours after pathogen (bacterial) injection into the body wall, the amount of these immunopositive cells co-expressing HmAIF-1 and the common leucocyte marker CD45 increased at the injected site. Moreover, the recombinant protein HmAIF-1 induced massive angiogenesis and was a potent chemoattractant for macrophages. Following rHmAIF-1 stimulation, macrophage-like cells co-expressed the macrophage marker CD68 and the surface glycoprotein CD45, which, in vertebrates, seems to have a role in the integrin-mediated adhesion of macrophages and in the regulation of the functional responsiveness of cells to chemoattractants. CD45 is therefore probably involved in leech macrophage-like cell activation and migration towards an inflammation site. We have also examined its potential effect on HmAIF-1-induced signalling. PMID:25435328

  14. PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

  15. Immune Evasion, Stress Resistance, and Efficient Nutrient Acquisition Are Crucial for Intracellular Survival of Candida glabrata within Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Katja; Gerwien, Franziska; Kasper, Lydia; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Jablonowski, Nadja; Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata is both a human fungal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen which can withstand activities of the immune system. For example, C. glabrata can survive phagocytosis and replicates within macrophages. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular survival remain unclear. In this work, we used a functional genomic approach to identify C. glabrata determinants necessary for survival within human monocyte-derived macrophages by screening a set of 433 deletion mutants. We identified 23 genes which are required to resist killing by macrophages. Based on homologies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs, these genes are putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, nutritional and stress response, protein glycosylation, or iron homeostasis. Mutants were further characterized using a series of in vitro assays to elucidate the genes' functions in survival. We investigated different parameters of C. glabrata-phagocyte interactions: uptake by macrophages, replication within macrophages, phagosomal pH, and recognition of mutant cells by macrophages as indicated by production of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We further studied the cell surface integrity of mutant cells, their ability to grow under nutrient-limited conditions, and their susceptibility to stress conditions mirroring the harsh environment inside a phagosome. Additionally, resistance to killing by neutrophils was analyzed. Our data support the view that immune evasion is a key aspect of C. glabrata virulence and that increased immune recognition causes increased antifungal activities by macrophages. Furthermore, stress resistance and efficient nutrient acquisition, in particular, iron uptake, are crucial for intraphagosomal survival of C. glabrata. PMID:24363366

  16. Epigenetic programming during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Quintin, Jessica; Kerstens, Hindrik H.D.; Rao, Nagesha A; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Matarese, Filomena; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Ratter, Jacqueline; Berentsen, Kim; van der Ent, Martijn A.; Sharifi, Nilofar; Janssen-Megens, Eva M.; Huurne, Menno Ter; Mandoli, Amit; van Schaik, Tom; Ng, Aylwin; Burden, Frances; Downes, Kate; Frontini, Mattia; Kumar, Vinod; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Ouwehand, Willem H; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Martens, Joost H.A.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Logie, Colin; Netea, Mihai G.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for up to 3–5 days. Concomitantly, immunological imprinting of either tolerance (immunosuppression) or trained immunity (innate immune memory) determines the functional fate of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, as observed after infection or vaccination. Methods Purified circulating monocytes from healthy volunteers were differentiated under the homeostatic M-CSF concentrations present in human serum. During the first 24 hours, trained immunity was induced by ?-glucan (BG) priming, while post-sepsis immunoparalysis was mimicked by exposure to LPS, generating endotoxin-induced tolerance. Epigenomic profiling of the histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, DNase I accessibility and RNA sequencing were performed at both the start of the experiment (ex vivo monocytes) and at the end of the six days of in vitro culture (macrophages). Results Compared to monocytes (Mo), naïve macrophages (Mf) display a remodeled metabolic enzyme repertoire and attenuated innate inflammatory pathways; most likely necessary to generate functional tissue macrophages. Epigenetic profiling uncovered ~8000 dynamic regions associated with ~11000 DNase I hypersensitive sites. Changes in histone acetylation identified most dynamic events. Furthermore, these regions of differential histone marks displayed some degree of DNase I accessibility that was already present in monocytes. H3K4me1 mark increased in parallel with de novo H3K27ac deposition at distal regulatory regions; H3K4me1 mark remained even after the loss of H3K27ac, marking decommissioned regulatory elements. ?-glucan priming specifically induced ~3000 distal regulatory elements, whereas LPS-tolerization uniquely induced H3K27ac at ~500 distal regulatory regions. At the transcriptional level, we identified co-regulated gene modules during monocyte to macrophage differentiation, as well as discordant modules between trained and tolerized cells. These indicate that training likely involves an increased expression of modules expressed in naïve macrophages, including genes that code for metabolic enzymes. On the other hand, endotoxin tolerance involves gene modules that are more active in monocytes than in naïve macrophages. About 12% of known human transcription factors display variation in expression during macrophage differentiation, training and tolerance. We also observed transcription factor motifs in DNase I hypersensitive sites at condition-specific dynamic epigenomic regions, implying that specific transcription factors are required for trained and tolerized macrophage epigenetic and transcriptional programs. Finally, our analyses and functional validation indicate that the inhibition of cAMP generation blocked trained immunity in vitro and during an in vivo model of lethal C. albicans infection, abolishing the protective effects of trained immunity. Discussion We documented the importance of epigenetic regulation of the immunological pathways underlying monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained immunity. These dynamic epigenetic elements may inform on potential pharmacological targets that modulate innate immunity. Altogether, we uncovered the epigenetic and transcriptional programs of monocyte differentiation to macrophages that distinguish tolerant and trained macrophage phenotypes, providing a resource to further understand and manipulate immune-mediated responses. PMID:25258085

  17. Shaping macrophages function and innate immunity by bile acids: mechanisms and implication in cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Calmus, Yvon; Poupon, Raoul

    2014-10-01

    The liver is selectively enriched in innate immune cells, macrophages (Kupffer cells), natural killer, and natural killer T cells. These cells release an array of mediators with cytotoxic, pro- and anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, fibrogenic, and mitogenic activity that function to fight infections, limit tissue injury, and promote wound healing. The diverse activity of macrophages is mediated by distinct subpopulations that develop in response to signals within their microenvironment. Understanding the mechanisms and role of the microenvironment contributing to modulation of macrophage populations is crucial for comprehension of the pathophysiology of liver injury in diverse conditions. Several studies initiated in the 1990s have shown that bile acids modulate innate and adaptive immunity. In the last decade, bile acids turned into hormones and signalling molecules involved in many metabolic and inflammatory processes. Biological properties of bile acids are thought to be mediated mainly through activation of the nuclear receptor FXR, the membrane receptor TGR5, as well as PK, ERK, MAP kinases signalling pathways. FXR and TGR5 agonists are currently under development for clinical purpose. This review analyses the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of bile acids on the macrophage and discuss their implications in the pathophysiology of cholestasis, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID:25176586

  18. In vitro effect of levan-activated macrophages on Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, J; Hoenig, S; Pinchassov, A

    1986-01-01

    The polysaccharide levan (polyfructose) has previously been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on the growth of several murine tumors. This activity is mediated by a host reaction, involving mainly macrophages but also other elements of the immune system. It was not clear, however, whether levan-activated macrophages act by a direct cytocidal effect on the tumor cells or via the activation of a specific immune response to the tumor. In the present study, the possibility of a direct cytotoxicity of levan-activated macrophages against Lewis lung carcinoma cells was tested by coculture in vitro. It was found that levan-induced (as well as paraffin oil induced) macrophages actually exert a direct cytotoxic effect on Lewis lung carcinoma cells. The tumor cell killing is mediated by cell to cell contact. A cytoplasmic bridge was often seen between the macrophage and the tumor cell. The remaining tumor cells in the lysed area appear slender, shrunken and non-dividing. PMID:3759297

  19. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  20. Immune cells in term and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-11-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  1. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia can be studied. Studies regarding the roles of the new inducible costimulator signal transduction pathway, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and the nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction pathway in the induction of T cell tolerance can help improve our understanding of immune theory and may provide a new theoretical basis for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25274611

  2. Guardians of the Gut – Murine Intestinal Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Mor; Salame, Tomer-Meir; Jung, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mononuclear phagocytes find themselves in a unique environment, most prominently characterized by its constant exposure to commensal microbiota and food antigens. This anatomic setting has resulted in a number of specializations of the intestinal mononuclear phagocyte compartment that collectively contribute the unique steady state immune landscape of the healthy gut, including homeostatic innate lymphoid cells, B, and T cell compartments. As in other organs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate in addition the immune defense against pathogens, both in lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Here, we will discuss origins and functions of intestinal DCs and macrophages and their respective subsets, focusing largely on the mouse and cells residing in the lamina propria.

  3. Intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement of microbial infection in macrophages: disease regulation by immune complexes

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Scott B; Mahalingam, Prof Suresh; Marovich, Mary A; Ubol, Sukathida; Mosser, Prof David M

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms can replicate in macrophages, and cell entry of these pathogens via non-neutralising IgG antibody complexes can result in increased intracellular infection through idiosyncratic Fc?-receptor signalling. The activation of Fc? receptors usually leads to phagocytosis. Paradoxically, the ligation of monocyte or macrophage Fc? receptors by IgG immune complexes, rather than aiding host defences, can suppress innate immunity, increase production of interleukin 10, and bias T-helper-1 (Th1) responses to Th2 responses, leading to increased infectious output by infected cells. This intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection modulates the severity of diseases as disparate as dengue haemorrhagic fever and leishmaniasis. Intrinsic ADE is distinct from extrinsic ADE, whereby complexes of infectious agents with non-neutralising antibodies lead to an increased number of infected cells. Intrinsic ADE might be involved in many protozoan, bacterial, and viral infections. We review insights into intracellular mechanisms and implications of enhanced pathogenesis after ligation of macrophage Fc? receptors by infectious immune complexes. PMID:20883967

  4. Tumoral Immune Suppression by Macrophages Expressing Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha and Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, James N.; Magiera, Lukasz; Kraman, Matthew; Fearon, Douglas T.

    2013-01-01

    The depletion of tumor stromal cells that are marked by their expression of the membrane protein fibroblast activation protein-? (FAP) overcomes immune suppression and allows an anti-cancer cell immune response to control tumor growth. In subcutaneous tumors established with immunogenic Lewis lung carcinoma cells expressing ovalbumin (LL2/OVA), the FAP+ population comprises CD45+ and CD45? cells. In the present study, we further characterize the tumoral FAP+/CD45+ population as a minor sub-population of F4/80hi/CCR2+/CD206+ M2 macrophages. Using bone marrow chimeric mice in which the primate diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is restricted either to the FAP+/CD45+ or to the FAP+/CD45? subset, we demonstrate by conditionally depleting each subset that both independently contribute to the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment. A basis for the function of the FAP+/CD45+ subset is shown to be the immune inhibitory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The FAP+/CD45+ cells are the major tumoral source of HO-1, and an inhibitor of HO-1, Sn mesoporphyrin, causes the same extent of immune-dependent arrest of LL2/OVA tumor growth as does the depletion of these cells. Since this observation of immune suppression by HO-1 expressed by the FAP+/CD45+ stromal cell is replicated in a transplanted model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we conclude that pharmacologically targeting this enzyme may improve cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24778275

  5. Macrophages.com: an on-line community resource for innate immunity research.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Lu, Xiang; Law, Andrew; Freeman, Tom C; Hume, David A

    2011-11-01

    Macrophages play a major role in tissue remodelling during development, wound healing and tissue homeostasis, and are central to innate immunity and to the pathology of tissue injury and inflammation. Given this fundamental role in many aspects of biological function, an enormous wealth of information has accumulated on these fascinating cells in the literature and other public repositories. With the escalation of genome-scale data derived from macrophages and related haematopoietic cell types, there is a growing need for an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organise and analyse our collective knowledge of macrophage biology. Here we describe a community-driven web-based resource, macrophages.com that aims to provide a portal onto various types of Omics data to facilitate comparative genomic studies, promoter and transcriptional network analyses, models of macrophage pathways together with other information on these cells. To this end, the website combines public and in-house analyses of expression data with pre-analysed views of co-expressed genes as supported by the network analysis tool BioLayout Express(3D), as well as providing access to maps of pathways active in macrophages. Macrophages.com also provides access to an extensive image library of macrophages in adult/embryonic tissue sections prepared from normal and transgenic mice. In addition, the site links to the Human Protein Atlas database so as to provide direct access to protein expression patterns in human macrophages. Finally, an integrated gene-centric portal provides the tools for rapid promoter analysis studies based on a comprehensive set of CAGE-derived transcription start site (TSS) sequences in human and mouse genomes as generated by the Functional Annotation of Mammalian genomes (FANTOM) projects initiated by the RIKEN Omics Science Center. Our aim is to continue to grow the macrophages.com resource using publicly available data, as well as in-house generated knowledge. In so doing we aim to provide a user-friendly community website and a community portal for access to comprehensive sets of macrophage-related data. PMID:21924793

  6. Tim-3 Induces Th2-Biased Immunity and Alternative Macrophage Activation during Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Nan; Piao, Xianyu; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Chuang; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) has been regarded as an important regulatory factor in both adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, Tim-3 was reported to be involved in Th2-biased immune responses in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, but the exact mechanism behind the involvement of Tim-3 remains unknown. The present study aims to understand the role of Tim-3 in the immune response against S. japonicum infection. Tim-3 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and increased Tim-3 expression was observed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, NK1.1(+) cells, and CD11b(+) cells from the livers of S. japonicum-infected mice. However, the increased level of Tim-3 was lower in the spleen than in the liver, and no increase in Tim-3 expression was observed on splenic CD8(+) T cells or CD11b(+) cells. The schistosome-induced upregulation of Tim-3 on natural killer (NK) cells was accompanied by reduced NK cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Tim-3 antibody blockade led to upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA in CD11b(+) cells cocultured with soluble egg antigen and downregulation of Arg1 and IL-10, which are markers of M2 macrophages. In summary, we observed schistosome-induced expression of Tim-3 on critical immune cell populations, which may be involved in the Th2-biased immune response and alternative activation of macrophages during infection. PMID:25987707

  7. Macrophage Expression of HIF-1? Suppresses T cell Function and Promotes Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Doedens, Andrew L.; Stockmann, Christian; Rubinstein, Mark P.; Liao, Debbie; Zhang, Na; DeNardo, David G.; Coussens, Lisa M.; Karin, Michael; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Johnson, Randall S.

    2010-01-01

    T cells can inhibit tumor growth, but their function in the tumor microenvironment is often suppressed. Many solid tumors exhibit abundant macrophage infiltration and low oxygen tension, yet how hypoxic conditions may affect innate immune cells and their impact on tumor progression is poorly understood. Targeted deletion of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF-1? in macrophages in a progressive murine model of breast cancer resulted in reduced tumor growth, although VEGF-A and vascularization was unchanged. Tumor associated macrophages can suppress tumor infiltrating T cells by several mechanisms, and we found that hypoxia powerfully augmented macrophage-mediated T cell suppression in vitro in a manner dependent on macrophage expression of HIF-1?. Our findings link the innate immune hypoxic response to tumor progression through induction of T cell suppression in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:20841473

  8. Effect of PDT-treated apoptotic cells on macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xing, Da; Zhou, Fei-fan; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the long-term immunological effects of photodynamic therapy have attracted much attention. PDT induced immune response was mainly initiated through necrotic cells and apoptotic cells, as well as immune cells such as macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) as an important regulatory factor in signal transfer between cells has been wildly studied for generation, development, and metastasis of tumors. NO synthase is a key enzyme in nitric oxide synthesis. However, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is usually activated under pathological conditions, such as stress and cancer, which can produce high levels of nitric oxide and contribute to tumor cytotoxicity. In addition, increased NO production by iNOS has been associated with the host immune response and cell apoptosis, which play an important role in many carcinogenesis and anti-carcinoma mechanisms. This study focuses on the NO production in macrophages, induced by mouse breast carcinoma apoptotic cells treated by PDT in vitro, and on the effects of immune response induced by apoptotic cells in tumor cells growth.

  9. Innate immune system cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Espinosa-Luna, Jose E; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María V; Montoya-Díaz, Eduardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by innate and adaptive immune system involvement. A key component of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation is the persistence of different innate immune cell types including mast cells, neutrophils, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Several endogenous signals such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and exogenous signals such as lipopolysaccharides, trigger the activation of these cells. In particular, these signals orchestrate the early and late inflammatory responses through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to plaque evolution through the formation of foam cells, among other events. In this review we discuss how innate immune system cells affect atherosclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:24326322

  10. Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

  11. Tumor Cell Apoptosis Polarizes Macrophages—Role of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Andreas; Tzieply, Nico; von Knethen, Andreas; Johann, Axel M.; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage polarization contributes to a number of human pathologies. This is exemplified for tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which display a polarized M2 phenotype, closely associated with promotion of angiogenesis and suppression of innate immune responses. We present evidence that induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and subsequent recognition of apoptotic debris by macrophages participates in the macrophage phenotype shift. During coculture of human primary macrophages with human breast cancer carcinoma cells (MCF-7) the latter ones were killed, while macrophages acquired an alternatively activated phenotype. This was characterized by decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL) 12-p70 production, but increased formation of IL-8 and -10. Alternative macrophage activation required tumor cell death because a coculture with apoptosis-resistant colon carcinoma cells (RKO) or Bcl-2–overexpressing MCF-7 cells failed to induce phenotype alterations. Interestingly, phenotype alterations were achieved with conditioned media from apoptotic tumor cells, arguing for a soluble factor. Knockdown of sphingosine kinase (Sphk) 2, but not Sphk1, to attenuate S1P formation in MCF-7 cells, restored classical macrophage responses during coculture. Furthermore, macrophage polarization achieved by tumor cell apoptosis or substitution of authentic S1P suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling. These findings suggest that tumor cell apoptosis-derived S1P contributes to macrophage polarization. PMID:17652460

  12. Beyond macrophages: the diversity of mononuclear cells in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D; Desvignes, Ludovic

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), is an intracellular pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes. Although M. tuberculosis has traditionally been thought to survive and replicate in macrophages, recent work in our laboratory and others has revealed that M. tuberculosis infects multiple subsets of mononuclear phagocytes in vivo and in vitro. In experimental animals, M. tuberculosis infects no fewer than five distinct cell subsets in the lungs, including resident alveolar macrophages and 4 types of cells that recruited to the lungs in response to inflammatory signals: neutrophils, monocytes, interstitial macrophages, and dendritic cells. A characteristic of the adaptive immune response in TB is that it is delayed for several weeks following infection, and we have determined that this delay is due to prolonged residence of the bacteria in lung phagocytes prior to acquisition of the bacteria by dendritic cells. Among the mechanisms used by M. tuberculosis to delay acquisition by dendritic cells is to inhibit apoptosis of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils, which sequester the bacteria and prevent their acquisition by dendritic cells in the early stages of infection. We hypothesize that each infected cell subset makes a distinct contribution to the overall biology of M. tuberculosis and allows the bacteria to evade elimination by T-cell responses and to avoid rapid killing by antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:25319335

  13. Cell-cell contacts with epithelial cells modulate the phenotype of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Striz, I; Slavcev, A; Kalanin, J; Jaresová, M; Rennard, S I

    2001-08-01

    Interactions of macrophages with epithelium represent one of the pathways involved in regulating local immune mechanisms. We studied the effect of cell-cell contact with an epithelial monolayer on the phenotype of macrophages. Human monocytes and THP-1 macrophages were co-cultured with monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), the alveolar type II-like cell line A549, renal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (RA), and the lung fibroblast strain HFL-1. The expression of CD11b, CD14, CD54, and HLA-DR was measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry and showed epithelial cell induction of CD54 and HLA-DR in monocytes and of all antigens in THP-1 cells. Co-culture with fibroblasts did not change the phenotype of macrophages. Separation by a filter insert inhibited most of the effects. Culture supernatants did not induce prominent phenotypic changes. Cell-cell contacts with epithelium appear to be of importance in regulating the phenotype of macrophages. PMID:11580100

  14. Macrophages: The "Defense" Cells That Help Throughout the Body

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-08-26

    Press Release on research from David Mosser, Professor of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics at the University of MarylandÂ?s College of Chemical and Life Sciences, about the three primary duties of macrophages. His work was presented at the 2010 American Physiological Society conference, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Disease, in Westminster Colorado, August 25-28. The full conference program can be found at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/inflammation/.

  15. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice. PMID:9682967

  16. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  17. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of lead and cadmium on cell-mediated immunity was studied in peritoneal macrophages, B-, and T-lymphocytes of mice. Lead and cadmium were administered in drinking water for 10 weeks in short-term experiments and up to 18 months to deal with immune responses in aged mic...

  18. Effect of immune serum and role of individual Fc? receptors on the intracellular distribution and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Uppington, Hazel; Menager, Nathalie; Boross, Peter; Wood, James; Sheppard, Mark; Verbeek, Sjef; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    Immune serum has a protective role against Salmonella infections in mice, domestic animals and humans. In this study, the effect of antibody on the interaction between murine macrophages and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was examined. Detailed analysis at the single-cell level demonstrated that opsonization of the bacteria with immune serum enhanced bacterial uptake and altered bacterial distribution within individual phagocytic cells. Using gene-targeted mice deficient in individual Fc gamma receptors it was shown that immune serum enhanced bacterial internalization by macrophages via the high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor, Fc gamma receptor I. Exposure of murine macrophages to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium opsonized with immune serum resulted in increased production of superoxide, leading to enhanced antibacterial functions of the infected cells. However, opsonization of bacteria with immune serum did not increase either nitric oxide production in response to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. PMID:16836651

  19. Macrophages Contribute to the Cyclic Activation of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells as a novel, additional cue that regulates their regenerative activity. This finding may have translational implications for skin repair, inflammatory skin diseases and cancer. PMID:25536657

  20. Immunopathogenesis of Myocarditis: The Interplay Between Cardiac Fibroblast Cells, Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Amoah, B Prince; Yang, H; Zhang, P; Su, Z; Xu, H

    2015-07-01

    The myocardium responds to aetiologically different pathological injuries through a common multistep process involving highly co-ordinated interactions between cardiac and immune cells. Cardiac fibroblast cells which constitute the prevalent cell type in the heart to have their functional effects that express contractile proteins and exhibit increased migratory, proliferative and secretory properties. During the pathogenesis of myocarditis, cardiac fibroblast, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4(+) T cells and other immune cells are known to play variable roles. It is becoming increasingly clear that cardiac fibroblasts are not passive players in immune responses, and several evidences show this through the release of soluble signals and/or direct interactions with these immune cells. Typically, fibroblasts are involved in synthesizing factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostanoids, matrix components and matrix-degrading enzymes to influence dendritic cells, CD4(+) T cells and macrophage functions and vice versa in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. Again, evidence proves a crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and immune cells recruited into the myocardium during myocarditis in the microenvironments. This piece reviews the properties and roles of cardiac fibroblast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of myocarditis, and how these cells interplay on each other in the microenvironment. PMID:25845946

  1. The polarization of immune cells in the tumour environment by TGF?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shomyseh Sanjabi; Stephen H. Wrzesinski; Paula Licona-Limón; Richard A. Flavell

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by tumour cells and immune cells that can polarize many components of the immune system. This Review covers the effects of TGF? on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CD8+ and CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and NKT cells in animal tumour models and in patients with cancer.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Activates Human Macrophage Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Linking Mannose Receptor Recognition to Regulation of Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Brooks, Michelle N.; Morris, Jessica D.; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Azad, Abul K.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances its survival in macrophages by suppressing immune responses in part through its complex cell wall structures. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a nuclear receptor superfamily member, is a transcriptional factor that regulates inflammation and has high expression in alternatively activated alveolar macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells, both cell types relevant to tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we show that virulent M. tuberculosis and its cell wall mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan induce PPAR? expression through a macrophage mannose receptor-dependent pathway. When activated, PPAR? promotes IL-8 and cyclooxygenase 2 expression, a process modulated by a PPAR? agonist or antagonist. Upstream, MAPK-p38 mediates cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation, which is required for PPAR? ligand production. The induced IL-8 response mediated by mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan and the mannose receptor is independent of TLR2 and NF-?B activation. In contrast, the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin induces less PPAR? and preferentially uses the NF-?B–mediated pathway to induce IL-8 production. Finally, PPAR? knockdown in human macrophages enhances TNF production and controls the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. These data identify a new molecular pathway that links engagement of the mannose receptor, an important pattern recognition receptor for M. tuberculosis, with PPAR? activation, which regulates the macrophage inflammatory response, thereby playing a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:20554962

  3. Impaired Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Immune Responses from Macrophages of Patients Chronically Infected with Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Bolen, Christopher R.; Jing, Chunxia; Wang, Xiaomei; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Hongyu; Fikrig, Erol; Bruce, R. Douglas; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States, with the majority of patients becoming chronically infected and a subset (20%) progressing to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Individual variations in immune responses may help define successful resistance to infection with HCV. We have compared the immune response in primary macrophages from patients who have spontaneously cleared HCV (viral load negative [VL?], n = 37) to that of primary macrophages from HCV genotype 1 chronically infected (VL+) subjects (n = 32) and found that macrophages from VL? subjects have an elevated baseline expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Macrophages from HCV patients were stimulated ex vivo through the TLR3 pathway and assessed using gene expression arrays and pathway analysis. We found elevated TLR3 response genes and pathway activity from VL? subjects. Furthermore, macrophages from VL? subjects showed higher production of beta interferon (IFN-?) and related IFN response genes by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and increased phosphorylation of STAT-1 by immunoblotting. Analysis of polymorphisms in TLR3 revealed a significant association of intronic TLR3 polymorphism (rs13126816) with the clearance of HCV and the expression of TLR3. Of note, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the same donors showed opposite changes in gene expression, suggesting ongoing inflammatory responses in PBMCs from VL+ HCV patients. Our results suggest that an elevated innate immune response enhances HCV clearance mechanisms and may offer a potential therapeutic approach to increase viral clearance. PMID:23220997

  4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants from asymptomatic dogs immunized and experimentally challenged with Leishmania chagasi can stimulate canine macrophages to reduce infection in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cleusa Alves Theodoro Rodrigues; Luís Fábio da Silva Batista; Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira; Andréa Mendes Pereira; Patrícia Oliveira Meira Santos; Geraldo Gileno de Sá Oliveira; Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de Freitas; Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras

    2007-01-01

    Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in both humans and dogs in the New World. The dog is the main domestic reservoir and its infection displays different clinical presentations, from asymptomatic to severe disease. Macrophages play an important role in the control of Leishmania infection. Although it is not an area of intense study, some data suggest

  5. Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Shao, J-H; Miao, Y-J; Cui, W; Qi, Y-F; Han, J-H; Lin, X; Du, J

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages are critical immune effector cells of the tumor microenvironment that promote seeding, extravasation and persistent growth of tumor cells in primary tumors and metastatic sites. Tumor progression and metastasis are affected by dynamic changes in the specific phenotypes of macrophage subpopulations; however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells modulate macrophage polarization remain incompletely understood. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is a central adaptor protein of innate immune responses to extracellular pathogens. We report that increased CARD9 expression is primarily localized in infiltrated macrophages and significantly associated with advanced histopathologic stage and the presence of metastasis. Using CARD9-deficient (CARD9(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived CARD9 promotes liver metastasis of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that CARD9 contributes to tumor metastasis by promoting metastasis-associated macrophage polarization through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that tumor cell-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor facilitates spleen tyrosine kinase activation in macrophages, which is necessary for formation of the CARD9-B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 complex. Taken together, our results indicating that CARD9 is a regulator of metastasis-associated macrophages will lead to new insights into evolution of the microenvironments supporting tumor metastasis, thereby providing targets for anticancer therapies. PMID:24722209

  6. Immune Regulation by Rapamycin: Moving Beyond T Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew R. Janes (Irvine; University of California REV)

    2009-04-21

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a multifunctional kinase that promotes cell growth and division in response to growth factor and nutrient signals. Rapamycin exerts its potent immunosuppressive effects in part through direct effects on antigen-specific lymphocytes; however, rapamycin also modulates adaptive immunity through its effects on innate immune cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Studies have established rapamycin-sensitive functions of mTOR, downstream of Toll-like receptors, in shaping the cytokine response of myeloid cells and driving the production of interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. These findings point to new strategies for boosting or suppressing specific immune responses.

  7. The endosomal proteome of macrophage and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Sophie; Clavarino, Giovanna; Rousserie, Gilles; Goyette, Guillaume; Boulais, Jonathan; Camossetto, Voahirana; Gatti, Evelina; LaBoissière, Sylvie; Pierre, Philippe; Desjardins, Michel

    2011-03-01

    The essential roles of the endovacuolar system in health and disease call for the development of new tools allowing a better understanding of the complex molecular machinery involved in endocytic processes. We took advantage of the floating properties of small latex beads (sLB) on a discontinuous sucrose gradient to isolate highly purified endosomes following internalization of small latex beads in J774 macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). We particularly focused on the isolation of macrophages early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LYS) as well as the isolation of LE/LYS from immature and lipopolysaccharide-activated (mature) DC. We subsequently performed a comparative analysis of their respective protein contents by MS. As expected, proteins already known to localize to the early endosomes were enriched in the earliest fraction of J774 endosomes, while proteins known to accumulate later in the process, such as hydrolases, were significantly enriched in the LE/LYS preparations. We next compared the LE/LYS protein contents of immature DC and mature DC, which are known to undergo massive reorganization leading to potent immune activation. The differences between the protein contents of endocytic organelles from macrophages and DC were underlined by focusing on previously poorly characterized biochemical pathways, which could have an unexpected but important role in the endosomal functions of these highly relevant immune cell types. PMID:21280226

  8. Lymphokine activation of J774G8 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages challenged with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L D; Krahenbuhl, J L; Weidner, E

    1985-01-01

    In vitro activation of macrophage cell line J774G8 and mouse peritoneal macrophages resulted in oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent killing of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii. Activation was characterized by oxygen-dependent killing detectable by enhanced lysosome fusion and digestion of T. gondii. The toxoplasmacidal activity of activated J774G8 cells and peritoneal macrophages was prevented by adding the oxygen intermediate scavengers catalase or superoxide dismutase during culture. Activated J774G8 cells and peritoneal macrophages also inhibited replication of those Toxoplasma organisms which survived the initial microbicidal activity. The inhibition of Toxoplasma replication was not significantly affected by exogenous catalase or superoxide dismutase. Peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-immune mice showed similar microbicidal and inhibitory responses, supporting the model that activation leads to destruction of intracellular parasites by two different mechanisms. Images PMID:4030103

  9. Effects of acemannan on macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Linna

    1994-01-01

    , immune stimulation, anticancer, and antiviral effects. It is unclear how acemannan exerts this wide variety of effects. One common cell, however, that appears to link all the biological effects of acemannan is the macrophage. Macrophages play a wide...

  10. Effects of acemannan on macrophages

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Linna

    1994-01-01

    , immune stimulation, anticancer, and antiviral effects. It is unclear how acemannan exerts this wide variety of effects. One common cell, however, that appears to link all the biological effects of acemannan is the macrophage. Macrophages play a wide...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF IMMUNOLOGICALLY COMMITTED LYMPHOID CELLS ON MACROPHAGE ACTIVITY IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Mackaness, G. B.

    1969-01-01

    It has been shown that the immune response of mice to infection with L. monocytogenes gives rise to a population of immunologically committed lymphoid cells which have the capacity to confer protection and a proportionate level of delayed-type hypersensitivity upon normal recipients. The cells were most numerous in the spleen on the 6th or 7th day of infection, but persisted for at least 20 days. Further study revealed that the immune cells must be alive in order to confer protection, and free to multiply in the tissues of the recipient if they are to provide maximum resistance to a challenge infection. The antibacterial resistance conferred with immune lymphoid cells is not due to antibacterial antibody; it is mediated indirectly through the macrophages of the recipient. These become activated by a process which appears to depend upon some form of specific interaction between the immune lymphoid cells and the infecting organism. This was deduced from the finding that immune lymphoid cells from BCG-immunized donors, which were highly but nonspecifically resistant to Listeria, failed to protect normal recipients against a Listeria challenge unless the recipients were also injected with an eliciting dose of BCG. The peritoneal macrophages of animals so treated developed the morphology and microbicidal features of activated macrophages. It is inferred that acquired resistance depends upon the activation of host macrophages through a product resulting from specific interaction between sensitized lymphoid cells and the organism or or its antigenic products. Discussion is also made of the possibility that activation of macrophages could be dependent upon antigenic stimulation of macrophages sensitized by a cytophilic antibody. PMID:4976110

  12. Activation of murine dendritic cells and macrophages induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, Ruwani Sagarika; Mastroeni, Pietro; Maskell, Duncan; Blacklaws, Barbara Ann

    2005-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and the direct involvement of both cell types in the immune response to Salmonella has been identified. In this study we analysed the phenotypic and functional changes that take place in murine macrophages and DCs in response to live and heat-killed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both types of cell secreted proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in response to live and heat-killed salmonellae. Bacterial stimulation also resulted in up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on macrophages and DCs. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules by macrophages and DCs was differentially regulated by interferon (IFN)-? and salmonellae. Live and heat-killed salmonellae as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibited the up-regulation of MHC class II expression induced by IFN-? on macrophages but not on DCs. Macrophages as well as DCs presented Salmonella-derived antigen to CD4 T cells, although DCs were much more efficient than macrophages at stimulating CD4 T-cell cytokine release. Macrophages are effective in the uptake and killing of bacteria whilst DCs specialize in antigen presentation. This study showed that the viability of salmonellae was not essential for activation of APCs but, unlike live bacteria, prolonged contact with heat-killed bacteria was necessary to obtain maximal expression of the activation markers studied. PMID:16011515

  13. THE INTERACTION OF PARTICULATE HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE (HRP)-ANTI HRP IMMUNE COMPLEXES WITH MOUSE PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Ralph M.; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1972-01-01

    The uptake, distribution, and fate of particulate horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-anti HRP aggregates has been studied in homogeneous monolayers of mouse macrophages in vitro. Macrophages rapidly interiorize the immune complexes after binding to the cell surface. The rate of interiorization is maximal for complexes formed in a broad zone of 4-fold antibody excess to equivalence and corresponds to a rate of 10% of the administered load/106 cells per hour. This rate is 4000-fold greater than the uptake of soluble HRP. The binding and endocytosis of HRP-anti HRP by macrophages is mediated by the trypsin insensitive Fc receptor. Cytochemically, intracellular HRP is localized within membrane bound vacuoles. After uptake of HRP, the enzymatic activity is degraded exponentially with a half-life of 14–18 hr until enzyme is no longer detectable. This half-life is twice as long as that previously observed for soluble uncomplexed HRP and is related to the combination of HRP with anti-HRP rather than the absolute amounts of enzyme or antibody ingested. The half-life of HRP-125I was 30 hr. Exocytosis of cell associated enzyme or TCA precipitable counts was not detected, nor were persistent surface complexes demonstrable. The extensive capacity of macrophages to interiorize and destroy large amounts of antigen after the formation of antibody illustrates a role of this cell in the efferent limb of the immune response. PMID:4656704

  14. Macrophage PTEN Regulates Expression and Secretion of Arginase I Modulating Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Emine; Haubenwallner, Stefan; Kuttke, Mario; Kollmann, Isabella; Halfmann, Angela; Dohnal, Alexander B.; Chen, Li; Cheng, Paul; Hoesel, Bastian; Einwallner, Elisa; Brunner, Julia; Kral, Julia B.; Schrottmaier, Waltraud C.; Thell, Kathrin; Saferding, Victoria; Blüml, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The activation of innate immune cells triggers numerous intracellular signaling pathways, which require tight control to mount an adequate immune response. The PI3K signaling pathway is intricately involved in innate immunity, and its activation dampens the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells. These signaling processes are strictly regulated by the PI3K antagonist, the lipid phosphatase, PTEN, a known tumor suppressor. Importantly, PTEN is responsible for the elevated production of cytokines such as IL-6 in response to TLR agonists, and deletion of PTEN results in diminished inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms by which PI3K negatively regulates TLR signaling are only partially resolved. We observed that Arginase I expression and secretion were markedly induced by PTEN deletion, suggesting PTEN?/? macrophages were alternatively activated. This was mediated by increased expression and activation of the transcription factors C/EBP? and STAT3. Genetic and pharmacologic experimental approaches in vitro, as well as in vivo autoimmunity models, provide convincing evidence that PI3K/PTEN-regulated extracellular Arginase I acts as a paracrine regulator of inflammation and immunity. PMID:25015834

  15. Macrophage PTEN regulates expression and secretion of arginase I modulating innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Emine; Haubenwallner, Stefan; Kuttke, Mario; Kollmann, Isabella; Halfmann, Angela; Dohnal, Alexander M; Dohnal, Alexander B; Chen, Li; Cheng, Paul; Hoesel, Bastian; Einwallner, Elisa; Brunner, Julia; Kral, Julia B; Schrottmaier, Waltraud C; Thell, Kathrin; Saferding, Victoria; Blüml, Stephan; Schabbauer, Gernot

    2014-08-15

    The activation of innate immune cells triggers numerous intracellular signaling pathways, which require tight control to mount an adequate immune response. The PI3K signaling pathway is intricately involved in innate immunity, and its activation dampens the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells. These signaling processes are strictly regulated by the PI3K antagonist, the lipid phosphatase, PTEN, a known tumor suppressor. Importantly, PTEN is responsible for the elevated production of cytokines such as IL-6 in response to TLR agonists, and deletion of PTEN results in diminished inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms by which PI3K negatively regulates TLR signaling are only partially resolved. We observed that Arginase I expression and secretion were markedly induced by PTEN deletion, suggesting PTEN(-/-) macrophages were alternatively activated. This was mediated by increased expression and activation of the transcription factors C/EBP? and STAT3. Genetic and pharmacologic experimental approaches in vitro, as well as in vivo autoimmunity models, provide convincing evidence that PI3K/PTEN-regulated extracellular Arginase I acts as a paracrine regulator of inflammation and immunity. PMID:25015834

  16. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in mucosal T cells or macrophages. Images PMID:9516879

  17. Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype That Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Gopinath; Rao, Gopala B.; Lucius, Richard; Srikantam, Aparna; Hartmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. Aim To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. Methodology and principal findings Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-? responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner. Conclusions and significance Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic filariasis is caused by microfilaria-modulated monocytes in an IL-10-dependent manner. Together with suppression of macrophage innate responses, this may contribute to the overall down-regulation of immune responses observed in asymptomatically infected patients. PMID:25275395

  18. Helical carbon nanotubes enhance the early immune response and inhibit macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Walling, Brent E; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B; Jeffries, Jayme L; Haasch, Richard T; Lyding, Joseph W; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W

    2013-01-01

    Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

  19. Helical Carbon Nanotubes Enhance the Early Immune Response and Inhibit Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Brent E.; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B.; Jeffries, Jayme L.; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

  20. TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan R Krutzik; Belinda Tan; Huiying Li; Maria Teresa Ochoa; Philip T Liu; Sarah E Sharfstein; Thomas G Graeber; Peter A Sieling; Yong-Jun Liu; Thomas H Rea; Barry R Bloom; Robert L Modlin

    2005-01-01

    Leprosy enables investigation of mechanisms by which the innate immune system contributes to host defense against infection, because in one form, the disease progresses, and in the other, the infection is limited. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of human monocytes induces rapid differentiation into two distinct subsets: DC-SIGN+ CD16+ macrophages and CD1b+ DC-SIGN? dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ phagocytic macrophages

  1. Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage-Dendritic Cell Contacts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage, the agent of anthrax. We show that after alveolar macrophages capture spores, CD11b-positive dendritic cells to the draining lymph nodes and elicit the immune response in pulmonary anthrax. The intimate and long-last- ing

  2. Denervated Schwann Cells Attract Macrophages by Secretion of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 in a Process Regulated by Interleukin6 and LIF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George K. Tofaris; Paul H. Patterson; Kristjan R. Jessen; Rhona Mirsky

    2002-01-01

    Injury to peripheral nerves results in the infiltration of immune cells, which remove axonal- and myelin-derived material. Schwann cells could play a key role in this process by regulating macrophage infiltration. We show here that medium conditioned by primary denervated Schwann cells or the Schwannoma cell line RN22 produces chemotactic activity for macrophages. The pres- ence of blocking antibodies to

  3. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A; McLean, Leon P; Madden, Kathleen B; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a "lean" epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells. PMID:24465430

  4. Role of Macrophages in the Altered Epithelial Function during a Type 2 Immune Response Induced by Enteric Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C.; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A.; McLean, Leon P.; Madden, Kathleen B.; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F.; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a “lean” epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells. PMID:24465430

  5. A Group A Streptococcus ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin Stimulates a Protective Interleukin 1?-Dependent Macrophage Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ann E.; Beasley, Federico C.; Keller, Nadia; Hollands, Andrew; Urbano, Rodolfo; Troemel, Emily R.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The M1T1 clone of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is associated with severe invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and septicemia. During invasive M1T1 GAS disease, mutations in the covRS regulatory system led to upregulation of an ADP-ribosyltransferase, SpyA. Surprisingly, a GAS ?spyA mutant was resistant to killing by macrophages and caused higher mortality with impaired bacterial clearance in a mouse intravenous challenge model. GAS expression of SpyA triggered macrophage cell death in association with caspase-1-dependent interleukin 1? (IL-1?) production, and differences between wild-type (WT) and ?spyA GAS macrophage survival levels were lost in cells lacking caspase-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), or pro-IL-1?. Similar in vitro findings were identified in macrophage studies performed with pseudomonal exotoxin A, another ADP-ribosylating toxin. Thus, SpyA triggers caspase-1-dependent inflammatory cell death in macrophages, revealing a toxin-triggered IL-1?-dependent innate immune response pathway critical in defense against invasive bacterial infection. PMID:25759502

  6. Lipid extract from completely sporoderm-broken germinating Ganoderma sinensis spores elicits potent antitumor immune responses in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Ping; Zheng, Limin; Wang, Jiang-Hai; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Liu, Xin

    2009-06-01

    Ganoderma sinensis has been used widely in Oriental countries for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancer. Previous studies have shown that the lipid extract from Ganoderma exhibits direct cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Here, it is reported that the lipid extract from germinating G. sinensis spores, at lower concentrations that have no direct tumoricidal activity, induce potent antitumor immune responses in human monocytes/macrophages. Upon stimulation with the lipid extract, monocytes/macrophages exhibited markedly increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and surface expression of costimulatory molecules. Conditioned medium from stimulated cells effectively suppressed the growth of tumor cells. Apparently, the lipid extract triggered macrophage activation via a mechanism different from that associated with LPS. Moreover, it was observed that the lipid extract could partially re-establish the antitumor activity of the immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages. These results indicated that in addition to its direct tumoricidal activity, the lipid extract from G. sinensis spores could exert antitumor activity by stimulating the activation of human monocytes/macrophages. PMID:19117333

  7. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  8. T Cell–Mediated Host Immune Defenses in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has increasingly shown that the lungs are a major site of immune regulation. A robust and highly regulated immune response in the lung protects the host from pathogen infection, whereas an inefficient or deleterious response can lead to various pulmonary diseases. Many cell types, such as epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and B and T lymphocytes, contribute to lung immunity. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding how T lymphocytes mediate pulmonary host defenses against bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. PMID:23516986

  9. The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2015-05-01

    A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified andcharacterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages. PMID:25986284

  10. Emergence of anthrax edema toxin as a master manipulator of macrophage and B cell functions.

    PubMed

    Gnade, Bryan T; Moen, Scott T; Chopra, Ashok K; Peterson, Johnny W; Yeager, Linsey A

    2010-07-01

    Anthrax edema toxin (ET), a powerful adenylyl cyclase, is an important virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Until recently, only a modest amount of research was performed to understand the role this toxin plays in the organism's immune evasion strategy. A new wave of studies have begun to elucidate the effects this toxin has on a variety of host cells. While efforts have been made to illuminate the effect ET has on cells of the adaptive immune system, such as T cells, the greatest focus has been on cells of the innate immune system, particularly the macrophage. Here we discuss the immunoevasive activities that ET exerts on macrophages, as well as new research on the effects of this toxin on B cells. PMID:22069663

  11. Application of a novel immunization protocol to the production of monoclonal antibodies specific for macrophages in human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, A D; Uren, S; Hawes, C S; Boyle, W

