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Sample records for immune cells macrophages

  1. PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-? release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

  2. Metabolic reprogramming in macrophages and dendritic cells in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Beth; O'Neill, Luke AJ

    2015-01-01

    Activation of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) by pro-inflammatory stimuli causes them to undergo a metabolic switch towards glycolysis and away from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), similar to the Warburg effect in tumors. However, it is only recently that the mechanisms responsible for this metabolic reprogramming have been elucidated in more detail. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) plays an important role under conditions of both hypoxia and normoxia. The withdrawal of citrate from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been shown to be critical for lipid biosynthesis in both macrophages and DCs. Interference with this process actually abolishes the ability of DCs to activate T cells. Another TCA cycle intermediate, succinate, activates HIF-1? and promotes inflammatory gene expression. These new insights are providing us with a deeper understanding of the role of metabolic reprogramming in innate immunity. PMID:26045163

  3. Interleukin-10 Receptor Signaling in Innate Immune Cells Regulates Mucosal Immune Tolerance and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Shouval, Dror S.; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A.; McCann, Katelyn; Conaway, Evan; Redhu, Naresh S.; Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Adham, Ziad Al; Lavoie, Sydney; Ibourk, Mouna; Nguyen, Deanna D.; Samsom, Janneke N.; Escher, Johanna C.; Somech, Raz; Weiss, Batia; Beier, Rita; Conklin, Laurie; Ebens, Christen L.; Santos, Fernanda GMS; Ferreira, Alexandre R.; Sherlock, Mary; Bhan, Atul K.; Müller, Werner; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Quintana, Francisco J.; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M.; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Snapper, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intact interkeulin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type CD4+ T cell transfer, Rag2?/?Il10rb?/? mice developed severe colitis in association with profound defects in generation and function of Treg cells. Moreover, loss of IL-10R signaling impaired the generation and function of anti-inflammatory intestinal and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and their ability to secrete IL-10. Importantly, transfer of wild-type but not Il10rb?/? anti-inflammatory macrophages ameliorated colitis induction by wild-type CD4+ T cells in Rag2?/?Il10rb?/? mice. Similar alterations in the generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages were observed in IL-10R-deficient patients with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. Collectively, our studies define innate immune IL-10R signaling as a key factor regulating mucosal immune homeostasis in mice and humans. PMID:24792912

  4. MicroRNA-33-dependent regulation of macrophage metabolism directs immune cell polarization in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Mireille; Ediriweera, Hasini N; Gundra, U Mahesh; Sheedy, Frederick J; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Hutchison, Susan B; Rinehold, Kaitlyn; van Solingen, Coen; Fullerton, Morgan D; Cecchini, Katharine; Rayner, Katey J; Steinberg, Gregory R; Zamore, Phillip D; Fisher, Edward A; Loke, P'ng; Moore, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism is increasingly recognized as a controller of immune cell fate and function. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33) regulates cellular lipid metabolism and represses genes involved in cholesterol efflux, HDL biogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. Here, we determined that miR-33-mediated disruption of the balance of aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation instructs macrophage inflammatory polarization and shapes innate and adaptive immune responses. Macrophage-specific Mir33 deletion increased oxidative respiration, enhanced spare respiratory capacity, and induced an M2 macrophage polarization-associated gene profile. Furthermore, miR-33-mediated M2 polarization required miR-33 targeting of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not cholesterol efflux. Notably, miR-33 inhibition increased macrophage expression of the retinoic acid-producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) and retinal dehydrogenase activity both in vitro and in a mouse model. Consistent with the ability of retinoic acid to foster inducible Tregs, miR-33-depleted macrophages had an enhanced capacity to induce forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) expression in naive CD4+ T cells. Finally, treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with miR-33 inhibitors for 8 weeks resulted in accumulation of inflammation-suppressing M2 macrophages and FOXP3+ Tregs in plaques and reduced atherosclerosis progression. Collectively, these results reveal that miR-33 regulates macrophage inflammation and demonstrate that miR-33 antagonism is atheroprotective, in part, by reducing plaque inflammation by promoting M2 macrophage polarization and Treg induction. PMID:26517695

  5. Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and non-cognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tri Giang; Green, Jesse A.; Gray, Elizabeth E.; Xu, Ying; Cyster, Jason G.

    2009-01-01

    Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-?1?2 and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, non-cognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular sinus to the germinal center and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity. PMID:19503106

  6. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  7. Forward genetics screens using macrophages to identify Toxoplasma gondii genes important for resistance to IFN-?-dependent cell autonomous immunity.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, Odaelys; Skariah, Sini; Lynch, Brian; Kim, Nathaniel; Ueda, Yukari; Vohora, Neal; Choe, Josh; Mordue, Dana G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen. The parasite invades and replicates within virtually any warm blooded vertebrate cell type. During parasite invasion of a host cell, the parasite creates a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that originates from the host cell membrane independent of phagocytosis within which the parasite replicates. While IFN-dependent-innate and cell mediated immunity is important for eventual control of infection, innate immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells, can also serve as vehicles for systemic dissemination of the parasite early in infection. An approach is described that utilizes the host innate immune response, in this case macrophages, in a forward genetic screen to identify parasite mutants with a fitness defect in infected macrophages following activation but normal invasion and replication in naïve macrophages. Thus, the screen isolates parasite mutants that have a specific defect in their ability to resist the effects of macrophage activation. The paper describes two broad phenotypes of mutant parasites following activation of infected macrophages: parasite stasis versus parasite degradation, often in amorphous vacuoles. The parasite mutants are then analyzed to identify the responsible parasite genes specifically important for resistance to induced mediators of cell autonomous immunity. The paper presents a general approach for the forward genetics screen that, in theory, can be modified to target parasite genes important for resistance to specific antimicrobial mediators. It also describes an approach to evaluate the specific macrophage antimicrobial mediators to which the parasite mutant is susceptible. Activation of infected macrophages can also promote parasite differentiation from the tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage that maintains chronic infection. Therefore, methodology is presented to evaluate the importance of the identified parasite gene to establishment of chronic infection. PMID:25867017

  8. MANGANESE CHLORIDE ENHANCES NATURAL CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE EFFECTOR CELL FUNCTION: EFFECTS ON MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single intramuscular injection of MnCl2 in mice caused an increase in macrophage functional activity. Spleen cell antibody-dependent cellmediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against both chicken erythrocytes and P815 tumor cell targets was enhanced 24 hours following a single injection...

  9. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells as Actors in the Immune Reaction of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, Christiane Silke; Bruns, Heiko; Daniel, Christoph; Distel, Luitpold Valentin; Hartmann, Arndt; Gerbitz, Armin; Buettner, Maike Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The inflammatory infiltrate plays a pivotal role in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here, we focussed on the role of macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DC). Methods M? and DC infiltration was investigated in 106 cHL specimens using immunohistochemistry and cytokine expression was analyzed in a subset by real-time PCR. Human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, DC, M? stimulated with GM-CSF (M?GM-CSF, pro-inflammatory M?-1-model) or M-CSF (M?M-CSF, immunomodulatory M?-2-model) were incubated with cHL cell line (L1236, HDLM2) supernatants (SN). DC maturation or M? polarization were investigated by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the impact of DC or M? on cHL cell proliferation was analyzed by BrdU/CFSE assay. Results In cHL tissues mature myeloid (m)DC and M? predominated. High numbers of CD83+ mDC and low numbers of CD163+ M? were associated with improved disease specific survival. In numerous cHL specimens increased levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of IL13 and GM-CSF were observed compared to reactive lymphadenopathies. Maturation of DC and induction and maintenance of an immunomodulatory M? phenotype were promoted by SN derived from cHL cell lines. TNF? neutralization in SN resulted in a significant inhibition of mDC maturation. DC and pro-inflammatory M? inhibited the proliferation of cHL cells. Conclusion Adopting an immunomodulatory phenotype is a potential mechanism for how M? promote immune evasion in cHL. Mature DC, in contrast, might participate in antitumoral immunity. PMID:25470820

  10. Porcine macrophage Cdelta2+ and Cdelta2- cell lines support influenza virus infection and replication and Cdelta2+ cells mount innate immune responses to influenza virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory epithelial cells are the first cells which are infected with influenza virus and these cells play a major role in influenza pathogenesis. However, many studies have shown that alveolar macrophages also play a very important role in the pathogenesis and immunity to influenza infection. Un...

  11. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  12. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  13. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Bau, Gabriela; Platt, Andrew M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Albert, Matthew L.; Ingersoll, Molly A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder. PMID:26182347

  14. Phagosomal Acidification Prevents Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Production to Malaria, and Dendritic Cells Are the Major Source at the Early Stages of Infection: IMPLICATION FOR MALARIA PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianzhu; Gowda, Nagaraj M; Gowda, D Channe

    2015-09-18

    Inflammatory cytokines produced at the early stages of malaria infection contribute to shaping protective immunity and pathophysiology. To gain mechanistic insight into these processes, it is important to understand the cellular origin of cytokines because both cytokine input and cytokine-producing cells play key roles. Here, we determined cytokine responses by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) to purified Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and by spleen macrophages and DCs from Plasmodium yoelii 17NXL-infected and P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. The results demonstrate that monocytes and macrophages do not produce inflammatory cytokines to malaria parasites and that DCs are the primary source early in infection, and DC subsets differentially produce cytokines. Importantly, blocking of phagosomal acidification by inhibiting vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase enabled macrophages to elicit cytokine responses. Because cytokine responses to malaria parasites are mediated primarily through endosomal Toll-like receptors, our data indicate that the inability of macrophages to produce cytokines is due to the phagosomal acidification that disrupts endosomal ligand-receptor engagement. Macrophages efficiently produced cytokines to LPS upon simultaneously internalizing parasites and to heat-killed Escherichia coli, demonstrating that phagosomal acidification affects endosomal receptor-mediated, but not cell surface receptor-mediated, recognition of Toll-like receptor agonists. Enabling monocytes/macrophages to elicit immune responses to parasites by blocking endosomal acidification can be a novel strategy for the effective development of protective immunity to malaria. The results have important implications for enhancing the efficacy of a whole parasite-based malaria vaccine and for designing strategies for the development of protective immunity to pathogens that induce immune responses primarily through endosomal receptors. PMID:26240140

  15. Anti-G-CSF treatment induces protective tumor immunity in mouse colon cancer by promoting NK cell, macrophage and T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katherine T.; Castillo, Eliseo F.; Ray, Anita L.; Weston, Lea L.; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Hanson, Joshua A.; Samedi, Von G.; Pinchuk, Irina V.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Beswick, Ellen J.

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that is highly expressed in human and mouse colorectal cancers (CRC). We previously reported that G-CSF stimulated human CRC cell growth and migration, therefore in this study we sought to examine the therapeutic potential of anti-G-CSF treatment for CRC. G-CSF is known to mobilize neutrophils, however its impact on other immune cells has not been well examined. Here, we investigated the effects of therapeutic anti-G-CSF treatment on CRC growth and anti-tumor immune responses. C57BL/6 mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) to induce neoplasms were administered anti-G-CSF or isotype control antibodies three times a week for three weeks. Animals treated with anti-G-CSF antibodies had a marked decrease in neoplasm number and size compared to the isotype control group. Colon neutrophil and macrophage frequency were unchanged, but the number of macrophages producing IL-10 were decreased while IL-12 producing macrophages were increased. NK cells were substantially increased in colons of anti-G-CSF treated mice, along with IFN? producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These studies are the first to indicate a crucial role for G-CSF inhibition in promoting protective anti-tumor immunity, and suggest that anti-G-CSF treatment is a potential therapeutic approach for CRC. PMID:26061815

  16. Anti-G-CSF treatment induces protective tumor immunity in mouse colon cancer by promoting protective NK cell, macrophage and T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Morris, Katherine T; Castillo, Eliseo F; Ray, Anita L; Weston, Lea L; Nofchissey, Robert A; Hanson, Joshua A; Samedi, Von G; Pinchuk, Irina V; Hudson, Laurie G; Beswick, Ellen J

    2015-09-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that is highly expressed in human and mouse colorectal cancers (CRC). We previously reported that G-CSF stimulated human CRC cell growth and migration, therefore in this study we sought to examine the therapeutic potential of anti-G-CSF treatment for CRC. G-CSF is known to mobilize neutrophils, however its impact on other immune cells has not been well examined. Here, we investigated the effects of therapeutic anti-G-CSF treatment on CRC growth and anti-tumor immune responses. C57BL/6 mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) to induce neoplasms were administered anti-G-CSF or isotype control antibodies three times a week for three weeks. Animals treated with anti-G-CSF antibodies had a marked decrease in neoplasm number and size compared to the isotype control group. Colon neutrophil and macrophage frequency were unchanged, but the number of macrophages producing IL-10 were decreased while IL-12 producing macrophages were increased. NK cells were substantially increased in colons of anti-G-CSF treated mice, along with IFN? producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These studies are the first to indicate a crucial role for G-CSF inhibition in promoting protective anti-tumor immunity, and suggest that anti-G-CSF treatment is a potential therapeutic approach for CRC. PMID:26061815

  17. Macrophage Cytokines: Involvement in Immunity and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arango Duque, Guillermo; Descoteaux, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of macrophages has made them primordial for both development and immunity. Their functions range from the shaping of body plans to the ingestion and elimination of apoptotic cells and pathogens. Cytokines are small soluble proteins that confer instructions and mediate communication among immune and non-immune cells. A portfolio of cytokines is central to the role of macrophages as sentries of the innate immune system that mediate the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In concert with other mediators, cytokines bias the fate of macrophages into a spectrum of inflammation-promoting “classically activated,” to anti-inflammatory or “alternatively activated” macrophages. Deregulated cytokine secretion is implicated in several disease states ranging from chronic inflammation to allergy. Macrophages release cytokines via a series of beautifully orchestrated pathways that are spatiotemporally regulated. At the molecular level, these exocytic cytokine secretion pathways are coordinated by multi-protein complexes that guide cytokines from their point of synthesis to their ports of exit into the extracellular milieu. These trafficking proteins, many of which were discovered in yeast and commemorated in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, coordinate the organelle fusion steps that are responsible for cytokine release. This review discusses the functions of cytokines secreted by macrophages, and summarizes what is known about their release mechanisms. This information will be used to delve into how selected pathogens subvert cytokine release for their own survival. PMID:25339958