    1989-01-01

    A monolayer depletion/adoptive immunization protocol that biased the immune response towards recognition of placental macrophage (pMO) antigens was established. BALB/c spleen cells immune to human pMO were adsorbed onto monolayers of the B-cell line QIMR-WIL. Monolayer-depleted or unfractionated cells were transferred to irradiated recipients, which subsequently were restimulated with pMO then killed for hybridoma production. Screening of hybridomas revealed an increased proportion of pMO-specific hybridomas following transfer and fusion of monolayer-depleted cells. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), L9 and L21, which were generated through application of this protocol, are described. L9 recognized an antigen on cells within the villi in sections of term placenta and freshly isolated pMO. With time in culture, expression of this antigen decreased markedly. Macrophages, but no other cell type, in placental cell suspensions expressed this antigen. L9 failed to react with any peripheral blood cells. Immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE analyses indicated that two proteins of molecular weight (MW) 40,000 and 43,000 were recognized by L9. Sections of term placenta and freshly isolated pMO failed to react with L21. After 2-3 days in culture, however, most macrophages expressed this antigen. L21 reacted weakly with peripheral monocytes and granulocytes but not other normal peripheral blood cells. Myeloid cell lines reacted strongly with this mAb only after activation with PMA. SDS-PAGE analyses of the L21 immunoprecipitate under non-reducing conditions revealed a single band of 61,000 MW, while two bands of 46,000 and 49,000 MW were detected under reducing conditions. Cellular distribution and molecular weight analyses indicated that the antigens recognized by these two mAb were apparently distinct from previously defined myeloid antigens. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2531720

  12. Macrophage and T Cell Produced IL-10 Promotes Viral Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A.; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A.; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Chronic viral infections lead to CD8+ T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c+ cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c+ cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4+ T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4+ T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10. PMID:24244162

  13. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AGAINST BESNOITIA AND TOXOPLASMA IN SPECIFICALLY AND CROSS-IMMUNIZED HAMSTERS AND IN CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Richard L.; Frenkel, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The capacity of hamster peritoneal cell populations to control viability and growth of Besnoitia and Toxoplasma organisms was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Immunized hamsters reduced the homologous organisms 100- to 10,000-fold over a 5-day period, but the heterologous infection increased 100- to 1,000-fold in numbers, similar as in the nonimmune controls. Passively administered antibody was ineffective although lytic cofactors were supplied by hamsters. In cultures, peritoneal cells from Besnoitia-immune hamsters delayed the growth of homologous parasites to an average of 38.5 h per division; however, in Toxoplasma-immune and nonimmune cells, Besnoitia divided every 12.8 h. Specificity of immunity was pronounced against both infections. With cross-infections, Toxoplasma-immune cultures did not effectively delay Besnoitia growth; however, Besnoitia-immune cultures reduced Toxoplasma growth by one-half. Co-cultivation experiments demonstrated that specifically committed lymphocytes could instruct macrophages to reduce the homologous organism 10-fold, whereas heterologous organisms were reduced only 2-fold. Lymphocyte supernatants initiated hypersensitivity as indicated by macrophage activation and giant cell formation in culture. However, these supernatants did not transfer infection immunity. Lymphokines could account for the hypersensitivity phenomena, but cell-mediated infection immunity in this model required close lymphocyte-macrophage proximity. These studies indicate that a number of distinct processes including delayed hypersensitivity, macrophage activation, and specific cellular immunity are acting simultaneously during latent Besnoitia infection of hamsters. All three processes are mediated by lymphoid cells and appear to be specifically induced. Although activated macrophages develop some heightened nonspecific capabilities, these were several orders of magnitude below the specific effects. PMID:4812629

  14. Vaccine effect of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor or CD80 gene-transduced murine hematopoietic tumor cells and their cooperative enhancement of antitumor immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Nakazaki; K Tani; Z-T Lin; H Sumimoto; H Hibino; T Tanabe; M-S Wu; K Izawa; H Hase; S Takahashi; A Tojo; M Azuma; H Hamada; S Mori; S Asano

    1998-01-01

    To develop immunogene therapy targeting minimal residual hematopoietic tumor cells in patients, we transduced murine GM-CSF or CD80 gene into murine WEHI 3B myelomonocytic leukemia and EL-4 thymic lymphoma cells using retroviral vectors and evaluated their effects on inducing antitumor responses in syngeneic host mice. Subcutaneously injected GM-CSF- and CD80 gene-transduced WEHI 3B (GMCSF\\/WEHI\\/3.2 or CD80\\/WEHI\\/1.8, respectively) cells lost their

  15. Macrophage-tumor cell interactions regulate the function of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cell-macrophage interactions change as the tumor progresses, and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a major role in this interplay. In early stages, macrophages employ their killing mechanisms, particularly the generation of high concentrations of NO and its derivative reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to initiate tumor cell apoptosis and destroy emerging transformed cells. If the tumor escapes the immune system and grows, macrophages that infiltrate it are reprogramed in situ by the tumor microenvironment. Low oxygen tensions (hypoxia) and immunosuppressive cytokines inhibit iNOS activity and lead to production of low amounts of NO/RNS, which are pro-angiogenic and support tumor growth and metastasis by inducing growth factors (e.g., VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We review here the different roles of NO/RNS in tumor progression and inhibition, and the mechanisms that regulate iNOS expression and NO production, highlighting the role of different subtypes of macrophages and the microenvironment. We finally claim that some tumor cells may become resistant to macrophage-induced death by increasing their expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which leads to inhibition of iNOS translation. This implies that some cooperation between tumor cells and macrophages is required to induce tumor cell death, and that tumor cells may control their fate. Thus, in order to induce susceptibility of tumors cells to macrophage-induced death, we suggest a new therapeutic approach that couples manipulation of miR-146a levels in tumors with macrophage therapy, which relies on ex vivo stimulation of macrophages and their re-introduction to tumors. PMID:23785333

  16. Cell-mediated immunity to soluble and particulate inhaled antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. O.; Burrell, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of an antigen's physical properties on the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the lung following aerosol immunization, human serum albumin (HSA) was prepared in either a soluble or a particulate form, the latter being coupled to respirable, carboxylated latex beads. Antigen was administered via an aerosol to groups of guinea-pigs, twice weekly for up to 4 weeks. Additional groups of animals served as unexposed and unconjugated latex controls. Lymphoid cells for CMI assays were isolated from the lung by bronchopulmonary lavage and from blood for use in mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation assays, as well as indirect macrophage migration inhibition tests. Particulate HSA-exposed animals yielded the highest numbers of free lung cells containing predominantly macrophages, with up to 33% lymphocytes. These were followed by the latex control, soluble HSA and unexposed control groups, respectively. Only the animals exposed to particulate HSA had evidence of antigen reactivation in the lung cell populations as measured by lymphocyte stimulation assays. In contrast, a response to polyclonal mitogens was found only in animals exposed to antigen in a soluble form. Data from macrophage depletion experiments suggest that the antigenicity of inhaled antigens may be due to the types and numbers of cells responding to the stimulus, and the subsequent role the alveolar macrophage may play in the modulation of cellular immunity. PMID:393444

  17. Activation outcomes induced in naïve CD8 T-cells by macrophages primed via "phagocytic" and nonphagocytic pathways.

    PubMed

    Olazabal, Isabel María; Martín-Cofreces, Noa Beatriz; Mittelbrunn, María; Martínez del Hoyo, Gloria; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2008-02-01

    The array of phagocytic receptors expressed by macrophages make them very efficient at pathogen clearance, and the phagocytic process links innate with adaptive immunity. Primary macrophages modulate antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. We assessed ex vivo the putative role of different phagocytic receptors in immune synapse formation with CD8 naïve T-cells from OT-I transgenic mice and compared this with the administration of antigen as a soluble peptide. Macrophages that have phagocytosed antigen induce T-cell microtubule-organizing center and F-actin cytoskeleton relocalization to the contact site, as well as the recruitment of proximal T-cell receptor signals such as activated Vav1 and PKC. At the same doses of loaded antigen (1 microM), "phagocytic" macrophages were more efficient than peptide-antigen-loaded macrophages at forming productive immune synapses with T-cells, as indicated by active T-cell TCR/CD3 conformation, LAT phosphorylation, IL-2 production, and T-cell proliferation. Similar T-cell proliferation efficiency was obtained when low doses of soluble peptide (3-30 nM) were loaded on macrophages. These results suggest that the pathway used for antigen uptake may modulate the antigen density presented on MHC-I, resulting in different signals induced in naïve CD8 T-cells, leading either to CD8 T-cell activation or anergy. PMID:18077558

  18. Nitric oxide–mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2?/? macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2?/? macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-?) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2?/? macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages PMID:23630227

  19. NLRX1 prevents mitochondrial induced apoptosis and enhances macrophage antiviral immunity by interacting with influenza virus PB1-F2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Joanna; Coulombe, François; Downey, Jeffrey; Tzelepis, Fanny; Shalaby, Karim; Tattoli, Ivan; Berube, Julie; Rousseau, Simon; Martin, James G.; Girardin, Stephen E.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Divangahi, Maziar

    2014-01-01

    To subvert host immunity, influenza A virus (IAV) induces early apoptosis in innate immune cells by disrupting mitochondria membrane potential via its polymerase basic protein 1-frame 2 (PB1-F2) accessory protein. Whether immune cells have mechanisms to counteract PB1-F2–mediated apoptosis is currently unknown. Herein, we define that the host mitochondrial protein nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR)X1 binds to viral protein PB1-F2, preventing IAV-induced macrophage apoptosis and promoting both macrophage survival and type I IFN signaling. We initially observed that Nlrx1-deficient mice infected with IAV exhibited increased pulmonary viral replication, as well as enhanced inflammatory-associated pulmonary dysfunction and morbidity. Analysis of the lungs of IAV-infected mice revealed markedly enhanced leukocyte recruitment but impaired production of type I IFN in Nlrx1?/? mice. Impaired type I IFN production and enhanced viral replication was recapitulated in Nlrx1?/? macrophages and was associated with increased mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Through gain- and loss-of-function strategies for protein interaction, we identified that NLRX1 directly bound PB1-F2 in the mitochondria of macrophages. Using a recombinant virus lacking PB1-F2, we confirmed that deletion of PB1-F2 abrogated NLRX1-dependent macrophage type I IFN production and apoptosis. Thus, our results demonstrate that NLRX1 acts as a mitochondrial sentinel protecting macrophages from PB1-F2–induced apoptosis and preserving their antiviral function. We further propose that NLRX1 is critical for macrophage immunity against IAV infection by sensing the extent of viral replication and maintaining a protective balance between antiviral immunity and excessive inflammation within the lungs. PMID:24799673

  20. T-cell- and macrophage-mediated axon damage in the absence of a CNS-specific immune response: involvement of metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Newman, T A; Woolley, S T; Hughes, P M; Sibson, N R; Anthony, D C; Perry, V H

    2001-11-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the fact that axon injury is an important component of multiple sclerosis pathology. The issue of whether a CNS antigen-specific immune response is required to produce axon injury remains unresolved. We investigated the extent and time course of axon injury in a rodent model of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction directed against the mycobacterium bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Using MRI, we determined whether the ongoing axon injury is restricted to the period during which the blood-brain barrier is compromised. DTH lesions were initiated in adult rats by intracerebral injection of heat-killed BCG followed by a peripheral challenge with BCG. Our findings demonstrate that a DTH reaction to a non-CNS antigen within a CNS white matter tract leads to axon injury. Ongoing axon injury persisted throughout the 3-month period studied and was not restricted to the period of blood-brain barrier breakdown, as detected by MRI enhancing lesions. We have previously demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in multiple sclerosis plaques and DTH lesions. In this study we demonstrated that microinjection of activated MMPs into the cortical white matter results in axon injury. Our results show that axon injury, possibly mediated by MMPs, is immunologically non-specific and may continue behind an intact blood-brain barrier. PMID:11673322

  1. Differential Transcriptional Response in Macrophages Infected with Cell Wall Deficient versus Normal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu-Rong; Gao, Kun-Shan; Ji, Rui; Yi, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions determine the outcome following infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under adverse circumstances, normal Mtb can form cell-wall deficient (CWD) variants within macrophages, which have been considered an adaptive strategy for facilitating bacterial survival inside macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection of macrophages with different phenotypic Mtb elicits distinct responses of macrophages is not fully understood. To explore the molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, differential transcriptional responses of RAW264.7 cells infected with two forms of Mtb, CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb, were studied by microarray analysis. Some of the differentially regulated genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR in both RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was used to analyze functions of differentially expressed genes. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb group. Mapt was up-regulated, while NOS2 and IL-11 were down-regulated in CWD-Mtb infected RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages compared with normal Mtb infected ones. Many deregulated genes were found to be related to macrophages activation, immune response, phagosome maturation, autophagy and lipid metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Taken together, the present study showed that differential macrophage responses were induced by intracellular CWD-Mtb an normal Mtb infection, which suggested that interactions between macrophages and different phenotypic Mtb are very complex. The results provide evidence for further understanding of pathogenesis of CWD-Mtb and may help in improving strategies to eliminate intracellular CWD-Mtb. PMID:25552926

  2. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Raimund W; Stuhlmüller, Bruno; Burmester, Gerd-R

    2007-01-01

    The multitude and abundance of macrophage-derived mediators in rheumatoid arthritis and their paracrine/autocrine effects identify macrophages as local and systemic amplifiers of disease. Although uncovering the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis remains the ultimate means to silence the pathogenetic process, efforts in understanding how activated macrophages influence disease have led to optimization strategies to selectively target macrophages by agents tailored to specific features of macrophage activation. This approach has two advantages: (a) striking the cell population that mediates/amplifies most of the irreversible tissue destruction and (b) sparing other cells that have no (or only marginal) effects on joint damage. PMID:18177511

  3. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  4. The dynamic lives of macrophage and dendritic cell subsets in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Taghavie-Moghadam, Paresa L.; Butcher, Matthew J.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major pathological process through which arterial plaques are formed, is a dynamic chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium sized arteries in which the vasculature, lipid metabolism, and the immune system all play integral roles. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis but myeloid cells represent the major component of the burgeoning atherosclerotic plaque. Various myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells can be found within the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial wall, where they can contribute to or regulate inflammation. However, the precise behaviors and functions of these cells in situ are still active areas of investigation that continue to yield exciting and surprising new data. Here, we review recent progress in understanding of the complex biology of macrophages and dendritic cells, focusing particularly on the dynamic regulation of these subsets in the arterial wall and novel, emerging functions of these cells during atherogenesis. PMID:24628328

  5. Mechanisms of interferon-beta-induced inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii growth in murine macrophages and embryonic fibroblasts: role of immunity-related GTPase M1.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Ui, Fumiki; Salman, Doaa; Nishimura, Maki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii enables it to invade virtually all nucleated cells in warm-blooded animals, including humans, making it a parasite of global importance. Anti-T.?gondii cellular defence mechanisms depend largely on interferon (IFN)-? production by immune cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IFN-?-mediated defence remains largely unclear. Here, mouse peritoneal macrophages and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) primed with recombinant IFN-? and IFN-? showed different pathways of activation. Treatment of these cells with IFN-? or IFN-? inhibited T.?gondii (type II PLK strain) growth. Priming macrophages with IFN-? had no effect on inflammatory cytokine expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, nor did it have an effect on their metabolites, nitric oxide and kynurenine respectively. In contrast, IFN-? stimulation was characterized by classical macrophage activation and T.?gondii elimination. IFN-? activation recruited the immunity-related GTPase M1 (IRGM1) to the parasitophorous vacuole in the macrophages and MEFs. Anti-toxoplasma activities induced by IFN-? were significantly reduced after IRGM1 knockdown in murine macrophages and in IRGM1-deficient MEFs. Thus, this study unravels an alternative pathway of macrophage activation by IFN-? and provides a mechanistic explanation for the contribution of IRGM1 induced by IFN-? to the elimination of T.?gondii. PMID:25628099

  6. Temporal dynamics of cardiac immune cell accumulation following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoxiang; Anzai, Atsushi; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Ito, Kentaro; Endo, Jin; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Takeshima, Akiko; Shinmura, Ken; Shen, Weifeng; Fukuda, Keiichi; Sano, Motoaki

    2013-09-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) causes sterile inflammation, which is characterized by recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune system cells. Here we delineate the temporal dynamics of immune cell accumulation following MI by flow cytometry. Neutrophils increased immediately to a peak at 3 days post-MI. Macrophages were numerically the predominant cells infiltrating the infarcted myocardium, increasing in number over the first week post-MI. Macrophages are functionally heterogeneous, whereby the first responders exhibit high expression levels of proinflammatory mediators, while the late responders express high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; these macrophages can be classified into M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively, based on surface-marker expression. M1 macrophages dominated at 1-3 days post-MI, whereas M2 macrophages represented the predominant macrophage subset after 5 days. The M2 macrophages expressed high levels of reparative genes in addition to proinflammatory genes to the same levels as in M1 macrophages. The predominant subset of dendritic cells (DCs) was myeloid DC, which peaked in number on day 7. Th1 and regulatory T cells were the predominant subsets of CD4(+) T cells, whereas Th2 and Th17 cells were minor populations. CD8(+) T cells, ??T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells peaked on day 7 post-MI. Timely reperfusion reduced the total number of leukocytes accumulated in the post-MI period, shifting the peak of innate immune response towards earlier and blunting the wave of adaptive immune response. In conclusion, these results provide important knowledge necessary for developing successful immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23644221

  7. Adiponectin Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Macrophage Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ling; Luo, Nanlan; Klein, Richard L.; Chung, B Hong; Garvey, W. Timothy; Fu, Yuchang

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of several, important metabolically active cytokines secreted from adipocytes. Low circulating levels of this adipokine have been associated epidemiologically with obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine if adiponectin can modulate lipid metabolism in macrophages, we expressed the adiponectin gene in human THP-1 macrophage foam cells using a lentiviral vector expression system and demonstrated that macrophages transduced with the adiponectin gene had decreased lipid accumulation compared with control macrophages transduced with the LacZ gene. Macrophages transduced with the adiponectin gene also exhibited decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake and increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Additional studies suggest two potential mechanisms for the reduced lipid accumulation in these adiponectin-transduced macrophage foam cells. The first mechanism involves the PPAR? and LXR signaling pathways which up-regulate the expression of ABCA1 and promote lipid efflux from these cells. The second mechanism involves decreased lipid uptake and increased lipid hydrolysis which may result from decreased SR-AI and increased SR-BI and HSL gene activities in the transformed macrophage foam cells. We demonstrated also that the expression of two proatherogenic cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF?, were decreased in the adiponectin transduced macrophage foam cells. These results suggest that adiponectin may modulate multiple pathways of lipid metabolism in macrophages. Our studies provide new insights into potential mechanisms of adiponectin-mediated alterations in lipid metabolism and macrophage foam cell formation which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:18511057

  8. Training modifies innate immune responses in blood monocytes and in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Frellstedt, Linda; Waldschmidt, Ingrid; Gosset, Philippe; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Farnir, Frédéric; Franck, Thierry; Dupuis-Tricaud, Marie-Capucine; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2014-07-01

    In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules. Lower airway diseases are also a common problem in sport and racing horses. Because innate immunity plays an essential role in lung defense mechanisms, we assessed the effect of acute exercise and training on innate immune responses in two different compartments. Blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were collected from horses in untrained, moderately trained, intensively trained, and deconditioned states before and after a strenuous exercise test. The cells were analyzed for TLR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression by real-time PCR in vitro, and cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with TLR ligands was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that training, but not acute exercise, modified the innate immune responses in both compartments. The mRNA expression of TLR3 was down-regulated by training in both cell types, whereas the expression of TLR4 was up-regulated in monocytes. Monocytes treated with LPS and a synthetic diacylated lipoprotein showed increased cytokine secretion in trained and deconditioned subjects, indicating the activation of cells at the systemic level. The production of TNF-? and IFN-? in nonstimulated and stimulated PAMs was decreased in trained and deconditioned horses and might therefore explain the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Our study reports a dissociation between the systemic and the lung response to training that is probably implicated in the systemic inflammation and in the pulmonary susceptibility to infection. PMID:24502337

  9. Inflammatory Mechanisms in sepsis: Elevated Invariant Natural Killer T-cell numbers in mouse and their modulatory effect on Macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Daithi S.; Monaghan, Sean F.; Thakkar, Rajan K.; Tran, Mai L.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Gregory, Stephen H.; Cioffi, William G.; Ayala, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T-cells (iNKT) cells are emerging as key mediators of innate immune cellular and inflammatory responses to sepsis and peritonitis. iNKT-cells mediate survival following murine septic shock. Macrophages are pivotal to survival following sepsis. iNKT-cells have been shown to modulate various mediators of the innate immune system, including macrophages. Herein we demonstrate sepsis inducing iNKT-cell exodus from the liver appearing in the peritoneal cavity, the source of the sepsis. This migration was affected by Programmed Death Receptor-1(PD-1). PD-1 is an inhibitory immune receptor, reported as ubiquitously expressed at low levels on iNKT-cells. PD-1 has been associated with markers of human critical illness. PD-1 deficient iNKT-cells failed to demonstrate similar migration. To the extent that iNKT-cells affected peritoneal macrophage function we assessed peritoneal macrophages ability to phagocytose bacteria. iNKT?/? mice displayed dysfunctional macrophage phagocytosis and altered peritoneal bacterial load. This dysfunction was reversed when peritoneal macrophages from iNKT?/? mice were co-cultured with wild type iNKT-cells. Together, our results indicate that sepsis induces liver iNKT-cell exodus into the peritoneal cavity mediated by PD-1, and these peritoneal iNKT-cells appear critical to regulation of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic function. iNKT-cells offer therapeutic targets for modulating immune responses and detrimental effects of sepsis. PMID:23807244

  10. Antagonism by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against the suppression by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells on macrophage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Yang, Ning; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Min; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-02-01

    It is well-documented that macrophages have the functions to regulate antitumor immune response. Antitumor response can be launched by a series of events, starting with inflammation mediated by monocyte/macrophages, which stimulates natural killer and dendritic cells and finally activates the cytotoxic lymphoid system. Monocytes/macrophages may be the first line of defense in tumors. However, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy for human cancer has shown no success or limited success in clinical trials. Part of the reasons attribute to tumor-derived soluble factors that suppress functions of immune cells or induce apoptosis of these cells, including macrophages. Therefore, antagonism of the suppression on the macrophages is an important goal for tumor immunotherapy. To achieve this purpose, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities were used on mouse peritoneal macrophages incubating with culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS). It was shown that the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by B16F10-CS, while the suppressions were fully or partially antagonized by Gl-PS. In conclusion, B16F10-CS is suppressive to the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages while Gl-PS had the antagonistic effects against this suppression, suggesting this potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23519930

  11. TAp73 is required for macrophage-mediated innate immunity and the resolution of inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, R; Secq, V; Pouyet, L; Thakur, A K; Wilhelm, M; Nigri, J; Vasseur, S; Berthezene, P; Calvo, E; Melino, G; Mak, T W; Iovanna, J L

    2013-02-01

    The multiple isoforms of p73, a member of the p53 family, share the ability to modulate p53 activities but also have unique properties, leading to a complex and poorly understood functional network. In vivo, p73 isoforms have been implicated in tumor suppression (TAp73(-/-) mice), DNA damage (?Np73(-/-) mice) and development (p73(-/-) mice). In this study, we investigated whether TAp73 contributes to innate immunity and septic shock. In response to a lethal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, TAp73(-/-) mice showed higher blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines and greater mortality than their wild-type littermates. In vitro, TAp73(-/-) macrophages exhibited elevated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha , interleukin-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 as well as prolonged survival, decreased phagocytosis and increased major histocompatibility complex class II expression. Mice depleted of endogenous macrophages and reconstituted with TAp73(-/-) macrophages showed increased sensitivity to LPS challenge. These results suggest that macrophage polarization is altered in the absence of TAp73 such that maintenance of the M1 effector phenotype is prolonged at the expense of the M2 phenotype, thus impairing resolution of the inflammatory response. Our data indicate that TAp73 has a role in macrophage polarization and innate immunity, enhancing the action field of this important regulatory molecule. PMID:22976836

  12. Marginal zone CD169+ macrophages coordinate apoptotic cell-driven cellular recruitment and tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Buvana; Shinde, Rahul; Liu, Haiyun; Chaudhary, Kapil; Bradley, Jillian; Lemos, Henrique P.; Chandler, Phillip; Tanaka, Masato; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.; McGaha, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance to apoptotic cells is essential to prevent inflammatory pathology. Though innate responses are critical for immune suppression, our understanding of early innate immunity driven by apoptosis is lacking. Herein we report apoptotic cells induce expression of the chemokine CCL22 in splenic metallophillic macrophages, which is critical for tolerance. Systemic challenge with apoptotic cells induced rapid production of CCL22 in CD169+ (metallophillic) macrophages, resulting in accumulation and activation of FoxP3+ Tregs and CD11c+ dendritic cells, an effect that could be inhibited by antagonizing CCL22-driven chemotaxis. This mechanism was essential for suppression after apoptotic cell challenge, because neutralizing CCL22 or its receptor, reducing Treg numbers, or blocking effector mechanisms abrogated splenic TGF-? and IL-10 induction; this promoted a shift to proinflammatory cytokines associated with a failure to suppress T cells. Similarly, CCR4 inhibition blocked long-term, apoptotic cell-induced tolerance to allografts. Finally, CCR4 inhibition resulted in a systemic breakdown of tolerance to self after apoptotic cell injection with rapid increases in anti-dsDNA IgG and immune complex deposition. Thus, the data demonstrate CCL22-dependent chemotaxis is a key early innate response required for apoptotic cell-induced suppression, implicating a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-dependent coordination of early events leading to stable tolerance. PMID:24591636

  13. TLRs, macrophages, and NK cells: our understandings of their functions in uterus and ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyan; Kong, Beihua; Mosser, David M; Zhang, Xia

    2011-10-01

    Inflammation involves multiple changes in many aspects of immune system. Interactions between immune system and female reproductive system strongly impact fertility and reproductive health in general. Many normal events of female reproduction system including ovulation, menstruation, implantation and labor onset are considered as inflammatory process. Emerging evidence reveals that three components of immune system that are critical to initiate and resolve inflammation, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, play important roles not only to provide protection against infections by exogenous pathogens but also to regulate essential functions of uterus and ovary. This review will briefly summarize our understanding of the functions of TLRs, macrophages and NK cells in uterus and ovary. PMID:21586343

  14. Genome-wide innate immune responses in HIV-1-infected macrophages are preserved despite attenuation of the NF-kappa B activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Tsang, Jhen; Miller, Robert F; Straschewski, Sarah; Kellam, Paul; Chain, Benjamin M; Katz, David R

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 infection at many levels. They provide permissive cells at the site of inoculation, augment virus transfer to T cells, generate long-lived viral reservoirs, and cause bystander cell apoptosis. A body of evidence suggests that the role of macrophages in cellular host defense is also compromised by HIV-1 infection. In this respect, macrophages are potent cells of the innate immune system that initiate and regulate wide-ranging immunological responses. This study focuses on the effect of HIV-1 infection on innate immune responses by macrophages at the level of signal transduction, whole genome transcriptional profiling, and cytokine secretion. We show that in an ex vivo model, M-CSF-differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages uniformly infected with replicating CCR5-tropic HIV-1, without cytopathic effect, exhibit selective attenuation of the NF-kappaB activation pathway in response to TLR4 and TLR2 stimulation. However, functional annotation clustering analysis of genome-wide transcriptional responses to LPS stimulation suggests substantial preservation of gene expression changes at the systems level, with modest attenuation of a subset of up-regulated LPS-responsive genes, and no effect on a selection of inflammatory cytokine responses at the protein level. These results extend existing reports of inhibitory interactions between HIV-1 accessory proteins and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, and whole genome expression profiling provides comprehensive assessment of the consequent effects on immune response gene expression. Unexpectedly, our data suggest innate immune responses are broadly preserved with limited exceptions, and pave the way for further study of the complex relationship between HIV-1 and immunological pathways within macrophages. PMID:19109163

  15. NKT cells in mucosal immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Middendorp; E E S Nieuwenhuis; EES Nieuwenhuis

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract allows the residence of an almost enumerable number of bacteria. To maintain homeostasis, the mucosal immune system must remain tolerant to the commensal microbiota and eradicate pathogenic bacteria. Aberrant interactions between the mucosal immune cells and the microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, we

  16. An innate immunity signaling process suppresses macrophage ABCA1 expression through IRAK-1-mediated downregulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha and NFATc2.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Urmila; Parks, John S; Li, Liwu

    2009-11-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a central role in promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages, thereby reducing the risk of foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. The expression of ABCA1 is induced by members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, including retinoic acid receptors (RARs). A key innate immunity signaling kinase, IRAK-1, has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in humans and mice. This prompted us to investigate the potential connection between IRAK-1 and the expression of ABCA1. Here, we demonstrate that nuclear RARalpha levels are dramatically elevated in IRAK-1(-/-) macrophages. Correspondingly, IRAK-1(-/-) macrophages exhibit increased expression of ABCA1 mRNA and protein, as well as elevated cholesterol efflux in response to the RAR ligand ATRA. Analysis of the ABCA1 proximal promoter revealed binding sites for both RAR and NFAT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated increased binding of RARalpha and NFATc2 to the ABCA1 promoter in IRAK-1(-/-) macrophages compared to wild-type macrophages. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide pretreatment reduced the nuclear levels of RARalpha and decreased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in wild-type but not in IRAK-1(-/-) cells. In summary, this study reveals a novel connection between innate immunity signaling processes and the regulation of ABCA1 expression in macrophages and defines a potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:19752193

  17. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  18. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  19. Macrophages Regulate the Systemic Response to DNA Damage by a Cell Nonautonomous Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Maor, Anat; Guedj, Avital; Even-Ram, Sharona; Smith, Yoav; Galun, Eithan; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a comprehensive and complex network of phosphorylation-mediated signaling pathways that originates endogenously from the DNA lesion and activates intrinsic DNA repair mechanisms. Here we describe a macrophage-dependent mechanism that regulates the response to DNA damage. We demonstrate that human monocytes, by releasing macrophage-derived HB-EGF, enhance DDR in neighboring cells suffering from DNA damage. Consequently, HB-EGF-treated cells exhibit higher double-strand break (DSB) rejoining and display lower levels of residual DSBs. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injection induce DSBs along with elevation in the number of macrophages and HB-EGF expression. Significantly, macrophage depletion or blocking HB-EGF activity results in higher levels of nonrepairable DSBs, suggesting that macrophages play a role in the resolution of DNA damage via HB-EGF. This study establishes that macrophages, acting through the activation of the EGFR cascade, constitute an important cell nonautonomous physiologic component of the DDR and points to a unique role played by immune cells in maintaining genome integrity. Cancer Res; 75(13); 2663-73. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25977329

  20. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS: a new tool to assess the multifaceted activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Richard; Daumas, Aurélie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Textoris, Julien

    2012-10-22

    Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is routinely used to identify bacterial species in clinical samples. This technique has also proven to allow identification of intact mammalian cells, including macrophages. Here, we wondered whether this approach enabled the assessment human macrophages plasticity. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectra of macrophages stimulated with IFN-? and IL-4, two inducers of M1 and M2 macrophage polarisation, consisted of peaks ranging from 2 to 12 kDa. The spectra of unstimulated and stimulated macrophages were clearly different. The fingerprints induced by the M1 agonists, IFN-?, TNF, LPS and LPS+IFN-?, and the M2 agonists, IL-4, TGF-?1 and IL-10, were specific and readily identifiable. Thus, whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS was able to characterise M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. In addition, the fingerprints induced by extracellular (group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus) or intracellular (BCG, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii) bacteria were bacterium-specific. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS fingerprints therefore revealed the multifaceted activation of human macrophages. This approach opened a new avenue of studies to assess the immune response in the clinical setting, by monitoring the various activation patterns of immune cells in pathological conditions. PMID:22967923

  1. MMP28 promotes macrophage polarization toward M2 cells and augments pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Johnston, Laura K; Huizar, Isham; Birkland, Timothy P; Hanson, Josiah; Wang, Ying; Parks, William C; Manicone, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Members of the MMP family function in various processes of innate immunity, particularly in controlling important steps in leukocyte trafficking and activation. MMP28 (epilysin) is a member of this family of proteinases, and we have found that MMP28 is expressed by macrophages and regulates their recruitment to the lung. We hypothesized that MMP28 regulates other key macrophage responses, such as macrophage polarization. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these MMP28-dependent changes in macrophage polarization would alter fibrotic responses in the lung. We examined the gene expression changes in WT and Mmp28-/- BMDMs, stimulated with LPS or IL-4/IL-13 to promote M1 and M2 cells, respectively. We also collected macrophages from the lungs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-exposed WT and Mmp28-/- mice to evaluate changes in macrophage polarization. Lastly, we evaluated the macrophage polarization phenotypes during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in WT and Mmp28-/- mice and assessed mice for differences in weight loss and total collagen levels. We found that MMP28 dampens proinflammatory macrophage function and promots M2 programming. In both in vivo models, we found deficits in M2 polarization in Mmp28-/- mice. In bleomycin-induced lung injury, these changes were associated with reduced fibrosis. MMP28 is an important regulator of macrophage polarization, promoting M2 function. Loss of MMP28 results in reduced M2 polarization and protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis. These findings highlight a novel role for MMP28 in macrophage biology and pulmonary disease. PMID:23964118

  2. Fc Gamma Receptor IIb on GM-CSF Macrophages Controls Immune Complex Mediated Inhibition of Inflammatory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Santegoets, Kim C. M.; Wenink, Mark H.; van den Berg, Wim B.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) macrophages play a major role in amplifying synovial inflammation. Important activating signals are those induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and by activated T cells. The balance between activating and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs) on macrophages might be crucial in modulating these inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to determine Fc?R expression on pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages (gmM? and mM?, respectively) and identify functional consequences on immune complex uptake and macrophage activation. Methods Human monocytes were isolated and differentiated into gmM? and mM?. A full Fc?R characterization of both macrophage subtypes was performed and uptake of fluorescent immune complexes (ICs) was determined. Fc?RIIb isoforms were determined by qPCR. Macrophages were stimulated via different TLRs or cytokine activated T cells in the presence or absence of ICs and cytokine production was determined. Blocking studies were performed to look into the pathways involved. Results mM? expressed high levels of the activating Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIII and low levels of the inhibitory Fc?RIIb, while the Fc?R balance on gmM? was shifted towards the inhibitory Fc?RIIb. This was accompanied by a clear increase in Fc?RIIb1 mRNA expression in gmM?. This resulted in higher IC uptake by mM? compared to gmM?. Furthermore, Fc?R-mediated stimulation of gmM? inhibited TLR2, 3, 4 and 7/8 mediated cytokine production via Fc?RIIb and PI3K signaling. In addition, gmM? but not mM? produced TNF? upon co-culture with cytokine activated T cells, which was reduced by IC binding to Fc?RIIb. The latter was dependent on PI3K signaling and COX2. Conclusions Fc?R expression patterns on gmM? and mM? are significantly different, which translates in clear functional differences further substantiating Fc?RIIb as an interesting target for inflammation control in RA and other autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. PMID:25340460

  3. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, María Carolina; Lefimil, Claudia; Rodas, Paula I.; Vernal, Rolando; Lopez, Mercedes; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Mónica; Escobar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (M?) and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals M? may undergo classical-M1 (M1-M?) or alternative-M2 (M2-M?) activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human M? polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived M? (MDM) upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on M? challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-M? phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-M?-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated M? are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with M? polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26125939

  5. Human Dermal CD14+ Cells Are a Transient Population of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Naomi; Schlitzer, Andreas; Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Shin, Amanda; Poyner, Elizabeth; Green, Kile; Dickinson, Rachel; Wang, Xiao-nong; Low, Donovan; Best, Katie; Covins, Samuel; Milne, Paul; Pagan, Sarah; Aljefri, Khadija; Windebank, Martin; Saavedra, Diego Miranda; Larbi, Anis; Wasan, Pavandip Singh; Duan, Kaibo; Poidinger, Michael; Bigley, Venetia; Ginhoux, Florent; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are leukocytes with critical roles in immunity and tolerance. The DC network is evolutionarily conserved; the homologs of human tissue CD141hiXCR1+CLEC9A+ DCs and CD1c+ DCs are murine CD103+ DCs and CD64?CD11b+ DCs. In addition, human tissues also contain CD14+ cells, currently designated as DCs, with an as-yet unknown murine counterpart. Here we have demonstrated that human dermal CD14+ cells are a tissue-resident population of monocyte-derived macrophages with a short half-life of <6 days. The decline and reconstitution kinetics of human blood CD14+ monocytes and dermal CD14+ cells in vivo supported their precursor-progeny relationship. The murine homologs of human dermal CD14+ cells are CD11b+CD64+ monocyte-derived macrophages. Human and mouse monocytes and macrophages were defined by highly conserved gene transcripts, which were distinct from DCs. The demonstration of monocyte-derived macrophages in the steady state in human tissue supports a conserved organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte system. PMID:25200712

  6. Differences in lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling between conventional dendritic cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Ivan; Granucci, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages contribute to the activation of immune responses against infectious agents. They sense the presence of microbes through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the different PAMPs, the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the best characterized. Upon LPS encounter DCs undergo an activation process and acquire the ability to prime both natural killer and T-cell responses after migration to lymph nodes. Once they completed the effector phase, DCs reach a terminal differentiation stage and eventually die by apoptosis. By contrast, macrophages do not leave the tissue upon LPS recognition. They first initiate inflammatory processes and then switch to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to restore tissue homeostasis. In this review we will focus on the molecular bases of the divergent responses of DCs and macrophages to LPS. PMID:20579765

  7. Toll-like receptor–induced arginase 1 in macrophages thwarts effective immunity against intracellular pathogens

    PubMed Central

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Qualls, Joseph E; Pesce, John T; Smith, Amber M; Thompson, Robert W; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall J; König, Till; Schleicher, Ulrike; Koo, Mi-Sun; Kaplan, Gilla; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Orme, Ian M; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Bogdan, Christian; Wynn, Thomas A; Murray, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in macrophages is required for antipathogen responses, including the biosynthesis of nitric oxide from arginine, and is essential for immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii and other intracellular pathogens. Here we report a ‘loophole’ in the TLR pathway that is advantageous to these pathogens. Intracellular pathogens induced expression of the arginine hydrolytic enzyme arginase 1 (Arg1) in mouse macrophages through the TLR pathway. In contrast to diseases dominated by T helper type 2 (TH2) responses, TLR-mediated Arg1 induction was independent of the TH2-associated STAT6 pathway. Specific elimination of Arg1 in macrophages favored host survival in T. gondii infection and decreased lung bacterial load in tuberculosis infection. PMID:18978793

  8. TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition Promotes Monocyte/Macrophage Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Joel; Tabor, Vedrana; Wikell, Anna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer progression toward metastatic disease is linked to re-activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process. Breast cancer cells undergoing EMT lose epithelial characteristics and gain the capacity to invade the surrounding tissue and migrate away from the primary tumor. However, less is known about the possible role of EMT in providing cancer cells with properties that allow them to traffic to distant sites. Given the fact that pro-metastatic cancer cells share a unique capacity with immune cells to traffic in-and-out of blood and lymphatic vessels we hypothesized that tumor cells undergoing EMT may acquire properties of immune cells. To study this, we performed gene-profiling analysis of mouse mammary EpRas tumor cells that had been allowed to adopt an EMT program after long-term treatment with TGF-?1 for 2?weeks. As expected, EMT cells acquired traits of mesenchymal cell differentiation and migration. However, in addition, we found another cluster of induced genes, which was specifically enriched in monocyte-derived macrophages, mast cells, and myeloid dendritic cells, but less in other types of immune cells. Further studies revealed that this monocyte/macrophage gene cluster was enriched in human breast cancer cell lines displaying an EMT or a Basal B profile, and in human breast tumors with EMT and undifferentiated (ER?/PR?) characteristics. The results identify an EMT-induced monocyte/macrophage gene cluster, which may play a role in breast cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. PMID:25674539

  9. Elimination of resident macrophages from the livers and spleens of immune mice impairs acquired resistance against a secondary Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed Central

    Samsom, J N; Annema, A; Groeneveld, P H; van Rooijen, N; Langermans, J A; van Furth, R

    1997-01-01

    During a secondary Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice, the bacteria are eliminated more rapidly from the liver and spleen than during a primary infection. This acquired resistance against a secondary infection is dependent on T lymphocytes, which induce enhanced elimination of bacteria via stimulation of effector cells such as neutrophils, resident macrophages, exudate macrophages, and hepatocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the resident macrophages in acquired resistance against a secondary L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Mice which had recovered from a sublethal primary infection with 0.1 50% lethal dose (LD50) of L. monocytogenes intravenously (i.v.), i.e., immune mice, received a challenge of 1 LD50 of L. monocytogenes i.v. to induce a secondary infection. At 2 days prior to challenge, immune mice were given an i.v. injection of liposomes containing dichloromethylene-diphosphonate (L-Cl2MDP) to selectively eliminate resident macrophages from the liver and spleen. Control immune mice received either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or liposomes containing PBS (L-PBS). Treatment of mice with L-Cl2MDP effectively eliminated resident macrophages from the liver and spleen but did not affect the number of granulocytes, monocytes, or lymphocytes in peripheral blood or their migration to a site of inflammation. Phagocytosis and killing of L. monocytogenes by peritoneal exudate cells elicited with heat-killed L. monocytogenes were similar in all groups of immune mice. On day 3 of a secondary infection, the number of L. monocytogenes organisms in the livers and spleens of L-Cl2MDP-treated immune mice was 4 log10 units higher than in immune mice treated with PBS or L-PBS. The concentration of reactive nitrogen intermediates in plasma, a measure of the severity of infection, was 70-fold higher for L-Cl2MDP-treated immune mice than for PBS- or L-PBS-treated immune mice. Treatment with L-Cl2MDP significantly increased the number of inflammatory foci in the liver and spleen, decreased their size, and affected their structure. From these results, we conclude that resident macrophages are required for the expression of acquired resistance against a secondary L. monocytogenes infection in mice. PMID:9038307

  10. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80?g or normal saline 0.4mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator. PMID:25962819

  11. Interaction of Apoptotic Cells with Macrophages Upregulates COX-2/PGE2 and HGF Expression via a Positive Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Youn, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Woo, So-Yeon; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages is crucial for resolution of inflammation, immune tolerance, and tissue repair. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in the tissue repair process. We investigated the characteristics of macrophage COX-2 and PGE2 expression mediated by apoptotic cells and then determined how macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo orchestrate the interaction between COX-2/PGE2 and HGF signaling pathways. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells and primary peritoneal macrophages to apoptotic cells resulted in induction of COX-2 and PGE2. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppressed apoptotic cell-induced PGE2 production. Both NS-398 and COX-2-siRNA, as well as the PGE2 receptor EP2 antagonist, blocked HGF expression in response to apoptotic cells. In addition, the HGF receptor antagonist suppressed increases in COX-2 and PGE2 induction. The in vivo relevance of the interaction between the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF pathways through a positive feedback loop was shown in cultured alveolar macrophages following in vivo exposure of bleomycin-stimulated lungs to apoptotic cells. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition. PMID:24959005

  12. Immune cell expression of GABAA receptors and the effects of diazepam on influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Robert D; Grover, Vimal; Goulding, John; Godlee, Alexandra; Gurney, Stefan; Snelgrove, Robert; Ma, Daqing; Singh, Suveer; Maze, Mervyn; Hussell, Tracy

    2015-05-15

    Benzodiazepines increase vulnerability to infection through ?1 subunit dependent ?-amino-butyric-type-A (GABAA) signalling. Immune cell expression of GABAA receptors and the effect of diazepam on influenza infection was investigated. In patients with pneumonia, ?1 GABAA subunits were expressed on alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes. In mice, influenza induced dynamic changes in immune cell GABAA subunit expression: ?1 subunits decreased on alveolar macrophage, but increased on monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Following influenza viral infection, diazepam delayed weight loss on day 3 but later increased weight loss. Viral load was unaffected but increased bacterial superinfection was noted on day 10. PMID:25903735

  13. Macrophages – Key Cells in the Response to Wear Debris from Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Nich, Christophe; Takakubo, Yuya; Pajarinen, Jukka; Ainola, Mari; Salem, Abdelhakim; Sillat, Tarvo; Rao, Allison J.; Raska, Milan; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Takagi, Michiaki; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Gallo, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The generation of wear debris is an inevitable result of normal usage of joint replacements. Wear debris particles stimulate local and systemic biological reactions resulting in chronic inflammation, periprosthetic bone destruction, and eventually, implant loosening and revision surgery. The latter may be indicated in up to 15% patients in the decade following the arthroplasty using conventional polyethylene. Macrophages play multiple roles in both inflammation and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. As sentinels of the innate immune system, they are central to the initiation of this inflammatory cascade, characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-osteoclastic factors. Similar to the response to pathogens, wear particles elicit a macrophage response, based on the unique properties of the cells belonging to this lineage, including sensing, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and adaptive stimulation. The biological processes involved are complex, redundant, both local and systemic, and highly adaptive. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are implicated in this phenomenon, ultimately resulting in differentiation and activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts. Simultaneously, other distinct macrophage populations inhibit inflammation and protect the bone-implant interface from osteolysis. Here, the current knowledge about the physiology of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells is reviewed. In addition, the pattern and consequences of their interaction with wear debris and the recent developments in this field are presented. PMID:23568608

  14. Drag cells in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorsi, Irene; Pezzino, Gaetana; Morandi, Barbara; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Cross-dressing, in immunology, is a term originally coined to indicate the transfer of peptide-MHC complexes belonging to neighboring cells on antigen presenting cells. We have recently shown that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are particularly suited to be cross-dressed by tumor cells and that this phenomenon provides a unique pathway for abundant presentation of tumor antigens by pDCs. PMID:25083317

  15. CD14 influences host immune responses and alternative activation of macrophages during Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Tundup, Smanla; Srivastava, Leena; Nagy, Tamas; Harn, Donald

    2014-08-01

    Antigen-presenting cell (APC) plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation in metabolic diseases and infections. The roles that pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play in regulating APC phenotypes are just now being defined. We evaluated the expression of PRRs on APCs in mice infected with the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni and observed an upregulation of CD14 expression on macrophages. Schistosome-infected Cd14(-/-) mice showed significantly increased alternative activation of (M2) macrophages in the livers compared to infected wild-type (wt) mice. In addition, splenocytes from infected Cd14(-/-) mice exhibited increased production of CD4(+)-specific interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 and CD4(+)Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) regulatory T cells compared to cells from infected wt mice. S. mansoni-infected Cd14(-/-) mice also presented with smaller liver egg granulomas associated with increased collagen deposition compared to granulomas in infected wt mice. The highest expression of CD14 was found on liver macrophages in infected mice. To determine if the Cd14(-/-) phenotype was in part due to increased M2 macrophages, we adoptively transferred wt macrophages into Cd14(-/-) mice and normalized the M2 and CD4(+) Th cell balance close to that observed in infected wt mice. Finally, we demonstrated that CD14 regulates STAT6 activation, as Cd14(-/-) mice had increased STAT6 activation in vivo, suggesting that lack of CD14 impacts the IL-4R?-STAT6 pathway, altering macrophage polarization during parasite infection. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for CD14 in regulating macrophage plasticity and CD4(+) T cell biasing during helminth infection. PMID:24866794

  16. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  17. Replication of macrophage-tropic and T-cell-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is augmented by macrophage-endothelial cell contact.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Lathey, J L; Spector, S A

    1995-01-01

    Macrophages perform a central role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and have been implicated as the cell type most prominent in the development of central nervous system impairment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of interaction between macrophages and endothelial cells on HIV-1 replication. Upregulation of HIV-1 replication was consistently observed in monocyte-derived macrophages (hereafter called macrophages) cocultured with either umbilical vein endothelial cells or brain microvascular endothelial cells. HIV-1 p24 antigen production of laboratory-adapted strains and patient-derived isolates was increased 2- to 1,000-fold in macrophage-endothelial cocultures, with little or no detectable replication in cultures containing endothelial cells only. The upregulation of HIV-1 in macrophage-endothelial cocultures was observed not only for viruses with the non-syncytium-inducing, macrophage-tropic phenotype but also for viruses previously characterized as syncytium inducing and T-cell tropic. In contrast, cocultures of macrophages with glioblastoma, astrocytoma, cortical neuronal, fibroblast, and placental cells failed to increase HIV-1 replication. Enhancement of HIV-1 replication in macrophage-endothelial cocultures required cell-to-cell contact; conditioned media from endothelial cells or macrophage-endothelial cocultures failed to augment HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Additionally, antibody to leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1), a macrophage-endothelial cell adhesion molecule, inhibited the enhanced HIV-1 replication in macrophage-endothelial cell cocultures. Thus, these data indicate that macrophage-endothelial cell contact enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages for both macrophage-tropic and previously characterized T-cell-tropic strains and that antibody against LFA-1 can block the necessary cell-to-cell interaction required for the observed upregulation. These findings may have important implications for understanding the ability of HIV-1 to replicate efficiently in tissue macrophages, including those in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7884860

  18. Phospholipase C-? in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Xiao, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has recently been made in structural and functional research of phospholipase C (PLC)-?. We now understand how PLC-? isoforms (?1-?4) are activated by GTP-bound G?q downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Numerous studies indicate that PLC-?s participate in the differentiation and activation of immune cells that control both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The PLC-?3 isoform also interplays with tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathways, to inhibit Stat5 activation by recruiting the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, with which PLC-?3 and Stat5 form a multi-molecular signaling platform, named SPS complex. The SPS complex has important regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and immune cell activation. PMID:23981313

  19. Aminopeptidase N (CD13) Is Involved in Phagocytic Processes in Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor-Cardoso, Mónica I.; Frausto-Del-Río, Dulce A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) is a membrane ectopeptidase expressed by many cell types, including myelomonocytic lineage cells: monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is known to regulate the biological activity of various peptides by proteolysis, and it has been proposed that CD13 also participates in several functions such as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, metastasis, and tumor invasion. We had previously reported that, in human monocytes and macrophages, CD13 modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (Fc?Rs). In this work, we analyzed the possible interaction of CD13 with other phagocytic receptors. We found out that the cross-linking of CD13 positively modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors of the innate immune system, since a significant increase in the phagocytosis of zymosan particles or heat-killed E. coli was observed when CD13 was cross-linked using anti-CD13 antibodies, in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Also, we observed that, during the phagocytosis of zymosan, CD13 redistributes and is internalized into the phagosome. These findings suggest that, besides its known functions, CD13 participates in phagocytic processes in dendritic cells and macrophages. PMID:24063007

  20. Mannose receptor regulation of macrophage cell migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Sturge; S. Katrina Todd; Giolanta Kogianni; Afshan McCarthy; Clare M. Isacke

    2007-01-01

    The migration of macrophages through peripheral tissues is an essential step in the host response to infection, inflammation, and ischemia as well as in tumor progression and tissue repair. The mannose receptor (MR; CD206, previously known as the macrophage MR) is a 175-kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and is a member of a family of four recycling endocytic receptors, which

  1. Ginsenoside Rg1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages through differentially modulating the NF-?B and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Li-Hui; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Liu, Kun-Peng; Pan, Hao; He, Jian; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active components of ginseng, which has been shown to regulate the immune response of hosts. However, the mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of Rg1 is incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore whether and how Rg1 regulates the innate immune response in macrophages. The results showed that Rg1 treatment significantly increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? but decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. However, Rg1 reduced the mRNA levels of both cytokines in LPS-activated macrophages, which might be a consequence of decreased activation of I?B and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Importantly, Rg1 treatment further promoted LPS-induced activation of the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which is critical for controlling protein translation. The elevated Akt/mTOR signaling was likely responsible for increased production of TNF-? protein at the translational level, as suppression of this pathway by LY294002, an inhibitor of the upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), abrogated such an enhancement of TNF-? protein expression even though its mRNA levels were conversely increased. These findings highlight a novel mechanism for Rg1 to regulate the innate immune response in macrophages through differentially modulating the NF-?B and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:25179784

  2. Macrophage-T Cell Interactions Mediate Neuropathic Pain through the Glucocorticoid-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand System.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Fukazawa, Yohji; Saika, Fumihiro; Maeda, Takehiko; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2015-05-15

    Peripheral neuroinflammation caused by activated immune cells can provoke neuropathic pain. Herein, we investigate the actions of macrophages and T cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor neurosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and its receptor (GITR) in neuropathic pain. After partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) in enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) chimeric mice generated by the transplantation of eGFP(+) bone marrow cells, eGFP(+) macrophages, and T cells markedly migrated to the injured site after PSL. Administration of agents to deplete macrophages (liposome-clodronate and Clophosome-A(TM)) or T cells (anti-CD4 antibody and FTY720) could suppress PSL-induced thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. The expression levels of co-stimulatory molecules GITRL and GITR were increased on infiltrating macrophages and T cells, respectively. The perineural injection of a GITRL neutralizing antibody that could inhibit the function of the GITRL-GITR pathway attenuated PSL-induced neuropathic pain. Additionally, the induction of inflammatory cytokines and the accumulation of GITR(+) T cells in the injured SCN were abrogated after macrophage depletion by Clophosome-A(TM). In conclusion, GITRL expressed on macrophages drives cytokine release and T cell activation, resulting in neuropathic pain via GITR-dependent actions. The GITRL-GITR pathway might represent a novel target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:25787078

  3. Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells: Key Regulators of Immune Homeostasis and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, Kyle L; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L

    2015-07-01

    The microbiota that populate the mammalian intestine are critical for proper host physiology, yet simultaneously pose a potential danger. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells, namely macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are integral components of the mucosal innate immune system that maintain co-existence with the microbiota in face of this constant threat. Intestinal macrophages and DCs integrate signals from the microenvironment to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses that ultimately lead to durable tolerance of the microbiota. Tolerance is not a default response, however, because macrophages and DCs remain poised to vigorously respond to pathogens that breach the epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the salient features of macrophages and DCs in the healthy and inflamed intestine and discuss how signals from the microbiota can influence their function. PMID:25976247

  4. Characterization of PAMP/PRR interactions in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) macrophage-like primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Callol, A; Roher, N; Amaro, C; MacKenzie, S

    2013-10-01

    The eel (Anguilla anguilla) has been identified as a vulnerable species with stocks dramatically declining over the past decade. In an effort to support the species from overfishing of wild stocks increased interest in eel aquaculture has been notable. In order to expand the scarce knowledge concerning the biology of this species significant research efforts are required in several fields of biology. The development of cell culture systems to study the immune response is a key step towards an increased understanding of the immune response and to develop resources to support further study in this threatened species. Macrophages are one of the most important effector cells of the innate immune system. The capacity to engulf pathogens and orchestrate the immune response relies on the existence of different surface receptors, such as scavenger receptors and toll-like receptors. We have developed and described an eel macrophage-like in vitro model and studied its functional and transcriptomic responses. Macrophage-like cells from both head kidney and purified peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and phagocytic activity measured for different whole bacteria and yeast. Moreover, based on PAMP-PRR association the innate immune response of both head kidney and PBL derived macrophage-like cells was evaluated against different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Results highlight that peptidoglycan stimulation strongly induces inflammatory mRNA expression reflected in the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes IL1? and IL18 in PBL derived cells whereas IL8 is upregulated in head kidney derived cells. Furthermore TLR2 mRNA abundance is regulated by all stimuli supporting a multifunctional role for this pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) in eel macrophage-like cells. PMID:23911651

  5. Infection of a canine macrophage cell line with Leishmania infantum: determination of nitric oxide production and anti-leishmanial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Pinelli; Douglas Gebhard; A. Mieke Mommaas; Maggy van Hoeij; Jan A. M Langermans; E. Joost Ruitenberg; Victor P. M. G Rutten

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that resistance to Leishmaniainfantum in dogs is associated with a Th1 type of immune response. In this study, we use a canine macrophage cell line (030-D) that can readily be infected with this protozoan parasite. Our aim is to further characterize the effector mechanisms involved in killing of Leishmania parasite in dogs. We observed that activation

  6. An immunoelectron-microscopic study of class II major histocompatibility complex molecule-expressing macrophages and dendritic cells in experimental rat periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Okiji, T; Kan, L; Suda, H; Takagi, M

    2001-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that heterogeneous populations of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule-expressing non-lymphoid cells, ultrastructurally classified as macrophages and dendritic cell (DC) cell-like cells, comprise the major immune cell population in experimental periapical lesions in rat molars. In this study, the temporal changes in relative proportions of the two types of cells were examined, on the hypothesis that they are involved in different aspects of the pathogenesis of the lesions. The lesions were induced by making surgical pulp exposures in mandibular first molars of 5-week-old Wistar rats. Observation periods were set at 0 (normal), 3, 14, 28, and 56 days. Non-lymphoid cells immunoreactive to OX6 (reactive to class II MHC molecules) were classified as macrophages and DC cell-like cells according to their ultrastructure, and the frequencies of the two types of cells were assessed at each time-point. ED1 (reactive to nearly all macrophages and DCs) was also used to identify macrophages and DC cell-like cells. At 3 days, most OX6+ cells and ED1+ cells in the periapical tissue had the ultrastructural appearance of newly recruited macrophages. At 14 days, when the lesion was actively expanding, there were significantly more OX6+ macrophages than OX6+ DC cell-like cells (P<0.01). However, at 28 days, when lesion expansion had ceased, DC cell-like cells significantly outnumbered OX6+ macrophages (P<0.01); this remained constant at 56 days. Cell-to-cell contact between OX6+ non-lymphoid cells and OX6- lymphocytes, suggesting a functional interaction, was most frequently seen at 28 days. These results support the notion that class II MHC molecule-expressing macrophages play some part in the initial lesion expansion, and suggest that DC cell-like cells may primarily be involved in immune defence against perpetuated antigenic challenges following lesion stabilization. PMID:11389863

  7. Specific mediation of cellular immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in somatic cells of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytes from mice immunized against Toxoplasma gondii protected T. gondii-infected macrophage and kidney cell cultures. After contact with antigens, supernatants of such immune lymphocytes, also contained a factor protective for T. gondii-infected macrophages and kidney cells. Supernatants were protective only when the lymphocytes and kidneys cells were isogeneic. Protection was specific in that supernatants from only T. gondii-immune, but not Besnoitia jellisoni-immune, lymphocytes provided protection against toxoplasmosis. Sixteen to 24 h were required for an appreciable amount of protective factor to be secreted; a similar absorption time was necessary for kidney cells to be protected. Peritoneal lymphocyte lysates, prepared as transfer factor, contained protective substances with a potency similar to that of lymphocyte supernatants, which were also strain restricted in their effect. PMID:6500716

  8. Specific mediation of cellular immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in somatic cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

    1984-12-01

    Lymphocytes from mice immunized against Toxoplasma gondii protected T. gondii-infected macrophage and kidney cell cultures. After contact with antigens, supernatants of such immune lymphocytes, also contained a factor protective for T. gondii-infected macrophages and kidney cells. Supernatants were protective only when the lymphocytes and kidneys cells were isogeneic. Protection was specific in that supernatants from only T. gondii-immune, but not Besnoitia jellisoni-immune, lymphocytes provided protection against toxoplasmosis. Sixteen to 24 h were required for an appreciable amount of protective factor to be secreted; a similar absorption time was necessary for kidney cells to be protected. Peritoneal lymphocyte lysates, prepared as transfer factor, contained protective substances with a potency similar to that of lymphocyte supernatants, which were also strain restricted in their effect. PMID:6500716

  9. Induction of Macrophage-Like Immunosuppressive Cells from Mouse ES Cells That Contribute to Prolong Allogeneic Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hajime; Tsuji, Hyuma; Otsuka, Ryo; Baghdadi, Muhammad; Kojo, Satoshi; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in regenerative medicine has enabled the utilization of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a donor resource for transplantation. However, immune suppression is still needed when the donor-recipient combination is allogeneic. Protection of ESCs-derived grafts from host immune response might be achieved thought the utilization of immunosuppressive cells generated from ESCs. In the present study, we show that a certain fraction of immunosuppressive cells can be generated from ESCs and help to suppress immune response against allogeneic grafts. ESCs-derived suppressor cells (ES-SCs) resembled macrophages in terms of cell surface molecule and gene expressions. Furthermore, gene expression analysis including microarray showed that ES-SCs have M1/M2 hybrid phenotype with high expression of genes correlated to immunosuppression of T cell response. Indeed, ES-SCs were effective to block allogeneic T cell proliferation in a nitric oxide-dependent manner, and prolonged the survival of ESCs-derived embryoid bodies or cardiomyocytes grafts transplanted into mouse kidney capsule. Thus, we consider the potential use of these ESCs-derived macrophage-like immunosuppressive cells as cellular therapies to promote long-term graft survival in future therapies. PMID:25356669

  10. Resident microglia, and not peripheral macrophages, are the main source of brain tumor mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Annett; Brandenburg, Susan; Turkowski, Kati; Müller, Susanne; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Gliomas consist of multiple cell types, including an abundant number of microglia and macrophages, whereby their impact on tumor progression is controversially discussed. To understand their unique functions and consequently manipulate either microglia or macrophages in therapeutic approaches, it is essential to discriminate between both cell populations. Because of the lack of specific markers, generally total body irradiated chimeras with labeled bone marrow cells were used to identify infiltrated cells within the brain. However, total body irradiation (TBI) affects the blood-brain barrier integrity, which in turn potentially facilitates immune cell infiltration. In this study, changes on the blood-brain barrier were avoided using head-protected irradiation (HPI). Head protection and total body irradiated chimeras exhibited similar reconstitution levels of the myeloid cell lineage in the blood, enabling the comparable analyses of brain infiltrates. We demonstrate that the HPI model impeded a massive unspecific influx of donor-derived myeloid cells into naive as well as tumor-bearing brains. Moreover, experimental artifacts such as an enlarged distribution of infiltrated cells and fourfold increased tumor volumes are prevented in head-protected chimeras. In addition, our data evidenced for the first time that microglia are able to up-regulate CD45 and represent an inherent part of the CD45(high) population in the tumor context. All in all, HPI allowed for the unequivocal distinction between microglia and macrophages without alterations of tumor biology and consequently permits a detailed and realistic description of the myeloid cell composition in gliomas. PMID:25477239

  11. Raman microscopy of phagocytosis: shedding light on macrophage foam cell formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Roos, Dirk; Otto, Cees

    2006-02-01

    The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in the innate immune response of leukocytes against invading microorganisms. The superoxide (O II -) that is generated by this enzyme upon infection is directly and indirectly used in bacterial killing. The catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, the membrane-bound protein heterodimer flavocytochrome b 558, contains two heme moieties. Here, we first briefly discuss our recent confocal resonant Raman (RR) spectroscopy and microscopy experiments on flavocytochrome b 558 in both resting and phagocytosing neutrophilic granulocytes. Such experiments allow the determination of the redox state of flavocytochrome b 558 inside the cell, which directly reflects the electron transporting activity of NADPH oxidase. Subsequently, we report that incubation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages with PolyActive microspheres for 1 week in culture medium leads to morphological and biochemical changes in the macrophages that are characteristic for the generation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Lipid-laden foam cells are the hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesions. Using nonresonant Raman spectroscopy and microscopy, we demonstrate that the numerous intracellular droplets in macrophages exposed to microspheres are rich in cholesteryl esters. The finding that phagocytic processes may trigger foam cell formation reinforces the current belief that (chronic) infection and inflammation are linked to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The study of such a connection may reveal new therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis treatment or prevention.

  12. Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine. PMID:24885781

  13. Macrophages eliminate circulating tumor cells after monoclonal antibody therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Nuray; Babes, Liane; Siegmund, Kerstin; Korthouwer, Rianne; Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Vidarsson, Gestur; ten Hagen, Timo L.M.; Kubes, Paul; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as therapeutic tools has increased dramatically in the last decade and is now one of the mainstream strategies to treat cancer. Nonetheless, it is still not completely understood how mAbs mediate tumor cell elimination or the effector cells that are involved. Using intravital microscopy, we found that antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADPh) by macrophages is a prominent mechanism for removal of tumor cells from the circulation in a murine tumor cell opsonization model. Tumor cells were rapidly recognized and arrested by liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). In the absence of mAbs, Kupffer cells sampled tumor cells; however, this sampling was not sufficient for elimination. By contrast, antitumor mAb treatment resulted in rapid phagocytosis of tumor cells by Kupffer cells that was dependent on the high-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RI) and the low-affinity IgG-binding Fc receptor (Fc?RIV). Uptake and intracellular degradation were independent of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production. Importantly, ADPh prevented the development of liver metastases. Tumor cell capture and therapeutic efficacy were lost after Kupffer cell depletion. Our data indicate that macrophages play a prominent role in mAb-mediated eradication of tumor cells. These findings may help to optimize mAb therapeutic strategies for patients with cancer by helping us to aim to enhance macrophage recruitment and activity. PMID:24430180

  14. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad G.; Tsai, Vicky W.W.; Ruitenberg, Marc J.; Hassanpour, Masoud; Li, Hui; Hart, Prue H.; Breit, Samuel N.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Brown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity. PMID:24569378

  15. MicroRNAs Transfer from Human Macrophages to Hepato-Carcinoma Cells and Inhibit Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aucher, Anne; Rudnicka, Dominika; Davis, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated a new mode of intercellular communication facilitated by the movement of RNA between cells. There is evidence that RNA can transfer between cells in a multitude of ways, including in complex with proteins, lipids or in vesicles including apoptotic bodies and exosomes. However, there remains little understanding of the function of nucleic acid transfer between human cells. Here, we report that human macrophages transfer microRNAs (miRNAs) to hepato-carcinoma cells (HCCs) in a manner that required intercellular contact and involved gap junctions. Two specific miRNAs efficiently transferred between these cells - miR-142 and miR-223 - both endogenously expressed in macrophages and not HCCs. Transfer of these miRNAs influenced post-transcriptional regulation of proteins in HCCs, including decreased expression of reporter proteins and endogenously expressed stathmin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Importantly, transfer of miRNAs from macrophages functionally inhibited proliferation of these cancerous cells. Thus, these data lead us to propose that intercellular transfer of miRNA from immune cells could serve as a new defense against unwanted cell proliferation or tumor growth. PMID:24227773

  16. Complement-dependent Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Human Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dror Mevorach; John O. Mascarenhas; Debra Gershov; Keith B. Elkon

    1998-01-01

    Summary Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes, but the receptors and ligands responsible for this phenomenon are incompletely characterized. Previously described receptors on blood- derived macrophages have been characterized in the absence of serum and show a relatively low uptake of apoptotic cells. Addition of serum to the phagocytosis assays increased the uptake of apoptotic cells by more than

  17. Effects of PVA coated nanoparticles on human immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Cindy; Gaber, Timo; Maurizi, Lionel; Hahne, Martin; Rauch, Roman; Hoff, Paula; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Poole, A Robin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology provides new opportunities in human medicine, mainly for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often diagnosed after irreversible joint structural damage has occurred. There is an urgent need for a very early diagnosis of RA, which can be achieved by more sensitive imaging methods. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are already used in medicine and therefore represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of RA. The focus of our work was to investigate any potentially negative effects resulting from the interactions of newly developed amino-functionalized amino-polyvinyl alcohol coated (a-PVA) SPION (a-PVA-SPION), that are used for imaging, with human immune cells. We analyzed the influence of a-PVA-SPION with regard to cell survival and cell activation in human whole blood in general, and in human monocytes and macrophages representative of professional phagocytes, using flow cytometry, multiplex suspension array, and transmission electron microscopy. We found no effect of a-PVA-SPION on the viability of human immune cells, but cytokine secretion was affected. We further demonstrated that the percentage of viable macrophages increased on exposure to a-PVA-SPION. This effect was even stronger when a-PVA-SPION were added very early in the differentiation process. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that both monocytes and macrophages are able to endocytose a-PVA-SPION. Our findings demonstrate an interaction between human immune cells and a-PVA-SPION which needs to be taken into account when considering the use of a-PVA-SPION in human medicine.

  18. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs Innate Immune Functions of Alveolar Macrophages and Facilitates Bacillus anthracis Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ribot, Wilson J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Brittingham, Katherine C.; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A.; Lane, Douglas; Curry, Bob; Hoover, Timothy A.; Friedlander, Arthur M.; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are very important for pulmonary innate immune responses against invading inhaled pathogens because they directly kill the organisms and initiate a cascade of innate and adaptive immune responses. Although several factors contribute to inhalational anthrax, we hypothesized that unimpeded infection of Bacillus anthracis is directly linked to disabling the innate immune functions contributed by AM. Here, we investigated the effects of lethal toxin (LT), one of the binary complex virulence factors produced by B. anthracis, on freshly isolated nonhuman primate AM. Exposure of AM to doses of LT that killed susceptible macrophages had no effect on the viability of AM, despite complete MEK1 cleavage. Intoxicated AM remained fully capable of B. anthracis spore phagocytosis. However, pretreatment of AM with LT resulted in a significant decrease in the clearance of both the Sterne strain and the fully virulent Ames strain of B. anthracis, which may have been a result of impaired AM secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Our data imply that cytolysis does not correlate with MEK1 cleavage, and this is the first report of LT-mediated impairment of nonhuman primate AM bactericidal activity against B. anthracis. PMID:16926394

  19. Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Induced by Vaccination with Live Organisms Correlates with Early Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin12 Production and with Dendritic Cell-Like Maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONGJI ZHANG; XI YANG; HANG LU; GUANGMING ZHONG; ROBERT C. BRUNHAM

    As is true for other intracellular pathogens, immunization with live Chlamydia trachomatis generally induces stronger protective immunity than does immunization with inactivated organism. To investigate the basis for such a difference, we studied immune responses in BALB\\/c mice immunized with viable or UV-killed C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Strong, acquired resistance to C. trachomatis infection was elicited by immunization with

  20. Effects of immunomodulatory drugs on TNF-? and IL-12 production by purified epidermal langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Langerhans cells constitute a special subset of immature dendritic cells localized in the epidermis that play a key role in the skin's immune response. The production of cytokines is a key event in both the initiation and the regulation of immune responses, and different drugs can be used to remove or modify their production by DC and, therefore, alter immune responses in a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of prednisone, thalidomide, cyclosporine A, and amitriptyline, drugs used in a variety of clinical conditions, on the production of TNF-?, IL-10, and IL-12 by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Findings All drugs inhibited TNF-? production by Langerhans cells after 36 hours of treatment at two different concentrations, while prednisone and thalidomide decreased IL-12 secretion significantly, amitriptyline caused a less pronounced reduction and cyclosporine A had no effect. Additionally, TNF-? and IL-12 production by macrophages decreased, but IL-10 levels were unchanged after all treatments. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that these drugs modulate the immune response by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production by purified epidermal Langerhans cells and peritoneal macrophages, indicating that these cells are important targets for immunosuppression in various clinical settings. PMID:21276247

  1. Characterisation of renal immune cell infiltrates in children with nephrotic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Benz; Maike Büttner; Katalin Dittrich; Valentina Campean; Jörg Dötsch; Kerstin Amann

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that not only T cells but also B cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic\\u000a nephrotic syndrome (NS). We have evaluated the infiltrating immune cells found in renal biopsies from 38 children with NS\\u000a using immunohistochemistry techniques involving antibodies against T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), B cells (CD20), macrophages\\u000a (CD68) and

  2. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus.

    PubMed

    Behar, Samuel M; Carpenter, Stephen M; Booty, Matthew G; Barber, Daniel L; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-12-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease--the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. PMID:25311810

  3. Emerging Role of Mast Cells and Macrophages in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are essential in allergic immune responses. Recent discoveries have revealed their direct participation in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Although more sophisticated mechanisms are still unknown, data from animal studies suggest that mast cells act similarly to macrophages and other inflammatory cells and contribute to human diseases through cell–cell interactions and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteases to induce inflammatory cell recruitment, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, and matrix protein remodeling. Reduced cardiovascular complications and improved metabolic symptoms in animals receiving over-the-counter antiallergy medications that stabilize mast cells open another era of mast cell biology and bring new hope to human patients suffering from these conditions. PMID:22240242

  4. Macrophages and Leydig Cells in Testicular Biopsies of Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Goluža, Trpimir; Cvetko, Jessica; Bernat, Maja Marija; Kasum, Miro; Kaštelan, Željko; Ježek, Davor

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that testicular macrophages play an important role in regulating steroidogenesis of Leydig cells and maintain homeostasis within the testis. The current paper deals with macrophages (CD68 positive cells) and Leydig cells in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Methods employed included histological analysis on semi- and ultrathin sections, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and hormone analysis in the blood serum. Histological analysis pointed out certain structural changes of macrophages and Leydig cells in NOA group of patients when compared to controls. In the testis interstitium, an increased presence of CD68 positive cells has been noted. Leydig cells in NOA patients displayed a kind of a mosaic picture across the same bioptic sample: both normal and damaged Leydig cells with pronounced vacuolisation and various intensity of expression of testosterone have been observed. Stereological analysis indicated a significant increase in volume density of both CD68 positive and vacuolated Leydig cells and a positive correlation between the volume densities of these cell types. The continuous gonadotropin overstimulation of Leydig cells, together with a negative paracrine action of macrophages, could result in the damage of steroidogenesis and deficit of testosterone in situ. PMID:24895614

  5. The Metastasis-Promoting Roles of Tumor-Associated Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heath A.; Kang, Yibin

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is driven not only by the accumulation of intrinsic alterations in malignant cells, but also by the interactions of cancer cells with various stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, inflammation and infiltration of the tumor tissue by host immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells have been shown to support tumor growth in addition to invasion and metastasis. Each step of tumor development, from initiation through metastatic spread, is promoted by communication between tumor and immune cells via the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and proteases that remodel the tumor microenvironment. Invasion and metastasis requires neovascularization, breakdown of the basement membrane, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix for tumor cell invasion and extravasation into the blood and lymphatic vessels. The subsequent dissemination of tumor cells to distant organ sites necessitates a treacherous journey through the vasculature, which is fostered by close association with platelets and macrophages. Additionally, the establishment of the pre-metastatic niche and specific metastasis organ tropism is fostered by neutrophils and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic immune progenitor cells and other inflammatory cytokines derived from tumor and immune cells, which alter the local environment of the tissue to promote adhesion of circulating tumor cells. This review focuses on the interactions between tumor cells and immune cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment, and examines the factors allowing these cells to promote each stage of metastasis. PMID:23515621

  6. Single-cell technologies for monitoring interactions between immune cells

    E-print Network

    Yamanaka, Yvonne J. (Yvonne Joy)

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells participate in dynamic cellular interactions that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens and the destruction of malignant cells. The vast heterogeneity of immune cells motivates the study of ...

  7. Cell-mediated immunity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrianakos, A A; Sharp, J T; Person, D A; Lidsky, M D; Duffy, J

    1977-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was assessed by skin testing with six antigens in 107 patients, 94 of whom were age, sex, and race-matched with healthy individuals or patients with diseases unrelated to immunological abnormalities. 20% of RA patients were anergic. Impaired cell-mediated immunity in the RA patients was manifested by a decrease in the magnitude of skin reactivity as well as a decrease in the incidence of positive reactions to multiple antigens. Depression in cell-mediated immunity was related to age but not to sex, duration of disease, or disease activity. A slight correlation was found between absolute peripheral lymphocyte counts and the number of positive skin tests, and was confirmed by finding an association between lymphocyte counts and the size of skin reactions. A correlation was also found between lymphocyte counts and disease activity. Four explanations of the observed depression in cell-mediated immunity in RA were considered: (1) a preoccupation of the immune mechanism of the host with cell-mediated immunity reactions related to the pathogenesis of the disease; (2) a depression of cell-mediated immune reactivity by a virus infection; (3) depression of cell-mediated immunity by therapy; and (4) immune complex suppression of cell-mediated immunity. No effect of gold therapy was found. The near universal use of salicylates or other anti-inflammatory drugs did not permit investigation of the effect of these drugs on cell-mediated immunity. PMID:843109

  8. Apoptotic cell-linked immunoregulation: implications for promoting immune tolerance in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ruixia; Perruche, Sylvain; Chen, WanJun

    2015-01-01

    The induction of alloantigen-specific immune tolerance is the "Holy-Grail" in transplantation. Although it had been previously demonstrated that transient depletion of T cells through apoptosis could lead to long-term immune tolerance, the underlying mechanism responsible for this tolerance induction and maintenance was unknown. In this short article, a novel mechanism for long-term immune tolerance via transient T cell apoptosis will be discussed, based on our recent findings in a CD3-specific antibody treatment-induced immune tolerance mouse model. Transforming growth factor-?, which is produced by immature dendritic cells whilst they phagocytose apoptotic T cells and by macrophages, plays an important role in initiating long-term immune tolerance. A possible model of how allospecific-immune tolerance can be induced in order to prevent allograft rejection in transplantation will be also proposed. PMID:26110047

  9. Acquisition of cell-mediated immunity to Leishmania. II. LSH gene regulation of accessory cell function.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, P M; Patel, N K; Blackwell, J M

    1988-01-01

    The macrophage natural resistance gene. Lsh, regulates the ability of a selective population of tissue macrophages to control intracellular multiplication of Leishmania donovani by a T-cell independent mechanism. We show here, using mice congenic for Lsh, that this gene also contributes to the acquisition of T-cell-mediated immunity. Whereas both resistant and susceptible mice generate equivalent primary T-cell responses to infection, resistant mice show a rapid increase in accessory cell activity, allowing for greater subsequent T-cell expansion. This change in accessory cell function correlates with increased class II antigen expression relative to susceptible mice, both in vivo during early infection and in vitro in response to induction by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Differences in vitro were independent of, but differentially affected by, amastigote infection. PMID:3141269

  10. Stimulation of neoplastic mouse lung cell proliferation by alveolar macrophage-derived, insulin-like growth factor-1 can be blocked by inhibiting MEK and PI3K activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M Fritz; Lori D Dwyer-Nield; Alvin M Malkinson

    2011-01-01

    Background  Worldwide, lung cancer kills more people than breast, colon and prostate cancer combined. Alterations in macrophage number\\u000a and function during lung tumorigenesis suggest that these immune effector cells stimulate lung cancer growth. Evidence from\\u000a cancer models in other tissues suggests that cancer cells actively recruit growth factor-producing macrophages through a reciprocal\\u000a signaling pathway. While the levels of lung macrophages increase

  11. Junín Virus Infects Mouse Cells and Induces Innate Immune Responses ?

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Christian D.; Lavanya, Madakasira; Wang, Enxiu; Ross, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Junín virus is the causative agent for Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and its natural host is the New World rodent Calomys musculinus. The virus is transmitted to humans by aerosolization, and it is believed that many of the clinical symptoms are caused by cytokines produced by sentinel cells of the immune system. Here we used the Junín virus vaccine strain Candid 1 to determine whether mouse cells could be used to study virus entry and antiviral innate immune responses. We show that Candid 1 can infect and propagate in different mouse-derived cell lines through a low-pH-dependent, transferrin receptor 1-independent mechanism, suggesting that there is a second entry receptor. In addition, Candid 1 induced expression of the antiviral cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta interferon in macrophages, and this induction was independent of viral replication. Using Candid 1, as well as virus-like particles bearing the viral glycoprotein, to infect different primary cells and established macrophage cell lines with deletions in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, we show that TLR2 is a cellular sensor of both the Parodi and Candid 1 viral glycoproteins. Because Junín virus is highly lethal in humans, the use of an experimentally tractable model system, such as the mouse, could provide a better understanding of the antiviral innate cellular responses to Junín virus and the role of these responses in pathogenesis. PMID:21880772

  12. Bacterial DNA as immune cell activator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grayson B Lipford; Klaus Heeg; Hermann Wagner

    1998-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems apparently recognize unmethylated CpG motifs of bacterial DNA. Cells of the innate immune system are activated directly by CpG motifs, and the resulting response dictates a Th1 bias to the developing adaptive immune response. Interestingly, antigen receptor occupancy of cells of the adaptive immune system augments their responsiveness to CpG

  13. B cells Regulate Macrophage Phenotype and Response to Chemotherapy in Squamous Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Terry R.; Gunderson, Andrew J.; Johansson, Magnus; Bornstein, Sophia; Bergsland, Emily; Steinhoff, Martin; Li, Yijin; Gong, Qian; Ma, Yan; Wiesen, Jane F.; Wong, Melissa H.; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Irving, Bryan; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B cells foster squamous cell carcinogenesis (SCC) through deposition of immunoglobulin-containing immune complexes in premalignant tissue and Fc?receptor-dependent activation of myeloid cells. Since human SCCs of the vulva and head and neck exhibited hallmarks of B cell infiltration, we examined B cell-deficient mice and found reduced ability to support SCC growth. Although ineffective as a single agent, treatment of mice bearing pre-existing SCCs with B cell-depleting ?CD20 monoclonal antibodies improved response to platinum- and taxol-based chemotherapy. Improved chemo-responsiveness was dependent on altered chemokine expression by macrophages that fostered tumor infiltration of activated CD8+ T cells via CCR5-dependent mechanisms. These data reveal that B cells, and the downstream myeloid-based pathways they regulate, represent tractable targets for anti-cancer therapy in select tumors. PMID:24909985

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Iron-Limiting Innate Immune Defenses in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Kandler, Justin L.; Shafer, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. The gonococcus can survive extracellularly and intracellularly, but in both environments the bacteria must acquire iron from host proteins for survival. However, upon infection the host uses a defensive response by limiting the bioavailability of iron by a number of mechanisms including the enhanced expression of hepcidin, the master iron-regulating hormone, which reduces iron uptake from the gut and retains iron in macrophages. The host also secretes the antibacterial protein NGAL, which sequesters bacterial siderophores and therefore inhibits bacterial growth. To learn whether intracellular gonococci can subvert this defensive response, we examined expression of host genes that encode proteins involved in modulating levels of intracellular iron. We found that N. gonorrhoeae can survive in association (tightly adherent and intracellular) with monocytes and macrophages and upregulates a panel of its iron-responsive genes in this environment. We also found that gonococcal infection of human monocytes or murine macrophages resulted in the upregulation of hepcidin, NGAL, and NRAMP1 as well as downregulation of the expression of the gene encoding the short chain 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2); BDH2 catalyzes the production of the mammalian siderophore 2,5-DHBA involved in chelating and detoxifying iron. Based on these findings, we propose that N. gonorrhoeae can subvert the iron-limiting innate immune defenses to facilitate iron acquisition and intracellular survival. PMID:24489950

  15. Sympathetic glial cells and macrophages develop different responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Silva, Isabel Cristina Costa; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) participates in neuronal lesions in the digestive form of Chagas disease and the proximity of parasitised glial cells and neurons in damaged myenteric ganglia is a frequent finding. Glial cells have crucial roles in many neuropathological situations and are potential sources of NO. Here, we investigate peripheral glial cell response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection to clarify the role of these cells in the neuronal lesion pathogenesis of Chagas disease. We used primary glial cell cultures from superior cervical ganglion to investigate cell activation and NO production after T. cruzi infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in comparison to peritoneal macrophages. T. cruzi infection was greater in glial cells, despite similar levels of NO production in both cell types. Glial cells responded similarly to T. cruzi and LPS, but were less responsive to LPS than macrophages were. Our observations contribute to the understanding of Chagas disease pathogenesis, as based on the high susceptibility of autonomic glial cells to T. cruzi infection with subsequent NO production. Moreover, our findings will facilitate future research into the immune responses and activation mechanisms of peripheral glial cells, which are important for understanding the paradoxical responses of this cell type in neuronal lesions and neuroprotection. PMID:25075784

  16. Macrophage-mediated inflammation in metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Ajay; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Goh, Y.P. Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism and immunity are two fundamental systems of metazoans. The presence of immune cells, such as macrophages, in metabolic tissues, suggests dynamic, on-going crosstalk between these two regulatory systems. Here, we discuss how changes in recruitment and activation of macrophages contribute to metabolic homeostasis. In particular, we focus our discussion on the pathogenic and protective functions of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, in experimental models of obesity and metabolic disease. PMID:21984069

  17. Characterization of Monocyte-Macrophage-Lineage Cells Induced from CD34 + Bone Marrow Cells In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Suzuki; Nobutaka Kiyokawa; Tomoko Taguchi; Hisami Takenouchi; Masahiro Saito; Toshiaki Shimizu; Hajime Okita; Junichiro Fujimoto

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the expression of cell surface antigens and cytokine-secreting ability of monocyte-macrophage-lineage cells\\u000a induced in vitro from CD34+ bone marrow cells. After cultivation for 3 weeks, we observed 2 distinct cell fractions: a floating small, round cell fraction\\u000a and an adherent large, protruding cell fraction. Both cell fractions expressed myelocyte-monocyte-lineage antigens, but mature-macrophage\\u000a markers such as CD206 were expressed

  18. Immune complex–Fc?R interaction modulates monocyte/macrophage molecules involved in inflammation and immune response

    PubMed Central

    BARRIONUEVO, P; BEIGIER-BOMPADRE, M; FERNANDEZ, G C; GOMEZ, S; ALVES-ROSA, M F; PALERMO, M S; ISTURIZ, M A

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc?Rs) from monocytes/macrophages and immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Recently, we have demonstrated that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-?-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. Taking into account that the regulation of MHC class II molecules is a crucial event in the immune response, in this report we extend our previous studies analysing the effect of STAT-1 phosphorylation in the down-regulatory process, the fate of the intracellular pool of MHC class II molecules and the effect of complement on MHC class II down-regulation induced by IC. We also studied the effect of IC on the expression of MHC class II (I-Ad) in macrophages using a mouse model of chronic inflammation. We demonstrate that IC induce a depletion not only on surface expressed but also on intracellular MHC class II content and that IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is not mediated by the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. On the other hand, the effect of IC is not specific for the down-regulation of MHC class II, for it could be restricted to other molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Our experiments also show that the activation of the complement system could be a crucial step on the regulation of the effect of IC on MHC class II expression. In agreement with our in vitro experiments using human monocytes, IC treatment reduces the expression of MHC class II in a mouse model of chronic inflammation. PMID:12869025

  19. Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Lungs during Anthrax Infection Reveals Long-Lasting Macrophage-Dendritic Cell Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Fiole, Daniel; Deman, Pierre; Trescos, Yannick; Mayol, Jean-François; Mathieu, Jacques; Vial, Jean-Claude; Douady, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the lung immune system at the microscopic level are largely unknown because of inefficient methods of restraining chest motion during image acquisition. In this study, we developed an improved intravital method for two-photon lung imaging uniquely based on a posteriori parenchymal tissue motion correction. We took advantage of the alveolar collagen pattern given by the second harmonic generation signal as a reference for frame registration. We describe here for the first time a detailed dynamic account of two major lung immune cell populations, alveolar macrophages and CD11b-positive dendritic cells, during homeostasis and infection by spores of Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax. We show that after alveolar macrophages capture spores, CD11b-positive dendritic cells come in prolonged contact with infected macrophages. Dendritic cells are known to carry spores to the draining lymph nodes and elicit the immune response in pulmonary anthrax. The intimate and long-lasting contacts between these two lines of defense may therefore coordinate immune responses in the lung through an immunological synapse-like process. PMID:24478099

  20. Two-photon intravital imaging of lungs during anthrax infection reveals long-lasting macrophage-dendritic cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Fiole, Daniel; Deman, Pierre; Trescos, Yannick; Mayol, Jean-François; Mathieu, Jacques; Vial, Jean-Claude; Douady, Julien; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    The dynamics of the lung immune system at the microscopic level are largely unknown because of inefficient methods of restraining chest motion during image acquisition. In this study, we developed an improved intravital method for two-photon lung imaging uniquely based on a posteriori parenchymal tissue motion correction. We took advantage of the alveolar collagen pattern given by the second harmonic generation signal as a reference for frame registration. We describe here for the first time a detailed dynamic account of two major lung immune cell populations, alveolar macrophages and CD11b-positive dendritic cells, during homeostasis and infection by spores of Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax. We show that after alveolar macrophages capture spores, CD11b-positive dendritic cells come in prolonged contact with infected macrophages. Dendritic cells are known to carry spores to the draining lymph nodes and elicit the immune response in pulmonary anthrax. The intimate and long-lasting contacts between these two lines of defense may therefore coordinate immune responses in the lung through an immunological synapse-like process. PMID:24478099

  1. Cytokines and cell adhesion receptors in the regulation of immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilson Savino; Déa Maria S. Villa-Verde; Daniella Areas Mendes-da-Cruz; Elizangela Silva-Monteiro; Ana Rosa Perez; María del Pilar Aoki; Oscar Bottasso; Natalia Guiñazú; Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa; Susana Gea

    2007-01-01

    Pathophysiology of Chagas’ disease is not completely defined, although innate and adaptative immune responses are crucial. In acute infection some parasite antigens can activate macrophages, and this may result in pro-inflammatory cytokine production, nitric oxide synthesis, and consequent control of parasitemia and mortality. Cell-mediated immunity in Trypanosoma cruzi infection is also modulated by cytokines, but in addition to parasite-specific responses,

  2. Lipopolysaccharide and Concanavalin A Differentially Induce the Expression of Immune Response Genes in Caprine Monocyte Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walia, Vishakh; Kumar, Rohit; Mitra, Abhijit