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell-educated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) mediate their immunosuppressive effects via a variety of mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the induction of macrophages with immunomodulatory capacities. This effect of MSC may be exploited when MSC are used as a cell therapeutic product. Furthermore, MSC are resident in tissues where they may locally target infiltrating macrophages to adapt more regulatory properties. The present review discusses the interaction between MSC and macrophages, the induction of MSC-educated macrophages, how these cells position between other immune regulatory cells, and how they may be used in the clinic. PMID:23369493

  19. GPC3 expression in mouse ovarian cancer induces GPC3-specific T cell-mediated immune response through M1 macrophages and suppresses tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    LUO, CHENHONG; SHIBATA, KIYOSUMI; SUZUKI, SHIRO; KAJIYAMA, HIROAKI; SENGA, TAKESHI; KOYA, YOSHIHIRO; DAIMON, MINA; YAMASHITA, MAMORU; KIKKAWA, FUMITAKA

    2014-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is specifically expressed in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and melanoma and lung cancer. GPC3 is being explored as a potential candidate for OCCC and HCC immunotherapy. As a tumor-associated antigen, induction of immune response of GPC3 in ovarian cancer remains elusive. We established a GPC3 transgenic mouse ovarian cancer cell line, OV2944-HM-1 (HM-1), and used the intraperitoneal ovarian cancer mouse model to investigate immune response in GPC3-expressing tumor. We found that GPC3 expression in the tumor increased F4/80+CD86+ macrophage (M1) proportion and caused GPC3-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses, and prolonged mouse survival. Our results demonstrated that GPC3 expression induced T cell-mediated immune response in this mouse ovarian cancer model and also provided supportive evidence that GPC3 is an ideal target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24992906

  20. Ageing and the immune system: focus on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, E.

    2015-01-01

    A fully functioning immune system is essential in order to maintain good health. However, the immune system deteriorates with advancing age, and this contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity, and cancer in the older population. Progress has been made in identifying age-related defects in the adaptive immune system. In contrast, relatively little research has been carried out on the impact of ageing on the innate immune response. This area requires further research as the innate immune system plays a crucial role in protection against infection and represents a first line of defence. Macrophages are central effector cells of the innate immune system and have many diverse functions. As a result, age-related impairments in macrophage function are likely to have important consequences for the health of the older population. It has been reported that ageing in macrophages impacts on many processes including toll-like receptor signalling, polarisation, phagocytosis, and wound repair. A detailed understanding of the impact of ageing on macrophages is required in order to develop therapeutics that will boost immune responses in the older population. PMID:25883791

  1. Macrophage Autophagy in Immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, André Moraes; Albuquerque, Patrícia; Martinez, Luis R.; Dal-Rosso, Rafael Antonio; Saylor, Carolyn; De Jesus, Magdia; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is used by eukaryotes in bulk cellular material recycling and in immunity to intracellular pathogens. We evaluated the role of macrophage autophagy in the response to Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans, two important opportunistic fungal pathogens. The autophagosome marker LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha) was present in most macrophage vacuoles containing C. albicans. In contrast, LC3 was found in only a few vacuoles containing C. neoformans previously opsonized with antibody but never after complement-mediated phagocytosis. Disruption of host autophagy in vitro by RNA interference against ATG5 (autophagy-related 5) decreased the phagocytosis of C. albicans and the fungistatic activity of J774.16 macrophage-like cells against both fungi, independent of the opsonin used. ATG5-knockout bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) also had decreased fungistatic activity against C. neoformans when activated. In contrast, nonactivated ATG5-knockout BMMs actually restricted C. neoformans growth more efficiently, suggesting that macrophage autophagy plays different roles against C. neoformans, depending on the macrophage type and activation. Interference with autophagy in J774.16 cells also decreased nonlytic exocytosis of C. neoformans, increased interleukin-6 secretion, and decreased gamma interferon-induced protein 10 secretion. Mice with a conditionally knocked out ATG5 gene in myeloid cells showed increased susceptibility to intravenous C. albicans infection. In contrast, these mice manifested no increased susceptibility to C. neoformans, as measured by survival, but had fewer alternatively activated macrophages and less inflammation in the lungs after intratracheal infection than control mice. These results demonstrate the complex roles of macrophage autophagy in restricting intracellular parasitism by fungi and reveal connections with nonlytic exocytosis, humoral immunity, and cytokine signaling. PMID:22710871

  2. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Th2 immunity is essential for the host protection against nematode infection, while detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. Although many of the details regarding the cellular and molecular events in Th2 immunity have been described, the specific cell types and effector molecules involved i...

  3. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  4. M1 and M2 Macrophages: The Chicken and the Egg of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is to describe a critical advance in understanding how immune responses work. Macrophages are required for all animal life: ‘Inhibit’ type macrophages in all animals (called M1) can rapidly kill pathogens, and are thus the primary host defense, and ‘Heal’ type macrophages (M2) routinely repair and maintain tissue integrity. Macrophages perform these activities in all animals without T cells, and also in T cell-deficient vertebrates. Although adaptive immunity can amplify macrophage polarization, the long-held notion that macrophages need to be ‘activated’ or ‘alternatively activated’ by T cells is incorrect; indeed, immunology has had it backward. M1/M2-type macrophages necessarily direct T cells toward Th1- or Th2-like activities, respectively. That such macrophage-innate activities are the central directing element in immune responses is a dramatic change in understanding how immune systems operate. Most important, this revelation is opening up whole new approaches to immunotherapy. For example, many modern diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis, may not display ‘foreign’ antigens. However, there are clear imbalances in M1/M2-type responses. Correcting such innate imbalances can result in better health. Macrophages are the chicken and the egg of immunity. PMID:25138714

  5. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  6. Innate immune response to a H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus in newborn porcine trachea cells, alveolar macrophages, and precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Viral respiratory diseases remain of major importance in swine breeding units. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the main known contributors to infectious respiratory diseases. The innate immune response to swine influenza viruses has been assessed in many previous studies. However most of these studies were carried out in a single-cell population or directly in the live animal, in all its complexity. In the current study we report the use of a trachea epithelial cell line (newborn pig trachea cells – NPTr) in comparison with alveolar macrophages and lung slices for the characterization of innate immune response to an infection by a European SIV of the H3N2 subtype. The expression pattern of transcripts involved in the recognition of the virus, interferon type I and III responses, and the host-response regulation were assessed by quantitative PCR in response to infection. Some significant differences were observed between the three systems, notably in the expression of type III interferon mRNA. Then, results show a clear induction of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways in infected NPTr cells. Conversely, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways was not activated. The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway clearly reduced interferon type I and III responses and the induction of SOCS1 at the transcript level in infected NPTr cells. Similarly, the inhibition of MAPK pathway reduced viral replication and interferon response. All together, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the innate immune response to H3N2 SIV and may help identify strategies to effectively control SIV infection. PMID:24712747

  7. MACROPHAGE-MELANOMA CELL HETEROKARYONS

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Saimon; Cohn, Zanvil

    1971-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal macrophages possess a specific plasma membrane receptor for antibody-coated particles. Sheep red cells coated with rabbit 7S antibody attach readily to the macrophage surface and are subsequently interiorized. The fusion of macrophage with nonphagocytic mouse melanoma cells produces heterokaryons in which the macrophage receptor is drastically altered. The receptor is present shortly after fusion and heterokaryons are actively phagocytic. The ability to bind and ingest red cells is, however, progressively lost over the next 12–24 hr and does not reappear thereafter. Exposure of heterokaryons to trypsin (1–100 µg/ml for 30 min at 37°C) results in the reappearance of initial receptor activity and the unmasking of the surface receptor. This property is again lost upon subsequent cultivation. The masking process takes place when cells are cultivated in the absence of IgG so that the adsorption of antibody from the medium is not responsible for this phenomenon. Inhibition of heterokaryon protein synthesis preserves phagocytic activity in a reversible fashion and prevents the masking of macrophage receptors. Inhibition of melanoma RNA synthesis before fusion is also able to block subsequent masking, but is ineffective if delayed until after fusion. Ultraviolet irradiation of the melanoma cell before fusion prevents subsequent masking, whereas similar treatment of the macrophage has no effect. Cells differ markedly in their ability to mask the macrophage phagocytic receptor after fusion. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells mask the receptor rapidly, primary chick fibroblasts minimally, and embryonic chick erythrocytes not at all. PMID:4938449

  8. Induction of immune responses by schistosome granuloma macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sunday, M E; Stadecker, M J; Wright, J A; Aoki, I; Dorf, M E

    1983-05-01

    In mice, granuloma formation after Schistosomiasis mansoni infection is known to be a T cell-dependent response to schistosome eggs that peaks at 6 to 8 wk after infection (early) then regresses to a minimum by 20 to 32 wk (late). This decline in host responsiveness, termed modulation, has been attributed to T cell-mediated suppression. We now have investigated the macrophages from either Early or Late schistosome granulomas phenotypically and found no difference in expression of I-A subregion encoded antigens. We also tested granuloma macrophage (Gm) populations in their capacity to induce positive and negative antigen-specific immune responses to the hapten 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NP). As few as 10(3) to 10(4) NP-coupled Early or Late Gm given s.c. were equally capable of inducing MHC-restricted NP-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and this DTH-inducing capability was equivalent to that of splenic adherent cell (SAC) controls. Further, both Early and Late Gm were able to generate NP-specific induction-phase suppressor cells (Ts1) when as few as 10(2) NP-coupled Gm were given i.v., the same as NP-SAC controls. Finally, NP-specific effector-phase suppressor cells (Ts3) were equally induced by Early Gm, Late Gm, or SAC controls. Therefore, macrophages derived from Early or Late schistosome granulomas or normal spleens are apparently phenotypically indistinguishable and equally capable, in extremely small quantities, of inducing NP-specific DTH, Ts1, and Ts3 immune responses. PMID:6187855

  9. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  10. Epigenetic programming of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and trained innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sadia; Quintin, Jessica; Kerstens, Hindrik H D; Rao, Nagesha A; Aghajanirefah, Ali; Matarese, Filomena; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Ratter, Jacqueline; Berentsen, Kim; van der Ent, Martijn A; Sharifi, Nilofar; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Ter Huurne, Menno; Mandoli, Amit; van Schaik, Tom; Ng, Aylwin; Burden, Frances; Downes, Kate; Frontini, Mattia; Kumar, Vinod; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Ouwehand, Willem H; van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Martens, Joost H A; Xavier, Ramnik J; Logie, Colin; Netea, Mihai G; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2014-09-26

    Monocyte differentiation into macrophages represents a cornerstone process for host defense. Concomitantly, immunological imprinting of either tolerance or trained immunity determines the functional fate of macrophages and susceptibility to secondary infections. We characterized the transcriptomes and epigenomes in four primary cell types: monocytes and in vitro-differentiated naïve, tolerized, and trained macrophages. Inflammatory and metabolic pathways were modulated in macrophages, including decreased inflammasome activation, and we identified pathways functionally implicated in trained immunity. ?-glucan training elicits an exclusive epigenetic signature, revealing a complex network of enhancers and promoters. Analysis of transcription factor motifs in deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitive sites at cell-type-specific epigenetic loci unveiled differentiation and treatment-specific repertoires. Altogether, we provide a resource to understand the epigenetic changes that underlie innate immunity in humans. PMID:25258085

  11. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Samuel E; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten A; Taylor, Edward S; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, particularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment. PMID:26483876

  12. Intracellular survival of Candida glabrata in macrophages: immune evasion and persistence.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Lydia; Seider, Katja; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a successful human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic infections. During infection, C. glabrata has to cope with cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, which belong to the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Candida glabrata is able to survive and even replicate inside macrophages while causing surprisingly low damage and cytokine release. Here, we present an overview of recent studies dealing with the interaction of C. glabrata with macrophages, from phagocytosis to intracellular growth and escape. We review the strategies of C. glabrata that permit intracellular survival and replication, including poor host cell activation, modification of phagosome maturation and phagosome pH, adaptation to antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms to overcome the nutrient limitations within the phagosome. In summary, these studies suggest that survival within macrophages may be an immune evasion and persistence strategy of C. glabrata during infection. PMID:26066553

  13. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. II. Peritoneal macrophage function

    SciTech Connect

    Rama Rao, G.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.