    2015-10-01

    Monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs), as an in vitro model in pathogen challenge studies, are generally induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) to assay cellular immunity. General immune responses to LPS and ConA have been studied in a wide range of species, but similar studies are limited to goats. In the present study, caprine MDMs were induced with LPS and ConA and the expression profile of immune response (IR) genes, namely, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFA), Interferon Gamma (IFNG), Interleukin 2 (IL2), Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF), Interleukin 10 (IL10), Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFB), Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein-1 (NRAMP1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and caspase1 (CASP1) were studied to compare the potential of LPS and ConA in initiating immune responses in goat macrophages. Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that both LPS and ConA caused an upregulation (p < 0.05) of GMCSF, TGFB1, IL10, and IFNG and down-regulation of NRAMP1. TNFA and IL2, and NOS2 were upregulated (p < 0.05) by ConA and LPS, respectively. Whereas, the expression of CASP1 remain unaltered. Comparatively, the effect of ConA was more pronounced (p < 0.05) in regulating the expression of IR genes suggesting its suitability for studying the general immune responses in caprine MDM. PMID:26158463

  3. Stage Specific Assessment of Candida albicans Phagocytosis by Macrophages Identifies Cell Wall Composition and Morphogenesis as Key Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Leanne E.; Bain, Judith M.; Lowes, Christina; Gillespie, Collette; Rudkin, Fiona M.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Erwig, Lars-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major life-threatening human fungal pathogen. Host defence against systemic Candida infection relies mainly on phagocytosis of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system. In this study, we have employed video microscopy, coupled with sophisticated image analysis tools, to assess the contribution of distinct C. albicans cell wall components and yeast-hypha morphogenesis to specific stages of phagocytosis by macrophages. We show that macrophage migration towards C. albicans was dependent on the glycosylation status of the fungal cell wall, but not cell viability or morphogenic switching from yeast to hyphal forms. This was not a consequence of differences in maximal macrophage track velocity, but stems from a greater percentage of macrophages pursuing glycosylation deficient C. albicans during the first hour of the phagocytosis assay. The rate of engulfment of C. albicans attached to the macrophage surface was significantly delayed for glycosylation and yeast-locked morphogenetic mutant strains, but enhanced for non-viable cells. Hyphal cells were engulfed at a slower rate than yeast cells, especially those with hyphae in excess of 20 µm, but there was no correlation between hyphal length and the rate of engulfment below this threshold. We show that spatial orientation of the hypha and whether hyphal C. albicans attached to the macrophage via the yeast or hyphal end were also important determinants of the rate of engulfment. Breaking down the overall phagocytic process into its individual components revealed novel insights into what determines the speed and effectiveness of C. albicans phagocytosis by macrophages. PMID:22438806

  4. Cigarette smoke-induced iBALT mediates macrophage activation in a B cell-dependent manner in COPD.

    PubMed

    John-Schuster, Gerrit; Hager, Katrin; Conlon, Thomas M; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, caused by exposure to exogenous particles, mainly cigarette smoke (CS). COPD is initiated and perpetuated by an abnormal CS-induced inflammatory response of the lungs, involving both innate and adaptive immunity. Specifically, B cells organized in iBALT structures and macrophages accumulate in the lungs and contribute to CS-induced emphysema, but the mechanisms thereof remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that B cell-deficient mice are significantly protected against CS-induced emphysema. Chronic CS exposure led to an increased size and number of iBALT structures, and increased lung compliance and mean linear chord length in wild-type (WT) but not in B cell-deficient mice. The increased accumulation of lung resident macrophages around iBALT and in emphysematous alveolar areas in CS-exposed WT mice coincided with upregulated MMP12 expression. In vitro coculture experiments using B cells and macrophages demonstrated that B cell-derived IL-10 drives macrophage activation and MMP12 upregulation, which could be inhibited by an anti-IL-10 antibody. In summary, B cell function in iBALT formation seems necessary for macrophage activation and tissue destruction in CS-induced emphysema and possibly provides a new target for therapeutic intervention in COPD. PMID:25128521

  5. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Wichers, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications related to the THP-1 cell model. An overview on the biological similarities and dissimilarities between the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived-monocytes and macrophages, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of THP-1 cell line, is included. The review summarizes different published co-cultivation studies of THP-1 cells with other cell types, for instance, intestinal cells, adipocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be an option to study cell-cell interaction in vitro and can be an approach to better mimic in vivo conditions. Macrophage polarization is a relatively new topic which gains interest for which the THP-1 cell line also may be relevant. Besides that an overview of newly released commercial THP-1 engineered-reporter cells and THP-1 inflammasome test-cells is also given. Evaluation of recent papers leads to the conclusion that the THP-1 cell line has unique characteristics as a model to investigate/estimate immune-modulating effects of compounds in both activated and resting conditions of the cells. Although the THP-1 response can hint to potential responses that might occur ex vivo or in vivo, these should be, however, validated by in vivo studies to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:25130606

  6. Identification of an immune-regulated phagosomal Rab cascade in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Gang; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-? (IFN-?) has been shown to regulate phagosome trafficking and function in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we identify Rab20 as part of the machinery by which IFN-? controls phagosome maturation. We found that IFN-? stimulates the association of Rab20 with early phagosomes in macrophages. By using imaging of single phagosomes in live cells, we found that Rab20 induces an early delay in phagosome maturation and extends the time for which Rab5a and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) remain associated with phagosomes. Moreover, Rab20 depletion in macrophages abrogates the delay in phagosome maturation induced by IFN-?. Finally, we demonstrate that Rab20 interacts with the Rab5a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex-5 (also known as RABGEF1) and that Rab20 knockdown impairs the IFN-?-dependent recruitment of Rabex-5 and Rab5a into phagosomes. Taken together, here, we uncover Rab20 as a key player in the Rab cascade by which IFN-? induces a delay in phagosome maturation in macrophages. PMID:24569883

  7. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  8. Inflammation and macrophage modulation in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that harbours not only mature and developing adipocytes but also a wide array of immune cells, including macrophages, a key immune cell in determining metabolic functionality. With adipose tissue expansion, M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration increases, activates other immune cells, and affects lipid trafficking and metabolism, in part via inhibiting mitochondrial function and increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pro-inflammatory cytokines produced and released interfere with insulin signalling, while inhibiting M1 macrophage activation improves systemic insulin sensitivity. In healthy adipose tissue, M2 alternative macrophages predominate and associate with enhanced lipid handling and mitochondrial function, anti-inflammatory cytokine production, and inhibition of ROS. The sequence of events leading to macrophage infiltration and activation in adipose tissue remains incompletely understood but lipid handling of both macrophages and adipocytes appears to play a major role. PMID:25073615

  9. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1?]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  10. Effect of Ipr1 on expression levels of immune genes related to macrophage anti-infection of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Lianwen; Liu, Jingbo; Yuan, Xiao; Meng, Wei; Dong, Yan; Li, Boqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) has been found in macrophages and plays a pivotal role in fighting against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of Iprl on the expression of macrophage genes related to the anti-infection of Mtb. Design or methods: In the experimental and control groups, the macrophages were infected with Mycobacterium H37Ra, and then the related immune genes between two groups were detected using microarray assay. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the differences in the expression of three up-regulated genes detected by microarray assay and to verify the reliability of microarray assay. Results: The expression of Iprl up-regulated 11 genes related to macrophage anti-immunity involved TLRs signaling pathway including TLR2 and TLR4, Irak1, Traf7, Ifngr1 and Tnfrsfla. No significant difference was found in terms of the molecular expression involved in regulation of the adaptive immune response, such as IL-1 and IL-12. The results of real-time PCR were consistent with the findings of microarray assay. Conclusions: The expression of Iprl gene probably promotes macrophage activity and enhances the ability of macrophages to fight against Mtb infection. The underlying mechanism may be achieved by up-regulating the expression levels of innate immunity genes, especially TLR2/TLR4 and signal transduction molecules, which is determined using microarray assay. All these findings offer the basis for subsequent study of the mechanisms of Ipr1 gene in host innate immunity against Mtb infection.

  11. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  12. Innate and Adaptive Immune Functions of Peyer's Patch Monocyte-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Bonnardel, Johnny; Da Silva, Clément; Henri, Sandrine; Tamoutounour, Samira; Chasson, Lionel; Montañana-Sanchis, Frederic; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Lelouard, Hugues

    2015-05-01

    Peyer's patches (PPs) are primary inductive sites of mucosal immunity. Defining PP mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is thus crucial to understand the initiation of mucosal immune response. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the phenotype, distribution, ontogeny, lifespan, function, and transcriptional profile of PP MPS. We show that monocytes give rise to macrophages and to lysozyme-expressing dendritic cells (LysoDCs), which are both involved in particulate antigen uptake, display strong innate antiviral and antibacterial gene signatures, and, upon TLR7 stimulation, secrete IL-6 and TNF, but neither IL-10 nor IFN?. However, unlike macrophages, LysoDCs display a rapid renewal rate, strongly express genes of the MHCII presentation pathway, and prime naive helper T cells for IFN? production. Our results show that monocytes differentiate locally into LysoDCs and macrophages, which display distinct features from their adjacent villus counterparts. PMID:25921539

  13. Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Avijit; Ju, Hee; Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-03-01

    With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-?, NF-?B p65, and NF-?B p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

  14. Progesterone-induced activation of membrane-bound progesterone receptors in murine macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Reese, Joshua; Zhou, Ying; Hirsch, Emmet

    2014-01-01

    Parturition is an inflammatory process mediated to a significant extent by macrophages. Progesterone maintains uterine quiescence in pregnancy, and a proposed functional withdrawal of progesterone classically regulated by nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs) leads to labor. Progesterone can impact the functions of macrophages despite the reported lack of expression of nPRs in these immune cells. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of the activation of the putative membrane-associated progesterone receptor on the function of macrophages (a key cell for parturition) and discuss the implications of these findings for pregnancy and parturition. In murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7), activation of mPRs by progesterone modified to be active only extracellularly by conjugation to BSA (P4BSA, 1.0×10?7 mol/l) caused a pro-inflammatory shift in mRNA expression profile, with significant up-regulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (Ptgs2), Il1B, and Tnf and down-regulation of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (Paqr7) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr). Pretreatment with PD98059, a MEK 1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced P4BSA-induced Il1B, Tnf and Ptgs2 mRNA. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 blocked P4BSA-induced Il1B and Tnf mRNA levels. P4BSA induced rapid phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB, a downstream target of PKA). This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059 and H89, respectively, revealing that MEK1/2 and PKA are two of the components involved in mPR signaling. Taken together, these data demonstrate that changes in membrane progesterone receptor alpha expression and signaling in macrophages are associated with the inflammatory responses; and that these changes might contribute to the functional withdrawal of progesterone related to labor. PMID:25472814

  15. Recent developments in the assessment of the immune response to malaria, especially as related to vaccination: Lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria: the role of macrophages in normal and immunized mice

    PubMed Central

    Playfair, J. H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Mice were injected with silica or Corynebacterium parvum, which, respectively, inhibit and stimulate macrophages in vivo, in an attempt to study the role of macrophages in lethal Plasmodium yoelii infection and in mice protected by immunization. In the normal infection, macrophages were able to control parasitaemia for up to 1 week, whereas in immunized mice they appeared to inhibit the sterilizing immune response. A model is proposed in which this dual role of activated macrophages may account for the chronic non-sterilizing course of natural malaria infections. PMID:317443

  16. Molecular mechanism of PDT-induced apoptotic cells stimulation NO production in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Fei-fan; Yang, Si-hua; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that apoptotic cells (AC) participate in immune response. The immune response induced by AC, either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive, have been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of the immunostimulatory effects induced by PDT-treated AC remain unclear. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal transduction molecule and has been implicated in a variety of functions. It has also been found to play an important role not only as a cytotoxic effector but an immune regulatory mediator. In this study, we demonstrate that the PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells stimulate the production of NO in macrophages by up-regulating expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, we show that AC, through toll-like receptors (TLRs), can activate myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), indicating that AC serves as an intercellular signal to induce iNOS expression in immune cells after PDT treatment. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  17. Effects of Activated Macrophages on Nocardia asteroides

    PubMed Central

    Filice, Gregory A.; Beaman, Blaine L.; Remington, Jack S.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism(s) of host resistance against Nocardia asteroides has not been well defined. Since disease due to N. asteroides frequently occurs in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, we studied the interaction of N. asteroides with activated and control mouse peritoneal macrophages. Activated macrophages were from mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii or injected with Corynebacterium parvum. N. asteroides in the early stationary phase (>99% in the coccobacillary form) was used for challenge of macrophage monolayers. Growth of two strains of N. asteroides was markedly inhibited in activated macrophages, whereas N. asteroides grew well in control macrophages. Quantitation of macrophage-associated N. asteroides indicated that activated macrophages killed 40 to 50% of N. asteroides within 6 h (P < 0.002). In control macrophage preparations, it appeared as if Nocardia filaments extended from within macrophages to the outside, and many of these filaments appeared to have extended to and then grown through neighboring macrophages. In activated macrophage preparations, Nocardia remained in the coccobacillary form in most macrophages. Control macrophage monolayers were almost completely overgrown with and destroyed by Nocardia 20 h after challenge, whereas activated macrophage monolayers remained intact. Nocardia that grew in control macrophages were not acid-alcohol fast or only weakly so, whereas the few Nocardia that grew in activated macrophages were strongly acid-alcohol fast. Our results indicate that activated macrophages may be important in host defense against N. asteroides. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6991421

  18. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  19. Functional CD40 Ligand is Expressed on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells, Smooth Muscle Cells, and Macrophages: Implications for CD40CD40 Ligand Signaling in Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francois Mach; Uwe Schonbeck; Galina K. Sukhova; Todd Bourcier; Jean-Yves Bonnefoy; Jordan S. Pober; Peter Libby

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports involvement of inflammation and immunity in atherogenesis. We report here that CD40 ligand (CD40L), an immunoregulatory signaling molecule heretofore considered largely restricted to recently activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, is expressed by human vascular endothelial cells (EC), smooth muscle cells (SMC), and human macrophages in vitro, and is coexpressed with its receptor CD40 on all three cells types

  20. Glycosylation in immune cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Markus; Gleissner, Christian A.; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte recruitment encompasses cell adhesion and activation steps that enable circulating leukocytes to roll, arrest, and firmly adhere on the endothelial surface before they extravasate into distinct tissue locations. This complex sequence of events relies on adhesive interactions between surface structures on leukocytes and endothelial cells and also on signals generated during the cell-cell contacts. Cell surface glycans play a crucial role in leukocyte recruitment. Several glycosyltransferases such as ?1,3 fucosyltransferases, ?2,3 sialyltransferases, core 2 N-acetylglucosaminlytransferases, ?1,4 galactosyltransferases and polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases have been implicated in the generation of functional selectin ligands that mediate leukocyte rolling via binding to selectins. Recent evidence also suggests a role of ?2,3 sialylated carbohydrate determinants in triggering chemokine-mediated leukocyte arrest and influencing ?1 integrin function. Additional mechanisms by galectin- and siglec-dependent processes contribute to the growing number of reports emphasizing the significant role of glycans for the successful recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Advancing the knowledge on glycan function into appropriate pathology models is likely to suggest interesting new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:19594631

  1. Naïve T cells, unconventional NK and NKT cells, and highly responsive monocyte-derived macrophages characterize human cord blood.

    PubMed

    López, María C; Palmer, Brent E; Lawrence, David A

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the human immune systems of neonates and adults. Flow cytometric analysis was used to study the cellular phenotypes of cord blood (CB) and adult peripheral blood (APB). Luminex analysis was used to determine the levels of cytokines in cell culture supernatants. Our findings indicate that T cells in CB were mainly naïve and thus less responsive to PMA/ionomycin with the synthesis of cytokines. The percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high) and of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(dim) cells expressing chemokine receptors were different between CB and APB. TLR1, TLR6 and TLR9 expressions on NK and NKT cells also differed between CB and APB. CB monocyte-derived macrophages responded better than APB macrophages to TLR ligands with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. The high levels of the inflammatory cytokines in cell culture supernatants of CB were mainly due to higher numbers of responsive macrophages, since dendritic cell numbers were lower in CB than APB. PMID:24986635

  2. Regulatory iNKT cells lack PLZF expression and control Treg cell and macrophage homeostasis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Lydia; Michelet, Xavier; Zhang, Sai; Brennan, Patrick J.; Moseman, Ashley; Lester, Chantel; Besra, Gurdyal; Vomhof-Dekrey, Emilie E.; Tighe, Mike; Koay, Hui-Fern; Godfrey, Dale I.; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.; Sant’Angelo, Derek B.; von Andrian, Ulrich; Brenner, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    iNKT cells are CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing innate T cells that express the transcription factor PLZF. iNKT cells accumulate in adipose tissue, where they are anti-inflammatory, but the factors that contribute to their anti-inflammatory nature, and their targets in adipose tissue are unknown. Here we report that adipose tissue iNKT cells have a unique transcriptional program and produce interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-10. Unlike other iNKT cells, they lack PLZF, but express the transcription factor E4BP4, which controls their IL-10 production. Adipose iNKT cells are a tissue resident population that induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and, through production of IL-2, controls the number, proliferation and suppressor function of adipose regulatory T (Treg) cells. Thus, adipose tissue iNKT cells are unique regulators of immune homeostasis in this tissue. PMID:25436972

  3. The development and function of lung-resident macrophages and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Manfred; Schneider, Christoph; Nobs, Samuel P

    2015-01-01

    Gas exchange is the vital function of the lungs. It occurs in the alveoli, where oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium surrounding the alveoli, separated only by a fused basement membrane 0.2-0.5 ?m in thickness. This tenuous barrier is exposed to dangerous or innocuous particles, toxins, allergens and infectious agents inhaled with the air or carried in the blood. The lung immune system has evolved to ward off pathogens and restrain inflammation-mediated damage to maintain gas exchange. Lung-resident macrophages and dendritic cells are located in close proximity to the epithelial surface of the respiratory system and the capillaries to sample and examine the air-borne and blood-borne material. In communication with alveolar epithelial cells, they set the threshold and the quality of the immune response. PMID:25521683

  4. Macrophage-Derived Complement Component C4 Can Restore Humoral Immunity in C4-Deficient Mice1

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    Macrophage-Derived Complement Component C4 Can Restore Humoral Immunity in C4-Deficient Mice1 of Immunology, 2002, 169: 5489­5495. A ctivation of complement modulates humoral responses (1, 2). Studies with transient depletion of complement with cobra venom factor or with animals bearing natu- rally occurring

  5. Bisphosphonates target B cells to enhance humoral immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Tonti, Elena; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Galliverti, Gabriele; Moseman, E. Ashley; Di Lucia, Pietro; Amabile, Angelo; Sammicheli, Stefano; De Giovanni, Marco; Sironi, Laura; Chevrier, Nicolas; Sitia, Giovanni; Gennari, Luigi; Guidotti, Luca G.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Iannacone, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that are widely used to inhibit loss of bone mass in patients. We show here that the administration of clinically relevant doses of bisphosphonates in mice increases antibody responses to live and inactive viruses, proteins, haptens and existing commercial vaccine formulations. Bisphosphonates exert this adjuvant-like activity in the absence of CD4+ and ?? T cells, neutrophils or dendritic cells and their effect does not rely on local macrophage depletion nor does it depend upon Toll-like receptor signaling or the inflammasome. Rather, bisphosphonates target directly B cells and enhance B cell expansion and antibody production upon antigen encounter. These data establish bisphosphonates as a novel class of adjuvants that boost humoral immune responses. PMID:24120862

  6. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandão, Ana S.; Leitão, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Ângela Raquel; Sucena, Élio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells. PMID:24204269

  7. Difference in the induction of macrophage interleukin-1 production between viable and killed cells of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuyama, M; Igarashi, K; Kawamura, I; Ohmori, T; Nomoto, K

    1990-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in mice, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity and acquired resistance, was induced by immunization with viable bacteria but not with killed bacteria, even when killed cells were injected in a high dose or repeatedly. T cells obtained from mice immunized with viable L. monocytogenes were readily stimulated with killed-bacterial antigens, resulting in T-cell proliferation in vitro and expression of a delayed footpad reaction in vivo. After immunization with killed-bacterial vaccine, T-cell responsiveness to interleukin 2 (IL-2) never developed but a lower level of responsiveness to IL-1 appeared later than with T cells from mice immunized with viable bacteria. When IL-1 production by macrophages was examined in vitro, viable L. monocytogenes stimulated a high level of IL-1 release while killed bacteria did not. Avirulent strains which were ineffective in the induction of T-cell mediated immunity were incapable of inducing IL-1 production as well. The impaired ability of killed bacteria to stimulate IL-1 production was confirmed by the level of IL-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that the ineffectiveness of killed L. monocytogenes vaccine is not due to loss or lack of antigenic epitopes but may be ascribed to insufficient induction of IL-1 production in the initial stage of the immune response in vivo. Images PMID:2108928

  8. Differential expression of IRF8 in subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells and effects of IRF8 deficiency on splenic B cell and macrophage compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Feng Qi; Zhaoyang Li; Mark Raffeld; Hongsheng Wang; Alexander L. Kovalchuk; Herbert C. Morse

    2009-01-01

    IRF8, a transcription factor restricted primarily to hematopoietic cells, is known to influence the differentiation and function\\u000a of dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, granulocytes and B cells. In human tonsil, IRF8 is expressed at high levels by intrafollicular\\u000a macrophages and DC, but at much lower levels by tingible body macrophages in germinal centers (GCs) and little, if at all,\\u000a by follicular

  9. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin ?M (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS. PMID:24423728

  10. Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A; Korach, Kenneth S; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor ? (ER?KO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ER? signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ER?-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility. PMID:24762434

  11. Macrophages, Multinucleated Giant Cells, and Apoptosis in HIV +Patients and Normal Blood Donors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Ruibal-Ares; Norma E. Riera; Mar??a M. E. de Bracco

    1997-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic debris is carried out by cells of the monocyte\\/macrophage lineage and, as other macrophage functions, it can be altered in AIDS, leading to the accumulation of apoptotic cells observed in this disease. In this study we evaluated the ability of macrophages from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients to differentiate and to clear apoptotic debris in prolongedin vitrocultures.

  12. Myelin regulates immune cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Pool, Madeline; Niino, Masaaki; Rambaldi, Isabel; Robson, Kristin; Bar-Or, Amit; Fournier, Alyson E

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully elucidated, however evidence supports an autoimmune disease model notable for the infiltration of pro-inflammatory immune cells into sites of active demyelination and axonal injury. Previous findings demonstrate that neutralization of Nogo, a protein originally identified as a myelin-associated inhibitor (MAI) of axon regeneration, ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used animal model of MS. More efficient axonal regeneration was suggested as a mechanism underlying the improved EAE outcome. However, neutralization of Nogo also led to an anti-inflammatory shift of T cell cytokines during EAE suggesting that another therapeutic mechanism may involve regulation of immune cell responses. Here we report that human immune cells from healthy individuals and MS patients express Nogo receptor1 (NgR1) indicating that they may be subject to regulation by MAIs. B cells, T cells and monocytes express NgR1 in a regulated fashion upon activation. While direct stimulation of human immune cells with an inhibitory fragment of Nogo does not impact their in vitro proliferation or cytokine production, the immune cells display reduced adhesion and enhanced motility in response to myelin, effects that are in part attenuated by antagonizing NgR1 signaling. We conclude that NgR1 alters the motility of immune cells exposed to myelin and may thus impact their behaviour within the CNS, particularly under conditions when immune cell activation is heightened. PMID:19328785

  13. Mediation of immunity to intracellular infection (Toxoplasma and Besnoitia) within somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

    1978-03-01

    Antigen-treated lymphocytes from immune hamsters specifically protected not only macrophages, but also cultured fibroblasts and kidney cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii or Besnoitia jellisoni. Macrophages were not necessary for the protection of fibroblasts and kidney cells. A mediator that inhibited the intracellular proliferation of these microbes was obtained from immune lymphocytes in contact with specific antigen. Again, macrophages were not necessary for the elaboration of this mediator or its activity in kidney cells or fibroblasts. The mediator was microbe and host specific, had a molecular weight between 4,000 and 5,000, was resistant to heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and was sensitive to chymotrypsin, but resistant to ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease. A single injection of Besnoitia mediator afforded better protection to hamsters infected with Besnoitia than did antibody. Whereas antibody lysed extracellular organisms, the microbe-specific mediators conferred immunity not only on macrophages, but also on other cells of the body, apparently the first such demonstration. PMID:640741

  14. Mediation of immunity to intracellular infection (Toxoplasma and Besnoitia) within somatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

    1978-01-01

    Antigen-treated lymphocytes from immune hamsters specifically protected not only macrophages, but also cultured fibroblasts and kidney cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii or Besnoitia jellisoni. Macrophages were not necessary for the protection of fibroblasts and kidney cells. A mediator that inhibited the intracellular proliferation of these microbes was obtained from immune lymphocytes in contact with specific antigen. Again, macrophages were not necessary for the elaboration of this mediator or its activity in kidney cells or fibroblasts. The mediator was microbe and host specific, had a molecular weight between 4,000 and 5,000, was resistant to heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min, and was sensitive to chymotrypsin, but resistant to ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease. A single injection of Besnoitia mediator afforded better protection to hamsters infected with Besnoitia than did antibody. Whereas antibody lysed extracellular organisms, the microbe-specific mediators conferred immunity not only on macrophages, but also on other cells of the body, apparently the first such demonstration. Images PMID:640741

  15. Macrophage stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides. I. Cytolytic effect on tumor target cells

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate mouse peritoneal macrophages to kill tumor cells in vitro. Lysis is confined to tumor cells where it is nonspecific; both allogeneic and syngeneic cells being susceptible. Stimulation by LPS appears to be due to direct interaction between LPS and macrophages and does not involve participation by lymphocytes. After exposure to LPS, a latent period must elapse before macrophages can lyse tumor cells. The cytolytic mechanism requires contact between target cells and viable effector cells which maintain their lytic capacity for a sustained period and can kill on repeated occasions. The generation of a macrophage cytolytic effect by LPS is critically dependent upon the absolute number of macrophages which must be sufficient to produce confluent monolayers. These findings indicate that LPS stimulation of macrophages in vitro represents a valuable model system for the study of the mechanisms of macrophage stimulation and of the mediation of tumor cell death. PMID:568163

  16. Continuous porcine cell lines developed from alveolar macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Weingartl; M Sabara; J Pasick; E van Moorlehem; L Babiuk

    2002-01-01

    Porcine monomyeloid cell lines were established following transfection of primary porcine alveolar macrophage cultures with plasmid pSV3neo, carrying genes for neomycin resistance and SV40 large T antigen. The parental clone 3D4 exhibited a relatively rapid doubling time (25.5 h), high plating efficiency and mixed phenotype with respect to growth on a solid support. Single cell cloning of the 3D4 parent

  17. Cytokine networking of innate immunity cells: a potential target of therapy.

    PubMed

    Striz, Ilja; Brabcova, Eva; Kolesar, Libor; Sekerkova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    Innate immune cells, particularly macrophages and epithelial cells, play a key role in multiple layers of immune responses. Alarmins and pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL (interleukin)-1 and TNF (tumour necrosis factor) families initiate the cascade of events by inducing chemokine release from bystander cells and by the up-regulation of adhesion molecules required for transendothelial trafficking of immune cells. Furthermore, innate cytokines produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells and innate lymphoid cells seem to play a critical role in polarization of helper T-cell cytokine profiles into specific subsets of Th1/Th2/Th17 effector cells or regulatory T-cells. Lastly, the innate immune system down-regulates effector mechanisms and restores homoeostasis in injured tissue via cytokines from the IL-10 and TGF (transforming growth factor) families mainly released from macrophages, preferentially the M2 subset, which have a capacity to induce regulatory T-cells, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce healing of the tissue by regulating extracellular matrix protein deposition and angiogenesis. Cytokines produced by innate immune cells represent an attractive target for therapeutic intervention, and multiple molecules are currently being tested clinically in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic diseases, autoinflammatory syndromes, fibrosing processes or malignancies. In addition to the already widely used blockers of TNF? and the tested inhibitors of IL-1 and IL-6, multiple therapeutic molecules are currently in clinical trials targeting TNF-related molecules [APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) and BAFF (B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family)], chemokine receptors, IL-17, TGF? and other cytokines. PMID:24450743

  18. CD4+ T Cell-derived IL-10 Promotes Brucella abortus Persistence via Modulation of Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Spees, Alanna M.; Nguyen, Kim; Atluri, Vidya L.; Silva, Teane M. A.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Müller, Werner; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2013-01-01

    Evasion of host immune responses is a prerequisite for chronic bacterial diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that the persistent intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus prevents immune activation of macrophages by inducing CD4+CD25+ T cells to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) early during infection. IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) blockage in macrophages resulted in significantly higher NF-kB activation as well as decreased bacterial intracellular survival associated with an inability of B. abortus to escape the late endosome compartment in vitro. Moreover, either a lack of IL-10 production by T cells or a lack of macrophage responsiveness to this cytokine resulted in an increased ability of mice to control B. abortus infection, while inducing elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which led to severe pathology in liver and spleen of infected mice. Collectively, our results suggest that early IL-10 production by CD25+CD4+ T cells modulates macrophage function and contributes to an initial balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that is beneficial to the pathogen, thereby promoting enhanced bacterial survival and persistent infection. PMID:23818855

  19. Transcription of innate immunity genes and cytokine secretion by canine macrophages resistant or susceptible to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; da Costa, Luciana Fachini; Romão, Everton de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2015-01-15

    In this study we assessed the basal transcription of genes associated with innate immunity (i.e. Nramp1, NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, and TLR9) in canine monocyte-derived macrophages from Leishmania-free dogs. Additionally, secretion of cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-?) and nitric oxide in culture supernatants of macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum was also measured. Constitutive transcription of TLR9 and NOD2 were negligible; NOD1, TLR1, and TLR7 had low levels of transcription, whereas Nramp1 and TLR2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 had higher levels of constitutive transcription in canine monocyte-derived macrophages. There were no significant differences in transcription between macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of L. infantum. Secretion of TNF-? was higher in more resistant macrophages (designated as resistant) at 24h after infection when compared to less resistant macrophages (designated as susceptible), as well as the secretion of IFN-? at 72 h post infection. Secretion of IL-10 was lower in resistant macrophages at 24h after infection. No detectable production of nitric oxide was observed. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between NOD2 transcript levels and intracellular survival of L. infantum in resistant macrophages. This study demonstrated that decreased intracellular survival of L. infantum in canine macrophages was associated with increased production of TNF-? and IFN-? and decreased production of IL-10; and that constitutive transcription of Nramp1, TLR and NLR does not interfere in intracellular survival of L. infantum. PMID:25466388

  20. Chitin Induces Tissue Accumulation of Innate Immune Cells Associated with Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Tiffany A.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Tager, AndrewN M.; Luster, Andrew D.; Van Rooijen, Nico; Voehringer, David; Locksley, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic and parasitic helminth immunity is characterized by infiltration of tissues with IL-4- and IL-13-expressing cells, including Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils1. Tissue macrophages assume a distinct phenotype, designated alternatively activated macrophages2. Relatively little is known regarding factors that trigger these host responses. Chitin, a widespread environmental biopolymer of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine, confers structural rigidity to fungi, crustaceans, helminths and insects3. Here, we show that chitin induces the tissue accumulation of IL-4-expressing innate immune cells, including eosinophils and basophils, when given to mice. Tissue infiltration was unaffected by the absence of Toll-like receptor-mediated LPS recognition and was abolished by treatment of chitin with the IL-4- and IL-13-inducible mammalian chitinase, AMCase4, or by injection into mice that over-expressed AMCase. Chitin mediated alternative macrophage activation in vivo and production of leukotriene B4, which was required for optimal immune cell recruitment. Chitin is a recognition element for tissue infiltration by innate cells implicated in allergic and helminth immunity and this process can be negatively regulated by a vertebrate chitinase. PMID:17450126

  1. Replication ofChlamydia pneumoniaeIn Vitro in Human Macrophages, Endothelial Cells, and Aortic Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS; JAMES T. SUMMERSGILL; NARENDRA N. SAHNEY; JULIO A. RAMIREZ; ANDTHOMAS C. QUINN

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been associated with atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries. To investigate the biological basis for the dissemination and proliferation of this organism in such lesions, the in vitro growth of C. pneumoniae was studied in two macrophage cell lines, peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages, human bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages, several endothelial cell lines, and aortic smooth muscle cells. Five

  2. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  3. An In Vitro One-Dimensional Assay to Study Growth Factor-Regulated Tumor Cell–Macrophage Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ved P.; Beaty, Brian T.; Cox, Dianne; Condeelis, John S.; Eddy, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor-dependent pairing and motility between tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages on extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers of the tumor microenvironment have been shown to enhance intravasation and metastatic spread of breast carcinomas. We describe an in vitro motility assay that combines time- lapse wide-field microscopy and micro-patterned linear adhesive substrates to reconstitute the in vivo behavior between macrophages, tumor cells, and ECM fibers in orthotopic rodent tumor models observed by intravital imaging. Commercially available linear stripes of 650 nm dye-labeled fibronectin microlithographed onto glass cover slips are sequentially plated with fluorescently labeled MTLn3 tumor cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages and time-lapse imaged for up to 8 h. Incubation with pharmacological inhibitors during the assay can identify important paracrine or autocrine signaling pathways involved in the macrophage–tumor cell interaction. This high-resolution motility assay will lead to a more detailed description of immune cell–tumor cell behavior as well as interrogating additional cell types within the tumor microenvironment which use cytokine/growth factor paracrine signaling interactions to facilitate intravasation and metastasis. PMID:24908299

  4. T cell metabolic fitness in antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Siska, Peter J; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

    2015-04-01

    T cell metabolism has a central role in supporting and shaping immune responses and may have a key role in antitumor immunity. T cell metabolism is normally held under tight regulation in an immune response of glycolysis to promote effector T cell expansion and function. However, tumors may deplete nutrients, generate toxic products, or stimulate conserved negative feedback mechanisms, such as through Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1), to impair effector T cell nutrient uptake and metabolic fitness. In addition, regulatory T cells are favored in low glucose conditions and may inhibit antitumor immune responses. Here, we review how the tumor microenvironment modifies metabolic and functional pathways in T cells and how these changes may uncover new targets and challenges for cancer immunotherapy and treatment. PMID:25773310

  5. The iNOS/Src/FAK axis is critical in Toll-like receptor-mediated cell motility in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Maa, Ming-Chei; Chang, Miao Ying; Li, Jiarung; Li, Yu-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Yang, Ching-Jau; Chen, Yen-Jen; Li, Yahan; Chen, Hui-Chen; Cheng, Wei Erh; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Leu, Tzeng-Horng

    2011-01-01

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in innate immunity for the detection of highly conserved, pathogen-expressed molecules. Previously, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4 ligand)-increased macrophage motility required the participation of Src and FAK, which was inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent. To investigate whether this iNOS/Src/FAK pathway is a general mechanism for macrophages to mobilize in response to engagement of TLRs other than TLR4, peptidoglycan (PGN, TLR2 ligand), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C, TLR3 ligand) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG, TLR9 ligand) were used to treat macrophages in this study. Like LPS stimulation, simultaneous increase of cell motility and Src (but not Fgr, Hck, and Lyn) was detected in RAW264.7, peritoneal macrophages, and bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to PGN, polyI:C and CpG. Attenuation of Src suppressed PGN-, polyI:C-, and CpG-elicited movement and the level of FAK Pi-Tyr861, which could be reversed by the reintroduction of siRNA-resistant Src. Besides, knockdown of FAK reduced the mobility of macrophages stimulated with anyone of these TLR ligands. Remarkably, PGN-, polyI:C-, and CpG-induced Src expression, FAK Pi-Tyr861, and cell mobility were inhibited in macrophages devoid of iNOS, indicating the importance of iNOS. These findings corroborate that iNOS/Src/FAK axis occupies a central role in macrophage locomotion in response to engagement of TLRs. PMID:20849883

  6. Induction of interleukin-12 production in mouse macrophages by berberine, a benzodioxoloquinolizine alkaloid, deviates CD4+ T cells from a Th2 to a Th1 response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae S; Kang, Bok Y; Cho, Daeho; Kim, Seung H

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether berberine-mediated induction of interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in antigen-presenting cells could regulate a cytokine profile of antigen-primed CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. Pretreatment with berberine induced IL-12 production in both macrophages and dendritic cells, and significantly increased the levels of IL-12 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and in CD40 ligand-stimulated dendritic cells. Importantly, berberine pretreatment of macrophages increased their ability to induce interferon-? (IFN-?) and reduced their ability to induce IL-4 in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. Berberine did not influence the macrophage cell surface expression of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1. Addition of neutralizing anti-IL-12p40 monoclonal antibody to cultures of berberine-pretreated macrophages and CD4+ T cells restored IL-4 production in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. The in vivo administration of berberine resulted in the enhanced induction of IL-12 production by macrophages when stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes, leading to the inhibition of the Th type 2 cytokine profile (decreased IL-4 and increased IFN-? production) in antigen-primed CD4+ T cells. These findings may point to a possible therapeutic use of berberine or medicinal plants containing berberine in the Th type 2 cell-mediated immune diseases such as allergic diseases. PMID:12807487

  7. Establishment and characterization of a macrophage cell line from the goldfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Wang; N. F Neumann; Q Shen; M Belosevic

    1995-01-01

    A long-term macrophage cell line from the goldfish was established, which has been maintained in culture for more than 2 years. The macrophages were originally isolated by Percoll®density gradient centrifugation from the kidneys of goldfish and were grown in specially formulated medium. The macrophages used for the characterization of the cell line have undergone 50 bi-weekly passages. Fish macrophages grew

  8. Dynamics of macrophage trogocytosis of rituximab-coated B cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Theodore; Mero, Patricia; Booth, James W

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages can remove antigen from the surface of antibody-coated cells by a process termed trogocytosis. Using live cell microscopy and flow cytometry, we investigated the dynamics of trogocytosis by RAW264.7 macrophages of Ramos B cells opsonized with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Spontaneous and reversible formation of uropods was observed on Ramos cells, and these showed a strong enrichment in rituximab binding. RAW-Ramos conjugate interfaces were highly enriched in rituximab, and transfer of rituximab to the RAW cells in submicron-sized puncta occurred shortly after cell contact. Membrane from the target cells was concomitantly transferred along with rituximab to a variable extent. We established a flow cytometry-based approach to follow the kinetics of transfer and internalization of rituximab. Disruption of actin polymerization nearly eliminated transfer, while blocking phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity only resulted in a delay in its acquisition. Inhibition of Src family kinase activity both slowed acquisition and reduced the extent of trogocytosis. The effects of inhibiting these kinases are likely due to their role in efficient formation of cell-cell conjugates. Selective pre-treatment of Ramos cells with phenylarsine oxide blocked uropod formation, reduced enrichment of rituximab at cell-cell interfaces, and reduced the efficiency of trogocytic transfer of rituximab. Our findings highlight that dynamic changes in target cell shape and surface distribution of antigen may significantly influence the progression and extent of trogocytosis. Understanding the mechanistic determinants of macrophage trogocytosis will be important for optimal design of antibody therapies. PMID:21264210

  9. Friendly fire against neutrophils: proteolytic enzymes confuse the recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Krzysztof; Potempa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Physiologically the only acceptable fate for almost all damaged or unwanted cells is their apoptotic death, followed by engulfment of the corpses by healthy neighbors or professional phagocytes. Efficient clearance of cells that have succumbed to apoptosis is crucial for normal tissue homeostasis, and for the modulation of immune responses. The disposal of apoptotic cells is finely regulated by a highly redundant system of receptors, bridging molecules and 'eat me' signals. The complexity of the system is reflected by the term: 'engulfment synapse', used to describe the interaction between a phagocytic cell and its target. In healthy humans, dying neutrophils are the most abundant and important targets for such recognition and engulfment. In inflammation the scope and importance of this complicated task is further increased. Paradoxically, despite growing evidence highlighting the priority of neutrophils clearance, the recognition of these cells by phagocytes is not as well understood as the recognition of other apoptotic cell types. New findings indicate that the interaction of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic neutrophils with its receptor on macrophages is not as critical for the specific clearance of neutrophil corpses it was previously believed. In this review we focus on recent findings regarding alternative, PS-independent "eat me" signals expressed on neutrophils during cell death and activation. Based on our own research, we emphasize the clearance of dying neutrophils, especially at the focus of bacterial infection; and the associated inflammatory reaction, which occurs in a highly proteolytic milieu containing both host and bacteria-derived proteinases. In these environments, eat-me signals expressed by neutrophils are drastically modified; arguing against the phospholipid-based detection of apoptotic cells, but supporting the importance of proteinaceous ligand(s) for the recognition of neutrophils by macrophages. In this context we discuss the effect of the gingipain R (Rgp) proteinases from Porphyromonas gingivalis on neutrophils interactions with macrophages. Since the recognition of apoptotic neutrophils is an important fundamental process, serving multiple functions in the regulation of immunity and homeostasis, we hypothesize that many pathogenic bacteria may have developed similar strategies to confuse macrophage-neutrophil interaction as a common pathogenic strategy. PMID:17964056

  10. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Revisited: New Insights into the Regulation of Immunity, Inflammation and Metabolic Function following Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jessica C.; Nair, Meera G.

    2014-01-01

    The role of macrophages in homeostatic conditions and the immune system range from clearing debris to recognizing and killing pathogens. While classically activated macrophages (CAMacs) are induced by T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines and exhibit microbicidal properties, Th2 cytokines promote alternative activation of macrophages (AAMacs). AAMacs contribute to the killing of helminth parasites and mediate additional host-protective processes such as regulating inflammation and wound healing. Yet, other parasites susceptible to Th1 type responses can exploit alternative activation of macrophages to diminish Th1 immune responses and prolong infection. In this review, we will delineate the factors that mediate alternative activation (e.g. Th2 cytokines and chitin) and the resulting downstream signaling events (e.g. STAT6 signaling). Next, the specific AAMac-derived factors (e.g. Arginase1) that contribute to resistance or susceptibility to parasitic infections will be summarized. Finally, we will conclude with the discussion of additional AAMac functions beyond immunity to parasites, including the regulation of inflammation, wound healing and the regulation of metabolic disorders. PMID:24772059

  11. Orchestration of Angiogenesis by Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Antonino; Pagani, Arianna; Pulze, Laura; Albini, Adriana; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Noonan, Douglas M.; Mortara, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) plays a major role in cancer and is indispensable for tumor progression. The TUMIC involves many “players” going well beyond the malignant-transformed cells, including stromal, immune, and endothelial cells (ECs). The non-malignant cells can acquire tumor-promoting functions during carcinogenesis. In particular, these cells can “orchestrate” the “symphony” of the angiogenic switch, permitting the creation of new blood vessels that allows rapid expansion and progression toward malignancy. Considerable attention within the context of tumor angiogenesis should focus not only on the ECs, representing a fundamental unit, but also on immune cells and on the inflammatory tumor infiltrate. Immune cells infiltrating tumors typically show a tumor-induced polarization associated with attenuation of anti-tumor functions and generation of pro-tumor activities, among these angiogenesis. Here, we propose a scenario suggesting that the angiogenic switch is an immune switch arising from the pro-angiogenic polarization of immune cells. This view links immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis to tumor progression. Here, we review the data in the literature and seek to identify the “conductors” of this “orchestra.” We also suggest that interrupting the immune???inflammation???angiogenesis???tumor progression process can delay or prevent tumor insurgence and malignant disease. PMID:25072019

  12. Modelling and analysis of macrophage activation pathways 

    E-print Network

    Raza, Sobia

    2011-11-25

    Macrophages are present in virtually all tissues and account for approximately 10% of all body mass. Although classically credited as the scavenger cells of innate immune system, ridding a host of pathogenic material and ...

  13. Effects of Amphotericin B on Macrophages and Their Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-San; Medoff, Gerald; Kobayashi, George S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of amphotericin B (AmB) treatment on the mononuclear phagocyte system of mice was investigated. Peritoneal macrophages from mice that received AmB treatment showed a higher phagocytic and antibacterial activity than those from normal untreated mice. When the levels of macrophage precursor cells in bone marrow and spleen were followed in mice after AmB treatment, an eightfold increase in the splenic content of limited stem cells for both macrophages and granulocytes (colony-forming units in culture) and a threefold increase in the number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (colony-forming units in spleen) were observed on day 4. These were also accompanied by a slight increase in the colony-forming units in spleen and in culture in femoral marrows. AmB was capable of inducing a large number of peritoneal colony-forming cells in the peritoneum, and caused a significant rise in the serum level of colony-stimulating factor. No significant change in the level of blood monocytes was noted, although a transient increase in the proportion of neutrophils was observed within 24 h after AmB treatment. PMID:836011

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids as modulators of macrophage respiratory burst in the immune response against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Stephanie; Schoeniger, Axel; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Schumann, Julia

    In this paper, using the monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7, we systematically investigate the impact of macrophage enrichment with unsaturated fatty acids on cellular radical synthesis. We found that the intracellular production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates depends on the activation status of the macrophages. For unstimulated macrophages PUFA enrichment resulted in an increase in cellular radical synthesis. For stimulated macrophages, instead, an impeding action of unsaturated fatty acids on the respiratory burst could be seen. Of particular importance, the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on the macrophage respiratory burst was also observed in RAW264.7 cells cocultivated with viable bacteria of the species Rhodococcus equi or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PUFA supplementation of macrophages in the presence of R. equi or P. aeruginosa reduced the pathogen-stimulated synthesis of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates. Furthermore, the unsaturated fatty acids were found to impede the expression of the myeloperoxidase gene and to reduce the activity of the enzyme. Hence, our data provide indications of a possible value of PUFA application to people suffering from chronic infections with R. equi and P. aeruginosa as a concomitant treatment to attenuate an excessive respiratory burst. PMID:22658994

  15. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by depleting bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Valérie; Winkler, Ingrid G; Lévesque, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    An important factor contributing to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization is the ability of mobilizing cytokines and chemotherapy to disturb the cellular components of HSC niches, particularly osteoblasts and their progenitors, and to inhibit the production of HSC supportive cytokines and chemokines. Although the mechanisms by which niche cells are inhibited by mobilizing treatments is still incompletely understood, it has recently emerged that bone marrow macrophages play a critical role in maintaining osteoblasts, bone formation, and the expression of CXCL12, KIT ligand, and angiopoietin-1 necessary to HSC maintenance. In this chapter, we describe how to mobilize HSC into the blood in mice by depleting macrophages with clodronate-loaded liposomes and compare this mode of mobilization to mobilization induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and cyclophosphamide. Detailed methods to analyze mobilization of phenotypic and functional reconstituting HSC are described with examples. PMID:22890928

  16. Monocytes and macrophages, implications for breast cancer migration and stem cell-like activity and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rebecca; Sims, Andrew H; Lee, Alexander; Lo, Christina; Wynne, Luke; Yusuf, Humza; Gregson, Hannah; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica; Landberg, Göran; Lamb, Rebecca

    2015-06-10

    Macrophages are a major cellular constituent of the tumour stroma and contribute to breast cancer prognosis. The precise role and treatment strategies to target macrophages remain elusive. As macrophage infiltration is associated with poor prognosis and high grade tumours we used the THP-1 cell line to model monocyte-macrophage differentiation in co-culture with four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) to model in vivo cellular interactions. Polarisation into M1 and M2 subtypes was confirmed by specific cell marker expression of ROS and HLA-DR, respectively. Co-culture with all types of macrophage increased migration of ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, while M2-macrophages increased mammosphere formation, compared to M1-macrophages, in all breast cancer cells lines. Treatment of cells with Zoledronate in co-culture reduced the "pro-tumourigenic" effects (increased mammospheres/migration) exerted by macrophages. Direct treatment of breast cancer cells in homotypic culture was unable to reduce migration or mammosphere formation.Macrophages promote "pro-tumourigenic" cellular characteristics of breast cancer cell migration and stem cell activity. Zoledronate targets macrophages within the microenvironment which in turn, reduces the "pro-tumourigenic" characteristics of breast cancer cells. Zoledronate offers an exciting new treatment strategy for both primary and metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26008983

  17. Macrophage and T cell dynamics during the development and disintegration of mycobacterial granulomas.

    PubMed

    Egen, Jackson G; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Feng, Carl G; Winter, Nathalie; Sher, Alan; Germain, Ronald N

    2008-02-01

    Granulomas play a key role in host protection against mycobacterial pathogens, with their breakdown contributing to exacerbated disease. To better understand the initiation and maintenance of these structures, we employed both high-resolution multiplex static imaging and intravital multiphoton microscopy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced liver granulomas. We found that Kupffer cells directly capture blood-borne bacteria and subsequently nucleate formation of a nascent granuloma by recruiting both uninfected liver-resident macrophages and blood-derived monocytes. Within the mature granuloma, these myeloid cell populations formed a relatively immobile cellular matrix that interacted with a highly dynamic effector T cell population. The efficient recruitment of these T cells was highly dependent on TNF-alpha-derived signals, which also maintained the granuloma structure through preferential effects on uninfected macrophage populations. By characterizing the migration of both innate and adaptive immune cells throughout the process of granuloma development, these studies provide a new perspective on the cellular events involved in mycobacterial containment and escape. PMID:18261937

  18. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  19. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  20. Playing hide-and-seek with host macrophages through the use of mycobacterial cell envelope phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Arbues, Ainhoa; Lugo-Villarino, GeanCarlo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Guilhot, Christophe; Astarie-Dequeker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), have evolved a remarkable ability to evade the immune system in order to survive and to colonize the host. Among the most important evasion strategies is the capacity of these bacilli to parasitize host macrophages, since these are major effector cells against intracellular pathogens that can be used as long-term cellular reservoirs. Mycobacterial pathogens employ an array of virulence factors that manipulate macrophage function to survive and establish infection. Until recently, however, the role of mycobacterial cell envelope lipids as virulence factors in macrophage subversion has remained elusive. Here, we will address exclusively the proposed role for phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) in the modulation of the resident macrophage response and that of phenolic glycolipids (PGL) in the regulation of the recruitment and phenotype of incoming macrophage precursors to the site of infection. We will provide a unique perspective of potential additional functions for these lipids, and highlight obstacles and opportunities to further understand their role in the pathogenesis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases. PMID:25538905

  1. The Role of Chemokines in Recruitment of Immune Cells to the Artery Wall and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Surmi, Bonnie K.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2009-01-01

    The role of the immune system is to recognize pathogens, tumor cells or dead cells and to react with a very specific and localized response. By taking advantage of a highly sophisticated system of chemokines and chemokine receptors, leukocytes such as neutrophils, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes are targeted to the precise location of inflammation. While this is a beneficial process for acute infection and inflammation, recruitment of immune cells to sites of chronic inflammation can be detrimental. It is becoming clear that these inflammatory cells play a significant role in the initiation and progression of metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis and insulin resistance by infiltrating the artery wall and adipose tissue (AT), respectively. Data from human studies indicate that elevated plasma levels of chemokines are correlated with these metabolic diseases. Recruitment of macrophages to the artery wall is well known to be one of the first steps in early atherosclerotic lesion formation. Likewise, recruitment of macrophages to AT is thought to contribute to insulin resistance associated with obesity. Based on this knowledge, much recent work in these areas has focused on the role of chemokines in attracting immune cells (monocytes/macrophages in particular) to these 2 sites. Thus, understanding the potential for chemokines to contribute to metabolic disease can help direct studies of chemokines as therapeutic targets. In this article, we will review current literature regarding the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis and obesity-related insulin resistance. We will focus on novel work showing that chemokine secretion from endothelial cells, platelets, and adipocytes can contribute to immune cell recruitment, with a diagram showing the time course of chemokine expression and leukocyte recruitment to AT. We will also highlight a few of the less-commonly known chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs. Finally, we will discuss the potential for chemokines as therapeutic targets for treatment of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. PMID:20026286

  2. Protection Of Alveolar Macrophages And MARC 145 Cells From Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Challenge By Swine Interferon-Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferon beta, a type I IFN, is crucial in initiating the innate immune response and in the generation of the adaptive response. This study demonstrated the capacity of swine interferon beta (swIFN beta) to protect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and MARC145 cells from infection with porcine re...

  3. IL-10 Production in Macrophages Is Regulated by a TLR-Driven CREB-Mediated Mechanism That Is Linked to Genes Involved in Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanin, David E.; Prendergast, Catriona T.

    2015-01-01

    IL-10 is produced by macrophages in diverse immune settings and is critical in limiting immune-mediated pathology. In helminth infections, macrophages are an important source of IL-10; however, the molecular mechanism underpinning production of IL-10 by these cells is poorly characterized. In this study, bone marrow–derived macrophages exposed to excretory/secretory products released by Schistosoma mansoni cercariae rapidly produce IL-10 as a result of MyD88-mediated activation of MEK/ERK/RSK and p38. The phosphorylation of these kinases was triggered by TLR2 and TLR4 and converged on activation of the transcription factor CREB. Following phosphorylation, CREB is recruited to a novel regulatory element in the Il10 promoter and is also responsible for regulating a network of genes involved in metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, skin-resident tissue macrophages, which encounter S. mansoni excretory/secretory products during infection, are the first monocytes to produce IL-10 in vivo early postinfection with S. mansoni cercariae. The early and rapid release of IL-10 by these cells has the potential to condition the dermal microenvironment encountered by immune cells recruited to this infection site, and we propose a mechanism by which CREB regulates the production of IL-10 by macrophages in the skin, but also has a major effect on their metabolic state. PMID:26116503

  4. AMPD3 is involved in anthrax LeTx-induced macrophage cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangun Lee; Yanhai Wang; Sung Ouk Kim; Jiahuai Han

    2011-01-01

    The responses of macrophages to Bacillus anthracis infection are important for the survival of the host, since macrophages are required for the germination of B. anthracis spores in lymph nodes, and macrophage death exacerbates anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx)-induced organ collapse. To elucidate\\u000a the mechanism of macrophage cell death induced by LeTx, we performed a genetic screen to search for genes

  5. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong, E-mail: nzhang@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC.

  6. Dendritic Cells: Translating Innate to Adaptive Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Steinman; H. Hemmi

    The innate immune system provides many ways to quickly resist infection. The twobest-studieddefenses indendritic cells (DCs)\\u000a are the productionof protective cytokines—like interleukin (IL)-12 and type I interferons—and the activation and expansion\\u000a of innate lymphocytes. IL-12 and type I interferons influence distinct steps in the adaptive immune response of lymphocytes,\\u000a including the polarization of Thelper type 1 (Th1)CD4+ T cells, thedevelopment

  7. Signal transduction induced by apoptotic cells inhibits HIV transcription in monocytes\\/macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bethsebah N. Gekonge; Gillian Schiralli; Robert A. Schlegel; Andrew J. Henderson

    2006-01-01

    The primary targets of HIV are CD4 T cells and macrophages. HIV infection is associ- ated with an increase in apoptosis of infected and uninfected CD4 T cells, and these infected cells undergo apoptosis and produce HIV virions with phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface. During phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, macrophages, us- ing an array of receptors, are able to perceive

  8. T cells and macrophages responding to oxidative damage cooperate in pathogenesis of a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Guilloty, Fernando; Saeed, Ali M; Duffort, Stephanie; Cano, Marisol; Ebrahimi, Katayoon B; Ballmick, Asha; Tan, Yaohong; Wang, Hua; Laird, James M; Salomon, Robert G; Handa, James T; Perez, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major disease affecting central vision, but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood. Using a mouse model, we examined the relationship of two factors implicated in AMD development: oxidative stress and the immune system. Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) is a lipid peroxidation product associated with AMD in humans and AMD-like pathology in mice. Previously, we demonstrated that CEP immunization leads to retinal infiltration of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages before overt retinal degeneration. Here, we provide direct and indirect mechanisms for the effect of CEP on macrophages, and show for the first time that antigen-specific T cells play a leading role in AMD pathogenesis. In vitro, CEP directly induced M1 macrophage polarization and production of M1-related factors by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In vivo, CEP eye injections in mice induced acute pro-inflammatory gene expression in the retina and human AMD eyes showed distinctively diffuse CEP immunolabeling within RPE cells. Importantly, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing CEP-specific T cells were identified ex vivo after CEP immunization and promoted M1 polarization in co-culture experiments. Finally, T cell immunosuppressive therapy inhibited CEP-mediated pathology. These data indicate that T cells and M1 macrophages activated by oxidative damage cooperate in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24586307

  9. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  10. Transfer of extracellular vesicles during immune cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Mittelbrunn, María; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The transfer of molecules between cells during cognate immune cell interactions has been reported, and recently a novel mechanism of transfer of proteins and genetic material such as small RNA between T cells and APCs has been described, involving exchange of extracellular vesicles (EVs) during the formation of the immunological synapse (IS). EVs – a term that encompasses exosomes and microvesicles – have been implicated in cell-cell communication during immune responses associated with tumors, pathogens, allergies and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on EV transfer as a mechanism for the exchange of molecules during immune cell-cell interactions. PMID:23278745

  11. Expression of fgf23 in activated dendritic cells and macrophages in response to immunological stimuli in mice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Morita, Yumiko; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) are polypeptide growth factors with diverse biological activities. While several studies have revealed that Fgf23 plays important roles in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, the additional physiological roles of Fgf23 remain unclear. Although it is believed that osteoblasts/osteocytes are the main sources of Fgf23, we previously found that Fgf23 mRNA is also expressed in the mouse thymus, suggesting that it might be involved in the immune system. In this study we examined the potential roles of Fgf23 in immunological responses. Mouse serum Fgf23 levels were significantly increased following inoculation with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. We also identified activated dendritic cells and macrophages that potentially contributed to increased serum Fgf23 levels. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling was essential for the induction of Fgf23 expression in dendritic cells in response to immunological stimuli. Moreover, we examined the effects of recombinant Fgf23 protein on immune cells in vitro. Fgfr1c, a potential receptor for Fgf23, was abundantly expressed in macrophages, suggesting that Fgf23 might be involved in signal transduction in these cells. Our data suggest that Fgf23 potentially increases the number in macrophages and induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), a proinflammatory cytokine. Collectively, these data suggest that Fgf23 might be intimately involved in inflammatory processes. PMID:25739891

  12. Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane E. Wobus; Stephanie M. Karst; Larissa B. Thackray; Kyeong-Ok Chang; Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev; Gaël Belliot; Anne Krug; Jason M. Mackenzie; Kim Y. Green; Herbert W. Virgin

    2004-01-01

    Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-?? receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution

  13. Click hybridization of immune cells and polyamidoamine dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leyuan; Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Yeudall, W Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilizing highly branched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to the cell surface represents an innovative method of enhancing cell surface loading capacity to deliver therapeutic and imaging agents. In this work, hybridized immune cells, that is, macrophage RAW264.7 (RAW), with PAMAM dendrimer G4.0 (DEN) on the basis of bioorthogonal chemistry are clicked. Efficient and selective cell surface immobilization of dendrimers is confirmed by confocal microscopy. Viability and motility of RAW-DEN hybrids remain the same as untreated RAW cells according to WST-1 assay and wound closure assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis reveals that there are no significant alterations in the expression levels of signaling molecules AKT, p38, and NF?B (p65) and their corresponding activated (phosphorylated) forms in RAW cells treated with azido sugar and dendrimer, indicating that the hybridization process neither induced cell stress response nor altered normal signaling pathways. Taken together, this work shows the feasibility of applying bioorthogonal chemistry to create cell-nanoparticle hybrids and demonstrates the noninvasiveness of this cell surface engineering approach. PMID:24574321

  14. An efferocytosis-induced, IL-4–dependent macrophage-iNKT cell circuit suppresses sterile inflammation and is defective in murine CGD

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Melody Yue; Pham, Duy; Bagaitkar, Juhi; Liu, Jianyun; Otero, Karel; Shan, Ming; Wynn, Thomas A.; Brombacher, Frank; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages following tissue injury is fundamental to the resolution of inflammation and initiation of tissue repair. Using a sterile peritonitis model in mice, we identified interleukin (IL)-4–producing efferocytosing macrophages in the peritoneum that activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to produce cytokines including IL-4, IL-13, and interferon-?. Importantly, IL-4 from macrophages contributes to alternative activation of peritoneal exudate macrophages and augments type 2 cytokine production from NKT cells to suppress inflammation. The increased peritonitis in mice deficient in IL-4, NKT cells, or IL-4R? expression on myeloid cells suggested that each is a key component for resolution of sterile inflammation. The reduced NAD phosphate oxidase is also critical for this model, because in mice with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) that lack oxidase subunits, activation of iNKT cells by X-CGD peritoneal exudate macrophages was impaired during sterile peritonitis, resulting in enhanced and prolonged inflammation in these mice. Therefore, efferocytosis-induced IL-4 production and activation of IL-4–producing iNKT cells by macrophages are immunomodulatory events in an innate immune circuit required to resolve sterile inflammation and promote tissue repair. PMID:23426944

  15. Cell-mediated Transfer of Catalase Nanoparticles from Macrophages to Brain Endothelial and Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Matthew J.; Zhao, Yuling; Li, Shu; Higginbotham, Sheila M.; Booth, Stephanie L.; Han, Huai-Yun; Vetro, Joseph A.; Mosley, R. Lee; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Batrakova, Elena V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our laboratories forged the concept of macrophage delivery of protein antioxidants to attenuate neuroinflammation and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Notably, the delivery of the redox enzyme, catalase, incorporated into a polyion complex micelle (“nanozyme”) by bone marrow-derived macrophages protected the nigrostriatal against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication. Nonetheless, how macrophage delivery of nanozyme increases the efficacy of catalase remains unknown. Methods Herein, we examined the transfer of nanozyme from macrophages to brain microvessel endothelial cells, neurons and astrocytes. Results Facilitated transport of the nanozyme from macrophages to endothelial and neural target cells occurred through endocytosis-independent mechanisms that involved fusion of cellular membranes; macrophage bridging conduits; and nanozyme lipid coatings. Nanozyme transfer was operative across an artificial blood brain barrier and showed efficient reactive oxygen species decomposition. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that drug-loaded macrophages discharge particles to contiguous target cells for potential therapeutic brain enzyme delivery. The pathways for drug delivery shown may be used for the treatment of degenerative disorders of the nervous system. PMID:21449849

  16. Alveolar macrophage accessory cell function in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Gant, V; Cluzel, M; Shakoor, Z; Rees, P J; Lee, T H; Hamblin, A S

    1992-10-01

    The capacity of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to present recall antigens, namely, tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) or streptokinase-streptodornase (SKSD), to highly purified autologous T-cells has been studied in 11 asthmatic and 11 healthy, nonatopic normal subjects. In the asthmatic group, AM accessory cell function was variable, and most subjects were unable to present either recall antigen as effectively as blood monocytes, although one asthmatic subject demonstrated larger proliferative responses than blood monocytes for both antigens. AM accessory cell activity was not antigen-specific, and there was a correlation between accessory cell efficacy for the two antigens (r = 0.92; confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, a correlation existed between the percentage lymphocyte count in the BAL fluid and the ratio of macrophage to monocyte antigen-presenting capability for both PPD (r = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) and SKSD (r = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.98). In the normal subjects, AM were also unable to act effectively as accessory cells for the presentation of PPD and SKSD in the majority of subjects. No correlation existed between the percentage lymphocytes in BAL fluid and the ratio of AM to monocyte accessory cell function. These results suggest an association between AM accessory function and the presence of BAL lymphocytes in bronchial asthma. PMID:1416417

  17. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin P. Edwards; David M. Mosser

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. In this Review we suggest a new grouping of macrophage populations based on three different homeostatic activities — host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. We propose that similarly to primary colours, these

  18. Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiping Zou

    2006-01-01

    Tumours express a range of antigens, including self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are crucial for maintaining T-cell tolerance to self-antigens. Regulatory T cells are thought to dampen T-cell immunity to tumour-associated antigens and to be the main obstacle tempering successful immunotherapy and active vaccination. In this Review, I consider the nature and characteristics of regulatory T cells in the tumour microenvironment

  19. T Cell Immune Reconstitution Following Lymphodepletion

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kirsten; Hakim, Frances T.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    T cell reconstitution following lymphopenia from chemotherapy or stem cell transplant is often slow and incompetent, contributing to the development of infectious diseases, relapse, and graft-versus-host disease. This is due to the fact that de novo T cell production is impaired following cytoreductive regimens. T cells can be generated from two pathways: 1) thymus derived through active thymopoiesis and 2) peripherally expanded clones through homeostatic proliferation. In the development of lymphopenia, the thymic pathway is commonly compromised in adults and T cells rely upon peripheral expansion to recover T cell numbers. This homeostatic proliferation exploits the high cytokine levels following lymphopenia to rapidly generate T cells in the periphery. Moreover, this early peripheral expansion of T cells can also be driven by exogenous antigen. This results in loss of T cell repertoire diversity and may predispose to auto- or alloimmunity. Alternatively, the high homeostatic proliferation following lymphopenia may facilitate expansion of anti-tumor immunity. Murine and human studies have provided insight into the cytokine and cellular regulators of these two pathways of T cell generation and the disparate portraits of T cell immunity created through robust thymopoiesis or peripheral expansion following lymphopenia. This insight has permitted the manipulation of the immune system to maximize anti-tumor immunity through lymphopenia and led to an appreciation of mechanisms that underlie graft vs. host disease. PMID:18023361

  20. The interaction of Aloe pectin microparticles with macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Rainey, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    , allows sustained release, and enables targeting of specific cells and tissues. In addition, by targeting delivery to and stimulating antigen presenting immune cells (such as macrophages) microparticles have the potential to act as adjuvants, enhancing...

  1. Insights how monocytes and dendritic cells contribute and regulate immune defense against microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Kristin; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2015-02-01

    The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating invading pathogens. Beside neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) have been recently identified as important sentinels and effectors in combating microbial pathogens. In the steady state mononuclear phagocytes like monocytes and DCs patrol the blood and the tissues. Mammalian monocytes contribute to antimicrobial defense by supplying tissues with macrophage and DC precursors. DCs recognize pathogens and are essential in presenting antigens to initiate antigen-specific adaptive immune responses, thereby bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. Both, monocytes and DCs play distinct roles in the shaping of immune response. In this review we will focus on the contributions of monocytes and lymphoid organ DCs to immune defense against microbial pathogens in the mouse and their dynamic regulation from steady state to infection. PMID:25468558

  2. Soluble factors from colonic epithelial cells contribute to gut homeostasis by modulating macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kristek, Maja; Collins, Laura E; DeCourcey, Joseph; McEvoy, Fiona A; Loscher, Christine E

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal macrophages originate from inflammatory blood monocytes which migrate to the intestine, where they differentiate into anti-inflammatory macrophages through a number of transitional stages. These macrophages typically remain hypo-responsive to commensal bacteria and food Ags in the intestine, yet also retain the ability to react to invading pathogens. In this study we examined the role of epithelial cells in inducing this intestinal macrophage phenotype. Using an in vitro system we showed that, in two-dimensional culture, epithelial cell-derived factors from a murine cell line, CMT-93, are sufficient to induce phenotypic changes in macrophages. Exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages, J774A.1, to soluble factors derived from epithelial cells, induced an altered phenotype similar to that of intestinal macrophages with decreased production of IL-12p40, IL-6 and IL-23 and expression of MHC ?? and CD80 following TLR ligation. Furthermore, these conditioned macrophages showed enhanced phagocytic activity in parallel with low respiratory burst and NO production, similar to the response seen in intestinal macrophages. Our findings suggest a role for colonic epithelial cells in modulation of macrophage phenotype for maintenance of gut homeostasis. Further understanding of the cell interactions that maintain homeostasis in the gut could reveal novel therapeutic strategies to restore the balance in disease. PMID:25298104

  3. Reciprocal interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in angiogenic vascular niches

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Caroline; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa, E-mail: arispe@mcdb.ucla.edu [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, CA (United States); De Palma, Michele, E-mail: michele.depalma@epfl.ch [The Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The ability of macrophages to promote vascular growth has been associated with the secretion and local delivery of classic proangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and proteases). More recently, a series of studies have also revealed that physical contact of macrophages with growing blood vessels coordinates vascular fusion of emerging sprouts. Interestingly, the interactions between macrophages and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) appear to be bidirectional, such that activated ECs also support the expansion and differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages from myeloid progenitors. Here, we discuss recent findings suggesting that dynamic angiogenic vascular niches might also exist in vivo, e.g. in tumors, where sprouting blood vessels and immature myeloid cells like monocytes engage in heterotypic interactions that are required for angiogenesis. Finally, we provide an account of emerging mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication that rely on secreted microvesicles, such as exosomes, which can offer a vehicle for the rapid exchange of molecules and genetic information between macrophages and ECs engaged in angiogenesis. -- Highlights: • Macrophages promote angiogenesis by secreting proangiogenic factors. • Macrophages modulate angiogenesis via cell-to-cell contacts with endothelial cells. • Endothelial cells promote the differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages. • Macrophages and endothelial cells may cooperate to form angiogenic vascular niches.

  4. Smac mimetics induce inflammation and necrotic tumour cell death by modulating macrophage activity.

    PubMed

    Lecis, D; De Cesare, M; Perego, P; Conti, A; Corna, E; Drago, C; Seneci, P; Walczak, H; Colombo, M P; Delia, D; Sangaletti, S

    2013-01-01

    Smac mimetics (SMs) comprise a class of small molecules that target members of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of pro-survival proteins, whose expression in cancer cells hinders the action of conventional chemotherapeutics. Herein, we describe the activity of SM83, a newly synthesised dimeric SM, in two cancer ascites models: athymic nude mice injected intraperitoneally with IGROV-1 human ovarian carcinoma cells and immunocompetent BALB/c mice injected with murine Meth A sarcoma cells. SM83 rapidly killed ascitic IGROV-1 and Meth A cells in vivo (prolonging mouse survival), but was ineffective against the same cells in vitro. IGROV-1 cells in nude mice were killed within the ascites by a non-apoptotic, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent mechanism. SM83 administration triggered a rapid inflammatory event characterised by host secretion of TNF, interleukin-1? and interferon-?. This inflammatory response was associated with the reversion of the phenotype of tumour-associated macrophages from a pro-tumoural M2- to a pro-inflammatory M1-like state. SM83 treatment was also associated with a massive recruitment of neutrophils that, however, was not essential for the antitumoural activity of this compound. In BALB/c mice bearing Meth A ascites, SM83 treatment was in some cases curative, and these mice became resistant to a second injection of cancer cells, suggesting that they had developed an adaptive immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that, in vivo, SM83 modulates the immune system within the tumour microenvironment and, through its pro-inflammatory action, leads cancer cells to die by necrosis with the release of high-mobility group box-1. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that SMs could be more therapeutically active than expected by stimulating the immune system. PMID:24232096

  5. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP’s ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP’s ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP’s interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages. PMID:24885748

  6. Ca2+ Signaling but Not Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Is Required for the Function of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Vaeth, Martin; Zee, Isabelle; Concepcion, Axel R; Maus, Mate; Shaw, Patrick; Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Zahra, Aleena; Kozhaya, Lina; Weidinger, Carl; Philips, Jennifer; Unutmaz, Derya; Feske, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) through Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels is essential for immunity to infection. CRAC channels are formed by ORAI1 proteins in the plasma membrane and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 and STIM2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections due to impaired T cell function. SOCE has also been observed in cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) and may provide Ca(2+) signals required for their function. The specific role of SOCE in macrophage and DC function, as well as its contribution to innate immunity, however, is not well defined. We found that nonselective inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling strongly impairs many effector functions of bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow-derived DCs, including phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, and priming of T cells. Surprisingly, however, macrophages and DCs from mice with conditional deletion of Stim1 and Stim2 genes, and therefore complete inhibition of SOCE, showed no major functional defects. Their differentiation, FcR-dependent and -independent phagocytosis, phagolysosome fusion, cytokine production, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and their ability to present Ags to activate T cells were preserved. Our findings demonstrate that STIM1, STIM2, and SOCE are dispensable for many critical effector functions of macrophages and DCs, which has important implications for CRAC channel inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to suppress pathogenic T cells while not interfering with myeloid cell functions required for innate immunity. PMID:26109647

  7. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-? signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  8. B Cells Modulate Mucosal Associated Invariant T Cell Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Rezwan, Tasmia; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    A common finding when measuring?T cell immunity to enteric bacterial vaccines in humans is the presence of background responses among individuals before immunization. Yet the nature of these background responses remains largely unknown. Recent findings show the presence in uninfected individuals of mucosal associated invariant?T (MAIT) cells that mount broad spectrum immune responses against a variety of microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Therefore, we investigated whether MAIT immune responses to intestinal bacteria might account for the background responses observed before immunization. Here we measured MAIT immune responses to commensal and enteric pathogenic bacteria in healthy individuals with no history of oral immunization with enteric bacteria. We found that MAIT cells were activated by B cells infected with various bacteria strains (commensals and pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae family), but not by uninfected cells. These responses were restricted by the non-classical MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1) and involved the endocytic pathway. The quality of these responses (i.e., cytokine profile) was dependent on bacterial load but not on the level expression of MR1 or bacterial antigen on B cell surface, suggesting that a threshold level of MR1 expression is required to trigger MAIT activation. These results provide important insights into the role of B cells as a source of antigen-presenting cells to MAIT cells and the gut immune surveillance of commensal microbiota. PMID:24432025

  9. Expression of phenotypic markers of mast cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in gallbladder mucosa with calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, A A; Szmyt, M; Malkowski, W; Surdyk-Zasada, J; Przybyszewska, W; Szmeja, J; Helak-?apaj, C; Seraszek-Jaros, A; Kaczmarek, E

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed at quantitative analysis of expression involving markers of mast cells (tryptase), monocytes/macrophages (CD68 molecule) and dendritic cells (S100 protein) in gallbladder mucosa with acute and chronic calculous cholecystitis. Routinely prepared tissue material from the patients with acute (ACC) (n = 16) and chronic calculous cholecystitis (CCC) (n = 55) was evaluated. Three cellular markers were localized by immunocytochemistry. Their expression was quantified using spatial visualization technique. The expression of tryptase was similar in acute and chronic cholecystitis. CD68 expression in ACC was significantly higher than in the CCC group. Expression of S100 protein was significantly higher in CCC as compared to the ACC group. No significant correlations were disclosed between expression of studied markers and grading in the gallbladder wall. A weak negative correlation was noted between expression of CD68 and number of gallstones in the CCC group. The spatial visualization technique allowed for a credible quantitative evaluation of expression involving markers of mast cells (MCs), monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) and dendritic cells (DCs) in gallbladder mucosa with ACC and CCC. For the first time mucosal expression of S100 protein-positive DCs was evaluated in calculous cholecystitis. The results point to distinct functions of studied cell types in the non-specific immune response in calculous cholecystitis. PMID:24375043

  10. Interleukin-17 Indirectly Promotes M2 Macrophage Differentiation through Stimulation of COX-2/PGE2 Pathway in the Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Lunxu; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; You, Zongbing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine if IL-17 indirectly regulates macrophage differentiation through up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods Human cervical cancer HeLa, human lung cancer A549, and mouse prostate cancer Myc-CaP/CR cell lines were treated with recombinant IL-17; Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were utilized to examine the cellular responses. Results IL-17 up-regulated expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in HeLa, A549, and Myc- CaP/CR cell lines. IL-17’s effects were mediated through nuclear factor-?B and ERK1/2 signaling pathways as the inhibitors of these pathways could inhibit IL-17- induced COX-2 expression. The conditional medium obtained from the cancer cells contained prostaglandin E2, the levels of which were increased by IL-17 treatment. When treated with the conditional medium, particularly with the IL-17-induced conditional medium, mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and human THP-1 monocytes expressed higher levels of IL-10 (a marker of M2 macrophages) than inducible nitric oxide synthase or tumor necrosis factor ? (markers of M1 macrophages). In contrast, when RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells were treated directly with IL-17, expression of these marker genes was not markedly changed. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that IL-17 indirectly promotes M2 macrophage differentiation through stimulation of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in the cancer cells, thus IL-17 plays an indirect role in regulating the tumor immune microenvironment. PMID:25038765

  11. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimund W Kinne; Bruno Stuhlmüller; Gerd-R Burmester

    2007-01-01

    The multitude and abundance of macrophage-derived mediators in rheumatoid arthritis and their paracrine\\/autocrine effects identify macrophages as local and systemic amplifiers of disease. Although uncovering the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis remains the ultimate means to silence the pathogenetic process, efforts in understanding how activated macrophages influence disease have led to optimization strategies to selectively target macrophages by agents tailored to

  12. Amphetamine triggers an increase in met-enkephalin simultaneously in brain areas and immune cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María A. Assis; César Collino; María de L. Figuerola; Claudia Sotomayor; Liliana M. Cancela

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed effects of amphetamine on proenkephalin-derived peptides in brain areas and immune cells in rats. Acute, as well as a repeated amphetamine treatment, decreased the concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, concomitantly with an increase of free met-enkephalin in nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, spleen, thymus and splenic macrophages. Proenkephalin protein increased in prefrontal cortex, thymus (32 kDa isoform), nucleus accumbens and spleen (44 kDa

  13. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Response to Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Roux, Christelle M.; Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The potent phagocytic and microbicidal activities of neutrophils and macrophages are among the first lines of defense against bacterial infections. Yet Staphylococcus aureus is often resistant to innate immune defense mechanisms, especially when organized as a biofilm. To investigate how S. aureus biofilms respond to macrophages and neutrophils, gene expression patterns were profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The addition of macrophages to S. aureus static biofilms led to a global suppression of the biofilm transcriptome with a wide variety of genes downregulated. Notably, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall synthesis/structure, and transcription/translation/replication were among the most highly downregulated, which was most dramatic at 1 h compared to 24 h following macrophage addition to biofilms. Unexpectedly, few genes were enhanced in biofilms after macrophage challenge. Unlike coculture with macrophages, coculture of S. aureus static biofilms with neutrophils did not greatly influence the biofilm transcriptome. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms differentially modify their gene expression patterns depending on the leukocyte subset encountered. PMID:24042108

  14. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators.

    PubMed

    Orona, N S; Tasat, D R

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5-200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO? 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO?. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O??). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O?? may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O?? may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium-related diseases. PMID:22561334

  15. Dendritic Cells: A Link Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karolina Palucka; Jacques Banchereau

    1999-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) constitute a unique system of cells able to induce primary immune responses. As a component of the innate immune system, DC organize and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DC can induce such contrasting states as active immune responsiveness or immunological tolerance. Recent years have brought a wealth of

  16. IFN?-responsive nonhematopoietic cells regulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Ludovic; Ernst, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and in mice requires interferon gamma (IFN?). While IFN? has been studied extensively for its effects on macrophages in tuberculosis, we determined that protective immunity to tuberculosis also requires IFN? responsive nonhematopoietic cells. Bone marrow chimeric mice with IFN?-unresponsive lung epithelial and endothelial cells exhibited earlier mortality and higher bacterial burdens than control mice, underexpressed indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) in lung endothelium and epithelium and overexpressed IL-17 with massive neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. We also found that the products of IDO catabolism of tryptophan selectively inhibit IL-17 production by Th17 cells, by inhibiting the action of IL-23. These results reveal a previously-unsuspected role for IFN? responsiveness in nonhematopoietic cells in regulation of immunity to M. tuberculosis, and reveal a novel mechanism for IDO inhibition of Th17 responses. PMID:20064452

  17. Functional characterization of IgM(+) B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  18. CD200 Positive Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress TNF-Alpha Secretion from CD200 Receptor Positive Macrophage-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Mika; Lehtonen, Siri; Tuovinen, Elina; Lähteenmäki, Kaarina; Laitinen, Saara; Leskelä, Hannu-Ville; Nätynki, Antti; Pesälä, Juha; Nordström, Katrina; Lehenkari, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) display immunosuppressive properties in vitro and the potential has also been transferred successfully to clinical trials for treatment of autoimmune diseases. OX-2 (CD200), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is widely expressed in several tissues and has recently been found from hMSCs. The CD200 receptor (CD200R) occurs only in myeloid-lineage cells. The CD200-CD200R is involved in down-regulation of several immune cells, especially macrophages. The present study on 20 hMSC lines shows that the CD200 expression pattern varied from high (CD200Hi) to medium (CD200Me) and low (CD200Lo) in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) lines, whereas umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) were constantly negative for CD200. The role of the CD200-CD200R axis in BMMSCs mediated immunosuppression was studied using THP-1 human macrophages. Interestingly, hMSCs showed greater inhibition of TNF-? secretion in co-cultures with IFN-? primed THP-1 macrophages when compared to LPS activated cells. The ability of CD200Hi BMMSCs to suppress TNF-? secretion from IFN-? stimulated THP-1 macrophages was significantly greater when compared to CD200Lo whereas UCBMSCs did not significantly reduce TNF-? secretion. The interference of CD200 binding to the CD200R by anti-CD200 antibody weakened the capability of BMMSCs to inhibit TNF-? secretion from IFN-? activated THP-1 macrophages. This study clearly demonstrated that the efficiency of BMMSCs to suppress TNF-? secretion of THP-1 macrophages was dependent on the type of stimulus. Moreover, the CD200-CD200r axis could have a previously unidentified role in the BMMSC mediated immunosuppression. PMID:22363701

  19. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Activates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling To Block Apoptotic Cell Death in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in the host response to microbial infection. Not surprisingly, many pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate this important pathway to benefit their own survival and dissemination in the host during infection. To our knowledge, no attempts have been made to explore the host cell survival signals modulated by the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis. Here, we show for the first time that during early stages of infection, internalized enterococci can prevent host cell (RAW264.7 cells, primary macrophages, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts [MEFs]) apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of proapoptotic stimuli. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were inhibited in E. faecalis-infected cells, indicating that E. faecalis protects macrophages from apoptosis by inhibiting caspase 3 activation. This antiapoptotic activity in E. faecalis-infected cells was dependent on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which resulted in the increased expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and decreased expression of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Further analysis revealed that active E. faecalis physiology was important for inhibition of host cell apoptosis, and this feature seemed to be a strain-independent trait among E. faecalis isolates. Employing a mouse peritonitis model, we also determined that cells collected from the peritoneal lavage fluid of E. faecalis-infected mice showed reduced levels of apoptosis compared to cells from uninfected mice. These results show early modulation of apoptosis during infection and have important implications for enterococcal pathogenesis. PMID:25267834

  20. Epithelial cell contributions to intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lora V

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the mammalian intestine interface directly with the external environment and thus continuously encounter pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The intestinal epithelium is also closely associated with complex communities of symbiotic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells are thus faced with the unique challenge of directly interacting with enormous numbers of microbes that include both pathogens and symbionts. As a result, gut epithelia have evolved an array of strategies that contribute to host immunity. This chapter considers the various mechanisms used by epithelial cells to limit microbial invasion of host tissues, shape the composition of indigenous microbial communities, and coordinate the adaptive immune response to microorganisms. Study of intestinal epithelial cells has contributed fundamental insights into intestinal immune homeostasis and has revealed how impaired epithelial cell function can contribute to inflammatory disease. PMID:25727289

  1. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma. PMID:26000310

  2. Cell-Mediated Immunity in Poultry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Erf

    ABSTRACT In avian species, adaptive immunity in- volves both humoral,and,cell-mediated immune,(CMI) responses. Although,humoral,or antibody-mediated im- mune,responses,are particularly effective against extracel- lular antigens, CMI responses are specialized in the elimination,of intracellular antigens; the latter include those that have,entered,cells via the endocytic,pathway (exogenous antigens; e.g., phagocytosed bacteria) or were produced,within the cell such as viral proteins and pro- teins resulting from neoplastic

  3. Allogenic iPSC-derived RPE cell transplants induce immune response in pigs: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Elliott H; Jiao, Chunhua; Kaalberg, Emily; Cranston, Cathryn; Mullins, Robert F.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell strategies focused on replacement of RPE cells for the treatment of geographic atrophy are under intense investigation. Although the eye has long been considered immune privileged, there is limited information about the immune response to transplanted cells in the subretinal space of large animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE cells (iPSC-RPE) delivered to the subretinal space of the pig as well as determine whether these cells induce an immune response in non-diseased eyes. GFP positive iPSC-RPE, generated from outbred domestic swine, were injected into the subretinal space of vitrectomized miniature swine. Control eyes received vehicle only. GFP positive iPSC-RPE cells were identified in the subretinal space 3 weeks after injection in 5 of 6 eyes. Accompanying GFP-negative cells positive for IgG, CD45 and macrophage markers were also identified in close proximity to the injected iPSC-RPE cells. All subretinal cells were negative for GFAP as well as cell cycle markers. We found that subretinal injection of allogenic iPSC-RPE cells into wild-type mini-pigs can induce the innate immune response. These findings suggest that immunologically matched or autologous donor cells should be considered for clinical RPE cell replacement. PMID:26138532

  4. Allogenic iPSC-derived RPE cell transplants induce immune response in pigs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elliott H; Jiao, Chunhua; Kaalberg, Emily; Cranston, Cathryn; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell strategies focused on replacement of RPE cells for the treatment of geographic atrophy are under intense investigation. Although the eye has long been considered immune privileged, there is limited information about the immune response to transplanted cells in the subretinal space of large animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE cells (iPSC-RPE) delivered to the subretinal space of the pig as well as determine whether these cells induce an immune response in non-diseased eyes. GFP positive iPSC-RPE, generated from outbred domestic swine, were injected into the subretinal space of vitrectomized miniature swine. Control eyes received vehicle only. GFP positive iPSC-RPE cells were identified in the subretinal space 3 weeks after injection in 5 of 6 eyes. Accompanying GFP-negative cells positive for IgG, CD45 and macrophage markers were also identified in close proximity to the injected iPSC-RPE cells. All subretinal cells were negative for GFAP as well as cell cycle markers. We found that subretinal injection of allogenic iPSC-RPE cells into wild-type mini-pigs can induce the innate immune response. These findings suggest that immunologically matched or autologous donor cells should be considered for clinical RPE cell replacement. PMID:26138532

  5. Mast cell-orchestrated immunity to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Soman N.; St John, Ashley L.

    2015-01-01

    Although mast cells were discovered more than a century ago, their functions beyond their role in allergic responses remained elusive until recently. However, there is a growing appreciation that an important physiological function of these cells is the recognition of pathogens and modulation of appropriate immune responses. Because of their ability to instantly release several pro-inflammatory mediators from intracellular stores and their location at the host–environment interface, mast cells have been shown to be crucial for optimal immune responses during infection. Mast cells seem to exert these effects by altering the inflammatory environment after detection of a pathogen and by mobilizing various immune cells to the site of infection and to draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, the character and timing of these responses can vary depending on the type of pathogen stimulus, location of pathogen recognition and sensitization state of the responding mast cells. Recent studies using mast cell activators as effective vaccine adjuvants show the potential of harnessing these cells to confer protective immunity against microbial pathogens. PMID:20498670

  6. Antitumor immunity and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H

    2009-09-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5(+) MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  7. Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  8. Adoptive transfer of immunity from mice immunized with ribosomes or live yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, R P; Sharma, D; Solotorovsky, M; Lafemina, R; Balint, J

    1977-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the role of lymphoid cells and immune serum in protective immunity induced by immunization with ribosomes or live yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum. Spleen cells, peritoneal cells, and serum from C3H mice immunized with Histoplasma ribosomes or live cells were transferred intravenously to separate groups of syngeneic recipients. All recipients along with a set of immunized and control mice were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(6) yeast cells of H. capsulatum, and protection was assessed. Immunization with ribosomes or live cells provided 90 to 100% protection. Mice receiving filtered spleen cells or peritoneal cells from donors immunnized with live cells showed 90 to 100% protection; 80 to 90% protection was observed for mice receiving cells from ribosome-immunized donors. In contrast, no evidence of protection was seen in mice receiving serum from either live-cell- or ribosome-immunized mice. Peritoneal cells were far more efficient than spleen cells in adoptive transfer of immunity. The adoptive immunity in recipients persisted for at least 3 weeks after transfer, the longest period tested in the present study. These results indicate that the immunity elicited by immunization with Histoplasma ribosomes or live cells is mediated by a cellular mechanism. PMID:870432

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induces Type-III-Secretion-Mediated Apoptosis of Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN R. HAUSER; JOANNE N. ENGEL

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is cytotoxic towards a variety of eukaryotic cells. To investigate the effect of this bacterium on macrophages, we infected J774A.1 cells and primary bone-marrow-derived murine macrophages with the P. aeruginosa strain PA103 in vitro. PA103 caused type-III-secretion-dependent killing of macrophages withi n2ho finfection. Only a portion of the killing required the putative

  10. AMPD3 is involved in anthrax LeTx-induced macrophage cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangun; Wang, Yanhai; Kim, Sung Ouk; Han, Jiahuai

    2011-07-01

    The responses of macrophages to Bacillus anthracis infection are important for the survival of the host, since macrophages are required for the germination of B. anthracis spores in lymph nodes, and macrophage death exacerbates anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx)-induced organ collapse. To elucidate the mechanism of macrophage cell death induced by LeTx, we performed a genetic screen to search for genes associated with LeTx-induced macrophage cell death. RAW264.7 cells, a macrophage-like cell line sensitive to LeTx-induced death, were randomly mutated and LeTx-resistant mutant clones were selected. AMP deaminase 3 (AMPD3), an enzyme that converts AMP to IMP, was identified to be mutated in one of the resistant clones. The requirement of AMPD3 in LeTx-induced cell death of RAW 264.7 cells was confirmed by the restoration of LeTx sensitivity with ectopic reconstitution of AMPD3 expression. AMPD3 deficiency does not affect LeTx entering cells and the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by lethal factor inside cells, but does impair an unknown downstream event that is linked to cell death. Our data provides new information regarding LeTx-induced macrophage death and suggests that there is a key regulatory site downstream of or parallel to MKK cleavage that controls the cell death in LeTx-treated macrophages. PMID:21822801