  14. Using RNA-interference to investigate the innate immune response in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Arras, Lesly; Guthrie, Brandon S; Alper, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are key phagocytic innate immune cells. When macrophages encounter a pathogen, they produce antimicrobial proteins and compounds to kill the pathogen, produce various cytokines and chemokines to recruit and stimulate other immune cells, and present antigens to stimulate the adaptive immune response. Thus, being able to efficiently manipulate macrophages with techniques such as RNA-interference (RNAi) is critical to our ability to investigate this important innate immune cell. However, macrophages can be technically challenging to transfect and can exhibit inefficient RNAi-induced gene knockdown. In this protocol, we describe methods to efficiently transfect two mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1) with siRNA using the Amaxa Nucleofector 96-well Shuttle System and describe procedures to maximize the effect of siRNA on gene knockdown. Moreover, the described methods are adapted to work in 96-well format, allowing for medium and high-throughput studies. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we describe experiments that utilize RNAi to inhibit genes that regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. PMID:25407484

  15. Dendritic Cells and Macrophages: Sentinels in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Weisheit, Christina K; Engel, Daniel R; Kurts, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells and macrophages) are closely related immune cells with central roles in anti-infectious defense and maintenance of organ integrity. The canonical function of dendritic cells is the activation of T cells, whereas macrophages remove apoptotic cells and microbes by phagocytosis. In the kidney, these cell types form an intricate system of mononuclear phagocytes that surveys against injury and infection and contributes to organ homeostasis and tissue repair but may also promote progression of CKD. This review summarizes the general functions and classification of dendritic cells and macrophages in the immune system and recapitulates why overlapping definitions and historically separate research have created controversy about their tasks. Their roles in acute kidney disease, CKD, and renal transplantation are described, and therapeutic strategy to modify these cells for therapeutic purposes is discussed. PMID:25568218

  16. Immune activation by T-independent antigens: lack of effect of macrophage depletion on the immune response to TNP-LPS, PVP and dextran.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, D M; Herscowitz, H B

    1979-01-01

    Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide, and rabbit anti-mouse macrophage serum, were used to inhibit macrophage function in BALB/c mice as well as to deplete macrophages from spleen cell cultures in an attempt to determine the requirement for macrophages in the immune response to several thymus-independent antigens. Carrageenan inhibited macrophage function and was cytotoxic at low concentrations. The ability of T and B lymphocytes to undergo mitogen-induced proliferation in the presence of PHA and PLS, respectively, was not affected by in vitro exposure of lymphoid cells to carrageenan. BALB/c mice injected with carrageenan demonstrated a suppressed immune response to SRBC, a thymus-dependent antigen, but not to E. coli LPS, polyvinyl-pyrrolidone or dextran B-1355S, all of which are known to be thymus independent antigens. The sensitivity of the in vivo immune response to SRBC after depletion of macrophages by carrageenan treatment was confirmed in vitro using the Marbrook--Diener culture system. The in vitro immune response to TNP-LPS was unaffected by either carrageenan treatment or treatment of BALB/c spleen cells with AMS and complement. The results of experiments which utilized the two anti-macrophage reagents, carrageenan and AMS, both in vivo and in vitro systems, suggest that the immune response to thymus-independent antigens does not require the participation of macrophages. PMID:315367

  17. Antigen detection in vivo after immunization with different presentation forms of rabies virus antigen, II. Cellular, but not humoral, systemic immune responses against rabies virus immune-stimulating complexes are macrophage dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, I J; Osterhaus, A D; Poelen, M; Van Rooijen, N; Claassen, E

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the effect of depletion of splenic macrophages on the uptake, and immune response against, different formulations of rabies virus antigen. Splenic macrophages were removed by intravenous injection with clodronate liposomes. beta-propiolacton inactivated rabies virus (RV-BPL) and immune-stimulating complexes (iscom) containing these antigens were given to macrophage-depleted and control mice. In the absence of phagocytic cells in the spleen, antigen is still trapped in the red pulp and to a lesser extent in the peri-arteriolar lymphocyte sheaths (PALS) for both antigen formulations. The localization pattern in the main area of immune response induction, namely the follicles, was unaltered after macrophage depletion. Functionally, the depletion of splenic and liver macrophages had no influence on the induction of specific antibody responses in both RV-BPL or RV-iscom immunized mice, even though the latter presentation form was clearly associated with specific localization in the marginal metallophillic macrophages. In RV-BPL immunized mice, macrophage depletion had no influence on proliferative T-cell responses. However, macrophage-depleted mice that were immunized with RV-iscom showed a significant decrease in proliferative T-cell responses. These results confirm existing ideas on the spleen as a physical filter rather than an induction site for humoral responses and shed new light on the efficient role of iscoms as antigen-presenting moieties in relation to their specific in vivo localization patterns and partial macrophage dependency. Images Figure 1 PMID:9767431

  18. Biofilm-derived Legionella pneumophila evades the innate immune response in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Fernández Dávila, Natalia S.; Caution, Kyle; Akhter, Anwari; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Tazi, Mia; Hassan, Hoda; Novotny, Laura A.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Amer, Amal O.

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, replicates in human alveolar macrophages to establish infection. There is no human-to-human transmission and the main source of infection is L. pneumophila biofilms established in air conditioners, water fountains, and hospital equipments. The biofilm structure provides protection to the organism from disinfectants and antibacterial agents. L. pneumophila infection in humans is characterized by a subtle initial immune response, giving time for the organism to establish infection before the patient succumbs to pneumonia. Planktonic L. pneumophila elicits a strong immune response in murine, but not in human macrophages enabling control of the infection. Interactions between planktonic L. pneumophila and murine or human macrophages have been studied for years, yet the interface between biofilm-derived L. pneumophila and macrophages has not been explored. Here, we demonstrate that biofilm-derived L. pneumophila replicates significantly more in murine macrophages than planktonic bacteria. In contrast to planktonic L. pneumophila, biofilm-derived L. pneumophila lacks flagellin expression, do not activate caspase-1 or -7 and trigger less cell death. In addition, while planktonic L. pneumophila is promptly delivered to lysosomes for degradation, most biofilm-derived bacteria were enclosed in a vacuole that did not fuse with lysosomes in murine macrophages. This study advances our understanding of the innate immune response to biofilm-derived L. pneumophila and closely reproduces the natural mode of infection in human. PMID:23750338

  19. PPE26 induces TLR2-dependent activation of macrophages and drives Th1-type T-cell immunity by triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response.

    PubMed

    Su, Haibo; Kong, Cong; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Qi; Luo, Liulin; Wang, Honghai; Xu, Ying

    2015-11-17

    The pathophysiological functions and the underlying molecular basis of PE /PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis remain largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the link between PPE26 and host response. We demonstrated that PPE26 can induce extensive inflammatory responses in macrophages through triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response, as revealed by iTRAQ-based subcellular quantitative proteomics. We observed that PPE26 is able to specifically bind to TLR2 leading to the subsequent activation of MAPKs and NF-?B signaling. PPE26 functionally stimulates macrophage activation by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40) and the expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86, MHC class I and II). We observed that PPE26-treated macrophages effectively polarizes naïve CD4+ T cells to up-regulate CXCR3 expression, and to secrete IFN-? and IL-2, indicating PPE26 contributes to the Th1 polarization during the immune response. Importantly, rBCG::PPE26 induces stronger antigen-specific TNF-? and IFN-? activity, and higher levels of the Th1 cytokines TNF-? and IFN-? comparable to BCG. Moreover, PPE26 effectively induces the reciprocal expansion of effector/memory CD4+/CD8+ CD44highCD62Llow T cells in the spleens of mice immunized with this strain. These results suggest that PPE26 may be a TLR2 agonist that stimulates innate immunity and adaptive immunity, indicating that PPE26 is a potential antigen for the rational design of an efficient vaccine against M. tuberculosis. PMID:26439698

  20. Evidence for the opposing roles of different gamma delta T cell subsets in macrophage homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Daniela; Andrew, Elizabeth M; Rhodes, Kate; Newton, Darren J; Carding, Simon R

    2006-07-01

    To ensure invading pathogens are eliminated with minimal damage to host tissues it is essential that macrophage activation be tightly regulated. Previously we demonstrated that a subset of gammadelta T cells (Vgamma1(+)) contributes to resolving pathogen-induced immune responses by killing activated macrophages. However, the exaggerated macrophage response seen in infected Vgamma1(+) T cell-deficient mice suggests that gammadelta T cells play a broader role in macrophage homeostasis and other subsets might promote macrophage activation. Using a macrophage:gammadelta T cell co-culture system we have shown that gammadelta T cells increase the activity of macrophages activated in vivo by Listeria monocytogenes infection. In a dose-dependent manner, gammadelta T cells up-regulated production of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10) and chemokines (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta) by Listeria-elicited macrophages. The ability to increase macrophage cytokine production was prominent among Vgamma4(+) gammadelta T cells. Reciprocally, Vgamma4(+) gammadelta T cells were activated by Listeria-elicited macrophages, resulting in production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. gammadelta T cell adoptive transfer experiments showed that Vgamma4(+) T cells protected TCRdelta(-/-) mice against Listeria-induced liver injury and necrosis. These findings identify distinct and non-overlapping roles for gammadelta T cell subsets in regulating macrophage function during pathogen-induced immune responses. PMID:16783854

  1. The role of human glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages in mediating antitumor immune responses1

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S. Farzana; Yang, David; Suki, Dima; Aldape, Kenneth; Grimm, Elizabeth; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the immune performance and interactions of CNS microglia/macrophages in glioma patients. We found that microglia/macrophages were the predominant immune cell infiltrating gliomas (~1% of total cells); others identified were myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), plasmacytoid DCs, and T cells. We isolated and analyzed the immune functions of CD11b/c+CD45+ glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages (GIMs) from postoperative tissue specimens of glioma patients. Although GIMs expressed substantial levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), they did not appear stimulated to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1, or interleukin 6), and in vitro, lipopolysaccharides could bind TLR-4 but could not induce GIM-mediated T-cell proliferation. Despite surface major histocompatibility complex class II expression, they lacked expression of the costimulatory molecules CD86, CD80, and CD40 critical for T-cell activation. Ex vivo, we demonstrate a corresponding lack of effector/activated T cells, as glioma-infiltrating CD8+ T cells were phenotypically CD8+CD25?. By contrast, there was a prominent population of regulatory CD4 T cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) infiltrating the tumor. We conclude that while GIMs may have a few intact innate immune functions, their capacity to be stimulated via TLRs, secrete cytokines, upregulate costimulatory molecules, and in turn activate antitumor effector T cells is not sufficient to initiate immune responses. Furthermore, the presence of regulatory T cells may also contribute to the lack of effective immune activation against malignant human gliomas. PMID:16775224

  2. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  3. Macrophage Cell Membrane Camouflaged Mesoporous Silica Nanocapsules for In Vivo Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Minjun; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; He, Qiang; Li, Junbai

    2015-08-01

    Engineering natural macrophage cell membrane-camouflaged mesoporous silica nanocapsules can reduce the arrested percentage of immune cells and tissues, effectively prolong the survival time of nanoparticles in blood circulation system, and improve the accumulation in tumor. PMID:25960053

  4. Non-traditional cytokines: How catecholamines and adipokines influence macrophages in immunity, metabolism and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Mark A; Carson, Monica J; Nair, Meera G

    2015-04-01

    Catecholamines and adipokines function as hormones; catecholamines as neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system, and adipokines as mediators of metabolic processes. It has become increasingly clear, however, that both also function as immunomodulators of innate and adaptive immune cells, including macrophages. Macrophages can respond to, as well as produce their own catecholamines. Dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are the most abundant catecholamines in the body, and can induce both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses in macrophages, as well as non-immune processes such as thermogenesis. Though they are responsive to adipokines, particularly lipoproteins, leptin, and adiponectin, macrophages generally do not synthesize their own adipokines, with the exception being resistin-like molecules. Adipokines contribute to adverse metabolic and immune responses by stimulating lipid accumulation, foam cell formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Adipokines can also promote balance or resolution during metabolic and immune processes by promoting reverse lipid transport and expression of Th2 cytokines. This review will explore the mechanisms by which catecholamines and adipokines influence macrophage function in neural pathways, immunity and metabolism. PMID:25703786

  5. PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

  6. Role of macrophages in the immune response to hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgardner, G.L.; Chen, S.; Almond, S.P.; Ascher, N.L.; Payne, W.D.; Matas, A.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of host macrophages in the development of allospecific cytolytic T cells (allo-CTLs) in response to purified allogeneic MHC Class I+, Class II- hepatocytes in vivo in hepatocyte sponge matrix allografts (HC-SMA). Depletion of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from responder splenocytes in mixed lymphocyte hepatocyte culture (MLHC) inhibits the development of allo-CTLs in response to purified hepatocytes. First the ability of sponge macrophages to function as accessory cells in indirect presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen was tested in MLHC. We found that addition of irradiated sponge cells (a source of sponge macrophages) restored the development of allo-CTLs in MLHC depleted of responder APCs. Therefore, radioresistant sponge macrophages can function as accessory cells in MLHC. We next employed silica as an immunotherapy targeted against host macrophages and assessed the effect on development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. We found that local (intrasponge) silica treatment completely inhibited the development of allo-CTLs in HC-SMA. Combined local and systemic silica treatment resulted in inhibition of allocytotoxicity comparable to local silica treatment alone in the doses tested. We conclude that host macrophages which infiltrate HC-SMA can function as accessory cells in vitro in MLHC and that both infiltrating host macrophages and lymphocytes participate in the development of an alloimmune response to purified hepatocytes in vivo. This interaction may involve indirect antigen presentation of hepatocyte Class I antigen by macrophages to host lymphocytes which accumulate in HC-SMA.