  11. Immune Suppression by Myeloid Cells in HIV Infection: New Targets for Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Vyboh, Kishanda; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Over thirty years of extensive research has not yet solved the complexity of HIV pathogenesis leading to a continued need for a successful cure. Recent immunotherapy-based approaches are aimed at controlling the infection by reverting immune dysfunction. Comparatively less appreciated than the role of T cells in the context of HIV infection, the myeloid cells including macrophages monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils contribute significantly to immune dysfunction. Host restriction factors are cellular proteins expressed in these cells which are circumvented by HIV. Guided by the recent literature, the role of myeloid cells in HIV infection will be discussed highlighting potential targets for immunotherapy. HIV infection, which is mainly characterized by CD4 T cell dysfunction, also manifests in a vicious cycle of events comprising of inflammation and immune activation. Targeting the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1), an important regulator of T cell function; with PD-L1 expressed mainly on myeloid cells could bring promising results. Macrophage functional polarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 and vice versa has significant implications in viral pathogenesis. Neutrophils, recently discovered low density granular cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and yolk sac macrophages provide new avenues of research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence. Recent evidence has also shown significant implications of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), antimicrobial peptides and opsonizing antibodies. Further studies aimed to understand and modify myeloid cell restriction mechanisms have the potential to contribute in the future development of more effective anti-HIV interventions that may pave the way to viral eradication. PMID:25624956

  12. Targeting colon cancer cell NF-?B promotes an anti-tumour M1-like macrophage phenotype and inhibits peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A E; Colleran, A; O'Gorman, A; O'Flynn, L; Pindjacova, J; Lohan, P; O'Malley, G; Nosov, M; Mureau, C; Egan, L J

    2015-03-19

    In a model of peritoneal metastasis in immune-competent mice, we show that nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibition in CT26 colon cancer cells prevents metastasis. NF-?B inhibition, by stable overexpression of I?B-? super-repressor, induced differential polarization of co-cultured macrophages to an M1-like anti-tumour phenotype in vitro. NF-?B-deficient cancer cell-conditioned media (CT26/I?B-? SR) induced interleukin (IL)-12 and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (inducible NO synthase (iNOS)) expression in macrophages. Control cell (CT26/EV) conditioned media induced high levels of IL-10 and arginase in macrophages. In vivo, this effect translated to reduction in metastasis in mice injected with CT26/ I?B-? SR cells and was positively associated with increased CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) and CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effector T cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B activity induced high levels of NO in infiltrating immune cells and decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, simultaneous with increases in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 within tumours. CT26/I?B-? SR tumours displayed increased pro-inflammatory gene expression, low levels of angiogenesis and extensive intratumoral apoptosis, consistent with the presence of an anti-tumour macrophage phenotype. Macrophage depletion reduced tumour size in CT26/EV-injected animals and increased tumour size in CT26/I?B-? SR cells compared with untreated tumours. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that an important implication of targeting tumour cell NF-?B is skewing of macrophage polarization to an anti-tumour phenotype. This knowledge offers novel therapeutic opportunities for anticancer treatment. PMID:24704833

  13. MIF Receptor CD74 is Restricted to Microglia/Macrophages, Associated with a M1-Polarized Immune Milieu and Prolonged Patient Survival in Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Pia S; Preusse, Corinna; Blank, Anna-Eva; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Baumgarten, Peter; Caspary, Lixi; Braczynski, Anne K; Weissenberger, Jakob; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Reiß, Sandy; Pennartz, Sandra; Winkelmann, Ria; Senft, Christian; Plate, Karl H; Wischhusen, Jörg; Stenzel, Werner; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) receptor CD74 is overexpressed in various neoplasms, mainly in hematologic tumors, and currently investigated in clinical studies. CD74 is quickly internalized and recycles after antibody binding, therefore it constitutes an attractive target for antibody-based treatment strategies. CD74 has been further described as one of the most up-regulated molecules in human glioblastomas. To assess the potential relevance for anti-CD74 treatment, we determined the cellular source and clinicopathologic relevance of CD74 expression in human gliomas by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, cell sorting analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, we fractionated glioblastoma cells and glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) from primary tumors and compared CD74 expression in cellular fractions with whole tumor lysates. Our results show that CD74 is restricted to GAMs?in vivo, while being absent in tumor cells, the latter strongly expressing its ligand MIF. Most interestingly, a higher amount of CD74-positive GAMs was associated with beneficial patient survival constituting an independent prognostic parameter and with an anti-tumoral M1 polarization. In summary, CD74 expression in human gliomas is restricted to GAMs and positively associated with patient survival. In conclusion, CD74 represents a positive prognostic marker most probably because of its association with an M1-polarized immune milieu in high-grade gliomas. PMID:25175718

  14. TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in HIV1Infected Macrophages Is Dependent on the Inhibition of Akt1 Phosphorylation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunlong Huang; Nathan Erdmann; Hui Peng; Shelley Herek; John S. Davis; Xu Luo; Tsuneya Ikezu; Jialin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 uses mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells) as a vehicle for its own dissemination and as a reservoir for continuous viral replication. The mechanism by which the host immune system clears HIV-1-infected macrophages is not understood. TRAIL may play a role in this process. TRAIL is expressed on the cell membrane of peripheral immune cells and can

  15. Embryonic Stem Cells Promoting Macrophage Survival and Function are Crucial for Teratoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianxiang; Wang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Wu, Mingmei; Duan, Zhaoxia; Lv, Jing; Tai, Wenjiao; Renganathan, Hemamalini; Didier, Ruth; Li, Jinhua; Sun, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoming; He, Xijing; Fan, Jianqing; Young, Wise; Ren, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigenic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34, which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2, and TNF-?, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to inhibit teratoma development would increase the safety of ESC-based therapies, inasmuch as the depletion of macrophages completely inhibits ESC-induced angiogenesis and teratoma development. PMID:25071759

  16. Berberine promotes recovery of colitis and inhibits inflammatory responses in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells in DSS-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Shi, Yan; Cao, Hanwei; Liu, Liping; Washington, M. Kay; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Israel, Dawn A.; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Bangmao; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from dysregulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses to microflora in genetically susceptible hosts. A major challenge for IBD research is to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Berberine, an alkaloid derived from plants, is an alternative medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Recent studies suggest that berberine exerts several other beneficial effects, including inducing anti-inflammatory responses. This study determined the effect of berberine on treating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis in mice. Berberine was administered through gavage to mice with established DSS-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, proinflammatory cytokine production, and signaling pathways in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells were determined. Berberine ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon, injury, and inflammation scores. DSS-upregulated proinflammatory cytokine levels in the colon, including TNF, IFN-?, KC, and IL-17 were reduced by berberine. Berberine decreased DSS-induced disruption of barrier function and apoptosis in the colon epithelium. Furthermore, berberine inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells in DSS-treated mice and promoted apoptosis of colonic macrophages. Activation of signaling pathways involved in stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, including MAPK and NF-?B, in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells from DSS-treated mice was decreased by berberine. In summary, berberine promotes recovery of DSS-induced colitis and exerts inhibitory effects on proinflammatory responses in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells. Thus berberine may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:22173918

  17. Paneth cell ?-defensins in enteric innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Joseph Ouellette; Springer Basel AG

    2011-01-01

    Paneth cells at the base of small intestinal crypts of Lieberkühn secrete high levels of ?-defensins in response to cholinergic\\u000a and microbial stimuli. Paneth cell ?-defensins are broad spectrum microbicides that function in the extracellular environment\\u000a of the intestinal lumen, and they are responsible for the majority of secreted bactericidal peptide activity. Paneth cell\\u000a ?-defensins confer immunity to oral infection

  18. Cell-intrinsic lysosomal lipolysis is essential for macrophage alternative activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Everts, Bart; Ivanova, Yulia; O'Sullivan, David; Nascimento, Marcia; Smith, Amber M.; Beatty, Wandy; Love-Gregory, Latisha; Lam, Wing Y.; O'Neill, Christina M.; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong; Abumrad, Nada A.; Urban, Joseph F.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Pearce, Erika L.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative (M2) macrophage activation driven through interleukin 4 receptor ? (IL-4R?) is important for immunity to parasites, wound healing, the prevention of atherosclerosis and metabolic homeostasis. M2 polarization is dependent on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), but the source of fatty acids to support this metabolic program has not been clear. We show that the uptake of triacylglycerol substrates via CD36 and their subsequent lipolysis by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) was important for the engagement of elevated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), enhanced spare respiratory capacity (SRC), prolonged survival and expression of genes that together define M2 activation. Inhibition of lipolysis suppressed M2 activation during infection with a parasitic helminth, and blocked protective responses against this pathogen. Our findings delineate a critical role for cell-intrinsic lysosomal lipolysis in M2 activation. PMID:25086775

  19. Early in vitro priming of distinct T(h) cell subsets determines polarized growth of visceralizing Leishmania in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gomes, N A; Barreto-de-Souza, V; DosReis, G A

    2000-09-01

    An in vitro priming system of murine naive splenocytes was established to investigate early immune responses to Leishmania chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Priming of splenocytes from resistant C3H and CBA or susceptible BALB and B10 mice with L. chagasi resulted in blast transformation and in proliferating parasite-specific CD4(+) T cells secreting a differential complement of cytokines (IFN-gamma and low IL-10 levels for resistant T cells; IFN-gamma, IL-4 and high IL-10 levels for susceptible T cells). After priming, intracellular parasite load was much higher in susceptible than in resistant-type splenocyte cultures. On the other hand, infection of purified splenic macrophages from either resistant or susceptible mice with live L. chagasi promastigotes, resulted in comparable parasite loads. Moreover, when early CD4(+) T cell priming in splenocyte cultures was disrupted with anti-CD4 mAb, polarized parasite growth was abolished, becoming comparable in resistant and susceptible cultures. Neutralizing IL-4 activity during splenocyte priming did not affect the final parasite load in susceptible cultures. However, neutralizing IL-10 activity markedly decreased parasite load in susceptible, but not in resistant splenic macrophages. These results suggest that IL-10 plays an important role in L. chagasi infection in susceptible hosts. The results also indicate that innate control of growth of a visceralizing Leishmania in splenic macrophages results from the ability to activate different CD4(+) T cell subsets. PMID:10967017

  20. Linking lipid metabolism to the innate immune response in macrophages through sterol regulatory element binding protein-1a.

    PubMed

    Im, Seung-Soon; Yousef, Leyla; Blaschitz, Christoph; Liu, Janet Z; Edwards, Robert A; Young, Stephen G; Raffatellu, Manuela; Osborne, Timothy F

    2011-05-01

    We show that mice with a targeted deficiency in the gene encoding the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1a are resistant to endotoxic shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). When macrophages from the mutant mice were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, they failed to activate lipogenesis as well as two hallmark inflammasome functions, activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1?. We show that SREBP-1a activates not only genes required for lipogenesis in macrophages but also the gene encoding Nlrp1a, which is a core inflammasome component. Thus, SREBP-1a links lipid metabolism to the innate immune response, which supports our hypothesis that SREBPs evolved to regulate cellular reactions to external challenges that range from nutrient limitation and hypoxia to toxins and pathogens. PMID:21531336

  1. Therapeutic Immunization with HIV-1 Tat Reduces Immune Activation and Loss of Regulatory T-Cells and Improves Immune Function in Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J.; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent or partial in the OBS population. These findings support the use of Tat immunization to intensify HAART efficacy and to restore immune homeostasis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00751595 PMID:21085635

  2. Dermal CD14(+) Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Infection by Dengue Virus Is Stimulated by Interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelyne; Flacher, Vincent; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Decossas, Marion; Fauny, Jean-Daniel; Krämer, Melanie; Mueller, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Events decisive for disease development occur in the skin after virus inoculation by the mosquito. Yet, the role of human dermis-resident immune cells in dengue infection and disease remains elusive. Here we investigated how dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) and macrophages (dMs) react to DENV and impact on immunopathology. We show that both CD1c(+) and CD14(+) dDC subsets were infected, but viral load greatly increased in CD14(+) dDCs upon IL-4 stimulation, which correlated with upregulation of virus-binding lectins Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and mannose receptor (CD206). IL-4 also enhanced T-cell activation by dDCs, which was further increased upon dengue infection. dMs purified from digested dermis were initially poorly infected but actively replicated the virus and produced TNF-? upon lectin upregulation in response to IL-4. DC-SIGN(+) cells are abundant in inflammatory skin with scabies infection or Th2-type dermatitis, suggesting that skin reactions to mosquito bites heighten the risk of infection and subsequent immunopathology. Our data identify dDCs and dMs as primary arbovirus target cells in humans and suggest that dDCs initiate a potent virus-directed T-cell response, whereas dMs fuel the inflammatory cascade characteristic of dengue fever. PMID:25521455

  3. Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophil leads to its recognition by macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Savill, J S; Wyllie, A H; Henson, J E; Walport, M J; Henson, P M; Haslett, C

    1989-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the normal resolution processes of inflammation are poorly understood, yet their elucidation may lead to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. The removal of neutrophils and their potentially histotoxic contents is one prerequisite of resolution. Engulfment by macrophages is an important disposal route, and changes in the senescent neutrophil that are associated with their recognition by macrophages are the subject of this investigation. Over 24 h in culture an increasing proportion of human neutrophils from peripheral blood or acutely inflamed joints underwent morphological changes characteristic of programmed cell death or apoptosis. Time-related chromatin cleavage in an internucleosomal pattern indicative of the endogenous endonuclease activation associated with programmed cell death was also demonstrated. A close correlation was observed between the increasing properties of apoptosis in neutrophils and the degree of macrophage recognition of the aging neutrophil population, and a direct relationship between these parameters was confirmed within aged neutrophil populations separated by counterflow centrifugation into fractions with varying proportions of apoptosis. Macrophages from acutely inflamed joints preferentially ingested apoptotic neutrophils and histological evidence was presented for occurrence of the process in situ. Programmed cell death is a phenomenon of widespread biological importance and has not previously been described in a cell of the myeloid line. Because it leads to recognition of intact senescent neutrophils that have not necessarily disgorged their granule contents, these processes may represent a mechanism for the removal of neutrophils during inflammation that also serves to limit the degree of tissue injury. Images PMID:2921324

  4. Transcriptional regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in acquired immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Masato; Motomura, Yasutaka

    2012-01-01

    Although the major role of the immune response is host defense from a wide range of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, excess immune responses can result in severe host damage. The host thus requires anti-inflammatory mechanisms to prevent reactivity to self. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with broad anti-inflammatory properties involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-10 was originally described as a T helper (TH2) derived cytokine, but further studies indicated that IL-10 is expressed not only by many cells of the adaptive immune system, including T and B cells, but also by the innate immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, mast cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. In addition, IL-10 can be induced in TH1 and TH17 cells by chronic inflammation as a system of feedback regulation. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying IL10 gene expression in adaptive immune cells and summarize the recent progresses in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of the IL10 gene. Understanding the transcriptional regulatory events may help in the development of new strategies to control inflammatory diseases. PMID:22969768

  5. The Desmoplastic Stroma Plays an Essential Role in the Accumulation and Modulation of Infiltrated Immune Cells in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tjomsland, Vegard; Niklasson, Lina; Sandström, Per; Borch, Kurt; Druid, Henrik; Bratthäll, Charlotte; Messmer, Davorka; Larsson, Marie; Spångeus, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells, fibroblasts, and infiltrating immune cells, which all work together and create an inflammatory environment favoring tumor progression. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) regarding expression of inflammatory factors and infiltration of immune cells and their impact on the clinical outcome. The PDAC tissues examined expressed significantly increased levels of immunomodulatory and chemotactic factors (IL-6, TGF?, IDO, COX-2, CCL2, and CCL20) and immune cell-specific markers corresponding to macrophages, myeloid, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) as compared to controls. Furthermore, short-time survivors had the lowest levels of DC markers. Immunostainings indicated that the different immune cells and inflammatory factors are mainly localized to the desmoplastic stroma. Therapies modulating the inflammatory tumor microenvironment to promote the attraction of DCs and differentiation of monocytes into functional DCs might improve the survival of PDAC patients. PMID:22190968

  6. Role of natural and adaptive immunity in renal cell carcinoma response to VEGFR-TKIs and mTOR inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Berardi, Rossana; Amantini, Consuelo; Burattini, Luciano; Santini, Daniele; Santoni, Giorgio; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-06-15

    Angiogenesis and immunosuppression work hand-in-hand in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) microenvironment. Tumor growth is associated with impaired antitumor immune response in RCC, which involves T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), such as sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib and axitinib, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as temsirolimus and everolimus, do exert both antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory functions. Indeed, these agents affect neutrophil migration, as well as T lymphocyte-DC cross-talk, DC maturation and immune cell metabolism and reactivity. In this review, we overview the essential role of innate and adaptive immune response in RCC proliferation, invasion and metastasis and the relationship between tumor-associated immune cells and the response to targeted agents approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC. PMID:24114790

  7. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-? production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term detrimental effects on the immune system of the offspring and these effects are to some extent sex-specific. -- Highlights: ? Prenatal exposure to Cd causes no thymocyte phenotype changes in the offspring ? Analysis of the splenocyte phenotype demonstrates a macrophage-specific effect only in male offspring ? The cytokine profiles suggest an effect on peripheral Th1 cells in female and to a lesser degree in male offspring ? There was a marked increase in serum anti-streptococcal antibody levels after immunization in both sexes ? There was a marked decrease in the numbers of splenic CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} cells in both sexes.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sailaja, Gangadhara [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Skountzou, Ioanna [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Quan, Fu-Shi [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Compans, Richard W. [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Kang, Sang-Moo [Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rollins Research Center 3086, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: skang2@emory.edu

    2007-06-05

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses.

  9. The human fetal placenta promotes tolerance against the semiallogeneic fetus by inducing regulatory T cells and homeostatic M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Mehta, Ratnesh B; Lindau, Robert; Mirrasekhian, Elahe; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Berg, Göran; Lash, Gendie E; Jenmalm, Maria C; Ernerudh, Jan

    2015-02-15

    A successful pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system is instructed to a state of tolerance to avoid rejection of the semiallogeneic fetal-placental unit. Although increasing evidence supports that decidual (uterine) macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulators of fetal tolerance, it is not known how these tolerogenic leukocytes are induced. In this article, we show that the human fetal placenta itself, mainly through trophoblast cells, is able to induce homeostatic M2 macrophages and Tregs. Placental-derived M-CSF and IL-10 induced macrophages that shared the CD14(+)CD163(+)CD206(+)CD209(+) phenotype of decidual macrophages and produced IL-10 and CCL18 but not IL-12 or IL-23. Placental tissue also induced the expansion of CD25(high)CD127(low)Foxp3(+) Tregs in parallel with increased IL-10 production, whereas production of IFN-? (Th1), IL-13 (Th2), and IL-17 (Th17) was not induced. Tregs expressed the suppressive markers CTLA-4 and CD39, were functionally suppressive, and were induced, in part, by IL-10, TGF-?, and TRAIL. Placental-derived factors also limited excessive Th cell activation, as shown by decreased HLA-DR expression and reduced secretion of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines. Thus, our data indicate that the fetal placenta has a central role in promoting the homeostatic environment necessary for successful pregnancy. These findings have implications for immune-mediated pregnancy complications, as well as for our general understanding of tissue-induced tolerance. PMID:25560409

  10. Specific antimononuclear phagocyte monoclonal antibodies. Application to the purification of dendritic cells and the tissue localization of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    3C10 and 1D9 are two related monoclonal antibodies that specifically identify human mononuclear phagocytes in a large number of sites, including blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and macrophages in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, and skin. The antigen persists on monocytes cultured for greater than 4 wk, but it is not found on giant cells. The 3C10-1D9 determinant is carried by a 55 kD polypeptide, is expressed at approximately 40,000 copies per monocyte, and is protease sensitive. The antigen is clearly different from HLA- class II or Ia-like antigens that have been studied with a new monoclonal 9.3F10. The 9.3F10 antigen is found on B cells, dendritic cells and monocytes; is protease resistant, and occurs on a 33-29 kD doublet typical of class II products. The 3C10 monoclonal provides a clear distinction between human mononuclear phagocytes and dendritic cells. First, monocytes and lymphocytes can be eliminated from plastic- adherent mononuclear cells using 3C10, complement, and two previously described cytotoxic antibodies, BA-1 (anti-B cell) and Leu-1 (anti-T cell). As a result, the trace dendritic cell component of blood can be enriched to considerable purity (65-75%) and yield. Second, immunocytochemical staining of tissue sections reveals that 3C10+ macrophages are anatomically segregated from dendritic cells. Large numbers of 3C10+ cells are found in red pulp of spleen and in regions surrounding lymphatic channels of lymph node. However, 3C10+ macrophages are scarce in white pulp of spleen and the lymphocyte-rich cortex of node that are the sites where dendritic cells are localized. 3C10+ cells in skin are found in the dermis, particularly in leprosy infiltrates, but the Langerhans' cells of epidermis are 3C10-. The distinctive localization of macrophages and dendritic cells is consistent with their respective functions as effector and accessory cells in the immune response. PMID:6190974

  11. Foam Cell Formation In Vivo Converts Macrophages to a Pro-Fibrotic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anita C.; Eijgelaar, Wouter J.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Newby, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of foam cell macrophages, which sequester extracellular modified lipids, is a key event in atherosclerosis. How lipid loading affects macrophage phenotype is controversial, with evidence suggesting either pro- or anti-inflammatory consequences. To investigate this further, we compared the transcriptomes of foamy and non-foamy macrophages that accumulate in the subcutaneous granulomas of fed-fat ApoE null mice and normal chow fed wild-type mice in vivo. Consistent with previous studies, LXR/RXR pathway genes were significantly over-represented among the genes up-regulated in foam cell macrophages. Unexpectedly, the hepatic fibrosis pathway, associated with platelet derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-? action, was also over-represented. Several collagen polypeptides and proteoglycan core proteins as well as connective tissue growth factor and fibrosis-related FOS and JUN transcription factors were up-regulated in foam cell macrophages. Increased expression of several of these genes was confirmed at the protein level in foam cell macrophages from subcutaneous granulomas and in atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD2, which is downstream of several transforming growth factor-? family members, was also detected in foam cell macrophages. We conclude that foam cell formation in vivo leads to a pro-fibrotic macrophage phenotype, which could contribute to plaque stability, especially in early lesions that have few vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:26197235

  12. Interleukin-4 induces foreign body giant cells from human monocytes/macrophages. Differential lymphokine regulation of macrophage fusion leads to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells.

    PubMed Central

    McNally, A. K.; Anderson, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-4 induced the formation of foreign body-type giant multinucleated cells from human monocyte-derived macrophages, an effect that was optimized with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3, dependent on the concentration of interleukin-4, and specifically prevented by anti-interleukin-4. Very large foreign body giant cells and, predominantly, giant cell syncytia with randomly arranged nuclei and extensive cytoplasmic spreading (285 +/- 121 nuclei and 1.151 +/- 0.303 mm2 per syncytium) were consistently obtained. Under otherwise identical culture conditions, relatively much smaller Langhans-type giant cells with circularly arranged nuclei were induced with a previously described combination of interferon-gamma plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3 (16 +/- 6 nuclei and 0.033 +/- 0.013 mm2 per giant cell); their formation was prevented by anti-interferon-gamma but not by anti-interleukin-4. Similar rates of macrophage fusion were obtained in both culture systems (72 +/- 5% and 74 +/- 6%, respectively), but these two morphological variants did not occur simultaneously or form from one another within the 10-day culture period. These findings demonstrate that interleukin-4 is a potent human macrophage fusion factor and that differential regulation of macrophage fusion by interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma may lead to morphological variants of multinucleated giant cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7485411

  13. Depletion and reconstitution of macrophages in mice.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Shelley B; van Rooijen, Nico; Sly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are critical players in the innate immune response to infectious challenge or injury, initiating the innate immune response and directing the acquired immune response. Macrophage dysfunction can lead to an inability to mount an appropriate immune response and as such, has been implicated in many disease processes, including inflammatory bowel diseases. Macrophages display polarized phenotypes that are broadly divided into two categories. Classically activated macrophages, activated by stimulation with IFN? or LPS, play an essential role in response to bacterial challenge whereas alternatively activated macrophages, activated by IL-4 or IL-13, participate in debris scavenging and tissue remodeling and have been implicated in the resolution phase of inflammation. During an inflammatory response in vivo, macrophages are found amid a complex mixture of infiltrating immune cells and may participate by exacerbating or resolving inflammation. To define the role of macrophages in situ in a whole animal model, it is necessary to examine the effect of depleting macrophages from the complex environment. To ask questions about the role of macrophage phenotype in situ, phenotypically defined polarized macrophages can be derived ex vivo, from bone marrow aspirates and added back to mice, with or without prior depletion of macrophages. In the protocol presented here clodronate-containing liposomes, versus PBS injected controls, were used to deplete colonic macrophages during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In addition, polarized macrophages were derived ex vivo and transferred to mice by intravenous injection. A caveat to this approach is that clodronate-containing liposomes deplete all professional phagocytes, including both dendritic cells and macrophages so to ensure the effect observed by depletion is macrophage-specific, reconstitution of phenotype by adoptive transfer of macrophages is necessary. Systemic macrophage depletion in mice can also be achieved by backcrossing mice onto a CD11b-DTR background, which is an excellent complementary approach. The advantage of clodronate-containing liposome-mediated depletion is that it does not require the time and expense involved in backcrossing mice and it can be used in mice regardless of the background of the mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or mixed background). PMID:22871793

  14. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudipta Tripathi; David Bruch; Dilip S Kittur

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches

  15. Mast cells in the development of adaptive immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Nakae; Mindy Tsai; Stephen J Galli

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells are so widely recognized as critical effector cells in allergic disorders and other immunoglobulin E–associated acquired immune responses that it can be difficult to think of them in any other context. However, mast cells also can be important as initiators and effectors of innate immunity. In addition, mast cells that are activated during innate immune responses to pathogens,

  16. Francisella novicida Pathogenicity Island Encoded Proteins Were Secreted during Infection of Macrophage-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens and other organisms have evolved mechanisms to exploit host cells for their life cycles. Virulence genes of some intracellular bacteria responsible for these mechanisms are located in pathogenicity islands, such as secretion systems that secrete effector proteins. The Francisella pathogenicity island is required for phagosomal escape, intracellular replication, evasion of host immune responses, virulence, and encodes a type 6 secretion system. We hypothesize that some Francisella novicida pathogenicity island proteins are secreted during infection of host cells. To test this hypothesis, expression plasmids for all Francisella novicida FPI-encoded proteins with C-terminal and N-terminal epitope FLAG tags were developed. These plasmids expressed their respective epitope FLAG-tagged proteins at their predicted molecular weights. J774 murine macrophage-like cells were infected with Francisella novicida containing these plasmids. The FPI proteins expressed from these plasmids successfully restored the intramacrophage growth phenotype in mutants of the respective genes that were deficient for intramacrophage growth. Using these expression plasmids, the localization of the Francisella pathogenicity island proteins were examined via immuno-fluorescence microscopy within infected macrophage-like cells. Several Francisella pathogenicity island encoded proteins (IglABCDEFGHIJ, PdpACE, DotU and VgrG) were detected extracellularly and they were co-localized with the bacteria, while PdpBD and Anmk were not detected and thus remained inside bacteria. Proteins that were co-localized with bacteria had different patterns of localization. The localization of IglC was dependent on the type 6 secretion system. This suggests that some Francisella pathogenicity island proteins were secreted while others remain within the bacterium during infection of host cells as structural components of the secretion system and were necessary for secretion. PMID:25158041

  17. Characteristics of Suppressor Macrophages Induced by Mycobacterial and Protozoal Infections in relation to Alternatively Activated M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Tatano, Yutaka; Maw, Win Win; Sano, Chiaki; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In the advanced stages of mycobacterial infections, host immune systems tend to change from a Th1-type to Th2-type immune response, resulting in the abrogation of Th1 cell- and macrophage-mediated antimicrobial host protective immunity. Notably, this type of immune conversion is occasionally associated with the generation of certain types of suppressor macrophage populations. During the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections, the generation of macrophages which possess strong suppressor activity against host T- and B-cell functions is frequently encountered. This paper describes the immunological properties of M1- and M2-type macrophages generated in tumor-bearing animals and those generated in hosts with certain microbial infections. In addition, this paper highlights the immunological and molecular biological characteristics of suppressor macrophages generated in hosts with mycobacterial infections, especially MAC infection. PMID:22666284

  18. Imaging interactions of metal oxide nanoparticles with macrophage cells by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Starr, Clarise R; Armstrong, Linda S; Ponce, Arturo; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2012-11-01

    Use of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles in a plethora of biological applications and custom products has warned about some possible dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system used to study possible toxic effects and internalization of different nanoparticulate materials. In this work, ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to offer new insights into the dynamical processes of interaction of nanomaterials with macrophage cells dosed with different concentrations of metal oxide nanoparticles (CeO(2), TiO(2) and ZnO). The versatility of FE-SEM has allowed obtaining a detailed characterization of processes of adsorption and endocytosis of nanoparticles, by using advanced analytical and imaging techniques on complete unstained uncoated cells, including secondary electron imaging, high-sensitive backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and stereoimaging. Low voltage BF/DF-STEM confirmed nanoparticle adsorption and internalization into endosomes of CeO(2) and TiO(2), whereas ZnO develop apoptosis after 24 h of interaction caused by dissolution and invasion of cell nucleus. Ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques provided new insights into interactions of inorganic nanoparticles with macrophage cells with high spatial resolution. PMID:23023106

  19. Hemoglobin Directs Macrophage Differentiation and Prevents Foam Cell Formation in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Aloke V.; Nakano, Masataka; Polavarapu, Rohini; Karmali, Vinit; Saeed, Omar; Zhao, XiaoQing; Yazdani, Saami; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Davis, Talina; Habib, Anwer; Narula, Jagat; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine selective macrophage differentiation occurring in areas of intraplaque hemorrhage in human atherosclerosis. Background Macrophage subsets are recognized in atherosclerosis but the stimulus for and importance of differentiation programs remains unknown. Methods We used freshly isolated human monocytes, a rabbit model, and human atherosclerotic plaques to analyze macrophage differentiation in response to hemorrhage. Results Macrophages characterized by high expression of both mannose and CD163 receptors preferentially exist in atherosclerotic lesions at sites of intraplaque hemorrhage. These hemoglobin (Hb)-stimulated macrophages, M(Hb), are devoid of neutral lipids typical of foam cells. In vivo modeling of hemorrhage in the rabbit model demonstrated that sponges exposed to red cells showed an increase in mannose receptor positive macrophages only when these cells contained hemoglobin (Hb). Cultured human monocytes exposed to hemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes (Hb:Hp), but not IL-4, expressed the M(Hb) phenotype and were characterized by their resistance to cholesterol loading and upregulation of ABC transporters. M(Hb) demonstrated increased ferroportin (FPN) expression, reduced intracellular iron, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Degradation of FPN using hepcidin increased ROS, inhibited ABCA1 expression, and cholesterol efflux to ApoAI, suggesting reduced ROS triggers these effects. Knockdown of liver x receptor alpha (LXR?) inhibited ABC transporter expression in M(Hb) and macrophages differentiated in the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase. Lastly, liver X receptor ? (LXR) luciferase reporter activity was increased in M(Hb) and significantly reduced by overnight treatment with hepcidin. Collectively, these data suggest reduced ROS triggers LXR? activation and macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Conclusions Hb is a stimulus for macrophage differentiation in human atherosclerotic plaques. A reduction of macrophage intracellular iron plays an important role in this non- foam cell phenotype by reducing ROS, which drives transcription of ABC transporters through activation of LXR?. Reduction of macrophage intracellular iron may be a promising avenue to increase macrophage RCT. PMID:22154776

  20. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on macrophages and their related cell populations in the osteopetrosis mouse defective in production of functional macrophage colony-stimulating factor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Shultz, L. D.; Naito, M.; Takagi, K.

    1996-01-01

    The development of macrophage populations in osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice defective in production of functional macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the response of these cell populations to exogenous M-CSF were used to classify macrophages into four groups: 1) monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, and osteoclasts, 2) MOMA-1-positive macrophages, 3) ER-TR9-positive macrophages, and 4) immature tissue macrophages. Monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, osteoclasts in bone, microglia in brain, synovial A cells, and MOMA-1- or ER-TR9-positive macrophages were deficient in op/op mice. The former three populations expanded to normal levels in op/op mice after daily M-CSF administration, indicating that they are developed and differentiated due to the effect of M-CSF supplied humorally. In contrast, the other cells did not respond or very slightly responded to M-CSF, and their development seems due to either M-CSF produced in situ or expression of receptor for M-CSF. Macrophages present in tissues of the mutant mice were immature and appear to be regulated by either granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or interleukin-3 produced in situ or receptor expression. Northern blot analysis revealed different expressions of GM-CSF and IL-3 mRNA in various tissues of the op/op mice. However, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in serum were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immature macrophages differentiated and matured into resident macrophages after M-CSF administration, and some of these cells proliferated in response to M-CSF. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8701995

  1. Myelin regulates immune cell adhesion and motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeline Pool; Masaaki Niino; Isabel Rambaldi; Kristin Robson; Amit Bar-Or; Alyson E. Fournier

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully elucidated, however evidence supports an autoimmune disease model notable for the infiltration of pro-inflammatory immune cells into sites of active demyelination and axonal injury. Previous findings demonstrate that neutralization of Nogo, a protein originally identified as a myelin-associated inhibitor (MAI) of axon regeneration, ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly

  2. TLR9 and RIG-I Signaling in Human Endocervical Epithelial Cells Modulates Inflammatory Responses of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Ameya; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved to recognize invading pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).Among PRRs, Toll like receptors (TLRs 3, 7/8,9) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) have been shown to recognize viral components. Mucosal immune responses to viral infections require coordinated actions from epithelial as well as immune cells. In this respect, endocervical epithelial cells (EEC's) play an important role in initiating innate immune responses via PRRs. It is unknown whether EEC's can alter immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC's) like its counterparts in intestinal and respiratory systems. In this study, we show that endocervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7) express two key receptors, TLR9 and RIG-I involved in anti-viral immunity. Stimulation of End1/E6E7 cells lead to the activation of NF-?B and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8. Polarized End1/E6E7 cells responded to apical stimulation with ligands of TLR9 and RIG-I, CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL respectively, without compromising End1/E6E7 cell integrity. At steady state, spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells significantly reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from LPS treated human primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) and DC:T cell co-cultures. Spent medium from End1/E6E7 cells stimulated with ligands of TLR9/RIG-I restored secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as enhanced phagocytosis and chemotaxis of monocytic U937 cells. Spent medium from CpG-ODN and Poly(I:C)LL stimulated End1/E6E7 cells showed significant increased secretion of IL-12p70 from DC:T cell co-cultures. The anti-inflammatory effect of spent media of End1/E6E7 cell was observed to be TGF-? dependent. In summary, the results of our study indicate that EEC's play an indispensable role in modulating anti-viral immune responses at the female lower genital tract. PMID:24409285

  3. Intradermal immunization triggers epidermal Langerhans cell mobilization required for CD8 T-cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liard, Christelle; Munier, Séverine; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Bonduelle, Olivia; Hadam, Sabrina; Duffy, Darragh; Vogt, Annika; Verrier, Bernard; Combadière, Béhazine

    2012-03-01

    The potential of the skin immune system for the generation of both powerful humoral and cellular immune responses is now well established. However, the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of skin antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during intradermal (ID) vaccination still remain to be elucidated. We have previously demonstrated in clinical trials that preferential targeting of Langerhans cells (LCs) by transcutaneous immunization shapes the immune response toward vaccine-specific CD8 T cells. Others have shown that ID inoculation of a vaccine, which targets dermal APCs, mobilizes both the cellular and humoral arms of immunity. Here, we investigated the participation of epidermal LCs in response to ID immunization. When human or mouse skin was injected ID with a particle-based vaccine, we observed significant modifications in the morphology of epidermal LCs and their mobilization to the dermis. We further established that this LC recruitment after ID administration was essential for the induction of antigen-specific CD8 T cells, but was, however, dispensable for the generation of specific CD4 T cells and neutralizing antibodies. Thus, epidermal and dermal APCs shape the outcome of the immune responses to ID vaccination. Their combined potential provides new avenues for the development of vaccination strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:22170490

  4. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Malcolm B; Guo, Chunxiao; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F

    2014-09-01

    Production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (hCAP18/LL-37), is regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and is critical in the killing of pathogens by innate immune cells. In addition, secreted LL-37 binds extracellular receptors and modulates the recruitment and activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Evidence suggests that during infections activated immune cells locally produce increased levels of 1,25D3 thus increasing production of hCAP18/LL-37. The relative expression levels of hCAP18/LL-37 among different immune cell types are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in human peripheral blood immune cells and determine to what extent 1,25D3 increased its expression in peripheral blood-derived cells. We show for the first time, a hierarchy of expression of hCAP18 in freshly isolated cells with low levels in lymphocytes, intermediate levels in monocytes and the highest levels found in neutrophils. In peripheral blood-derived cells, the highest levels of hCAP18 following treatment with 1,25D3 were in macrophages, while comparatively lower levels were found in GM-CSF-derived dendritic cells and osteoclasts. We also tested whether treatment with parathyroid hormone in combination with 1,25D3 would enhance hCAP18 induction as has been reported in skin cells, but we did not find enhancement in any immune cells tested. Our results indicate that hCAP18 is expressed at different levels according to cell type and lineage. Furthermore, potent induction of hCAP18 by 1,25D3 in macrophages and dendritic cells may modulate functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells at sites of infection. PMID:24565560

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in human endometrial stromal cells induces macrophage tolerance through interleukin-33 in the progression of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jie; Xie, Xue-Xin; Li, Ming-Qing; Wei, Chun-Yan; Jin, Li-Ping; Li, Da-Jin; Zhu, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In the peritoneal fluid, macrophages and their secretory cytokines are essential for endometriosis, but the factors that favor their involvement in the endometriosis-associated inflammatory response are still elusive. Given the anomalous expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and its potentially important roles in immune modulation, we aimed to determine the effects of IDO1 in ESCs on macrophages and the mechanism of those effects. Normal ESCs and ectopic ESCs transfected with the SD11-IDO1 shRNA (short hairpin RNA) or vector-only plasmid SD11 were subsequently co-cultured with peripheral blood (PB)-derived monocytes (PBMC)-driven macrophages directly and indirectly. Cytokine production was determined by analyzing the supernatant of the co-culture unit by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phenotypes and the phagocytic ability of the macrophages were determined by flow cytometry. Compared to normal ESCs, the PBMC-driven macrophages co-cultured with ectopic ESCs displayed lower phagocytic ability. Additionally, macrophages co-cultured with ectopic ESCs exhibited higher levels of CD163 and CD209 and lower levels of HLA-DR and CD11c. Moreover, both the intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were significantly increased, while that of IL-12p70 was decreased in macrophages after being co-cultured with ectopic ESCs. However, there was no significant difference in macrophage phagocytic ability, immunophenotype or cytokine secretion between the direct and indirect co-culture units. Reversely, SD11-IDO1 shRNA transfection of ectopic ESCs could abrogate the decreased phagocytic ability and alternative activation of macrophages in ectopic ESC-macrophage co-culture unit, suggesting that higher IDO1 in ectopic ESCs was indispensable for the induction of macrophage tolerance. Furthermore, the decrease in phagocytic macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages induced by IDO1 in ectopic ESCs was reversed by the addition of an IL-33 inhibitor, that is, soluble ST2 (sST2). Therefore, through the activation of IL-33, the increased expression of IDO1 in ectopic ESCs contributed to the truncated phagocytic ability of macrophages in endometriosis. PMID:25031694

  6. Influence of Sublethal Total-Body Irradiation on Immune Cell Populations in the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sarita; Boerma, Marjan; Wang, Junru; Fu, Qiang; Loose, David S.; Kumar, K. Sree; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal immune system is the largest in the body. This study analyzed changes in intestinal immune cell populations, cytokine protein levels, and transcript profiles after total-body irradiation (TBI) in CD2F1 mice. A single dose of 8.0 Gy ? radiation caused negligible 30-day lethality but induced significant histological damage in jejunal mucosa that was maximal at 3.5 days and that had seemingly recovered by day 21 after irradiation. These changes were accompanied by decreased numbers of mucosal macrophages, neutrophils, and B and T lymphocytes, mostly coinciding with similar reductions in peripheral blood cell counts. Recovery of mucosal macrophages occurred within 1 week, whereas mucosal granulocytes and lymphocytes remained low until 3 weeks after TBI. Maximal suppression of T-helper cell (TH)-related transcripts occurred at 3.5 days, but there was no obvious TH1 or TH2 bias. Genomewide transcriptional profiling revealed a preponderance of differentially regulated genes involved in cell cycle control, cell death and DNA repair between 4 h and 3.5 days after irradiation. Genes involved in tissue recovery predominated from day 7 onward. We conclude that the intestinal immune system undergoes profound changes after sublethal TBI and that these changes likely contribute to postirradiation pathophysiological manifestations. PMID:20334519

  7. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution.

  8. Macrophage recruitment and epithelial repair following hair cell injury in the mouse utricle.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Hirose, Keiko; Rubel, Edwin W; Warchol, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The sensory organs of the inner ear possess resident populations of macrophages, but the function of those cells is poorly understood. In many tissues, macrophages participate in the removal of cellular debris after injury and can also promote tissue repair. The present study examined injury-evoked macrophage activity in the mouse utricle. Experiments used transgenic mice in which the gene for the human diphtheria toxin receptor (huDTR) was inserted under regulation of the Pou4f3 promoter. Hair cells in such mice can be selectively lesioned by systemic treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT). In order to visualize macrophages, Pou4f3-huDTR mice were crossed with a second transgenic line, in which one or both copies of the gene for the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 were replaced with a gene for GFP. Such mice expressed GFP in all macrophages, and mice that were CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) lacked the necessary receptor for fractalkine signaling. Treatment with DT resulted in the death of ?70% of utricular hair cells within 7 days, which was accompanied by increased numbers of macrophages within the utricular sensory epithelium. Many of these macrophages appeared to be actively engulfing hair cell debris, indicating that macrophages participate in the process of 'corpse removal' in the mammalian vestibular organs. However, we observed no apparent differences in injury-evoked macrophage numbers in the utricles of CX3CR1(+/GFP) mice vs. CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is not necessary for macrophage recruitment in these sensory organs. Finally, we found that repair of sensory epithelia at short times after DT-induced hair cell lesions was mediated by relatively thin cables of F-actin. After 56 days recovery, however, all cell-cell junctions were characterized by very thick actin cables. PMID:25954156

  9. IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Roch, Toralf; Lampropoulou, Vicky; O'Connor, Richard A; Stervbo, Ulrik; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Ries, Stefanie; Dang, Van Duc; Jaimes, Yarúa; Daridon, Capucine; Li, Rui; Jouneau, Luc; Boudinot, Pierre; Wilantri, Siska; Sakwa, Imme; Miyazaki, Yusei; Leech, Melanie D; McPherson, Rhoanne C; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus; Hoehlig, Kai; Meinl, Edgar; Grützkau, Andreas; Grün, Joachim R; Horn, Katharina; Kühl, Anja A; Dörner, Thomas; Bar-Or, Amit; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Anderton, Stephen M; Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-03-20

    B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens. Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation of immunity. Mice in which only B cells did not express IL-35 lost their ability to recover from the T-cell-mediated demyelinating autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, these mice displayed a markedly improved resistance to infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as shown by their superior containment of the bacterial growth and their prolonged survival after primary infection, and upon secondary challenge, compared to control mice. The increased immunity found in mice lacking IL-35 production by B cells was associated with a higher activation of macrophages and inflammatory T cells, as well as an increased function of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). During Salmonella infection, IL-35- and IL-10-producing B cells corresponded to two largely distinct sets of surface-IgM(+)CD138(hi)TACI(+)CXCR4(+)CD1d(int)Tim1(int) plasma cells expressing the transcription factor Blimp1 (also known as Prdm1). During EAE, CD138(+) plasma cells were also the main source of B-cell-derived IL-35 and IL-10. Collectively, our data show the importance of IL-35-producing B cells in regulation of immunity and highlight IL-35 production by B cells as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune and infectious diseases. This study reveals the central role of activated B cells, particularly plasma cells, and their production of cytokines in the regulation of immune responses in health and disease. PMID:24572363

  10. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. III. Macrophage resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of hamsters to microwave (MW) energy (2.45 GHz, 25 mW/cm2, 1 h) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages (PM) to a viricidal state restricting the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The PM from MW-exposed hamsters were viricidal as early as 1 day after exposure and remained active for 5 days. Immunization of hamsters with vaccinia virus induced viricidal PM by 3 to 4 days and they remained active for 7 days. To test the hypothesis that thermogenic MW exposure results in the release of endotoxin across the intestinal epithelium which subsequently activates PM, hamsters were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their viricidal activity was studied. Lipopolysaccharide in vitro (0.2 microgram) and in vivo (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages to a viricidal state. When administered in vivo, LPS (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages as early as 1 day and the activity remained for 3 days. While MW exposure of PM in vitro failed to induce viricidal activity, exposure of PM to LPS in vitro induced strong viricidal activity. This suggests that the in vivo response of PM to MW is an indirect one, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MW-induced PM viricidal activity may be mediated via LPS. In preliminary experiments, MW exposure resulted in extended survival time for hamsters challenged with a lethal dose of vesicular stomatitis virus, supporting the concept that MW-activated PM may be a useful therapeutic modality.