  7. The journey from stem cell to macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Mikael J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2014-01-01

    Essential protectors against infection and injury, macrophages can also contribute to many common and fatal diseases. Here we discuss the mechanisms that control different types of macrophage activities in mice. We follow the cells’ maturational pathways over time and space, and elaborate on events that influence the type of macrophage eventually settling a particular destination. The nature of the precursor cells, developmental niches, tissues, environmental cues, and other connecting processes appear to contribute to the identity of macrophage type. Together, the spatial and developmental relationships of macrophages comprise a topo-ontogenic map that can guide our understanding of their biology. PMID:24673186

  8. Neither Classical nor Alternative Macrophage Activation Is Required for Pneumocystis Clearance during Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Qian; Wang, Jing; Hoy, Zachary; Keegan, Achsah; Bhagwat, Samir; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Pneumocystis is a respiratory fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia [PcP]) in immunocompromised patients. Alveolar macrophages are critical effectors for CD4(+) T cell-dependent clearance of Pneumocystis, and previous studies found that alternative macrophage activation accelerates fungal clearance during PcP-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, the requirement for either classically or alternatively activated macrophages for Pneumocystis clearance has not been determined. Therefore, RAG2(-/-) mice lacking either the interferon gamma (IFN-?) receptor (IFN-?R) or interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL-4R?) were infected with Pneumocystis. These mice were then immune reconstituted with wild-type lymphocytes to preserve the normal T helper response while preventing downstream effects of Th1 or Th2 effector cytokines on macrophage polarization. As expected, RAG2(-/-) mice developed severe disease but effectively cleared Pneumocystis and resolved IRIS. Neither RAG/IFN-?R(-/-) nor RAG/IL-4R?(-/-) mice displayed impaired Pneumocystis clearance. However, RAG/IFN-?R(-/-) mice developed a dysregulated immune response, with exacerbated IRIS and greater pulmonary function deficits than those in RAG2 and RAG/IL-4R?(-/-) mice. RAG/IFN-?R(-/-) mice had elevated numbers of lung CD4(+) T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and NK cells but severely depressed numbers of lung CD8(+) T suppressor cells. Impaired lung CD8(+) T cell responses in RAG/IFN-?R(-/-) mice were associated with elevated lung IFN-? levels, and neutralization of IFN-? restored the CD8 response. These data demonstrate that restricting the ability of macrophages to polarize in response to Th1 or Th2 cytokines does not impair Pneumocystis clearance. However, a cell type-specific IFN-?/IFN-?R-dependent mechanism regulates CD8(+) T suppressor cell recruitment, limits immunopathogenesis, preserves lung function, and enhances the resolution of PcP-related IRIS. PMID:26371121

  9. Cross-talk among myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor cells impacts the inflammatory milieu of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Beury, Daniel W.; Parker, Katherine H.; Nyandjo, Maeva; Sinha, Pratima; Carter, Kayla A.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    MDSC and macrophages are present in most solid tumors and are important drivers of immune suppression and inflammation. It is established that cross-talk between MDSC and macrophages impacts anti-tumor immunity; however, interactions between tumor cells and MDSC or macrophages are less well studied. To examine potential interactions between these cells, we studied the impact of MDSC, macrophages, and four murine tumor cell lines on each other, both in vitro and in vivo. We focused on IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and NO, as these molecules are produced by macrophages, MDSC, and many tumor cells; are present in most solid tumors; and regulate inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDSC-produced IL-10 decreased macrophage IL-6 and TNF-? and increased NO. IL-6 indirectly regulated MDSC IL-10. Tumor cells increased MDSC IL-6 and vice versa. Tumor cells also increased macrophage IL-6 and NO and decreased macrophage TNF-?. Tumor cell-driven macrophage IL-6 was reduced by MDSC, and tumor cells and MDSC enhanced macrophage NO. In vivo analysis of solid tumors identified IL-6 and IL-10 as the dominant cytokines and demonstrated that these molecules were produced predominantly by stromal cells. These results suggest that inflammation within solid tumors is regulated by the ratio of tumor cells to MDSC and macrophages and that interactions of these cells have the potential to alter significantly the inflammatory milieu within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25170116

  10. Immune Evasion, Stress Resistance, and Efficient Nutrient Acquisition Are Crucial for Intracellular Survival of Candida glabrata within Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Katja; Gerwien, Franziska; Kasper, Lydia; Allert, Stefanie; Brunke, Sascha; Jablonowski, Nadja; Schwarzmüller, Tobias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Kuchler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata is both a human fungal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen which can withstand activities of the immune system. For example, C. glabrata can survive phagocytosis and replicates within macrophages. However, the mechanisms underlying intracellular survival remain unclear. In this work, we used a functional genomic approach to identify C. glabrata determinants necessary for survival within human monocyte-derived macrophages by screening a set of 433 deletion mutants. We identified 23 genes which are required to resist killing by macrophages. Based on homologies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs, these genes are putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, nutritional and stress response, protein glycosylation, or iron homeostasis. Mutants were further characterized using a series of in vitro assays to elucidate the genes' functions in survival. We investigated different parameters of C. glabrata-phagocyte interactions: uptake by macrophages, replication within macrophages, phagosomal pH, and recognition of mutant cells by macrophages as indicated by production of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We further studied the cell surface integrity of mutant cells, their ability to grow under nutrient-limited conditions, and their susceptibility to stress conditions mirroring the harsh environment inside a phagosome. Additionally, resistance to killing by neutrophils was analyzed. Our data support the view that immune evasion is a key aspect of C. glabrata virulence and that increased immune recognition causes increased antifungal activities by macrophages. Furthermore, stress resistance and efficient nutrient acquisition, in particular, iron uptake, are crucial for intraphagosomal survival of C. glabrata. PMID:24363366

  11. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  12. DNA-Protein Immunization Using Leishmania Peroxidoxin-1 Induces a Strong CD4+ T Cell Response and Partially Protects Mice from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Role of Fusion Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor DNA Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Daifalla, Nada S.; Gedamu, Lashitew

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, no universally effective and safe vaccine has been developed for general human use. Leishmania donovani Peroxidoxin-1 (LdPxn-1) is a member of the antioxidant family of proteins and is predominantly expressed in the amastigote stage of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LdPxn-1 in BALB/c mice in heterologous DNA-Protein immunization regimen in the presence of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGMCSF) DNA adjuvant. Methodology and Principal Findings A fusion DNA of LdPxn1 and mGMCSF was cloned into a modified pcDNA vector. To confirm the expression in mammalian system, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid vector containing LdPxn1 gene. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 or pcDNA-LdPxn1 DNA and boosted once with recombinant LdPxn-1 protein. Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes. The result showed that immunization with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 elicited a mixed Th-1/Th-2 immune response with significantly higher production of IFN-? than controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of antigen-stimulated spleen cells showed that immunization with this antigen elicited significantly higher proportion of CD4+ T cells that express IFN-?, TNF-?, or IL-2. The antigen also induced significantly higher proportion of multipotent CD4+ cells that simultaneously express the three Th-1 cytokines. Moreover, a significant reduction in the footpad swelling was seen in mice immunized with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 antigen. Expression study in CHO cells demonstrated that pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 was expressed in mammalian system. Conclusion The result demonstrates that immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid expressing LdPxn1 in the presence of mGMCSF adjuvant elicits a strong specific immune response with high level induction of multipotent CD4+ cells that mediate protection of the mice from Leishmania major infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the vaccine potential of Leishmania peroxidoxin -1. PMID:25500571

  13. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  14. Guardians of the Gut – Murine Intestinal Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Mor; Salame, Tomer-Meir; Jung, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mononuclear phagocytes find themselves in a unique environment, most prominently characterized by its constant exposure to commensal microbiota and food antigens. This anatomic setting has resulted in a number of specializations of the intestinal mononuclear phagocyte compartment that collectively contribute the unique steady state immune landscape of the healthy gut, including homeostatic innate lymphoid cells, B, and T cell compartments. As in other organs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate in addition the immune defense against pathogens, both in lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Here, we will discuss origins and functions of intestinal DCs and macrophages and their respective subsets, focusing largely on the mouse and cells residing in the lamina propria. PMID:26082775

  15. Tim-3 induces Th2-biased immunity and alternative macrophage activation during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Nan; Piao, Xianyu; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Chuang; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) has been regarded as an important regulatory factor in both adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, Tim-3 was reported to be involved in Th2-biased immune responses in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, but the exact mechanism behind the involvement of Tim-3 remains unknown. The present study aims to understand the role of Tim-3 in the immune response against S. japonicum infection. Tim-3 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and increased Tim-3 expression was observed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, NK1.1(+) cells, and CD11b(+) cells from the livers of S. japonicum-infected mice. However, the increased level of Tim-3 was lower in the spleen than in the liver, and no increase in Tim-3 expression was observed on splenic CD8(+) T cells or CD11b(+) cells. The schistosome-induced upregulation of Tim-3 on natural killer (NK) cells was accompanied by reduced NK cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Tim-3 antibody blockade led to upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA in CD11b(+) cells cocultured with soluble egg antigen and downregulation of Arg1 and IL-10, which are markers of M2 macrophages. In summary, we observed schistosome-induced expression of Tim-3 on critical immune cell populations, which may be involved in the Th2-biased immune response and alternative activation of macrophages during infection. PMID:25987707

  16. The Debate about Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Catherine; Kurts, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system includes macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which are usually classified by morphology, phenotypical characteristics, and function. In the last decades, large research communities have gathered substantial knowledge on the roles of these cells in immune homeostasis and anti-infectious defense. However, these communities developed to a degree independent from each other, so that the nomenclature and functions of the numerous DC and macrophage subsets overlap, resulting in the present intense debate about the correct nomenclature. This controversy has also reached the field of experimental nephrology. At present, no mutually accepted way to distinguish renal DC and macrophages is available, so that many important roles in acute and chronic kidney disease have been ascribed to both DCs and macrophages. In this perspective article, we discuss the causes and consequences of the overlapping DC–macrophage classification systems, functional roles of DCs and macrophages, and the transferability of recent findings from other disciplines to the renal mononuclear phagocyte system from the nephrologist’s point of view. PMID:26388867

  17. Heme Oxygenase-1 Dysregulates Macrophage Polarization and the Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Verriere, Thomas; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; de Sablet, Thibaut; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori incites a futile inflammatory response, which is the key feature of its immunopathogenesis. This leads to the ability of this bacterial pathogen to survive in the stomach and cause peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Myeloid cells recruited to the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection have been directly implicated in the modulation of host defense against the bacterium and gastric inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exhibits anti-inflammatory functions. Our aim was to analyze the induction and role of HO-1 in macrophages during H. pylori infection. We now show that phosphorylation of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) in macrophages results in expression of hmox-1, the gene encoding HO-1, through p38/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling. Blocking phagocytosis prevented CagA phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. The expression of HO-1 was also increased in gastric mononuclear cells of human patients and macrophages of mice infected with cagA+ H. pylori strains. Genetic ablation of hmox-1 in H. pylori-infected mice increased histologic gastritis, which was associated with enhanced M1/Th1/Th17 responses, decreased Mreg response, and reduced H. pylori colonization. Gastric macrophages of H. pylori-infected mice and macrophages infected in vitro with this bacterium showed an M1/Mreg mixed polarization type; deletion of hmox-1 or inhibition of HO-1 in macrophages caused an increased M1 and a decreased of Mreg phenotype. These data highlight a mechanism by which H. pylori impairs the immune response and favors its own survival via activation of macrophage HO-1. PMID:25108023

  18. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

  19. Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

  20. Beyond macrophages: the diversity of mononuclear cells in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D; Desvignes, Ludovic

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), is an intracellular pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes. Although M. tuberculosis has traditionally been thought to survive and replicate in macrophages, recent work in our laboratory and others has revealed that M. tuberculosis infects multiple subsets of mononuclear phagocytes in vivo and in vitro. In experimental animals, M. tuberculosis infects no fewer than five distinct cell subsets in the lungs, including resident alveolar macrophages and 4 types of cells that recruited to the lungs in response to inflammatory signals: neutrophils, monocytes, interstitial macrophages, and dendritic cells. A characteristic of the adaptive immune response in TB is that it is delayed for several weeks following infection, and we have determined that this delay is due to prolonged residence of the bacteria in lung phagocytes prior to acquisition of the bacteria by dendritic cells. Among the mechanisms used by M. tuberculosis to delay acquisition by dendritic cells is to inhibit apoptosis of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils, which sequester the bacteria and prevent their acquisition by dendritic cells in the early stages of infection. We hypothesize that each infected cell subset makes a distinct contribution to the overall biology of M. tuberculosis and allows the bacteria to evade elimination by T-cell responses and to avoid rapid killing by antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:25319335

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-? stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  2. To Study the Effect of Paclitaxel on the Cytoplasmic Viscosity of Murine Macrophage Immune Cell RAW 264.7 Using Self-Developed Optical Tweezers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-chun; Wu, Chien-ming

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, optical tweezers have become one of the tools to measure the mechanical properties of living cells. In this study, we first constructed an optical tweezers to investigate the cytoplasmic viscosity of immune cells. In addition to measuring viscosity of cells in a normal condition, we also treated cells with anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, and in order to study its effect on the cytoplasmic viscosity. The results showed that the viscosity decreased dramatically during the first 3 h. After 3 h, the change started to slow down and it remained nearly flat by the end of the experiment. In addition, we used the confocal laser scanning microscope to observe the cytoskeleton of the cell after drug treatment for 3 and 5 h, respectively, and found that actin filaments were disrupted and that the nucleus had disintegrated in some drug-treated cells, similar to the process of apoptosis. This study presents a new way for measuring the changes in cytoplasmic viscosity, and to determine if a cell is going into apoptosis as a result of a drug treatment.

  3. Effects of fly ash inhalation on murine immune function: changes in macrophage-mediated activities

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Eskew, M.L.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Graham, J.A.

    1982-10-01

    Mice were exposed to fly ash particles (<2.1 ..mu..m diameter) by inhalation for variable amounts of time at concentrations ranging from 535 to 2221 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. This fine fraction was approximately 32% by weight of the total dust generated. The effects of these exposures were assessed on macrophage-mediated functions. Phagocytosis of bacterial cells by the alveolar macrophages was depressed in the fly ash-exposed animals as was the ability to enhance T-cell mitogenesis. Fly ash exposure failed to produce a significant change in the cellular immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction) to antigenic challenge in the lungs of sensitized animals.

  4. Control of growth and inflammatory response of macrophages and foam cells with nanotopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Pan, Hsu-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2012-07-01

    Macrophages play an important role in modulating the immune function of the human body, while foam cells differentiated from macrophages with subsequent fatty streak formation play a key role in atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that nanotopography modulates the behavior and function of macrophages and foam cells without bioactive agent. In the present study, nanodot arrays ranging from 10- to 200-nm were used to evaluate the growth and function of macrophages and foam cells. In the quantitative analysis, the cell adhesion area in macrophages increased with 10- to 50-nm nanodot arrays compared to the flat surface, while it decreased with 100- and 200-nm nanodot arrays. A similar trend of adhesion was observed in foam cells. Immunostaining, specific to vinculin and actin filaments, indicated that a 50-nm surface promoted cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization. On the contrary, 200-nm surfaces hindered cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization. Further, based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data, expression of inflammatory genes was upregulated for the 100- and 200-nm surfaces in macrophages and foam cells. This suggests that nanodots of 100- and 200-nm triggered immune inflammatory stress response. In summary, nanotopography controls cell morphology, adhesions, and proliferation. By adjusting the nanodot diameter, we could modulate the growth and expression of function-related genes in the macrophages and foam cell system. The nanotopography-mediated control of cell growth and morphology provides potential insight for designing cardiovascular implants.