  11. T-cell cytokines may control the balance of functionally distinct macrophage populations.

    PubMed Central

    Tormey, V J; Faul, J; Leonard, C; Burke, C M; Dilmec, A; Poulter, L W

    1997-01-01

    As monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages, subsets emerge that exhibit stimulatory, suppressive or phagocytic potential. These functionally distinct subsets can be discriminated using monoclonal antibodies RFD1 and RFD7. As examples of all these subsets have been repeatedly identified within the macrophage pool in a variety of organs the overall functional capacity of this pool will depend on the relative balance of these subpopulations. This study investigates whether this balance present in mature macrophage populations can be regulated by the local influence of T-cell-derived cytokines. The dose-dependent effect of cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukins (IL) IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 on the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived macrophages was determined. Subsets of mature cells were quantified by identifying RFD1- RFD7- stimulatory cells (D1+); RFD1- RFD7+ phagocytes (D7+) and RFD1+ RFD7+ suppressive cells (D1 D7+). IFN-gamma and IL-4 increased the relative proportions of D1+ stimulatory cells and upregulated HLA-DR expression. IFN-gamma also increased the capacity of the mature macrophage pool to stimulate T-cell proliferation. IL-10 reduced the proportions of D1+ stimulatory cells while promoting the differentiation of D7+ phagocytes and D1/D7+ suppressive cells. IL-10 induced changes also reduced the functional capacity of the mature populations to stimulate T cells in auto and allogenic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). IL-2 had no effect on differentiation of monocytes. Thus IL-4 and IFN-gamma are seen to induce the development of stimulatory macrophages while IL-10 promotes differentiation of monocytes to mature phagocytes and suppressive macrophages. It is concluded that mature macrophage phenotype is 'plastic' and under the control of T-cell-derived mediators. Furthermore, within the differentiating monocytes, phenotypic change appears to carry with it functional change, thus retaining the relationship between antigen expression and activity in the mature macrophage populations. PMID:9176096

  12. TH1 and TH2 T-cell subsets are differentially activated by macrophages and B cells in murine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi-Bergmann, B; Müller, I; Godinho, E B

    1993-01-01

    The role of antigen-presenting cells in the differential expansion of TH1 and TH2 T cells in murine leishmaniasis was investigated. In general, macrophages preferentially induced gamma interferon and interleukin-2 secretion by syngeneic Leishmania-specific T cells, whereas B cells were more efficient in activating interleukin 4 production. B cells from susceptible BALB/c mice were better in inducing TH2 responses than B cells from resistant C57BL/6 mice, whereas macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were superior to BALB/c macrophages in inducing TH1 responses. PMID:8478122

  13. The effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor and colony-stimulating factor-1 on hematopoietic cells in normal and osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Benis, K A; Schneider, G B

    1996-10-15

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of bone disorders characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone and by several immunological defects including macrophage dysfunction. Two compounds, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) were used in the present study to evaluate their effects on the peritoneal population of cells and on cells within the bone marrow microenvironment in normal and incisors absent (ia) osteopetrotic rats. Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that administration of DBP-MAF to newborn ia animals results in a substantial increase in bone marrow cavity size due to upregulated osteoclast function. To study the effects of these compounds on the macrophage/osteoclast precursors, DBP-MAF, CSF-1, and the combination of these compounds were given to newborn ia and normal littermate animals. Both the normal and mutant phenotypes responded similarly when treated with these compounds. Rats exhibited a profound shift toward the macrophage lineage from the neutrophil lineage when compared with vehicle-treated control animals after treatment with these compounds. In the in vivo peritoneal lavage study, animals received injections of CSF-1, DBP-MAF or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 over a 4-week period. The various types of cells in the peritoneal cavity were then enumerated. The in vitro study consisted of cells isolated from the bone marrow microenvironment and cultured on feeder layers of CSF-1, DBP-MAF, or DBP-MAF/CSF-1 for colony enumeration. The increase in macrophage numbers at the expense of neutrophil numbers could be seen in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The macrophage/osteoclast and neutrophil lineages have a common precursor, the granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC). With the addition of CSF-1, the GM-CFC precursor may be induced into the macrophage/osteoclast lineage rather than the granulocyte lineage. This increased pool of cells in the macrophage/osteoclast lineage can be functionally upregulated with the subsequent addition of DBP-MAF to perform the activities of phagocytosis and bone resorption. The in vitro data also showed that DBP-MAF did not support colony development as in CSF-1 or the combination treatment. The recruitment and activation of cells into the macrophage/ osteoclast lineage may help to correct the bone and immune defects found in diseases demonstrating a significant lack of myeloid cells, as well as neutrophilia disorders and the disease, osteopetrosis. PMID:8874186

  14. The Antiviral Effect of High-Molecular Weight Poly-Gamma-Glutamate against Newcastle Disease Virus on Murine Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Talactac, Melbourne; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Hojin; Chowdhury, Mohammed Y. E.; Kim, Chul Joong

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the capacity of HM-?-PGA treatment to significantly protect murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cells) against NDV infection. Such protection can be explained by the induction of antiviral state of HM-?-PGA in RAW 264.7 cells via TLR4-mediated IRF-3, IRF-7, IFN-?, and IFN-related gene induction as shown in time-dependent changes in mRNA expression confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, the present research also showed that HM-?-PGA can induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW 264.7 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, our findings suggest that HM-?-PGA can be a potential antiviral substance that can inhibit NDV infection through its stimulation of antiviral state on RAW 264.7 cells. These results have been consistent with the previous studies showing that HM-?-PGA can protect RAW 264.7 cells and mice against influenza infection. However, it should be noted that although murine macrophage cells are susceptible to NDV, they are not the natural host cells of the virus; thus further in vivo and in vitro studies involving chicken and chicken immune cells are needed to fully assess the efficacy and applicability of HM-?-PGA in the poultry industry. PMID:25610463

  15. Apoptotic cells induce arginase II in macrophages, thereby attenuating NO production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel M. Johann; Vera Barra; Anne-Marie Kuhn; Andreas Weigert; Andreas von Knethen; Bernhard Brune

    2007-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that removal of apoptotic cells (AC) by professional phagocytes alters the macrophage phenotype. This change is characterized by attenuated proinflammatory cytokine expression and NO production, which mech- anistically remained unexplained. With the intention to explore molecular mechanisms underlying reduced NO formation, we showed that NO production in IFN- stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages exposed

  16. Mechanisms of Disease: macrophage-derived foam cells emerging as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin M Lee; David R Greaves; Robin P Choudhury

    2005-01-01

    The limited efficacy of current treatment strategies for targeting atherosclerosis and its complications requires new therapeutic options to be explored. From early fatty-streak lesions to advanced plaques, macrophage-derived foam cells are integral to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Elucidation of molecular and cellular processes involving macrophages has led to numerous therapeutic targets being suggested. Potential sites of intervention range

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Cerebral Ischemia Show Discrepancy in Therapeutic Effects of M2 Macrophages

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    is dominated by innate immune cells: resident microglia and blood- derived macrophages. The ambivalent role occlusion. Functional neuroscores and magnetic resonance imaging endpoints (infarct volumes, blood-brain immune cells of myeloid lineage: resident microglia and blood-derived macrophages. However, it remains

  18. An MHC Class II Dependent Activation Loop Between Adipose Tissue Macrophages and CD4+ T cells Controls Obesity-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Morris, David L.; DelProposto, Jennifer L.; Geletka, Lynn; Zamarron, Brian; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Meyer, Kevin A.; Singer, Kanakadurga; O'Rourke, Robert W.; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary An adaptive immune response triggered by obesity is characterized by the activation of adipose tissue CD4+ T cells by unclear mechanisms. We have examined if interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and CD4+ T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identifies dynamic antigen dependent interactions between ATMs and T cells in visceral fat. Mice deficient in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) showed protection from diet-induced obesity. Deletion of MHCII expression in macrophages led to an adipose tissue specific decrease in the effector/memory CD4+ T cells, attenuation of CD11c+ ATM accumulation, and improvement in glucose intolerance by increasing adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Ablation experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of proliferating conventional T cells is dependent on signals from CD11c+ ATMs in obese mice. These studies demonstrate the importance of MHC Class II restricted signals from ATMs that regulate adipose tissue T cell maturation and metainflammation. PMID:25310975

  19. Setting the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells co-cultured with canine macrophages infected with Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2015-07-30

    New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (?80%), low NO production (?5?M) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-?/IL-10?2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26095951

  20. Plaque Size Reduction as a Measure of Viral Cell-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Richard L.; Centifanto, Ysolina; Kaufman, Herbert E.

    1974-01-01

    This new assay of viral cell-mediated immunity is sensitive, reproducible, and in many ways resembles the in vivo state. The spread of herpes simplex virus between adjacent monolayer cells was inhibited in the presence of spleen cells from guinea pigs sensitized to that virus. This in vitro control of viral growth was quantified by determining plaque size in monolayers to which were added sensitized spleen cells as opposed to nonsensitized or no spleen cells. The simple measurement of plaque size reduction as an in vitro test of viral cell-mediated immunity is described. In addition to correlating highly with skin testing and macrophage migration inhibition as a test of viral cell-mediated immunity, the ability of sensitized spleen cells to reduce plaque size developed by day 7, paralleling the onset of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity. The specificity of this lymphocyte-mediated interaction was demonstrated by the inability of herpes simplex virus-sensitized spleen cells to alter the growth of vaccinia virus in cell culture. A ratio of sensitized spleen cells to monolayer cells of 6:1 resulted in significant plaque size reduction on both HEp-2 and conjunctiva monolayers. The data presented demonstrate the potential usefulness of plaque size reduction as a technically simple, specific, and more direct measure of cellular antiviral activity. PMID:16558085

  1. Inhibitory kappaB kinase 2 activates airway epithelial cells to stimulate bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Biji; Park, Gye Young; Cao, Hongmei; Azim, Anser C; Wang, Xuerong; Van Breemen, Richard B; Sadikot, Ruxana T; Christman, John W

    2007-05-01

    It has not been resolved whether macrophages or airway epithelial cells primarily respond to infectious and inflammatory stimuli and initiate a cell-to-cell inflammatory interaction within the airways. We hypothesized that the airway epithelial cells are primary responders that activate macrophages in response to environmental stimuli. To investigate the unilateral contribution of airway epithelial cells in the activation of macrophages, we developed an in vitro system in which the primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were incubated together for a brief period of time in a Transwell culture plate. MTEC were transfected with adenoviral vectors that express a constitutively active form of IKK2 (Ad-cIKK2), Ad-beta-Gal, or PBS for 48 h before incubating with the macrophages. Macrophage activation was determined by measuring surface expression of CD11b, activation of NF-kappaB, phagocytic activity and production of reactive oxygen species, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and production of prostaglandins. Macrophage adherence to epithelial layer was confirmed by CD68 immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. MTEC cells transfected with Ad-cIKK2 produced increased amounts of IL-6, mouse GRO-alpha, TNF-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)E2. Exposure of BMDM to MTEC, transfected with Ad-cIKK2, led to an increase in the CD11b expression and increased adherence of macrophages to the epithelial cell layer. NF-kappaB activation, COX-2 gene expression, and PGD2 synthesis were also increased in BMDM that were incubated with MTEC transfected with Ad-cIKK2. These data suggest that airway epithelial cells potentially play a primary role in generating inflammatory signals that result in activation of macrophages. PMID:17204585

  2. Nuclear bridges in multinucleated giant cells associated with primary lymphoma of the brain in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mizusawa; A. Hirano; J. F. Llena; T. Kato

    1987-01-01

    In an autopsied case of a 37-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), multinucleated giant cell encephalopathy was noted in close proximity to multiple nodules of primary lymphoma of the brain. Some multinucleated giant cells and macrophages contained HTLV-III-like viral particles. Nuclear bridges, thin strands connecting individual nuclei with one another, were observed with both light and electron microscopes

  3. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  4. Calcium signaling in immune cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Kinet; Monika Vig

    2008-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Resting lymphocytes maintain a low concentration of Ca2+. However, engagement of antigen receptors induces calcium influx from the extracellular space by several routes. A chief mechanism of Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes is through store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The identification of two important molecular components of SOC channels, CRACM1

  5. A macrophage Fc gamma receptor and the mast cell receptor for IgE share an identical subunit.

    PubMed

    Ra, C; Jouvin, M H; Blank, U; Kinet, J P

    1989-10-26

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulins are found on many immune cells and trigger essential functions of the immune defence system. With the exception of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI), these receptors were thought to consist of single polypeptides. Fc epsilon RI is a tetrameric complex of one alpha-subunit, one beta-subunit and two gamma-subunits. Here we report the cloning of a polypeptide identical to the gamma-chains of Fc epsilon RI, from mouse macrophages that do not express this receptor. Biosynthetic labelling and gene transfer together show that these gamma-chains associate with one of the macrophage receptors (Fc gamma RIIa). The human homologue, Fc gamma RIII (CD16), from natural killer cells is also expected to associate with gamma-chains. It is possible that these gamma-chains and the homologous zeta-chains of the T-cell antigen receptor belong to a new family of related proteins which share a common role in the signal transducing pathway. PMID:2529442

  6. How do immune cells support and shape the brain in health, disease, and aging?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Kipnis, Jonathan; Rivest, Serge; Prat, Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    For decades, several axioms have prevailed with respect to the relationships between the CNS and circulating immune cells. Specifically, immune cell entry was largely considered to be pathological or to mark the beginning of pathology within the brain. Moreover, local inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, were considered similar in their etiology to inflammatory diseases, such as remitting relapsing-multiple sclerosis. The ensuing confusion reflected a lack of awareness that the etiology of the disease as well as the origin of the immune cells determines the nature of the inflammatory response, and that inflammation resolution is an active cellular process. The last two decades have seen a revolution in these prevailing dogmas, with a significant contribution made by the authors. Microglia and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages are now known to be functionally distinct and of separate origin. Innate and adaptive immune cells are now known to have protective/healing properties in the CNS, as long as their activity is regulated, and their recruitment is well controlled; their role is appreciated in maintenance of brain plasticity in health, aging, and chronic neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is now understood that the barriers of the brain are not uniform in their interactions with the circulating immune cells. The implications of these new findings to the basic understanding of CNS repair processes, brain aging, and a wide spectrum of CNS disorders, including acute injuries, Rett syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis, will be discussed. PMID:24198349

  7. How Do Immune Cells Support and Shape the Brain in Health, Disease, and Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Kipnis, Jonathan; Rivest, Serge; Prat, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    For decades, several axioms have prevailed with respect to the relationships between the CNS and circulating immune cells. Specifically, immune cell entry was largely considered to be pathological or to mark the beginning of pathology within the brain. Moreover, local inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, were considered similar in their etiology to inflammatory diseases, such as remitting relapsing-multiple sclerosis. The ensuing confusion reflected a lack of awareness that the etiology of the disease as well as the origin of the immune cells determines the nature of the inflammatory response, and that inflammation resolution is an active cellular process. The last two decades have seen a revolution in these prevailing dogmas, with a significant contribution made by the authors. Microglia and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages are now known to be functionally distinct and of separate origin. Innate and adaptive immune cells are now known to have protective/healing properties in the CNS, as long as their activity is regulated, and their recruitment is well controlled; their role is appreciated in maintenance of brain plasticity in health, aging, and chronic neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is now understood that the barriers of the brain are not uniform in their interactions with the circulating immune cells. The implications of these new findings to the basic understanding of CNS repair processes, brain aging, and a wide spectrum of CNS disorders, including acute injuries, Rett syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis, will be discussed. PMID:24198349

  8. The role of melatonin in the cells of the innate immunity: a review.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Juan R; González-Yanes, C; Maldonado, M D

    2013-09-01

    Melatonin is the major secretory product synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland and shows both a wide distribution within phylogenetically distant organisms from bacteria to humans and a great functional versatility. In recent years, a considerable amount of experimental evidence has accumulated showing a relationship between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The molecular basis of the communication between these systems is the use of a common chemical language. In this framework, currently melatonin is considered one of the members of the neuroendocrine-immunological network. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have documented that melatonin plays a fundamental role in neuroimmunomodulation. Based on the information published, it is clear that the majority of the present data in the literature relate to lymphocytes; thus, they have been rather thoroughly investigated, and several reviews have been published related to the mechanisms of action and the effects of melatonin on lymphocytes. However, few studies concerning the effects of melatonin on cells belonging to the innate immunity have been reported. Innate immunity provides the early line of defense against microbes and consists of both cellular and biochemical mechanisms. In this review, we have focused on the role of melatonin in the innate immunity. More specifically, we summarize the effects and action mechanisms of melatonin in the different cells that belong to or participate in the innate immunity, such as monocytes-macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and natural killer cells. PMID:23889107

  9. Human macrophages kill human mesangial cells by Fas-L-induced apoptosis when triggered by antibody via CD16

    PubMed Central

    BOYLE, J J

    2004-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis may be triggered by antibody deposits that activate macrophages to promote tissue damage. Macrophage-induced apoptosis of human vascular smooth muscle cells and rodent mesangial cells is potentially relevant to glomerulonephritis. Therefore, studies of macrophage-induced apoptosis were extended to antibody-activated macrophages. That is, we studied antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). To corroborate results, we studied biochemical versus microscopic measurements, soluble or immobilized immunoglobulin and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or mesangial cells (MCs). U937 macrophages and human peripheral blood macrophages provoked antibody-dependent killing of MCs and VSMCs. Macrophage-induced death was apoptotic based on electron microscopy, annexin-V, activated caspase-3 and hypodiploid DNA. ADCC was inhibited by antagonistic antibodies to Fas-L and to CD16 (Fc-?-RIII) but not to CD64 (Fc-?-RI). In conclusion, antibody-dependent killing of human MCs by human macrophages was via Fas-L and CD16. PMID:15320902

  10. Inhibition of NOS-NO System Prevents Autoimmune Orchitis Development in Rats: Relevance of NO Released by Testicular Macrophages in Germ Cell Apoptosis and Testosterone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jarazo Dietrich, Sabrina; Fass, Mónica Irina; Jacobo, Patricia Verónica; Sobarzo, Cristian Marcelo Alejandro; Lustig, Livia; Theas, María Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the testis is considered an immunoprivileged organ it can orchestrate immune responses against pathological insults such as infection and trauma. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of chronic inflammation whose main histopathological features it shares with human orchitis. In EAO an increased number of macrophages infiltrate the interstitium concomitantly with progressive germ cell degeneration and impaired steroidogenesis. Up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO)-NO synthase (NOS) system occurs, macrophages being the main producers of NO. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NO-NOS system in orchitis development and determine the involvement of NO released by testicular macrophages on germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion. Method and Results EAO was induced in rats by immunization with testicular homogenate and adjuvants (E group) and a group of untreated normal rats (N) was also studied. Blockage of NOS by i.p. injection of E rats with a competitive inhibitor of NOS, L-NAME (8mg/kg), significantly reduced the incidence and severity of orchitis and lowered testicular nitrite content. L-NAME reduced germ cell apoptosis and restored intratesticular testosterone levels, without variations in serum LH. Co-culture of N testicular fragments with testicular macrophages obtained from EAO rats significantly increased germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion, whereas addition of L-NAME lowered both effects and reduced nitrite content. Incubation of testicular fragments from N rats with a NO donor DETA-NOnoate (DETA-NO) induced germ cell apoptosis through external and internal apoptotic pathways, an effect prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DETA-NO inhibited testosterone released from Leydig cells, whereas NAC (from 2.5 to 15 mM) did not prevent this effect. Conclusions We demonstrated that NO-NOS system is involved in the impairment of testicular function in orchitis. NO secreted mainly by testicular macrophages could promote oxidative stress inducing ST damage and interfering in Leydig cell function. PMID:26046347

  11. Impact of Plasmids, Including Those EncodingVirB4/D4 Type IV Secretion Systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg Virulence in Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W.; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells. PMID:24098597

  12. Characterization of Salmonella-Induced Cell Death in Human Macrophage-Like THP1 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eulalia Valle; Donald G. Guiney

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella strains are facultative intracellular pathogens that produce marked cytopathology during infec- tion of host cells. Different forms of cytopathic effects have been associated with the virulence systems encoded by the two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and the spv locus. We used Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin to investigate the induction of cytopathology during infection of the human macrophage-like

  13. Innate Immune Responses to Lung-Stage Helminth Infection Induce Alternatively Activated Alveolar Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua J. Reece; Mark C. Siracusa; Alan L. Scott

    2006-01-01

    While it is well established that infection with the rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a strongly polarized Th2 immune response, little is known about the innate host-parasite interactions that lead to the development of this robust Th2 immunity. We exploited the transient pulmonary phase of N. brasiliensis development to study the innate immune responses induced by this helminth parasite in

  14. Platelets and their interactions with other immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fong W.; Vijayan, K. Vinod; Rumbaut, Rolando E.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate blood cells, long known to be critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. In addition to their role in blood clots, increasing evidence reveals significant roles for platelets in inflammation and immunity. However, the notion that platelets represent immune cells is not broadly recognized in the field of Physiology. This manuscript reviews the role of platelets in inflammation and immune responses, and highlights their interactions with other immune cells, including examples of major functional consequences of these interactions. PMID:26140718

  15. Depletion of cutaneous macrophages and dendritic cells promotes growth of basal cell carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    König, Simone; Nitzki, Frauke; Uhmann, Anja; Dittmann, Kai; Theiss-Suennemann, Jennifer; Herrmann, Markus; Reichardt, Holger M; Schwendener, Reto; Pukrop, Tobias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Hahn, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) belongs to the group of non-melanoma skin tumors and is the most common tumor in the western world. BCC arises due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Patched1 (Ptch). Analysis of the conditional Ptch knockout mouse model for BCC reveals that macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) of the skin play an important role in BCC growth restraining processes. This is based on the observation that a clodronate-liposome mediated depletion of these cells in the tumor-bearing skin results in significant BCC enlargement. The depletion of these cells does not modulate Ki67 or K10 expression, but is accompanied by a decrease in collagen-producing cells in the tumor stroma. Together, the data suggest that cutaneous macrophages and DC in the tumor microenvironment exert an antitumor effect on BCC. PMID:24691432

  16. Depletion of Cutaneous Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Promotes Growth of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    König, Simone; Nitzki, Frauke; Uhmann, Anja; Dittmann, Kai; Theiss-Suennemann, Jennifer; Herrmann, Markus; Reichardt, Holger M.; Schwendener, Reto; Pukrop, Tobias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Hahn, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) belongs to the group of non-melanoma skin tumors and is the most common tumor in the western world. BCC arises due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Patched1 (Ptch). Analysis of the conditional Ptch knockout mouse model for BCC reveals that macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) of the skin play an important role in BCC growth restraining processes. This is based on the observation that a clodronate-liposome mediated depletion of these cells in the tumor-bearing skin results in significant BCC enlargement. The depletion of these cells does not modulate Ki67 or K10 expression, but is accompanied by a decrease in collagen-producing cells in the tumor stroma. Together, the data suggest that cutaneous macrophages and DC in the tumor microenvironment exert an antitumor effect on BCC. PMID:24691432

  17. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor Directly Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and uPAR Expression of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Diane R.; Dridi, Sami; Wu, Jason; Jiang, Weihua; Huang, Bin; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Fannon, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth. Its activity, however, has been attributed to indirect mechanisms such as boosting the immune response by activating macrophages and inhibiting the blood vessel growth necessary for the growth of tumors. Methods and Findings In this study we show for the first time that DBP-maf exhibits a direct and potent effect on prostate tumor cells in the absence of macrophages. DBP-maf demonstrated inhibitory activity in proliferation studies of both LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as metastatic clones of these cells. Flow cytometry studies with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that this inhibitory activity is not due to apoptosis or cell death. DBP-maf also had the ability to inhibit migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Finally, DBP-maf was shown to cause a reduction in urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in prostate tumor cells. There is evidence that activation of this receptor correlates with tumor metastasis. Conclusions These studies show strong inhibitory activity of DBP-maf on prostate tumor cells independent of its macrophage activation. PMID:20976141

  18. Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are innate immune cells that reside and accumulate in the healthy and injured heart. The cells and their subsets pursue distinct functions in steady state and disease, and their tenure may range between hours to months. Some subsets are highly inflammatory, while others support tissue repair. This review discusses current concepts of lineage relationships and systems’ cross talk, highlights open questions, and describes tools for studying monocyte and macrophage subsets in the murine and human heart. PMID:23743228

  19. IRF3 Polymorphisms Induce Different Innate Anti-Theiler's Virus Immune Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tyler C.; Al-Salleeh, Fahd M.; Brown, Deborah M.; Petro, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent viral infections can lead to disease such as myocarditis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infects macrophages of SJL/J (H-2s) mice establishing persistent infections leading to demyelinating disease. In contrast macrophages from B10.S (H-2s) mice clear TMEV. Activation of the transcription factor IRF3 induces IFN?, ISG56, and apoptosis for viral clearance, but also inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL6, which contribute to disease. Here we identify polymorphisms in the IRF3 of SJL/J versus B10.S mice that are located in DNA binding, nuclear localization, and autoinhibitory domains. SJL-IRF3 expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells with or without TMEV infection decreased IL-23p19 promoter activity compared with B10S-IRF3. In contrast SJL-IRF3 increased IL-6, ISG56 and IFN? in response to TMEV. B10S-IRF3 expression augmented apoptotic caspase activation and decreased viral RNA in TMEV-infected macrophages while SJL-IRF3 increased viral replication with less Caspase activation. Therefore IRF3 polymorphisms contribute to viral persistence and altered cytokine expression. PMID:21810534

  20. Melanoma-initiating cells exploit M2 macrophage TGF? and arginase pathway for survival and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Muly; Tan, Kar Wai; Keeble, Jo; Wang, Xiaojie; Hubert, Sandra; Barron, Luke; Tan, Nguan Soon; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Armelle; Angeli, Veronique; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages promote tumor growth and metastasis, but their interactions with specific tumor cell populations are poorly characterized. Using a mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed that CD34? but not CD34+ tumor-initiating cells (TICs) depend on M2 macrophages for survival and proliferation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and macrophage-conditioned media protected CD34? TICs from chemotherapy in vitro. In vivo, while inhibition of CD115 suppressed the macrophage-dependent CD34? TIC population, chemotherapy accelerated its development. The ability of TICs to respond to TAMs was acquired during melanoma progression and immediately preceded a surge in metastatic outgrowth. TAM-derived transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) and polyamines produced via the Arginase pathway were critical for stimulation of TICs and synergized to promote their growth. PMID:25294815

  1. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R Power; Hoskin, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NF?B pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  2. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NF?B pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  3. Fasudil mediates cell therapy of EAE by immunomodulating encephalomyelitic T cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yun; Guo, Shang-De; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Li, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Ling; Chai, Zhi; Yuan, Hai-Jun; Yang, Wan-Fang; Feng, Qian-Jin; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Although Fasudil has shown therapeutic potential in EAE mice, the mechanism of action are still not fully understood. Here, we examined the immunomodulatory effect of Fasudil on encephalitogenic mononuclear cells (MNCs), and tested the therapeutic potential of Fasudil-treated MNCs in active EAE. Fasudil inhibited expression of CCL20 on T cells and migration of T cells, decreased CD4(+) IFN-?(+) and CD4(+) IL-17(+) T cells, but increased CD4(+) IL-10(+) and CD4(+) TGF-?(+) T cells. Fasudil reduced expression of CD16/32 and IL-12, while elevating expression of CD206, CD23, and IL-10. Fasudil also decreased levels of iNOS/NO, enhanced levels of Arg-1, and inhibited the TLR-4/NF-?B signaling and TNF-?, shifting M1 macrophage to M2 phenotype. These modulatory effects of Fasudil on T cells and macrophages were not altered by adding autoantigen MOG35-55 to the culture, i.e., autoantigen-independent. Further, we observed that, in vitro, Fasudil inhibited the capacity of encephalitogenic MNCs to adoptively transfer EAE and reduced TLR-4/p-NF-?B/p65 and inflammatory cytokines in spinal cords. Importantly, Fasudil-treated encephalitogenic MNCs exhibited therapeutic potential when injected into actively induced EAE mice. Together, our results not only provide evidence that Fasudil mediates the polarization of macrophages and the regulation of T cells, but also reveal a novel strategy for cell therapy in MS. PMID:25287052

  4. Schistosomiasis and in vitro transdifferentiation of murine peritoneal macrophages into fibroblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Godoy, M; Geuskens, M; Van Marck, E A; Borojevic, R; Van Gansen, P

    1989-01-01

    We developed a method for avoiding contamination by fibroblasts when cultures of peritoneal cells are initiated. Macrophages were identified by immunogold detection [light microscope, transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopes] of membrane antigens (Mac-1+, Thy-1,2-), non-specific esterase activity and ultrastructural features (TEM). As compared with controls, the yield of peritoneal macrophages was 2- and 12-fold higher, respectively, in acutely and chronically infected mice. In all, 30 "chronic", 18 "acute" and 18 control cultures were followed up. At a given cell-density seeding, the decline of control, "acute" and "chronic" cultures starts at about day 10, 15, and 27, respectively. In "chronic" cultures only, fibroblast-like cells appear from day 6 onwards; their number increases with time. Cells showing characters intermediary between macrophages and fibroblasts were observed. We suggest that fibroblast-like cells result from the in vitro transdifferentiation of a limited number of in vivo committed macrophages. PMID:2515539

  5. TRANSFORMATION OF MONOCYTES IN TISSUE CULTURE INTO MACROPHAGES, EPITHELIOID CELLS, AND MULTINUCLEATED GIANT CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jerry S.; Weiss, Leon

    1966-01-01

    The sequential transformation of chicken monocytes into macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells in vitro was studied by electron microscopy after fixation and embedment in situ. The following changes occur. In the nucleus, margination of chromatin, evident in monocytes, decreases in later forms. Nucleoli become more complex and nuclear pores increase in number. In cytoplasm, a progressive increase in volume of the ectoplasm and endoplasm occurs in culture. Lysosomes increase in number and size prior to phagocytosis. During phagocytosis (most active from 1 to 3 days of culture) lysosome depletion occurs. Lysosomes are present in greatest number and show maximal structural variation in the epithelioid and young giant cells. Aging giant cells lose lysosomes. All stages possess variably large quantities of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes. The Golgi apparatus, small in monocytes, increases in size and complexity. Massive accumulations of lysosomes within the Golgi apparatus of macrophages and epithelioid cells suggest that lysosomes originate there. In giant cells, multiple Golgi regions occur, often ringing the nuclei. Monocytes and macrophages have few mitochondria. Mitochondria of epithelioid cells are larger, more numerous, and may have discontinuous outer membranes. Mitochondria are most numerous in giant cells where they increase with age and become polymorphous. Cytoplasmic filaments are approximately 50 to 60 A in diameter and of indeterminate length. They occur both singly and in bundles which touch cytoplasmic vesicles and mitochondria. Few filaments occur in monocytes and macrophages. A large increase in the number of filaments occurs in epithelioid cells, where filaments (90 to 100 A) surround the cytocentrum as a distinctive annular bundle often branching into the cytoplasm. The greatest concentration of filaments occurs in aged giant cells. Pseudopodia are always present. They are short and filiform in monocytes and giant cells, and broad, with abundant micropinocytotic vesicles, in macrophages and epithelioid cells. At every stage, the cell membrane contains dense cuplike structures. These may represent the membranous residue of lysosomes which have discharged to the outside, analogous to merocrine secretion. Contiguous epithelioid cells display elaborate cytoplasmic interdigitation. In places, the plasma membranes break down and epithelioid cells fuse to form giant cells. PMID:5914695

  6. Obesity and Immune Cell Counts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie; Tien, Phyllis C.; Feldman, Joseph; Shin, Ja Hyun; Fennie, Kristopher; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Bacon, Melanie C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objective Obesity is common in women and associated with a number of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, and cancer. We explore the relationship between obesity and immune cell counts in women. Design Longitudinal study of 322 women from 1999 through 2003 enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Methods Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9), obese (BMI 30 - 34.9), and morbid obesity (BMI ?35). CD4 and CD8 counts and percents, total lymphocyte and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured annually using standardized techniques. A mixed model repeated measures analysis was performed using an autoregressive correlation matrix. Results At the index visit, 61% of women were African-American; mean age was 35 years, and median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Immunologic parameters were in the normal range (median CD4 count: 995 cells/mm3; CD8 count: 488 cells/mm3; total lymphocyte count: 206 cells/mm3; median WBC: 6 × 103 cells/mm3). In multivariate analyses, being overweight, obese or morbidly obese were independently associated with higher CD4, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts than being normal weight; morbid obesity was associated with a higher CD8 count. The strongest associations between body weight and immune cell counts were demonstrated in the morbidly obese. Conclusion Increasing body weight is associated with higher CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts in women. Investigation into the impact of obesity on immune function and long term adverse outcomes is needed. PMID:17570264

  7. Morphine Modulates Interleukin-4- or Breast Cancer Cell-induced Pro-metastatic Activation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Khabbazi, Samira; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment play a key role in the control of invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Macrophages display a range of activation states in specific pathological contexts and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages can promote tumour aggressiveness. Opioids are able to modulate tumour growth and metastasis. We tested whether morphine modulates the activation of macrophages induced by (i) interleukin-4 (IL-4), the prototypical M2 polarization-inducing cytokine, or (ii) coculture with breast cancer cells. We showed that IL-4 causes increased MMP-9 production and expression of the alternative activation markers arginase-1 and MRC-1. Morphine prevented IL-4-induced increase in MMP-9 in a naloxone- and methylnaltrexone-reversible fashion. Morphine also prevented IL-4-elicited alternative activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of MMP-9 and arginase-1 were increased when RAW264.7 were subjected to paracrine activation by 4T1 cells, and this effect was prevented by morphine via an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Morphine further decreased 4T1 breast cancer cell invasion elicited by co-culture with RAW264.7. Reduction of MMP-9 expression and alternative activation of macrophages by morphine was confirmed using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that morphine may modulate tumour aggressiveness by regulating macrophage protease production and M2 polarization within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26078009

  8. Morphine Modulates Interleukin-4- or Breast Cancer Cell-induced Pro-metastatic Activation of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Khabbazi, Samira; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment play a key role in the control of invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Macrophages display a range of activation states in specific pathological contexts and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages can promote tumour aggressiveness. Opioids are able to modulate tumour growth and metastasis. We tested whether morphine modulates the activation of macrophages induced by (i) interleukin-4 (IL-4), the prototypical M2 polarization-inducing cytokine, or (ii) coculture with breast cancer cells. We showed that IL-4 causes increased MMP-9 production and expression of the alternative activation markers arginase-1 and MRC-1. Morphine prevented IL-4-induced increase in MMP-9 in a naloxone- and methylnaltrexone-reversible fashion. Morphine also prevented IL-4-elicited alternative activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of MMP-9 and arginase-1 were increased when RAW264.7 were subjected to paracrine activation by 4T1 cells, and this effect was prevented by morphine via an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Morphine further decreased 4T1 breast cancer cell invasion elicited by co-culture with RAW264.7. Reduction of MMP-9 expression and alternative activation of macrophages by morphine was confirmed using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that morphine may modulate tumour aggressiveness by regulating macrophage protease production and M2 polarization within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26078009

  9. Dendritic Cells in Dengue Virus Infection: Targets of Virus Replication and Mediators of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Harris, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and detect pathogens at sites of entry, such as the skin. In addition to the ability of DCs to control infections directly via their innate immune functions, DCs help to prime adaptive B- and T-cell responses by processing and presenting antigen in lymphoid tissues. Infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes to humans while probing for small blood vessels in the skin. DENV causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans, yet no vaccine or specific therapeutic is currently licensed. Although primary DENV infection confers life-long protective immunity against re-infection with the same DENV serotype, secondary infection with a different DENV serotype can lead to increased disease severity via cross-reactive T-cells or enhancing antibodies. This review summarizes recent findings in humans and animal models about DENV infection of DCs, monocytes, and macrophages. We discuss the dual role of DCs as both targets of DENV replication and mediators of innate and adaptive immunity, and summarize immune evasion strategies whereby DENV impairs the function of infected DCs. We suggest that DCs play a key role in priming DENV-specific neutralizing or potentially harmful memory B- and T-cell responses, and that future DC-directed therapies may help induce protective memory responses and reduce dengue pathogenesis. PMID:25566258

  10. Identification and manipulation of tumor associated macrophages in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Evading immune destruction and tumor promoting inflammation are important hallmarks in the development of cancer. Macrophages are present in most human tumors and are often associated with bad prognosis. Tumor associated macrophages come in many functional flavors ranging from what is known as classically activated macrophages (M1) associated with acute inflammation and T-cell immunity to immune suppressive macrophages (M2) associated with the promotion of tumor growth. The role of these functionally different myeloid cells is extensively studied in mice tumor models but dissimilarities in markers and receptors make the direct translation to human cancer difficult. This review focuses on recent reports discriminating the type of infiltrating macrophages in human tumors and the environmental cues present that steer their differentiation. Finally, immunotherapeutic approaches to interfere in this process are discussed. PMID:22176642

  11. TGF-?–Responsive Myeloid Cells Suppress Type 2 Immunity and Emphysematous Pathology after Hookworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Lisa; Rani, Reena; Dawson, Lucas; Perkins, Charles; Yang, Yanfen; Downey, Jordan; Hölscher, Christoph; Herbert, De'Broski R.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) regulates inflammation, immunosuppression, and wound-healing cascades, but it remains unclear whether any of these functions involve regulation of myeloid cell function. The present study demonstrates that selective deletion of TGF-?RII expression in myeloid phagocytes i) impairs macrophage-mediated suppressor activity, ii) increases baseline mRNA expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines in the lung, and iii) enhances type 2 immunity against the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Strikingly, TGF-?–responsive myeloid cells promote repair of hookworm-damaged lung tissue, because LysMCreTGF-?RIIflox/flox mice develop emphysema more rapidly than wild-type littermate controls. Emphysematous pathology in LysMCreTGF-?RIIflox/flox mice is characterized by excessive matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity, reduced lung elasticity, increased total lung capacity, and dysregulated respiration. Thus, TGF-? effects on myeloid cells suppress helminth immunity as a consequence of restoring lung function after infection. PMID:22901754

  12. Escherichia coli Maltose-Binding Protein Induces M1 Polarity of RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells via a TLR2- and TLR4-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan; Yuan, Hong-Yan; Liu, Guo-Mu; Ni, Wei-Hua; Wang, Fang; Tai, Gui-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a critical player of the maltose/maltodextrin transport system in Escherichia coli. Our previous studies have revealed that MBP nonspecifically induces T helper type 1 (Th1) cell activation and activates peritoneal macrophages obtained from mouse. In the present study, we reported a direct stimulatory effect of MBP on RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. When stimulated with MBP, the production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12p70, and the expressions of CD80, MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were all increased in RAW264.7 cells, indicating the activation and polarization of RAW264.7 cells into M1 macrophages induced by MBP. Further study showed that MBP stimulation upregulated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on RAW264.7 cells, which was accompanied by subsequent phosphorylation of I?B-? and p38 MAPK. Pretreatment with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies largely inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B-? and p38 MAPK, and greatly reduced MBP-induced NO and IL-12p70 production, suggesting that the MBP-induced macrophage activation and polarization were mediated by TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. The observed results were independent of lipopolysaccharide contamination. Our study provides a new insight into a mechanism by which MBP enhances immune responses and warrants the potential application of MBP as an immune adjuvant in immune therapies. PMID:25941931

  13. Protective immunity against heterologous challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus by VP1 DNA vaccination: effect of coinjection with a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Im Sin; Jun-Ho Sung; You-Suk Suh; Ann-Hwee Lee; Jun-Ho Chung; Young-Chul Sung

    1997-01-01

    For DNA vaccination studies, recombinant VP1 protein of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) was produced from Escherichia coli, and eukaryotic VP1 expression vector, pCT-Gs-VP1, was generated and used as a DNA vaccine. Mice were immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) with pCT-Gs-VP1 in the presence or absence of plasmid DNA expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and were subsequently analyzed for their anti-VP1 immune responses

  14. Functional deficiencies of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-3 contribute to insulitis and destruction of ? cells

    PubMed Central

    Enzler, Thomas; Gillessen, Silke; Dougan, Michael; Allison, James P.; Neuberg, Donna; Oble, Darryl A.; Mihm, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) involves the immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Genetic analysis of families with a high incidence of T1D and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a prototypical model of the disorder, uncovered multiple susceptibility loci, although most of the underlying immune defects remain to be delineated. Here we report that aged mice doubly deficient in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) manifest insulitis, destruction of insulin-producing ? cells, and compromised glucose homeostasis. Macrophages from mutant mice produce increased levels of p40 after LPS stimulation, whereas concurrent ablation of interferon-? (IFN-?) ameliorates the disease. The administration of antibodies that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to young mutant mice precipitates the onset of insulitis and hyperglycemia. These results, together with previous reports of impaired hematopoietic responses to GM-CSF and IL-3 in patients with T1D and in NOD mice, indicate that functional deficiencies of these cytokines contribute to diabetes. PMID:17483299

  15. Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Serena Longhi; Yun Ma; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes\\/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of ??-T cells. Amongst these cells, the

  16. A macrophage migration inhibitory factor is expressed in the differentiating cells of the eye lens.

    PubMed Central

    Wistow, G J; Shaughnessy, M P; Lee, D C; Hodin, J; Zelenka, P S

    1993-01-01

    A discrete 10-kDa polypeptide (10K) is expressed from early stages in the embryonic chicken lens. Since this has potential as a marker for lens cell development, chicken 10K and its homologues from mouse and human lenses were identified by protein sequencing and cloning. Surprisingly, lens 10K proteins appear to be identical to a lymphokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), originally identified in activated human T cells. Using microdissection and PCR techniques, we find that expression of 10K/MIF is strongly correlated with cell differentiation in the developing chicken lens. Northern blot analysis shows that 10K/MIF is widely expressed in mouse tissues. These results suggest that proteins with MIF activity may have roles beyond the immune system, perhaps as intercellular messengers or part of the machinery of differentiation itself. Indeed, partial sequence of other small lens proteins identifies another MIF-related protein (MRP8) in calf lens. The relatively abundant expression of MIF in lens may have clinical significance, with the possibility of involvement in ocular inflammations that may follow damage to the lens. Images PMID:7679497

  17. Protective immune responses induced by in ovo immunization with recombinant adenoviruses expressing spike (S1) glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus fused/co-administered with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Zeshan, Basit; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Wang, Xinglong; Li, Wenliang; Jiang, Ping

    2011-02-24

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes tremendous economic losses associated with production inefficiencies and mortality in poultry industry worldwide. In the present report, the recombinant adenoviruses expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and S1 gene of nephropathogenic IBV were constructed and characterized. Then, the immunological efficacy and protection against homologous IBV challenge were assessed in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. The results showed that the chickens vaccinated in ovo with rAd-S1, rAd-GM-S1 (GM-CSF fused with S1 using glycine linkers) and rAd-GM-CSF plus rAd-S1 (co-administered) developed specific anti-IBV HI antibodies. Moreover, the fusion of the GM-CSF markedly increased spleen cell proliferation and IFN-? production while mild increased in IL-4 production, which demonstrated the enhancement of cell-mediated immune responses. Following challenge with IBV, the chickens in the group vaccinated with rAd-S1 fused or co-administered with GM-CSF had fewer nephropathic lesions and showed 100% protection as compared to that of rAd-S1 alone which showed 70% protection. It indicated that the single dose in ovo vaccination of the GM-CSF fused or co-administered with S1 of IBV could enhance significantly the humoral, cellular immune responses and provide complete protection against nephropathogenic IBV challenge. This finding may provide basic information for effective in ovo vaccines design against IBV. PMID:20850939

  18. Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products induce CD4+T cell anergy via selective up-regulation of PD-L2 expression on macrophages in a Dectin-1 dependent way.

    PubMed

    Guasconi, Lorena; Chiapello, Laura S; Masih, Diana T

    2015-07-01

    Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) induce immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Previously, we demonstrated that these effects are dependent on Dectin-1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how this affects the CD4 T-cells immune response. We observed that FhESP induce an increased expression of PD-L2 in macrophages via Dectin-1. Furthermore, in co-cultures with CD4 T-cell we observed a suppressive effect on proliferative response, down-modulation of IFN-? and up-modulation of IL-10 via Dectin-1 on macrophages. These results suggest that FhESP induce T-cell anergy via selective up-regulation of PD-L2 expression on macrophages in a Dectin-1 dependent way. PMID:25758714

  19. Acrolein-Induced Cell Death In Human Alveolar Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Raymond F. Hamilton; David E. Taylor; Andrij Holian

    1997-01-01

    Acrolein is an environmental air pollutant that is known to suppress respiratory host defense against infections. The mechanism of the decrease in host defense is not yet clear. In this study, the effects of acrolein on human alveolar macrophages and their function were examined. Acrolein caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity to alveolar macrophages as demonstrated by the induction of apoptosis and necrosis.

  20. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosoma cruzi Interfere with Macrophages and Dendritic Cell Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Brodskyn; Julie Patricio; Rubem Oliveira; Lucas Lobo; Andrea Arnholdt; L. Mendonca-Previato; Aldina Barral; Manoel Barral-Netto

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the possible effects of glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) from Trypanosoma cruzi on human antigen presenting cells, we tested their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Human macrophages or DC were incubated with GIPL (50 g\\/ml) and LPS (500 pg\\/ml) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, and IL-12p40 levels in super- natants were

  1. Macrophages From Cancer Patients: Analysis of TRAIL, TRAIL Receptors, and Colon Tumor Cell Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Herbeuval; Claude Lambert; Odile Sabido; Michèle Cottier; Pierre Fournel; Michel Dy; Christian Genin

    2003-01-01

    Background: Tumor-infiltrating macrophages secrete cyto- kines, including Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells; however, regulation of TRAIL and its receptors in cancer patients is relatively uncharacterized. We investi- gated whether macrophages from cancer patients produce TRAIL and whether apoptosis in cultured colon adenocar- cinoma

  2. Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Peter J.; Wynn, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are strategically located throughout the body tissues, where they ingest and process foreign materials, dead cells and debris and recruit additional macrophages in response to inflammatory signals. They are highly heterogeneous cells that can rapidly change their function in response to local microenvironmental signals. In this Review, we discuss the four stages of orderly inflammation mediated by macrophages: recruitment to tissues; differentiation and activation in situ; conversion to suppressive cells; and restoration of tissue homeostasis. We also discuss the protective and pathogenic functions of the various macrophage subsets in antimicrobial defence, antitumour immune responses, metabolism and obesity, allergy and asthma, tumorigenesis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis, fibrosis and wound healing. Finally, we briefly discuss the characterization of macrophage heterogeneity in humans. PMID:21997792

  3. T follicular helper cells have distinct modes of migration and molecular signatures in naive and memory immune responses.

    PubMed

    Suan, Dan; Nguyen, Akira; Moran, Imogen; Bourne, Katherine; Hermes, Jana R; Arshi, Mehreen; Hampton, Henry R; Tomura, Michio; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Kelleher, Anthony D; Kaplan, Warren; Deenick, Elissa K; Tangye, Stuart G; Brink, Robert; Chtanova, Tatyana; Phan, Tri Giang

    2015-04-21

    B helper follicular T (Tfh) cells are critical for long-term humoral immunity. However, it remains unclear how these cells are recruited and contribute to secondary immune responses. Here we show that primary Tfh cells segregate into follicular mantle (FM) and germinal center (GC) subpopulations that display distinct gene expression signatures. Restriction of the primary Tfh cell subpopulation in the GC was mediated by downregulation of chemotactic receptor EBI2. Following collapse of the GC, memory T cells persisted in the outer follicle where they scanned CD169(+) subcapsular sinus macrophages. Reactivation and intrafollicular expansion of these follicular memory T cells in the subcapsular region was followed by their extrafollicular dissemination via the lymphatic flow. These data suggest that Tfh cells integrate their antigen-experience history to focus T cell help within the GC during primary responses but act rapidly to provide systemic T cell help after re-exposure to the antigen. PMID:25840682

  4. HIV-Derived ssRNA Binds to TLR8 to Induce Inflammation-Driven Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Mark A.; Han, Xinbing; Inderbitzin, Sonya; Agbim, Ifunanya; Zhao, Hui; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2014-01-01

    Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves patient survival, they remain at a higher risk of being afflicted with non-infectious complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is linked to persistent inflammation and chronic immune activation. In this study, we assessed whether this complication is related to HIV-derived ssRNAs inducing in macrophages increases in TNF? release through TLR8 activation leading to foam cell formation. HIV ssRNAs induced foam cell formation in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was reduced when either endocytosis or endosomal acidification was inhibited by dynasore or chloroquine, respectively. Using a flow cytometry FRET assay, we demonstrated that ssRNAs bind to TLR8 in HEK cells. In MDMs, ssRNAs triggered a TLR8-mediated inflammatory response that ultimately lead to foam cell formation. Targeted silencing of the TLR8 and MYD88 genes reduced foam cell formation. Furthermore, foam cell formation induced by these ssRNAs was blocked by an anti-TNF? neutralizing antibody. Taken together in MDMs, HIV ssRNAs are internalized; bind TLR8 in the endosome followed by endosomal acidification. TLR8 signaling then triggers TNF? release and ultimately leads to foam cell formation. As this response was inhibited by a blocking anti-TNF? antibody, drug targeting HIV ssRNA-driven TLR8 activation may serve as a potential therapeutic target to reduce chronic immune activation and inflammation leading to CVD in HIV+ patients. PMID:25090652

  5. Kinetics of pulmonary immune cells, antibody responses and their correlations with the viral clearance of influenza A fatal infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jin; Hua, Yanhong; Wang, Dan; Liu, Aofei; An, Juan; Li, Aimin; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xiliang; Jia, Na; Jiang, Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Fatal influenza A virus infection is a major threat to public health throughout the world. Lung macrophages and neutrophils have critical roles for both the pathogenesis and viral clearance of fatal viral infections. These are complicated by the interaction of innate immunity and adaptive immunity against viral infection. In this study, we investigated the overall kinetics of lung macrophages, neutrophils, CD4?T cells, CD8?T cells, CD38? cells, and CD138? cells, the levels of antibody and cytokine responses, both in the early and late phases of fatal infection with A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus in mice. The changes in lung viral load were also evaluated. We found that pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils both accumulated in the early and late phases of fatal infections and they positively correlated with the lung and serum antibody titers, and negatively correlated with the viral load locally. The secretion of IL-6 might relate to high numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the early infection. The work implies that pulmonary macrophages, neutrophils and the antibody response all have an essential role in virus elimination of fatal influenza A viral infection. These findings may have implications for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in fatal influenza A viral infection. Further evaluation of the cooperation among macrophages, neutrophils and antibody responses in eliminating the virus with fatal infection is needed. PMID:24666970

  6. Alteration of immune functions and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in nicotine-induced murine macrophages: immunomodulatory role of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Majumdar, Subrata; Roy, Somenath

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune functions by nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophages, and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in it, and concurrently to establish the immunomodulatory role of eugenol, and N-acetylcysteine in nicotine-induced macrophages. Eugenol was isolated from Ocimum gratissimum, and characterized by HPLC, FTIR, and (1)H NMR. The cytotoxic effect of isolated eugenol was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at various concentrations (0.1-50 ?g/ml) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. To evaluate the immunomodulatory role of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine, ROS and nitrite generations, phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. The effect of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine on the release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-?, IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-?) was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level were analyzed by real-time PCR. Eugenol, at a dose of 15 ?g/ml, showed less cytotoxicity to the macrophages and it significantly reduced the nicotine-induced ROS, NO generation, and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (1 ?g/ml). We have found the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine treated macrophages, whereas eugenol and N-acetylcysteine with nicotine treatment enhanced these cellular functions by macrophages significantly (p < 0.05). Eugenol and N-acetylcysteine were found to down regulate the Th1 cytokines in nicotine treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions, and provide additional rationale for the application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by eugenol, and N-acetylcysteine for different inflammatory diseases prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity. PMID:21237301

  7. Ex Vivo Cytosolic Delivery of Functional Macromolecules to Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartoularos, George C.; Eyerman, Alexandra T.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail; Angin, Mathieu; Sharma, Siddhartha; Poceviciute, Roberta; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Liu, Sophia; Talkar, Tanya; Khan, Omar F.; Addo, Marylyn; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Lieberman, Judy; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies. PMID:25875117

  8. Wnt 5a signaling is critical for macrophage-induced invasion of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pukrop, T; Klemm, F; Hagemann, Th; Gradl, D; Schulz, M; Siemes, S; Trümper, L; Binder, C

    2006-04-01

    Interactions between neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to tumor progression. Wnt genes, involved in cell migration and often deregulated in cancers, are attractive candidates to regulate these effects. We have recently shown that coculture of breast cancer cells with macrophages enhances invasiveness via matrix metalloproteases and TNF-alpha. Here we demonstrate that coculture of MCF-7 cells and macrophages leads to up-regulation of Wnt 5a in the latter. This was accompanied by activation of AP-1/c-Jun in MCF-7. Recombinant Wnt 5a mimicked the coculture effect. Wnt 5a was also detectable in tumor-associated macrophages in primary breast cancers. Experiments with agonists and antagonists of Wnt signaling revealed that a functional canonical pathway in the tumor cells was a necessary prerequisite; however, noncanonical signaling via Wnt 5a and the Jun-N-terminal kinase pathway was critical for invasiveness. It was also responsible for induction of matrix metalloprotease-7, known to release TNF-alpha. All these effects could be antagonized by dickkopf-1. Our results indicate that Wnt 5a is essential for macrophage-induced invasiveness, because it regulates tumor cell migration as well as proteolytic activity of the macrophages. The function of Wnt 5a as either a suppressor or promoter of malignant progression seems to be modulated by intercellular interactions. Wnt 5a detection in tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer biopsies supports the assumption that similar events play a role in vivo. PMID:16569699

  9. Wnt 5a signaling is critical for macrophage-induced invasion of breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Pukrop, T.; Klemm, F.; Hagemann, Th.; Gradl, D.; Schulz, M.; Siemes, S.; Trümper, L.; Binder, C.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to tumor progression. Wnt genes, involved in cell migration and often deregulated in cancers, are attractive candidates to regulate these effects. We have recently shown that coculture of breast cancer cells with macrophages enhances invasiveness via matrix metalloproteases and TNF-?. Here we demonstrate that coculture of MCF-7 cells and macrophages leads to up-regulation of Wnt 5a in the latter. This was accompanied by activation of AP-1/c-Jun in MCF-7. Recombinant Wnt 5a mimicked the coculture effect. Wnt 5a was also detectable in tumor-associated macrophages in primary breast cancers. Experiments with agonists and antagonists of Wnt signaling revealed that a functional canonical pathway in the tumor cells was a necessary prerequisite; however, noncanonical signaling via Wnt 5a and the Jun-N-terminal kinase pathway was critical for invasiveness. It was also responsible for induction of matrix metalloprotease-7, known to release TNF-?. All these effects could be antagonized by dickkopf-1. Our results indicate that Wnt 5a is essential for macrophage-induced invasiveness, because it regulates tumor cell migration as well as proteolytic activity of the macrophages. The function of Wnt 5a as either a suppressor or promoter of malignant progression seems to be modulated by intercellular interactions. Wnt 5a detection in tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer biopsies supports the assumption that similar events play a role in vivo. PMID:16569699

  10. Macrophage and epithelial cell H-ferritin expression regulates renal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Hull, Travis D; Traylor, Amie M; Perianayagam, Anjana; Joseph, Reny; Kamal, Ahmed I; Arosio, Paolo; Soares, Miguel P; Jeney, Viktoria; Balla, Jozsef; George, James F; Agarwal, Anupam

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation culminating in fibrosis contributes to progressive kidney disease. Cross-talk between the tubular epithelium and interstitial cells regulates inflammation by a coordinated release of cytokines and chemokines. Here we studied the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the heavy subunit of ferritin (FtH) in macrophage polarization and renal inflammation. Deficiency in HO-1 was associated with increased FtH expression, accumulation of macrophages with a dysregulated polarization profile, and increased fibrosis following unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice: a model of renal inflammation and fibrosis. Macrophage polarization in vitro was predominantly dependent on FtH expression in isolated bone marrow-derived mouse monocytes. Using transgenic mice with conditional deletion of FtH in the proximal tubules (FtH(PT-/-)) or myeloid cells (FtH(LysM-/-)), we found that myeloid FtH deficiency did not affect polarization or accumulation of macrophages in the injured kidney compared with wild-type (FtH(+/+)) controls. However, tubular FtH deletion led to a marked increase in proinflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, injured kidneys from FtH(PT-/-) mice expressed significantly higher levels of inflammatory chemokines and fibrosis compared with kidneys from FtH(+/+) and FtH(LysM-/-) mice. Thus, there are differential effects of FtH in macrophages and epithelial cells, which underscore the critical role of FtH in tubular-macrophage cross-talk during kidney injury. PMID:25874599

  11. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  12. Pharmacologic Suppression of Hepcidin Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and Reduces Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Omar; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Polavarapu, Rohini; Karmali, Vinit; Weiss, Daiana; Davis, Talina; Rostad, Brad; Pachura, Kimberly; Adams, Lila; Elliott, John; Taylor, W. Robert; Narula, Jagat; Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu; Hong, Charles C.; Finn, Aloke V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We recently reported that lowering of macrophage free intracellular iron increases expression of cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 by reducing generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we explore whether reducing macrophage intracellular iron levels via pharmacologic suppression of hepcidin can increase macrophage-specific expression of cholesterol efflux transporters and reduce atherosclerosis. Methods and Results To suppress hepcidin, increase expression of the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN), and reduce macrophage intracellular iron, we used a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, LDN 193189 (LDN). LDN (10 mg/kg i.p. bid) was administered to mice and its effects on atherosclerosis, intracellular iron, oxidative stress, lipid efflux, and foam cell formation were measured in plaques and peritoneal macrophages. Long-term LDN administration to Apo E (-/-) mice increased ABCA1 immunoreactivity within intraplaque macrophages by 3.7-fold (n=8; p=0.03), reduced oil-red-o positive lipid area by 50% (n=8; p=0.02) and decreased total plaque area by 43% (n=8; p=0.001). LDN suppressed liver hepcidin transcription and increased macrophage FPN, lowering intracellular iron and hydrogen peroxide production. LDN treatment increased macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression, significantly raised cholesterol efflux to ApoA-1 and decreased foam cell formation. All preceding LDN-induced effects on cholesterol efflux were reversed by exogenous hepcidin administration, suggesting that modulation of intracellular iron levels within macrophages as the mechanism by which LDN triggers these effects. Conclusion These data suggest that pharmacologic manipulation of iron homeostasis may be a promising target to increase macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and limit atherosclerosis. PMID:22095982

  13. Macrophages engulf endothelial cell membrane particles preceding pupillary membrane capillary regression.

    PubMed

    Poché, Ross A; Hsu, Chih-Wei; McElwee, Melissa L; Burns, Alan R; Dickinson, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    Programmed capillary regression and remodeling are essential developmental processes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate vessel regression are only the beginning to be understood. Here, using in vivo, dynamic, confocal imaging of mouse transgenic reporters as well as static confocal and electron microscopy, we studied the embryonic development and postnatal regression of the transient mouse pupillary membrane (PM) vasculature. This approach allowed us to directly observe the precise temporal sequence of cellular events preceding and during the elimination of the PM from the mouse eye. Imaging of Tcf/Lef-H2B::GFP Wnt-reporter mice uncovered that, unlike the hyaloid vasculature of the posterior eye, a PM endothelial cell (EC) Wnt/?-catenin response is unlikely to be part of the regression mechanism. Live imaging of EC and macrophage dynamics revealed highly active Csf1r-GFP+ macrophages making direct contact with the Flk1-myr::mCherry+ vessel surface and with membrane protrusions or filopodia extending from the ECs. Flk1-myr::mCherry+ EC membrane particles were observed on and around ECs as well as within macrophages. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that they were in phagosomes within macrophages, indicating that the macrophages engulfed the membrane particles. Interestingly, EC plasma membrane uptake by PM macrophages did not correlate with apoptosis and was found shortly after vessel formation at mid-gestation stages in the embryo; long before vessel regression begins during postnatal development. Additionally, genetic ablation of macrophages showed that EC membrane particles were still shed in the absence of macrophages suggesting that macrophages do not induce the formation or release of EC microparticles. These studies have uncovered a novel event during programmed capillary regression in which resident macrophages scavenge endothelial cell microparticles released from the PM vessels. This finding suggests that there may be an initial disruption in vessel homeostasis embryonically as the PM forms that may underlie its ultimate regression postnatally. PMID:25912686

  14. Effects of kefir fractions on innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Vinderola; Gabriela Perdigon; Jairo Duarte; Deepa Thangavel; Edward Farnworth; Chantal Matar

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity that protects against pathogens in the tissues and circulation is the first line of defense in the immune reaction, where macrophages have a critical role in directing the fate of the infection. We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial mucosa and the phagocytic

  15. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Cell Division in Neuroblastoma Cells and Bone Marrow Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sans-Fons, M. Gloria; Sole, Sonia; Sanfeliu, Coral; Planas, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and carry out key functions in cell development, cancer, injury, and regeneration. In addition to its well recognized extracellular action, functional intracellular MMP activity under certain conditions is supported by increasing evidence. In this study, we observed higher gelatinase activity by in situ zymography and increased MMP-9 immunoreactivity in human neuroblastoma cells and in bone marrow macrophages undergoing mitosis compared with resting cells. We studied the pattern of immunoreactivity at the different stages of cell division by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining with different monoclonal antibodies against MMP-9 revealed a precise, dynamic, and well orchestrated localization of MMP-9 at the different stages of cell division. The cellular distribution of MMP-9 staining was studied in relation to that of microtubules. The spatial pattern of MMP-9 immunoreactivity suggested some participation in both the reorganization of the nuclear content and the process of chromatid segmentation. We then used several MMP-9 inhibitors to find out whether MMP-9 might be involved in the cell cycle. These drugs impaired the entry of cells into mitosis, as revealed by flow cytometry, and reduced cell culture growth. In addition, the silencing of MMP-9 expression with small interfering RNA also reduced cell growth. Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular MMP-9 is involved in the process of cell division in neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of macrophages. PMID:20971732

  17. The Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Immune Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren; Gervassi, Ana; Jaspan, Heather; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections. PMID:25165466

  18. CD8+ T Cells Participate in the Memory Immune Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Serbina, Natalya V.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of CD8+ T cells to the control of tuberculosis has been studied primarily during acute infection in mouse models. Memory or recall responses in tuberculosis are less well characterized, particularly with respect to the CD8 T-cell subset. In fact, there are published reports that CD8+ T cells do not participate in the memory immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We examined the CD8+ T-cell memory and local recall response to M. tuberculosis. To establish a memory immunity model, C57BL/6 mice were infected with M. tuberculosis, followed by treatment with anti-mycobacterial drugs and prolonged rest. The lungs of memory immune mice contained CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with the cell surface phenotype characteristic of memory cells (CD69low CD25low CD44high). At 1 week postchallenge with M. tuberculosis via aerosol, ?30% of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs of immune mice expressed the activation marker CD69 and could be restimulated to produce gamma interferon (IFN-?). In contrast, <6% of T cells in the lungs of naive challenged mice were CD69+ at 1 week postchallenge, and IFN-? production was not observed at this time point. CD8+ T cells from the lungs of both naive and memory mice after challenge were cytotoxic toward M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. Our data indicate that memory and recall immunity to M. tuberculosis is comprised of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and that there is a rapid response of both subsets in the lungs following challenge. PMID:11401969

  19. RAGE Regulates Immune Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis in Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    McVicar, Carmel; Ward, Michael; Colhoun, Liza; Quinn, Michael; Bierhaus, Angelika; Xu, Heping; Stitt, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods RAGE null (RAGE?/?) mice and age-matched wild type (WT) control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) towards S100B was investigated. Results RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001). RAGE?/? mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05). S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE?/? retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE?/? mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE?/? mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001). A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05–0.01) but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE?/? mice. Conclusions RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology. PMID:24586862

  20. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzmann, Andrea [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Britta [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Vogt, Carmen [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Feliu, Neus [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Ye Fei [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gabrielsson, Susanne [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Toprak, Muhammet S. [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina [Laboratory for Materials, Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Laurent, Sophie [NMR and Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of General, Organic and Biomedical Chemistry, University of Mons, Mons (Belgium); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Krug, Harald [Laboratory for Materials, Biology Interactions, Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Testing and Research, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Muhammed, Mamoun [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika [Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Fadeel, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.fadeel@ki.se [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  1. Effects of in vitro nickel exposure on the macrophage-mediated immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, D.H.; Frenkel, K.; Zelikoff, J.T. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Nickel is occurs naturally in the geophysical environment. It has become a common byproduct of industrialization. Nickel is released into the atmosphere and coal-burning power plants and trash incinerators, and is also discharged into waste water by industries which convert scrap or new nickel into alloys. The effluent that spreads to streams, rivers, and lakes may disrupt the integrity of the aquatic environment. Excess nickel contamination is hazardous to aquatic ecosystems due to its existence and bioaccumulation. While the adverse health effects associated with nickel exposure have been extensively examined in mammalian systems, very little is known concerning nickel's effects on aquatic organisms. Although trace amounts of nickel are necessary for maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of some vertebrate species, larger amounts of nickel have been shown to be toxic. In addition to being both genotoxic and carcinogenic, nickel modulates immunological functions in a variety of mammalian species. The toxic effects of nickel on the numbers, activity, and ultrastructure of macrophages (M[o]) have been well-studied. A number of other toxic metals such as copper, manganese, and cadmium modulate the immune responses of fish. To appraise the immunomodulating potential of nickel on fish, and to begin to establish baseline parameters of altered immune function as potential biomarkers of in vivo nickel exposure, elicited peritoneal macrophages from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of nickel sulfate (NiSO[sub 4]). Following exposure, M[o] activities important for maintaining host immunocompetence were evaluated and these include; mobility (random and stimulus-directed), production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytosis. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Demonstration of intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis alveolar cells and macrophages isolated from naturally infected cow milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Hébert; Khampoune Sayasith; Serge Sénéchal; Pascal Dubreuil; Jacqueline Lagacé

    2000-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus may be internalized and survive in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. We report here the presence of internalized and living S. aureus in alveolar cells and macrophages in milk samples of bovine mastitis. We used fluorochrome labeled monoclonal antibodies, specifically recognizing surface cell markers of bovine alveolar cells and macrophages,

  3. Macrophages in human colorectal cancer are pro-inflammatory and prime T cells towards an anti-tumour type-1 inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Ong, Siew-Min; Tan, Yann-Chong; Beretta, Ottavio; Jiang, Dongsheng; Yeap, Wei-Hseun; Tai, June J Y; Wong, Wing-Cheong; Yang, Henry; Schwarz, Herbert; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Koh, Poh-Koon; Ling, Khoon-Lin; Wong, Siew-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    High macrophage infiltration into tumours often correlates with poor prognoses; in colorectal, stomach and skin cancers, however, the opposite is observed but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unclear. Here, we sought to understand how tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer execute tumour-suppressive roles. We found that TAMs in a colorectal cancer model were pro-inflammatory and inhibited the proliferation of tumour cells. TAMs also produced chemokines that attract T cells, stimulated proliferation of allogeneic T cells and activated type-1 T cells associated with anti-tumour immune responses. Using colorectal tumour tissues, we verified that TAMs in vivo were indeed pro-inflammatory. Furthermore, the number of tumour-infiltrating T cells correlated with the number of TAMs, suggesting that TAMs could attract T cells; and indeed, type-1 T cells were present in the tumour tissues. Patient clinical data suggested that TAMs exerted tumour-suppressive effects with the help of T cells. Hence, the tumour-suppressive mechanisms of TAMs in colorectal cancer involve the inhibition of tumour cell proliferation alongside the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and promoting type-1 T-cell responses. These new findings would contribute to the development of future cancer immunotherapies based on enhancing the tumour-suppressive properties of TAMs to boost anti-tumour immune responses. PMID:22009685

  4. Stress-induced NF-?B activation differentiates promyelocytic leukemia cells to macrophages in response to all-trans-retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Joon Seong; Lim, In Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been known as a choice of treatment for inducing differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells to granulocytes. NF-?B plays a crucial role in inflammation and immunity and its activation is an important event for macrophage differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. We report here that NF-?B activation is critical for determining ATRA-induced lineage specific differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Our data revealed that ATRA treatment to HL-60 cells enhanced I?B? degradation and NF-?B nuclear translocation and the activated NF-?B potentiated the ability of ATRA for differentiation and switched differentiation to macrophages instead of granulocytes. Serum withdrawal and LPS treatment dampened I?B? expression via MAPK activation and reactive oxygen species generation leading to NF-?B nuclear translocation and ATRA treatment further corroborated these effects in myeloid leukemia cells. Activated NF-?B enhanced the degree of ATRA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to macrophages, rather than granulocytes, as assessed by morphologic examination and expressions of differentiation markers such as CD11b, CD38, CD68, MMP9 and Btg2. Employing LLnL or dominant negative I?B? attenuated NF-?B associated enhanced cell maturation and differentiation switch thus suggesting NF-?B as one of the factors that determines ATRA induced lineage specificity of myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, MAPK activation was observed to be central both for the differentiation of promyelocytic cells to macrophages or granulocytes regulating NF-?B or C/EBP? expressions, respectively; however, MAPK-mediated signals are modulated under various conditions affecting lineage specificity. In summary, our present data demonstrate that activation of NF-?B directly affects differentiation program of promyelocytes to macrophages, rather than granulocyte, in response to ATRA treatment. PMID:25435432

  5. Metabolic Reprograming in Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Peña, Silvia; O’Neill, Luke A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the metabolism of immune cells in recent years has emphasized the tight link existing between the metabolic state and the phenotype of these cells. Macrophages in particular are a good example of this phenomenon. Whether the macrophage obtains its energy through glycolysis or through oxidative metabolism can give rise to different phenotypes. Classically activated or M1 macrophages are key players of the first line of defense against bacterial infections and are known to obtain energy through glycolysis. Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages on the other hand are involved in tissue repair and wound healing and use oxidative metabolism to fuel their longer-term functions. Metabolic intermediates, however, are not just a source of energy but can be directly implicated in a particular macrophage phenotype. In M1 macrophages, the Krebs cycle intermediate succinate regulates HIF1?, which is responsible for driving the sustained production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1?. In M2 macrophages, the sedoheptulose kinase carbohydrate kinase-like protein is critical for regulating the pentose phosphate pathway. The potential to target these events and impact on disease is an exciting prospect. PMID:25228902

  6. “Dermal Dendritic Cells” Comprise Two Distinct Populations: CD1+ Dendritic Cells and CD209+ Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Ochoa; Anya Loncaric; Stephan R Krutzik; Todd C Becker; Robert L Modlin

    2008-01-01

    A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell (DC), which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LCs), mainly in the epidermis, and dermal DCs (DDCs), in the dermis. Here, the lineage of DDCs was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistology. We provide evidence that “DDC” comprise at least

  7. Autophagy Controls Acquisition of Aging Features in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Stranks, Amanda J.; Hansen, Anne Louise; Panse, Isabel; Mortensen, Monika; Ferguson, David J.P.; Puleston, Daniel J.; Shenderov, Kevin; Watson, Alexander Scarth; Veldhoen, Marc; Phadwal, Kanchan; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Simon, Anna Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages provide a bridge linking innate and adaptive immunity. An increased frequency of macrophages and other myeloid cells paired with excessive cytokine production is commonly seen in the aging immune system, known as ‘inflamm-aging’. It is presently unclear how healthy macrophages are maintained throughout life and what connects inflammation with myeloid dysfunction during aging. Autophagy, an intracellular degradation mechanism, has known links with aging and lifespan extension. Here, we show for the first time that autophagy regulates the acquisition of major aging features in macrophages. In the absence of the essential autophagy gene Atg7, macrophage populations are increased and key functions such as phagocytosis and nitrite burst are reduced, while the inflammatory cytokine response is significantly increased – a phenotype also observed in aged macrophages. Furthermore, reduced autophagy decreases surface antigen expression and skews macrophage metabolism toward glycolysis. We show that macrophages from aged mice exhibit significantly reduced autophagic flux compared to young mice. These data demonstrate that autophagy plays a critical role in the maintenance of macrophage homeostasis and function, regulating inflammation and metabolism and thereby preventing immunosenescence. Thus, autophagy modulation may prevent excess inflammation and preserve macrophage function during aging, improving immune responses and reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with inflamm-aging. PMID:25359593

  8. Immune-enhancing effect of nano-DNA vaccine encoding a gene of the prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and BALB/c mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, YONGZHEN; ZHOU, YAN; LI, XIMEI; FENG, GUOHE

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, how GM-CSF enhances immunogenicity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that injection of a plasmid encoding the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and mouse GM-CSF (pJME/GM-CSF) into mouse muscle recruited large and multifocal conglomerates of macrophages and granulocytes, predominantly neutrophils. During the peak of the infiltration, an appreciable number of immature dendritic cells (DCs) appeared, although no T and B-cells was detected. pJME/GM-CSF increased the number of splenic DCs and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) on splenic DC, and enhanced the antigenic capture, processing and presentation functions of splenic DCs, and the cell-mediated immunity induced by the vaccine. These findings suggested that the immune-enhancing effect by pJME/GM-CSF was associated with infiltrate size and the appearance of integrin ?x (CD11c)+cells. Chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles, prepared by coacervation via intramuscular injection, outperformed standard pJME/GM-CSF administrations in DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. This revealed that muscular injection of chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles may enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF. PMID:25738258

  9. Cytoskeleton mediated spreading dynamics of immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, King-Lam; Wayt, Jessica; Grooman, Brian; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2009-03-01

    We have studied the spreading of Jurkat T-cells on anti-CD3 antibody-coated substrates as a model of immune synapse formation. Cell adhesion area versus time was measured via interference reflection contrast microscopy. We found that the spread area exhibited a sigmoidal growth as a function of time in contrast to the previously proposed universal power-law growth for spreading cells. We used high-resolution total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of these cells transfected with GFP-actin to study cytoskeletal dynamics during the spreading process. Actin filaments spontaneously organized into a variety of structures including traveling waves, target patterns, and mobile clusters emanating from an organizing center. We quantify these dynamic structures and relate them to the spreading rates. We propose that the spreading kinetics are determined by active rearrangements of the cytoskeleton initiated by signaling events upon antibody binding by T-cell receptors. Membrane deformations induced by such wavelike organization of the cytoskeleton may be a general phenomenon that underlies cell movement and cell-substrate interactions.

  10. Polymorphism, Expression of Natural Resistance-associated Macrophage Protein 1 Encoding Gene (NRAMP1) and Its Association with Immune Traits in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Yong; Ding, Yueyun; Xue, Weiwei; Meng, Yun; Zhu, Weihua; Yin, Zongjun

    2014-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 encoding gene (NRAMP1) plays an important role in immune response against intracellular pathogens. To evaluate the effects of NRAMP1 gene on immune capacity in pigs, tissue expression of NRAMP1 mRNA was observed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the results revealed NRAMP1 expressed widely in nine tissues. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.130 C>T) in exon1 and one SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.657 A>G) in intron1 region of porcine NRAMP1 gene were demonstrated by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis. A further analysis of SNP genotypes associated with immune traits including contain of white blood cell (WBC), granulocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte (MO), rate of cytotoxin in monocyte (MC) and CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was carried out in four pig populations including Large White and three Chinese indigenous breeds (Wannan Black, Huai pig and Wei pig). The results showed that the SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.130 C>T) was significantly associated with level of WBC % (p = 0.031), MO% (p = 0.024), MC% (p = 0.013) and CD4?CD8+ T lymphocyte (p = 0.023). The other SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.657 A>G) was significantly associated with the level of MO% (p = 0.012), MC% (p = 0.019) and CD4?CD8+ T lymphocyte (p = 0.037). These results indicate that the NRAMP1 gene can be regarded as a molecular marker for genetic selection of disease susceptibility in pig breeding. PMID:25083114

  11. Protective Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection by Chemokine and Cytokine Conditioned CFP-10 Differentiated Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Gupta, Shashank; Sharma, Sachin; Pahujani, Shweta; Sinha, Aprajita; Saxena, Rajiv K.; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2008-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) play major roles in mediating immune responses to mycobacteria. A crucial aspect of this is the priming of T cells via chemokines and cytokines. In this study we investigated the roles of chemokines RANTES and IP-10 in regulating protective responses from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) 10 kDa Culture Filtrate Protein-10 (CFP-10) differentiated DCs (CFP10-DCs). Methods and Findings Infection of CFP10-DCs with mycobacteria down-modulated RANTES and IP-10 levels. Pathway specific microarray analyses showed that in addition to RANTES and IP-10, mycobacteria infected CFP10-DCs showed reduced expression of many Th1 promoting chemokines and chemokine receptors. Importantly, T cells co-cultured with RANTES and IP-10 conditioned CFP10-DCs mediated killing of mycobacteria from infected macrophages. Similarly, T cells recruited by RANTES and IP-10 conditioned CFP10-DCs mediated significant killing of mycobacteria from infected macrophages. IFN-gamma treatment of CFP10-DCs restored RANTES and IP-10 levels and T cells activated by these DCs mediated significant killing of virulent M. tb inside macrophages. Adoptive transfer of either RANTES and IP-10 or IL-12 and IFN-gamma conditioned CFP10-DCs cleared an established M. tb infection in mice. The extent of clearance was similar to that obtained with drug treatment. Conclusions These results indicate that chemokine and cytokine secretion by DCs differentiated by M. tb antigens such as CFP-10 play major roles in regulating protective immune responses at sites of infection. PMID:18682728

  12. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: fascinating dynamics of the dendritic cell-macrophage lineage.

    PubMed

    Egeler, R Maarten; van Halteren, Astrid G S; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Laman, Jon D; Leenen, Pieter J M

    2010-03-01

    In its rare occurrence, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a dangerous but intriguing deviation of mononuclear phagocytes, especially dendritic cells (DCs). Clinically, the disease ranges from self-resolving or well manageable to severe and even fatal. LCH lesions in skin, bone, and other sites contain high numbers of cells with phenotypic features resembling LCs admixed with macrophages, T cells, eosinophils, and multinucleated giant cells. Here we review current progress in the LCH field based on two central questions: (i) are LCH cells intrinsically aberrant, and (ii) how does the lesion drive pathogenesis? We argue that LCH cells may originate from different sources, including epidermal LCs, tissue Langerin(+) DCs, or mononuclear phagocyte precursors. Current and prospective in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. Finally, we discuss recent insights into plasticity of T-helper cell subsets in light of the lesion microenvironment. LCH continues to provide urgent clinical questions thereby inspiring innovative DC lineage research. PMID:20193021

  13. Regulatory T cells and mechanisms of immune system control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vieira; Anne O'Garra

    2004-01-01

    The immune system evolved to protect the host against the attack of foreign, potentially pathogenic, microorganisms. It does so by recognizing antigens expressed by those microorganisms and mounting an immune response against all cells expressing them, with the ultimate aim of their elimination. Various mechanisms have been reported to control and regulate the immune system to prevent or minimize reactivity

  14. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in innate and adaptive immunity

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    REVIEW Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in innate and adaptive immunity Beatriz Leo´n and Carlos) was discovered 14 years ago, their functional relevance with regard to adaptive immune responses has only been an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, due to their microbicidal potential, capacity to stimulate

  15. Neonatal Natural Killer Cell Function: Relevance to Antiviral Immune Defense

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yen-Chang; Lin, Syh-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to various pathogens compared to adults, which is attributed in part to their immature innate and adaptive immunity. Natural killer cells provide first-line innate immune reactions against virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. This review updates phenotypic and functional deficiencies of neonatal cells compared to their adult counterparts and their clinical implications. PMID:24066005

  16. Differential uptake of functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles by human macrophages and a monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Lunov, Oleg; Syrovets, Tatiana; Loos, Cornelia; Beil, Johanna; Delacher, Michael; Tron, Kyrylo; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2011-03-22

    Tumor cell lines are often used as models for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions. Here we demonstrate that carboxy (PS-COOH) and amino functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles of ?100 nm in diameter are internalized by human macrophages, by undifferentiated and by PMA-differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells via diverse mechanisms. The uptake mechanisms also differed for all cell types and particles when analyzed either in buffer or in medium containing human serum. Macrophages internalized ?4 times more PS-COOH than THP-1 cells, when analyzed in serum-containing medium. By contrast, in either medium, THP-1 cells internalized PS-NH2 more rapidly than macrophages. Using pharmacological and antisense in vitro knockdown approaches, we showed that, in the presence of serum, the specific interaction between the CD64 receptor and the particles determines the macrophage uptake of particles by phagocytosis, whereas particle internalization in THP-1 cells occurred via dynamin II-dependent endocytosis. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells differed in their uptake mechanism from macrophages and undifferentiated THP-1 cells by internalizing the particles via macropinocytosis. In line with our in vitro data, more intravenously applied PS-COOH particles accumulated in the liver, where macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system reside. By contrast, PS-NH2 particles were preferentially targeted to tumor xenografts grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs. Our data show that the amount of internalized nanoparticles, the uptake kinetics, and its mechanism may differ considerably between primary cells and a related tumor cell line, whether differentiated or not, and that particle uptake by these cells is critically dependent on particle opsonization by serum proteins. PMID:21344890

  17. Tracking immune cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Eric T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity of in vivo imaging technologies, coupled with the development of cell therapies, has fuelled a revolution in immune cell tracking in vivo. Powerful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are now being developed that use iron oxide- and 19F-based probes. These MRI technologies can be used for image-guided immune cell delivery and for the visualization of immune cell homing and engraftment, inflammation, cell physiology and gene expression. MRI-based cell tracking is now also being applied to evaluate therapeutics that modulate endogenous immune cell recruitment and to monitor emerging cellular immunotherapies. These recent uses show that MRI has the potential to be developed in many applications to follow the fate of immune cells in vivo. PMID:24013185

  18. Pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation without significant promoter DNA methylation changes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Parra, Maribel; Bussmann, Lars H.; di Tullio, Alessandro; Kallin, Eric M.; Tegnér, Jesper; Graf, Thomas; Ballestar, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor-induced lineage reprogramming or transdifferentiation experiments are essential for understanding the plasticity of differentiated cells. These experiments helped to define the specific role of transcription factors in conferring cell identity and played a key role in the development of the regenerative medicine field. We here investigated the acquisition of DNA methylation changes during C/EBP?-induced pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation. Unexpectedly, cell lineage conversion occurred without significant changes in DNA methylation not only in key B cell- and macrophage-specific genes but also throughout the entire set of genes differentially methylated between the two parental cell types. In contrast, active and repressive histone modification marks changed according to the expression levels of these genes. We also demonstrated that C/EBP? and RNA Pol II are associated with the methylated promoters of macrophage-specific genes in reprogrammed macrophages without inducing methylation changes. Our findings not only provide insights about the extent and hierarchy of epigenetic events in pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation but also show an important difference to reprogramming towards pluripotency where promoter DNA demethylation plays a pivotal role. PMID:22086955

  19. Oxidized LDL/CD36 interaction induces loss of cell polarity and inhibits macrophage locomotion.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Mi; Drazba, Judith A; Vasanji, Amit; Egelhoff, Thomas; Febbraio, Maria; Silverstein, Roy L

    2012-08-01

    Cell polarization is essential for migration and the exploratory function of leukocytes. However, the mechanism by which cells maintain polarity or how cells revert to the immobilized state by gaining cellular symmetry is not clear. Previously we showed that interaction between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and CD36 inhibits macrophage migration; in the current study we tested the hypothesis that oxLDL/CD36-induced inhibition of migration is the result of intracellular signals that regulate cell polarity. Live cell imaging of macrophages showed that oxLDL actuated retraction of macrophage front end lamellipodia and induced loss of cell polarity. Cd36 null and macrophages null for Vav, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), did not show this effect. These findings were caused by Rac-mediated inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II, a cell polarity determinant. OxLDL induced dephosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) by increasing the activity of Rac. Six-thioguanine triphosphate (6-thio-GTP), which inhibits Vav-mediated activation of Rac, abrogated the effect of oxLDL. Activation of the Vav-Rac-myosin II pathway by oxidant stress may induce trapping of macrophages at sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:22718904

  20. Intravital and Whole-Organ Imaging Reveals Capture of Melanoma-Derived Antigen by Lymph Node Subcapsular Macrophages Leading to Widespread Deposition on Follicular Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moalli, Federica; Proulx, Steven T.; Schwendener, Reto; Detmar, Michael; Schlapbach, Christoph; Stein, Jens V.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant antigens expressed by tumor cells, such as in melanoma, are often associated with humoral immune responses, which may in turn influence tumor progression. Despite recent data showing the central role of adaptive immune responses on cancer spread or control, it remains poorly understood where and how tumor-derived antigen (TDA) induces a humoral immune response in tumor-bearing hosts. Based on our observation of TDA accumulation in B cell areas of lymph nodes (LNs) from melanoma patients, we developed a pre-metastatic B16.F10 melanoma model expressing a fluorescent fusion protein, tandem dimer tomato, as a surrogate TDA. Using intravital two-photon microscopy (2PM) and whole-mount 3D LN imaging of tumor-draining LNs in immunocompetent mice, we report an unexpectedly widespread accumulation of TDA on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which were dynamically scanned by circulating B cells. Furthermore, 2PM imaging identified macrophages located in the subcapsular sinus of tumor-draining LNs to capture subcellular TDA-containing particles arriving in afferent lymph. As a consequence, depletion of macrophages or genetic ablation of B cells and FDCs resulted in dramatically reduced TDA capture in tumor-draining LNs. In sum, we identified a major pathway for the induction of humoral responses in a melanoma model, which may be exploitable to manipulate anti-TDA antibody production during cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25821451

  1. The endothelin-integrin axis is involved in macrophage-induced breast cancer cell chemotactic interactions with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chi; Chen, Li-Li; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Fan, Chi-Shuan; Huang, Tze-Sing

    2014-04-01

    Elevated macrophage infiltration in tumor tissues is associated with breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cell migration/invasion toward angiogenic microvasculature is a key step in metastatic spread. We therefore studied how macrophages stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with endothelial cells. Macrophages produced cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-?, to stimulate endothelin (ET) and ET receptor (ETR) expression in breast cancer cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). ET-1 was induced to a greater extent from HUVECs than from breast cancer cells, resulting in a density difference that facilitated cancer cell chemotaxis toward HUVECs. Macrophages also stimulated breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and transendothelial migration, which were repressed by ET-1 antibody or ETR inhibitors. The ET axis induced integrins, such as ?V and ?1, and their counterligands, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-2 and P-selectin, in breast cancer cells and HUVECs, and antibodies against these integrins efficiently suppressed macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with HUVECs. ET-1 induced Ets-like kinase-1 (Elk-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3), and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. The use of inhibitors to prevent their phosphorylation or ectopic overexpression of dominant-negative I?B? perturbed ET-1-induced integrin ?V and integrin ?1 expression. The physical associations of these three transcriptional factors with the gene promoters of the two integrins were furthermore evidenced by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, our mouse orthotopic tumor model revealed an ET axis-mediated lung metastasis of macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cells, suggesting that the ET axis was involved in macrophage-enhanced breast cancer cell endothelial interactions. PMID:24550382

  2. Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages induced by influenza virus-infected apoptotic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Uchide; Kunio Ohyama; Bo Yuan; Toshio Bessho; Toshio Yamakawa

    The effect of the culture supernatant of influenza virus (IV)-infected apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells on the differentiation of monocytes to macro- phages was investigated. IV infection induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation in cultured chorion cells but not in amnion cells prepared from human foetal membrane tissue. To examine the differ- entiation of monocytes to macrophages, an ad- hesion assay was employed

  3. Sphingomyelinase Converts Lipoproteins From Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice Into Potent Inducers of Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhir Marathe; Yunsook Choi; Andrew R. Leventhal; Ira Tabas

    2010-01-01

    The apoE knockout (E0) mouse is one of the most widely used animal models of atherosclerosis, and there may be similarities to chylomicron remnant-induced atherosclerosis in humans. Although the lesions of these mice contain large numbers of cholesteryl ester (CE)-laden macrophages (foam cells), E0 plasma lipoproteins are relatively weak inducers of cholesterol esterification in macrophages. Previous in vivo work has