  5. Macrophages Contribute to the Cyclic Activation of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells as a novel, additional cue that regulates their regenerative activity. This finding may have translational implications for skin repair, inflammatory skin diseases and cancer. PMID:25536657

  6. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    E-print Network

    Patel, Naimish R.

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central ...

  7. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of lead and cadmium on cell-mediated immunity was studied in peritoneal macrophages, B-, and T-lymphocytes of mice. Lead and cadmium were administered in drinking water for 10 weeks in short-term experiments and up to 18 months to deal with immune responses in aged mic...

  8. 5-Lipoxygenase contributes to PPAR? activation in macrophages in response to apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    von Knethen, Andreas; Sha, Lisa K; Kuchler, Laura; Heeg, Annika K; Fuhrmann, Dominik; Heide, Heinrich; Wittig, Ilka; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Brüne, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory phenotype upon contact with apoptotic cells is a contributing hallmark to immune suppression during the late phase of sepsis. Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) supports this macrophage phenotype switch, it remains elusive how apoptotic cells activate PPAR?. Assuming that a molecule causing PPAR? activation in macrophages originates in the cell membrane of apoptotic cells we analyzed lipid rafts from apoptotic, necrotic, and living human Jurkat T cells which showed the presence of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in lipid rafts of apoptotic cells only. Incubating macrophages with lipid rafts of apoptotic, but not necrotic or living cells, induced PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-driven mRuby reporter gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stably transduced with a 4xPPRE containing vector. Experiments with lipid rafts of apoptotic murine EL4 T cells revealed similar results. To verify the involvement of 5-LO in activating PPAR? in macrophages, Jurkat T cells were incubated with the 5-LO inhibitor MK-866 prior to induction of apoptosis, which failed to induce mRuby expression. Similar results were obtained with lipid rafts of apoptotic EL4 T cells preexposed to the 5-LO inhibitors zileuton and CJ-13610. Interestingly, Jurkat T cells overexpressing 5-LO failed to activate PPAR? in macrophages, while their 5-LO overexpressing apoptotic counterparts did. Our results suggest that during apoptosis 5-LO gets associated with lipid rafts and synthesizes ligands that in turn stimulate PPAR? in macrophages. PMID:24036216

  9. The Interplay Between Monocytes/Macrophages and CD4+ T Cell Subsets in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ceri A.; Dickinson, Abigail K.; Taams, Leonie S.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining (synovitis). The inflammation in the RA joint is associated with and driven by immune cell infiltration, synovial hyperproliferation, and excessive production of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), interferon ? (IFN?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-17, eventually resulting in damage to the cartilage and underlying bone. The RA joint harbors a wide range of immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells (both proinflammatory and regulatory). The interplay between CD14+ myeloid cells and CD4+ T cells can significantly influence CD4+ T cell function, and conversely, effector vs. regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets can exert profound effects on monocyte/macrophage function. In this review, we will discuss how the interplay between CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages may contribute to the immunopathology of RA. PMID:26635790

  10. Further characterization of macrophage adsorption of suppressor cell activity from tumor-allosensitized spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Zografos-Miller, L.E.; Argyris, B.F.

    1983-06-01

    Suppressor cell activity from P815-allosensitized C57BL/6 spleen can be decreased by incubating the tumor-allosensitized spleen cells on monolayers of thioglycollate-stimulated BDF1 peritoneal macrophages for 2 or 4 hr. The adsorption response appears to be specific for macrophages, because adsorption of suppressor cell activity does not occur following incubation of P815-allosensitized spleen cells on confluent monolayers of mouse spleen cells or mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Pretreatment of macrophage monolayers with X irradiation (2,000 rads) or anti-Thy 1.2 serum (and complement) does not affect their ability to bind suppressor cell activity. Adsorption of suppressor cell activity from P815-allosensitized spleen can also be carried out by proteose peptone-stimulated or Corynebacterium parvum-stimulated macrophages. Blockage of macrophage Fc receptors decreases the ability of thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages to adsorb suppressor cell activity. Monolayers of P815 or P388 cells, two cell types positive for Fc receptors, are unable to adsorb suppressor cell activity from the tumor-allosensitized spleen. The significance of our findings is discussed in terms of the relationship between macrophages and suppressor cells in the immune response to normal or tumor allografts.

  11. Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Shao, J-H; Miao, Y-J; Cui, W; Qi, Y-F; Han, J-H; Lin, X; Du, J

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages are critical immune effector cells of the tumor microenvironment that promote seeding, extravasation and persistent growth of tumor cells in primary tumors and metastatic sites. Tumor progression and metastasis are affected by dynamic changes in the specific phenotypes of macrophage subpopulations; however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells modulate macrophage polarization remain incompletely understood. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is a central adaptor protein of innate immune responses to extracellular pathogens. We report that increased CARD9 expression is primarily localized in infiltrated macrophages and significantly associated with advanced histopathologic stage and the presence of metastasis. Using CARD9-deficient (CARD9(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived CARD9 promotes liver metastasis of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that CARD9 contributes to tumor metastasis by promoting metastasis-associated macrophage polarization through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that tumor cell-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor facilitates spleen tyrosine kinase activation in macrophages, which is necessary for formation of the CARD9-B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 complex. Taken together, our results indicating that CARD9 is a regulator of metastasis-associated macrophages will lead to new insights into evolution of the microenvironments supporting tumor metastasis, thereby providing targets for anticancer therapies. PMID:24722209

  12. HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells induce NO production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2013-02-01

    High fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) provides a new stimulator to trigger cell apoptosis, and it is well known that apoptotic cells provide antigens to effectively trigger recognition by the immune system. In order to investigate the effect of HF-LPLI on the professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) function, in our primary study, we focused our attention on the effect of HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells on macrophages phagocytosis and NO production. Both confocal microscopy and flowcytometry analysis showed that HF-LPLI (120 J/cm2) induced significantly EMT6 death. Further experiments showed that HF-LPLI-treated EMT6 cells could be phagocyted by the murine macrophage cells RAW264.7, and could induce NO production in macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that HF-LPLI-treated tumor cells effectively regulated the immune system. The HF-LPLI effect on the APC function needs to be further studied.

  13. Modeling the immune rheostat of macrophages in the lung in response to infection

    PubMed Central

    Day, Judy; Friedman, Avner; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    In the lung, alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) form the first line of defense against microbial infection. Due to the highly regulated nature of AAM, the lung can be considered as an immunosuppressive organ for respiratory pathogens. However, as infection progresses in the lung, another population of macrophages, known as classically activated macrophages (CAM) enters; these cells are typically activated by IFN-?. CAM are far more effective than AAM in clearing the microbial load, producing proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial defense mechanisms necessary to mount an adequate immune response. Here, we are concerned with determining the first time when the population of CAM becomes more dominant than the population of AAM. This proposed “switching time” is explored in the context of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) infection. We have developed a mathematical model that describes the interactions among cells, bacteria, and cytokines involved in the activation of both AAM and CAM. The model, based on a system of differential equations, represents a useful tool to analyze strategies for reducing the switching time, and to generate hypotheses for experimental testing. PMID:19549875

  14. Anoctamin 6 mediates effects essential for innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Kmit, Arthur; Romao, Ana M; Jantarajit, Walailak; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are fundamental to innate immune response. In macrophages, transient stimulation of P2X7R activates several transport mechanisms and induces the scrambling of phospholipids with subsequent membrane blebbing and apoptosis. These processes support phagocytosis and subsequent killing of phagocytosed bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the stimulation of P2X7 receptors activates anoctamin 6 (ANO6, TMEM16F), a protein that functions as Ca(2+) dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Inhibition or knockdown of ANO6 attenuates ATP-induced cell shrinkage, cell migration and phospholipid scrambling. In mouse macrophages, Ano6 produces large ion currents by stimulation of P2X7 receptors and contributes to ATP-induced membrane blebbing and apoptosis, which is largely reduced in macrophages from Ano6-/- mice. ANO6 supports bacterial phagocytosis and killing by mouse and human THP-1 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that anoctamin 6 is an essential component of the immune defense by macrophages. PMID:25651887

  15. Anoctamin 6 mediates effects essential for innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Kmit, Arthur; Romao, Ana M.; Jantarajit, Walailak; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are fundamental to innate immune response. In macrophages, transient stimulation of P2X7R activates several transport mechanisms and induces the scrambling of phospholipids with subsequent membrane blebbing and apoptosis. These processes support phagocytosis and subsequent killing of phagocytosed bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the stimulation of P2X7 receptors activates anoctamin 6 (ANO6, TMEM16F), a protein that functions as Ca2+ dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. Inhibition or knockdown of ANO6 attenuates ATP-induced cell shrinkage, cell migration and phospholipid scrambling. In mouse macrophages, Ano6 produces large ion currents by stimulation of P2X7 receptors and contributes to ATP-induced membrane blebbing and apoptosis, which is largely reduced in macrophages from Ano6-/- mice. ANO6 supports bacterial phagocytosis and killing by mouse and human THP-1 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that anoctamin 6 is an essential component of the immune defense by macrophages.

  16. Immune regulation by rapamycin: moving beyond T cells.

    PubMed

    Janes, Matthew R; Fruman, David A

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a multifunctional kinase that promotes cell growth and division in response to growth factor and nutrient signals. Rapamycin exerts its potent immunosuppressive effects in part through direct effects on antigen-specific lymphocytes; however, rapamycin also modulates adaptive immunity through its effects on innate immune cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Studies have established rapamycin-sensitive functions of mTOR, downstream of Toll-like receptors, in shaping the cytokine response of myeloid cells and driving the production of interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. These findings point to new strategies for boosting or suppressing specific immune responses. PMID:19383976

  17. Apoptotic Cells Can Deliver Chemotherapeutics to Engulfing Macrophages and Suppress Inflammatory Cytokine Production*

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Beatriz; Paquette, Nicholas; Païdassi, Helena; Zhai, Bo; White, Kristin; Skvirsky, Rachel; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppression via cell-cell contact with apoptotic cells is a well studied immunological phenomenon. Although the original studies of immune repression used primary cells, which undergo spontaneous cell death or apoptosis in response to irradiation, more recent studies have relied on chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis in cell lines. In this work, we demonstrate that Jurkat cells induced to die with actinomycin D suppressed inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages, whereas cells treated with etoposide did not. This immune repression mediated by actinomycin D-treated cells did not require phagocytosis or cell-cell contact and thus occurs through a different mechanism from that seen with primary apoptotic neutrophils. Moreover, cells induced to die with etoposide and then treated for a short time with actinomycin D also suppressed macrophage responses, indicating that suppression was mediated by actinomycin D independent of the mechanism of cell death. Finally, phagocytosis of actinomycin D-treated cells caused apoptosis in macrophages, and suppression could be blocked by inhibition of caspase activity in the target macrophage. Together, these data indicate that apoptotic cells act as “Trojan horses,” delivering actinomycin D to engulfing macrophages. Suppression of cytokine production by macrophages is therefore due to exposure to actinomycin D from apoptotic cells and is not the result of cell-receptor interactions. These data suggest that drug-induced death may not be an appropriate surrogate for the immunosuppressive activity of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, these effects of cytotoxic drugs on infiltrating immune phagocytes may have clinical ramifications for their use as antitumor therapies. PMID:22433861

  18. Micro- and Nanopatterned Topographical Cues for Regulating Macrophage Cell Shape and Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Luu, Thuy U; Gott, Shannon C; Woo, Bryan W K; Rao, Masaru P; Liu, Wendy F

    2015-12-30

    Controlling the interactions between macrophages and biomaterials is critical for modulating the response to implants. While it has long been thought that biomaterial surface chemistry regulates the immune response, recent studies have suggested that material geometry may in fact dominate. Our previous work demonstrated that elongation of macrophages regulates their polarization toward a pro-healing phenotype. In this work, we elucidate how surface topology might be leveraged to alter macrophage cell morphology and polarization state. Using a deep etch technique, we fabricated titanium surfaces containing micro- and nanopatterned grooves, which have been previously shown to promote cell elongation. Morphology, phenotypic markers, and cytokine secretion of murine bone marrow derived macrophages on different groove widths were analyzed. The results suggest that micro- and nanopatterned grooves influenced macrophage elongation, which peaked on substrates with 400-500 nm wide grooves. Surface grooves did not affect inflammatory activation but drove macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-healing phenotype. While secretion of TNF-alpha remained low in macrophages across all conditions, macrophages secreted significantly higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, on intermediate groove widths compared to cells on other Ti surfaces. Our findings highlight the potential of using surface topography to regulate macrophage function, and thus control the wound healing and tissue repair response to biomaterials. PMID:26605491

  19. Macrophage PTEN Regulates Expression and Secretion of Arginase I Modulating Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Emine; Haubenwallner, Stefan; Kuttke, Mario; Kollmann, Isabella; Halfmann, Angela; Dohnal, Alexander B.; Chen, Li; Cheng, Paul; Hoesel, Bastian; Einwallner, Elisa; Brunner, Julia; Kral, Julia B.; Schrottmaier, Waltraud C.; Thell, Kathrin; Saferding, Victoria; Blüml, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The activation of innate immune cells triggers numerous intracellular signaling pathways, which require tight control to mount an adequate immune response. The PI3K signaling pathway is intricately involved in innate immunity, and its activation dampens the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells. These signaling processes are strictly regulated by the PI3K antagonist, the lipid phosphatase, PTEN, a known tumor suppressor. Importantly, PTEN is responsible for the elevated production of cytokines such as IL-6 in response to TLR agonists, and deletion of PTEN results in diminished inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms by which PI3K negatively regulates TLR signaling are only partially resolved. We observed that Arginase I expression and secretion were markedly induced by PTEN deletion, suggesting PTEN?/? macrophages were alternatively activated. This was mediated by increased expression and activation of the transcription factors C/EBP? and STAT3. Genetic and pharmacologic experimental approaches in vitro, as well as in vivo autoimmunity models, provide convincing evidence that PI3K/PTEN-regulated extracellular Arginase I acts as a paracrine regulator of inflammation and immunity. PMID:25015834

  20. Changes in adipose tissue macrophage and T cell during aging

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanjay K; Delaney, Colin; Shi, Hang; Yung, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue historically was believed to be an inert tissue, functioning primarily in the storage of energy and thermal homeostasis. However, recent discoveries point toward a critical role for adipocytes in endocrine function as well as immune regulation. Excess body fat, accumulated through aging and/or calorie-rich diet, is associated with many chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Within the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue, macrophages and T cells accumulate with increasing tissue mass, secreting pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review we discuss the current understanding of immune cell function in both diet-induced and age-related obesity. In both models of obesity, the classically activated, pro-inflammatory (M1) subtype takes precedence over the alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, causing tissue necrosis and releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6. Recently, other distinct adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) subtypes have been identified by surface marker expression and their functions characterized. Adipose tissue T cell (ATT) recruitment to adipose tissue is also different between aging and diet-induced obesity. Under both conditions, T cells exhibit restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity and produce higher levels of pro-inflammatory signals like IFN-? and granzyme B relative to young or healthy mice. However, regulatory T cell numbers are dramatically different between the two models of obesity. Taken together, these findings suggest model of age- and diet-induced obesity may be more distinct than previously thought with many questions yet to be resolved in this multidimensional disease. PMID:24579699

  1. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  2. Effect of HeNe laser irradiation on the phagocytosis of macrophages in the immune organs of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Mingji; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Jianwei; Yuan, Weizhong

    2000-10-01

    In order to study the effect of HeNe laser on macrophages phagocytosis, the are over liver and spleen of the mice was irradiated with NeHe laser at the dosage of 63.7J/cm2 for 3,5,7, and 10 days respectively, 5 min each day, then observing the phagocytosis of macrophages of the immune organs after trypan blue injecting live mice, and made quantitative analysis of macrophages phagocytosis by image analysis system. The results showed that the four indexes: number of trypan blue granule (GN), area of granule (GA), ratio of granule area to cell area (GA/CA) and granule integral optical density (IOD) at irradiated groups were higher than that of control group (P<0.01). Comparison between different irradiated groups were higher than that of control group (P<0.01). The study indicated that HeNe laser with appropriate dosage can activate macrophages of the immune organs, and enhance their organic immunity.

  3. Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Macrophages and the Immune Evasion Strategies of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Ronald S.; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitually professional phagocytes, including macrophages, eradicate microbial invaders from the human body without overt signs of infection. Despite this, there exist select bacteria that are professional pathogens, causing significant morbidity and mortality across the globe and Staphylococcus aureus is no exception. S. aureus is a highly successful pathogen that can infect virtually every tissue that comprises the human body causing a broad spectrum of diseases. The profound pathogenic capacity of S. aureus can be attributed, in part, to its ability to elaborate a profusion of bacterial effectors that circumvent host immunity. Macrophages are important professional phagocytes that contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune response, however from in vitro and in vivo studies, it is evident that they fail to eradicate S. aureus. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms employed by macrophages to combat bacteria and describes the immune evasion strategies and some representative effectors that enable S. aureus to evade macrophage-mediated killing. PMID:26633519

  4. Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Macrophages and the Immune Evasion Strategies of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E

    2015-01-01

    Habitually professional phagocytes, including macrophages, eradicate microbial invaders from the human body without overt signs of infection. Despite this, there exist select bacteria that are professional pathogens, causing significant morbidity and mortality across the globe and Staphylococcus aureus is no exception. S. aureus is a highly successful pathogen that can infect virtually every tissue that comprises the human body causing a broad spectrum of diseases. The profound pathogenic capacity of S. aureus can be attributed, in part, to its ability to elaborate a profusion of bacterial effectors that circumvent host immunity. Macrophages are important professional phagocytes that contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune response, however from in vitro and in vivo studies, it is evident that they fail to eradicate S. aureus. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms employed by macrophages to combat bacteria and describes the immune evasion strategies and some representative effectors that enable S. aureus to evade macrophage-mediated killing. PMID:26633519

  5. Role of Macrophages in the Altered Epithelial Function during a Type 2 Immune Response Induced by Enteric Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C.; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A.; McLean, Leon P.; Madden, Kathleen B.; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F.; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1?. Thus, nematode infection results in a “lean” epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells. PMID:24465430

  6. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  7. Hepatic CD206-positive macrophages express amphiregulin to promote the immunosuppressive activity of regulatory T cells in HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kai; Huang, Ling; Sun, Xiaomei; Yang, Lihua; Gong, Zuojiong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a major cause of chronic liver inflammation worldwide. Innate and adaptive immune responses work together to restrain or eliminate hepatitis B virus in the liver. Compromised or failed adaptive immune response results in persistent virus replication and spread. How to promote antiviral immunity is a research focus for hepatitis B virus prevention and therapy. In this study, we investigated the role of macrophages in the regulation of antiviral immunity. We found that F4/80(+)CD206(+)CD80(lo/+) macrophages were a particular hepatic macrophage subset that expressed amphiregulin in our mouse hepatitis B virus infection model. CD206(+) macrophage-derived amphiregulin promoted the immunosuppressive activity of intrahepatic regulatory T cells, demonstrated by higher expression of CTLA-4, ICOS, and CD39, as well as stronger inhibition of antiviral function of CD8(+) T cells. Amphiregulin-neutralizing antibody diminished the effect of CD206(+) macrophages on regulatory T cells. In addition, we found that CD206(+) macrophage-derived amphiregulin activated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in regulatory T cells, and this mammalian target of rapamycin activation was essential for promotion of regulatory T cell activity by CD206(+) macrophages. Adoptive transfer of CD206(+) macrophages into hepatitis B virus-infected mice increased cytoplasmic hepatitis B virus DNA in hepatocytes and also increased serum hepatitis B surface antigen. The antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cells was decreased after macrophage transfer. Therefore, our research indicated that amphiregulin produced by CD206(+) macrophages plays an important role in modulating regulatory T cell function and subsequently restrains the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cells. Our study offers new insights into the immunomodulation in hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:26216935

  8. Macrophage and T Cell Produced IL-10 Promotes Viral Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A.; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A.; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Chronic viral infections lead to CD8+ T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c+ cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c+ cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4+ T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4+ T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10. PMID:24244162

  9. Macrophage and T cell produced IL-10 promotes viral chronicity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kirsten; Perriard, Guillaume; Behrendt, Rayk; Schwendener, Reto A; Sexl, Veronika; Dunn, Robert; Kamanaka, Masahito; Flavell, Richard A; Roers, Axel; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Chronic viral infections lead to CD8(+) T cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired cytokine secretion. Presence of the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 promotes chronicity of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Clone 13 infection, while absence of IL-10/IL-10R signaling early during infection results in viral clearance and higher percentages and numbers of antiviral, cytokine producing T cells. IL-10 is produced by several cell types during LCMV infection but it is currently unclear which cellular sources are responsible for induction of viral chronicity. Here, we demonstrate that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c(+) cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c(+) cells failed to improve the LCMV-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. Similarly, NK cell specific IL-10 deficiency had no positive impact on the LCMV-specific T cell response or viral control, even though high percentages of NK cells produced IL-10 at early time points after infection. Interestingly, we found markedly improved T cell responses and clearance of normally chronic LCMV Clone 13 infection when either myeloid cells or T cells lacked IL-10 production and mice depleted of monocytes/macrophages or CD4(+) T cells exhibited reduced overall levels of IL-10 mRNA. These data suggest that the decision whether LCMV infection becomes chronic or can be cleared critically depends on early CD4(+) T cell and monocyte/macrophage produced IL-10. PMID:24244162

  10. Biomarkers of CD4+ CTL cell Mediated Immunity to Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune responses mediated by interactions between T-lymphocyte subsets and mycobacteria-infected macrophages are critical for control of tuberculosis. In these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the cytolytic and mycobactericidal CD4+ T cell response induced by BCG vaccination. ...

  11. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells precondition lung monocytes/macrophages to produce tolerance against allo- and autoimmunity in the eye.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Yoon, Sun-Ok; Choi, Hosoon; Prockop, Darwin J; Oh, Joo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Intravenously administered mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) engraft only transiently in recipients, but confer long-term therapeutic benefits in patients with immune disorders. This suggests that MSCs induce immune tolerance by long-lasting effects on the recipient immune regulatory system. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. infusion of MSCs preconditioned lung monocytes/macrophages toward an immune regulatory phenotype in a TNF-?-stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6-dependent manner. As a result, mice were protected against subsequent immune challenge in two models of allo- and autoimmune ocular inflammation: corneal allotransplantation and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). The monocytes/macrophages primed by MSCs expressed high levels of MHC class II, B220, CD11b, and IL-10, and exhibited T-cell-suppressive activities independently of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Adoptive transfer of MSC-induced B220(+)CD11b(+) monocytes/macrophages prevented corneal allograft rejection and EAU. Deletion of monocytes/macrophages abrogated the MSC-induced tolerance. However, MSCs with TSG-6 knockdown did not induce MHC II(+)B220(+)CD11b(+) cells, and failed to attenuate EAU. Therefore, the results demonstrate a mechanism of the MSC-mediated immune modulation through induction of innate immune tolerance that involves monocytes/macrophages. PMID:26699483

  12. Identification of skin immune cells in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Adam, Lucille; Rosenbaum, Pierre; Cosma, Antonio; Le Grand, Roger; Martinon, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    The skin is a valuable target for vaccine delivery because it contains many immune cell populations, notably antigen presenting cells. Skin immune cells have been extensively described in mice and humans but not in non-human primates, which are pertinent models for immunological research in vaccination. The aim of this work was to describe immune cell populations in the epidermis, dermis and skin draining lymph nodes in cynomolgus macaques by a single 12-parameter flow cytometry protocol. Given that skin cells share several markers, we defined a gating strategy to identify accurately immune cells and to limit contamination of one immune cell population by another. The epidermis contained CD1a(+)CD1c(-) Langerhans cells (LCs), CD3(+) T cells and putative NK cells. The dermis contained CD1a(+)CD1c(-) cells, which were similar to LCs, CD1a(+)CD1c(+) dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), CD163(high)CD11b(+) resident macrophages, CD3(+) T cells and putative NK cells. The skin also contained CD66(+) polymorphonuclear cells in some animals. Thus, immune cell populations in the macaque are similar to those in humans despite some differences in phenotype. In skin draining lymph nodes, we identified migratory LCs, CD1a(+)CD1c(+) DDCs and macrophages. The simultaneous identification of these different immune cells with one panel of markers avoids the use of large amounts of precious sample and may improve the understanding of immune mechanisms in the skin after treatment or vaccination. PMID:26219836

  13. Macrophages and dendritic cells in the post-testicular environment.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Barton, Claire R

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous families of functionally and developmentally related immune cells that play crucial roles in tissue homeostasis and the regulation of immune responses. During the past 5 years, immunologists have generated a considerable amount of data that challenge dogmas about the ontogeny and functions of these highly versatile cells. The male excurrent duct system plays a critical role in the establishment of fertility by allowing sperm maturation, transport and storage. In addition, it is challenged by pathogens and must establish a protective and tolerogenic environment for a continuous flow of autoantigenic spermatozoa. The post-testicular environment and, in particular, the epididymis contain an intricate network of DCs and M?; however, the immunophysiology of this intriguing and highly specialized mucosal system is poorly understood. This review summarizes the current trends in mouse M? and DC biology and speculates about their roles in the steady-state epididymis. Unraveling immune cell functions in the male reproductive tract is an essential prerequisite for the design of innovative strategies aimed at controlling male fertility and treating infertility. PMID:26337514

  14. CD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocytemacrophage

    E-print Network

    Strominger, Jack L.

    . The loss of antitumor immunity was associated with impaired tumor- induced T helper 2 cytokine productionCD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocyte­macrophage-restricted T cells contribute to tumor protection, but their precise roles remain unclear. Here we show that tumor

  15. Glioma cancer stem cells induce immunosuppressive macrophages/microglia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Adam; Wei, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wang, Yongtao; Priebe, Waldemar; Qiao, Wei; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages (M?s)/microglia that constitute the dominant tumor-infiltrating immune cells in glioblastoma are recruited by tumor-secreted factors and are induced to become immunosuppressive and tumor supportive (M2). Glioma cancer stem cells (gCSCs) have been shown to suppress adaptive immunity, but their role in innate immunity with respect to the recruitment and polarization of M?s/microglia is unknown. The innate immunosuppressive properties of the gCSCs were characterized based on elaborated M? inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), transforming growth factor (TGF-?1), soluble colony-stimulating factor (sCSF), recruitment of monocytes, inhibition of M?/microglia phagocytosis, induction of M?/microglia cytokine secretion, and the inhibition of T-cell proliferation. The role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in mediating innate immune suppression was evaluated in the context of the functional assays. The gCSCs produced sCSF-1, TGF-?1, and MIC-1, cytokines known to recruit and polarize the M?s/microglia to become immunosuppressive. The gCSC-conditioned medium polarized the M?/microglia to an M2 phenotype, inhibited M?/microglia phagocytosis, induced the secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and TGF-?1 by the M?s/microglia, and enhanced the capacity of M?s/microglia to inhibit T-cell proliferation. The inhibition of phagocytosis and the secretion of IL-10 were reversed when the STAT3 pathway was blocked in the gCSCs. The gCSCs modulate innate immunity in glioblastoma by inducing immunosuppressive M?s/microglia, and this capacity can be reversed by inhibiting phosphorylated STAT3. PMID:20667896

  16. Differential transcriptional response in macrophages infected with cell wall deficient versus normal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu-Rong; Gao, Kun-Shan; Ji, Rui; Yi, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions determine the outcome following infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under adverse circumstances, normal Mtb can form cell-wall deficient (CWD) variants within macrophages, which have been considered an adaptive strategy for facilitating bacterial survival inside macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection of macrophages with different phenotypic Mtb elicits distinct responses of macrophages is not fully understood. To explore the molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, differential transcriptional responses of RAW264.7 cells infected with two forms of Mtb, CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb, were studied by microarray analysis. Some of the differentially regulated genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR in both RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was used to analyze functions of differentially expressed genes. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb group. Mapt was up-regulated, while NOS2 and IL-11 were down-regulated in CWD-Mtb infected RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages compared with normal Mtb infected ones. Many deregulated genes were found to be related to macrophages activation, immune response, phagosome maturation, autophagy and lipid metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Taken together, the present study showed that differential macrophage responses were induced by intracellular CWD-Mtb an normal Mtb infection, which suggested that interactions between macrophages and different phenotypic Mtb are very complex. The results provide evidence for further understanding of pathogenesis of CWD-Mtb and may help in improving strategies to eliminate intracellular CWD-Mtb. PMID:25552926

  17. Differential Transcriptional Response in Macrophages Infected with Cell Wall Deficient versus Normal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu-Rong; Gao, Kun-Shan; Ji, Rui; Yi, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions determine the outcome following infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under adverse circumstances, normal Mtb can form cell-wall deficient (CWD) variants within macrophages, which have been considered an adaptive strategy for facilitating bacterial survival inside macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection of macrophages with different phenotypic Mtb elicits distinct responses of macrophages is not fully understood. To explore the molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, differential transcriptional responses of RAW264.7 cells infected with two forms of Mtb, CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb, were studied by microarray analysis. Some of the differentially regulated genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR in both RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was used to analyze functions of differentially expressed genes. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb group. Mapt was up-regulated, while NOS2 and IL-11 were down-regulated in CWD-Mtb infected RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages compared with normal Mtb infected ones. Many deregulated genes were found to be related to macrophages activation, immune response, phagosome maturation, autophagy and lipid metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Taken together, the present study showed that differential macrophage responses were induced by intracellular CWD-Mtb an normal Mtb infection, which suggested that interactions between macrophages and different phenotypic Mtb are very complex. The results provide evidence for further understanding of pathogenesis of CWD-Mtb and may help in improving strategies to eliminate intracellular CWD-Mtb. PMID:25552926

  18. Nitric oxide–mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2?/? macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2?/? macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-?) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2?/? macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages PMID:23630227

  19. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  20. HIV-1-Infected and/or Immune Activated Macrophages Regulate Astrocyte SDF-1 Production Through IL-1?

    PubMed Central

    PENG, HUI; ERDMANN, NATHAN; WHITNEY, NICHOLAS; DOU, HUANGYU; GORANTLA, SANTHI; GENDELMAN, HOWARD E.; GHORPADE, ANUJA; ZHENG, JIALIN

    2007-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1?) and its receptor CXCR4 play important roles in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) by serving as a HIV-1 co-receptor and affecting cell migration, virus-mediated neurotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating SDF-1 production during disease are not completely understood. In this report we investigated the role of HIV-1 infected and immune competent macrophage, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury and death in HAD, in regulating SDF-1 production by astrocytes. Our data demonstrated that astrocytes are the primary cell type expressing SDF-1 in the brain. Immune-activated or HTV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophage (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced a substantial increase in SDF-1 production by human astrocytes. This SDF-1 production was directly dependent on MDM IL-1? following both viral and immune activation. The MCM-induced production of SDF-1 was prevented by IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-1? siRNA treatment of human MDM. These laboratory observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). In these HIVE mice, reactive astrocytes showed a significant increase in SDF-1 expression, as observed by immunocytochemical staining. Similarly, SDF-1 mRNA levels were increased in the encephalitic region as measured by real time RT-PCR, and correlated with IL-1? mRNA expression. These observations provide direct evidence that IL-1?, produced from HIV-1-infected and/or immune competent macrophage, induces production of SDF-1 by astrocytes, and as such contribute to ongoing SDF-1 mediated CNS regulation during HAD. PMID:16944452

  1. Regulation of Macrophage, Dendritic Cell, and Microglial Phenotype and Function by the SOCS Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Sarah M.; Heller, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells of dynamic phenotype that rapidly respond to external stimuli in the microenvironment by altering their phenotype to respond to and to direct the immune response. The ability to dynamically change phenotype must be carefully regulated to prevent uncontrolled inflammatory responses and subsequently to promote resolution of inflammation. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a key role in regulating macrophage phenotype. In this review, we summarize research to date from mouse and human studies on the role of the SOCS proteins in determining the phenotype and function of macrophages. We will also touch on the influence of the SOCS on dendritic cell (DC) and microglial phenotype and function. The molecular mechanisms of SOCS function in macrophages and DCs are discussed, along with how dysregulation of SOCS expression or function can lead to alterations in macrophage/DC/microglial phenotype and function and to disease. Regulation of SOCS expression by microRNA is discussed. Novel therapies and unanswered questions with regard to SOCS regulation of monocyte–macrophage phenotype and function are highlighted. PMID:26579124

  2. The macrophage-TCR?? is a cholesterol-responsive combinatorial immune receptor and implicated in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tina; Puellmann, Kerstin; Emmert, Alexander; Fleig, Julian; Oniga, Septimia; Laird, Rebecca; Heida, Nana Maria; Schäfer, Katrin; Neumaier, Michael; Beham, Alexander W; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates constitutive expression of a recombinatorial TCR?? immune receptor in mammalian monocytes and macrophages. Here, we demonstrate in vitro that macrophage-TCR? repertoires are modulated by atherogenic low density cholesterol (LDL) and high-density cholesterol (HDL). In vivo, analysis of freshly obtained artery specimens from patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis reveals massive abundance of TCR??(+) macrophages within the atherosclerotic lesions. Experimental atherosclerosis in mouse carotids induces accumulation of TCR bearing macrophages in the vascular wall and TCR deficient rag(-/-) mice have an altered macrophage-dependent inflammatory response. We find that the majority of TCR?? bearing macrophages are localized in the hot spot regions of the atherosclerotic lesions. Advanced carotid artery lesions express highly restricted TCR?? repertoires that are characterized by a striking usage of the V?22 and V?16 chains. This together with a significant degree of interindividual lesion repertoire sharing suggests the existence of atherosclerosis-associated TCR?? signatures. Our results implicate the macrophage-TCR?? combinatorial immunoreceptor in atherosclerosis and thus identify an as yet unknown adaptive component in the innate response-to-injury process that underlies this macrophage-driven disease. PMID:25446098

  3. Improved Method for Culturing Guinea-Pig Macrophage Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proper nutrients and periodic changes in culture medium maintain cell viability for a longer period. New method uses a thioglycolate solution, instead of mineral oil, to induce macrophage cells in guinea pigs and also uses an increased percent of fetal-calf bovine serum in cultivation medium. Macrophage cells play significant roles in the body's healing and defense systems.

  4. Regulation of miR-24, miR-30b, and miR-142-3p during macrophage and dendritic cell differentiation potentiates innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Jezrom B; Naqvi, Afsar R; Nares, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    miRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology. Parallel profiling of in vitro monocyte-to-M? and monocyte-to-DC differentiation revealed static, convergent, and divergent expression of miRNA. Bioinformatic and network analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs implicated miR-24, miR-30b, and miR-142-3p as negative regulators of intracellular signaling pathways, triggered not only by differentiation factors (M-CSF/GM-CSF/IL-4) but also from PRRs. Manipulation of miR-24, miR-30b, and miR-142-3p expression during the differentiation of mD-M? and mD-DC differentiation had minimal impact on the acquisition of phenotype but significantly abrogated the ability of these cells to mount inflammatory responses to pathogen-associated stimuli. Forced expression of these miRNAs, which are down-regulated during differentiation, inhibited release of inflammatory cytokines [TNF-?, IL-12(p40), IL-6] upon stimulation with LPS. Functional analysis revealed overlapping mechanisms of inhibition, including surface expression of TLR4/CD14/MD-1 and intracellular PKC?/NF-?B activation. Potential intermediary targets of the TLR4-NF-?B axis included members of the PI3K and MAPK families and PKC isoforms. These results demonstrate the requirement of miR-24, miR-30b, and miR-142-3p down-regulation for the generation of fully functional M?s and DCs. PMID:25990241

  5. Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M.; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.; Thiel, Cora S.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  6. Regulation of ICAM-1 in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrin; Tauber, Svantje; Dumrese, Claudia; Bradacs, Gesine; Simmet, Dana M; Gölz, Nadine; Hauschild, Swantje; Raig, Christiane; Engeli, Stephanie; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Biskup, Josefine; Unverdorben, Felix; Rieder, Gabriela; Hofmänner, Daniel; Mutschler, Lisa; Krammer, Sonja; Buttron, Isabell; Philpot, Claudia; Huge, Andreas; Lier, Hartwin; Barz, Ines; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Thiel, Cora S; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells. PMID:25654110

  7. Immune cell promotion of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of death from cancer, and immunotherapy and chemotherapy have had limited success in reversing its progression. Data from mouse models suggest that the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells to tumours protects metastatic cancer cells from surveillance by killer cells, which nullifies the effects of immunotherapy and thus establishes metastasis. Furthermore, in most cases, tumour-infiltrating immune cells differentiate into cells that promote each step of the metastatic cascade and thus are novel targets for therapy. In this Review, we describe how tumour-infiltrating immune cells contribute to the metastatic cascade and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies to target these cells. PMID:25614318

  8. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS: a new tool to assess the multifaceted activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Richard; Daumas, Aurélie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Textoris, Julien

    2012-10-22

    Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is routinely used to identify bacterial species in clinical samples. This technique has also proven to allow identification of intact mammalian cells, including macrophages. Here, we wondered whether this approach enabled the assessment human macrophages plasticity. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectra of macrophages stimulated with IFN-? and IL-4, two inducers of M1 and M2 macrophage polarisation, consisted of peaks ranging from 2 to 12 kDa. The spectra of unstimulated and stimulated macrophages were clearly different. The fingerprints induced by the M1 agonists, IFN-?, TNF, LPS and LPS+IFN-?, and the M2 agonists, IL-4, TGF-?1 and IL-10, were specific and readily identifiable. Thus, whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS was able to characterise M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. In addition, the fingerprints induced by extracellular (group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus) or intracellular (BCG, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii) bacteria were bacterium-specific. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS fingerprints therefore revealed the multifaceted activation of human macrophages. This approach opened a new avenue of studies to assess the immune response in the clinical setting, by monitoring the various activation patterns of immune cells in pathological conditions. PMID:22967923

  9. Modulators affecting the immune dialogue between human immune and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

    2014-05-15

    The link between chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer has been well established. The events proceeding along tumorigenesis are complicated and involve cells activated at the cancer microenvironment, tumor infiltrating polymorphonuclears, immune cells including lymphocyte subtypes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as tumor-associated macrophages. The immune cells generate inflammatory cytokines, several of them playing a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Additional factors, such as gene expression regulated by cytokines, assembling of tumor growth- and transforming factors, accelerated angiogenesis, delayed apoptosis, contribute all to initiation, development and migration of tumor cells. Oxygen radical species originating from the inflammatory area promote cell mutation and cancer proliferation. Tumor cells may over-express pro-inflammatory mediators that in turn activate immune cells for inflammatory cytokines production. Consequently, an immune dialogue emerges between immune and cancer cells orchestrated through a number of activated molecular pathways. Cytokines, encompassing migration inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor-?, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23 have been reported to be involved in human cancer development. Some cytokines, namely IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-22 and growth factors promote tumor development and metastasis, and inhibit apoptosis via activation of signal transducer activator transcription-3 transcription factor. Colon cancer environment comprises mesenchymal, endothelial and immune cells. Assessment of the interaction between components in the tumor environment and malignant cells requires a reconsideration of a few topics elucidating the role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis, the function of the immune cells expressed by inflammatory cytokine production, the immunomodulation of cancer cells and the existence of a cross-talk between immune and malignant cells leading to a balance in cytokine production. It is conceivable that the prevalence of anti-inflammatory cytokine production by PBMC in the affected colonic mucosa will contribute to the delay, or even to halt down malignant expansion. Targeting the interplay between immune and cancer cells by mediators capable to alter cytokine secretion toward increased anti-inflammatory cytokine release by PBMC and tumor associated macrophages, may serve as an additional strategy for treatment of malignant diseases. This review will focus on the inflammatory events preceding tumorigenesis in general, and on a number of modulators capable to affect colon cancer cell-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by PBMC through alteration of the immune cross-talk between PBMC and cancer cells. PMID:24834143

  10. Modulators affecting the immune dialogue between human immune and colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer has been well established. The events proceeding along tumorigenesis are complicated and involve cells activated at the cancer microenvironment, tumor infiltrating polymorphonuclears, immune cells including lymphocyte subtypes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as tumor-associated macrophages. The immune cells generate inflammatory cytokines, several of them playing a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Additional factors, such as gene expression regulated by cytokines, assembling of tumor growth- and transforming factors, accelerated angiogenesis, delayed apoptosis, contribute all to initiation, development and migration of tumor cells. Oxygen radical species originating from the inflammatory area promote cell mutation and cancer proliferation. Tumor cells may over-express pro-inflammatory mediators that in turn activate immune cells for inflammatory cytokines production. Consequently, an immune dialogue emerges between immune and cancer cells orchestrated through a number of activated molecular pathways. Cytokines, encompassing migration inhibitory factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor-?, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23 have been reported to be involved in human cancer development. Some cytokines, namely IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-22 and growth factors promote tumor development and metastasis, and inhibit apoptosis via activation of signal transducer activator transcription-3 transcription factor. Colon cancer environment comprises mesenchymal, endothelial and immune cells. Assessment of the interaction between components in the tumor environment and malignant cells requires a reconsideration of a few topics elucidating the role of chronic inflammation in carcinogenesis, the function of the immune cells expressed by inflammatory cytokine production, the immunomodulation of cancer cells and the existence of a cross-talk between immune and malignant cells leading to a balance in cytokine production. It is conceivable that the prevalence of anti-inflammatory cytokine production by PBMC in the affected colonic mucosa will contribute to the delay, or even to halt down malignant expansion. Targeting the interplay between immune and cancer cells by mediators capable to alter cytokine secretion toward increased anti-inflammatory cytokine release by PBMC and tumor associated macrophages, may serve as an additional strategy for treatment of malignant diseases. This review will focus on the inflammatory events preceding tumorigenesis in general, and on a number of modulators capable to affect colon cancer cell-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by PBMC through alteration of the immune cross-talk between PBMC and cancer cells. PMID:24834143

  11. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-?], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1?/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-? and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that leads to the generation of protective Th1 responses in BALB/c mice. PMID:26169275

  12. Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

  13. Deficiency of the B Cell-Activating Factor Receptor Results in Limited CD169+ Macrophage Function during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haifeng C.; Huang, Jun; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Grusdat, Melanie; Shinde, Prashant; McIlwain, David R.; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Gommerman, Jennifer; Löhning, Max; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Mak, Tak W.; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Speletas, Matthaios; Eibel, Hermann; Ware, Carl F.; Tumanov, Alexei V.; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell development and humoral immunity in mice and humans. While the role of BAFF in B cells has been widely described, its role in innate immunity remains unknown. Using BAFF receptor (BAFFR)-deficient mice, we characterized BAFFR-related innate and adaptive immune functions following infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We identified a critical role for BAFFR signaling in the generation and maintenance of the CD169+ macrophage compartment. Consequently, Baffr?/? mice exhibited limited induction of innate type I interferon production after viral infection. Lack of BAFFR signaling reduced virus amplification and presentation following viral infection, resulting in highly reduced antiviral adaptive immune responses. As a consequence, BAFFR-deficient mice showed exacerbated and fatal disease after viral infection. Mechanistically, transient lack of B cells in Baffr?/? animals resulted in limited lymphotoxin expression, which is critical for maintenance of CD169+ cells. In conclusion, BAFFR signaling affects both innate and adaptive immune activation during viral infections. IMPORTANCE Viruses cause acute and chronic infections in humans resulting in millions of deaths every year. Innate immunity is critical for the outcome of a viral infection. Innate type I interferon production can limit viral replication, while adaptive immune priming by innate immune cells induces pathogen-specific immunity with long-term protection. Here, we show that BAFFR deficiency not only perturbed B cells, but also resulted in limited CD169+ macrophages. These macrophages are critical in amplifying viral particles to trigger type I interferon production and initiate adaptive immune priming. Consequently, BAFFR deficiency resulted in reduced enforced viral replication, limited type I interferon production, and reduced adaptive immunity compared to BAFFR-competent controls. As a result, BAFFR-deficient mice were predisposed to fatal viral infections. Thus, BAFFR expression is critical for innate immune activation and antiviral immunity. PMID:25673724

  14. Development of a cell system for siRNA screening of pathogen responses in human and mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Sun, Jing; Benet, Zachary L; Wang, Ze; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; John, Sinu P; Lin, Bin; Sung, Myong-Hee; Fraser, Iain D C

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response to pathogen infection, but few tools exist for systematic dissection of these responses using modern genome-wide perturbation methods. To develop an assay platform for high-throughput analysis of macrophage activation by pathogenic stimuli, we generated reporter systems in human and mouse macrophages with dynamic readouts for NF-?B and/or TNF-? responses. These reporter cells show responsiveness to a broad range of TLR ligands and to gram-negative bacterial infection. There are significant challenges to the use of RNAi in innate immune cells, including efficient small RNA delivery and non-specific immune responses to dsRNA. To permit the interrogation of the macrophage pathogen response pathways with RNAi, we employed the stably expressed reporter genes to develop efficient siRNA delivery protocols for maximal target gene silencing with minimal activation of the innate macrophage response to nucleic acids. We demonstrate the utility of these macrophage cell systems for siRNA screening of pathogen responses by targeting components of the human and mouse TLR pathways, and observe species-specific perturbation of signaling and cytokine responses. Our approach to reporter cell development and siRNA delivery optimization provides an experimental paradigm with significant potential for developing genetic screening platforms in mammalian cells. PMID:25831078

  15. Fusion between intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in a cancer context results in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Anne E.; Anderson, Eric C.; Davies, Paige S.; Silk, Alain D.; Pelz, Carl; Impey, Soren; Wong, Melissa H.

    2010-01-01

    The most deadly phase in cancer progression is attributed to the inappropriate acquisition of molecular machinery leading to metastatic transformation and spread of disease to distant organs. While it is appreciated that metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, the underlying mechanism defining this process is poorly understood. Specifically, how cancer cells evade immune surveillance and gain the ability to navigate the circulatory system remains a focus. One possible mechanism underlying metastatic conversion is fusion between blood-derived immune cells and cancer cells. While this notion is a century old, in vivo evidence that cell fusion occurs within tumors and imparts genetic or physiologic changes remains controversial. We have previously demonstrated in vivo cell fusion between blood cells and intestinal epithelial cells in an injury setting. Here, we hypothesize that immune cells, such as macrophages, fuse with tumor cells imparting metastatic capabilities by transferring their cellular identity. We used parabiosis to introduce fluorescent-labeled bone marrow-derived cells to mice with intestinal tumors, finding that fusion between circulating blood-derived cells and tumor epithelium occurs during the natural course of tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identify the macrophage as a key cellular partner for this process. Interestingly, cell fusion hybrids retain a transcriptome identity characteristic of both parental derivatives, while also expressing a unique subset of transcripts. Our data supports the novel possibility that tumorigenic cell fusion may impart physical behavior attributed to migratory macrophages, including navigation of circulation and immune evasion. As such, cell fusion may represent a promising novel mechanism underlying the metastatic conversion of cancer cells. PMID:21303980

  16. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  17. Fc Gamma Receptor IIb on GM-CSF Macrophages Controls Immune Complex Mediated Inhibition of Inflammatory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Santegoets, Kim C. M.; Wenink, Mark H.; van den Berg, Wim B.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) macrophages play a major role in amplifying synovial inflammation. Important activating signals are those induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and by activated T cells. The balance between activating and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs) on macrophages might be crucial in modulating these inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to determine Fc?R expression on pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages (gmM? and mM?, respectively) and identify functional consequences on immune complex uptake and macrophage activation. Methods Human monocytes were isolated and differentiated into gmM? and mM?. A full Fc?R characterization of both macrophage subtypes was performed and uptake of fluorescent immune complexes (ICs) was determined. Fc?RIIb isoforms were determined by qPCR. Macrophages were stimulated via different TLRs or cytokine activated T cells in the presence or absence of ICs and cytokine production was determined. Blocking studies were performed to look into the pathways involved. Results mM? expressed high levels of the activating Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIII and low levels of the inhibitory Fc?RIIb, while the Fc?R balance on gmM? was shifted towards the inhibitory Fc?RIIb. This was accompanied by a clear increase in Fc?RIIb1 mRNA expression in gmM?. This resulted in higher IC uptake by mM? compared to gmM?. Furthermore, Fc?R-mediated stimulation of gmM? inhibited TLR2, 3, 4 and 7/8 mediated cytokine production via Fc?RIIb and PI3K signaling. In addition, gmM? but not mM? produced TNF? upon co-culture with cytokine activated T cells, which was reduced by IC binding to Fc?RIIb. The latter was dependent on PI3K signaling and COX2. Conclusions Fc?R expression patterns on gmM? and mM? are significantly different, which translates in clear functional differences further substantiating Fc?RIIb as an interesting target for inflammation control in RA and other autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. PMID:25340460

  18. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  19. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryohei; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2011-12-01

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 ?m or less, PM(10)) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 ?m or less, PM(2.5)) and ultrafine particles (0.1 ?m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-?B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-?] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-?B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile. PMID:21951342

  20. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, María Carolina; Lefimil, Claudia; Rodas, Paula I.; Vernal, Rolando; Lopez, Mercedes; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Imarai, Mónica; Escobar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (M?) and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals M? may undergo classical-M1 (M1-M?) or alternative-M2 (M2-M?) activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human M? polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived M? (MDM) upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on M? challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-M? phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-M?-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated M? are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with M? polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26125939

  1. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  2. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  3. Development and optimization of near-IR contrast agents for immune cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pratixa P.; Yoon, Soon Joon; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (NRs) are attractive for in vivo imaging due to their high optical cross-sections and tunable absorbance. However, the feasibility of using NRs for cell tracking has not been fully explored. Here, we synthesized dye doped silica-coated NRs as multimodal contrast agents for imaging of macrophagesimmune cells which play an important role in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We showed the importance of silica coating in imaging of NR-labeled cells. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of NRs labeled macrophages showed high sensitivity. Therefore, these results provide foundation for applications of silica-coated NRs and PA imaging in tracking of immune cells. PMID:24298419

  4. TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Promotes Monocyte/Macrophage Properties in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Joel; Tabor, Vedrana; Wikell, Anna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer progression toward metastatic disease is linked to re-activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process. Breast cancer cells undergoing EMT lose epithelial characteristics and gain the capacity to invade the surrounding tissue and migrate away from the primary tumor. However, less is known about the possible role of EMT in providing cancer cells with properties that allow them to traffic to distant sites. Given the fact that pro-metastatic cancer cells share a unique capacity with immune cells to traffic in-and-out of blood and lymphatic vessels we hypothesized that tumor cells undergoing EMT may acquire properties of immune cells. To study this, we performed gene-profiling analysis of mouse mammary EpRas tumor cells that had been allowed to adopt an EMT program after long-term treatment with TGF-?1 for 2?weeks. As expected, EMT cells acquired traits of mesenchymal cell differentiation and migration. However, in addition, we found another cluster of induced genes, which was specifically enriched in monocyte-derived macrophages, mast cells, and myeloid dendritic cells, but less in other types of immune cells. Further studies revealed that this monocyte/macrophage gene cluster was enriched in human breast cancer cell lines displaying an EMT or a Basal B profile, and in human breast tumors with EMT and undifferentiated (ER-/PR-) characteristics. The results identify an EMT-induced monocyte/macrophage gene cluster, which may play a role in breast cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. PMID:25674539

  5. TGF-?1-Induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition Promotes Monocyte/Macrophage Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Joel; Tabor, Vedrana; Wikell, Anna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Fuxe, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer progression toward metastatic disease is linked to re-activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a latent developmental process. Breast cancer cells undergoing EMT lose epithelial characteristics and gain the capacity to invade the surrounding tissue and migrate away from the primary tumor. However, less is known about the possible role of EMT in providing cancer cells with properties that allow them to traffic to distant sites. Given the fact that pro-metastatic cancer cells share a unique capacity with immune cells to traffic in-and-out of blood and lymphatic vessels we hypothesized that tumor cells undergoing EMT may acquire properties of immune cells. To study this, we performed gene-profiling analysis of mouse mammary EpRas tumor cells that had been allowed to adopt an EMT program after long-term treatment with TGF-?1 for 2?weeks. As expected, EMT cells acquired traits of mesenchymal cell differentiation and migration. However, in addition, we found another cluster of induced genes, which was specifically enriched in monocyte-derived macrophages, mast cells, and myeloid dendritic cells, but less in other types of immune cells. Further studies revealed that this monocyte/macrophage gene cluster was enriched in human breast cancer cell lines displaying an EMT or a Basal B profile, and in human breast tumors with EMT and undifferentiated (ER?/PR?) characteristics. The results identify an EMT-induced monocyte/macrophage gene cluster, which may play a role in breast cancer cell dissemination and metastasis. PMID:25674539

  6. The uptake of apoptotic cells drives Coxiella burnetii replication and macrophage polarization: a model for Q fever endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Marie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    Patients with valvulopathy have the highest risk to develop infective endocarditis (IE), although the relationship between valvulopathy and IE is not clearly understood. Q fever endocarditis, an IE due to Coxiella burnetii, is accompanied by immune impairment. Patients with valvulopathy exhibited increased levels of circulating apoptotic leukocytes, as determined by the measurement of active caspases and nucleosome determination. The binding of apoptotic cells to monocytes and macrophages, the hosts of C. burnetii, may be responsible for the immune impairment observed in Q fever endocarditis. Apoptotic lymphocytes (AL) increased C. burnetii replication in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in a cell-contact dependent manner, as determined by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. AL binding induced a M2 program in monocytes and macrophages stimulated with C. burnetii as determined by a cDNA chip containing 440 arrayed sequences and functional tests, but this program was in part different in monocytes and macrophages. While monocytes that had bound AL released high levels of IL-10 and IL-6, low levels of TNF and increased CD14 expression, macrophages that had bound AL released high levels of TGF-beta1 and expressed mannose receptor. The neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta1 prevented the replication of C. burnetii due to the binding of AL, suggesting that they were critically involved in bacterial replication. In contrast, the binding of necrotic cells to monocytes and macrophages led to C. burnetii killing and typical M1 polarization. Finally, interferon-gamma corrected the immune deactivation induced by apoptotic cells: it prevented the replication of C. burnetii and re-directed monocytes and macrophages toward a M1 program, which was deleterious for C. burnetii. We suggest that leukocyte apoptosis associated with valvulopathy may be critical for the pathogenesis of Q fever endocarditis by deactivating immune cells and creating a favorable environment for bacterial persistence. PMID:18483547

  7. Tim-3 blocking rescue macrophage and T cell function against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Ocaña-Guzman, Ranferi; Pérez-Patrigeón, Santiago; Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Addo, Marylyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) 3 and programmed death 1 (PD-1) are co-inhibitory receptors involved in the so-called T cell exhaustion, and in vivo blockade of these molecules restores T cell dysfunction. High expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 is induced after chronic antigen-specific stimulation of T cells during HIV infection. We have previously demonstrated that the interaction of Tim-3 with its ligand galectin-9 induces macrophage activation and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our aim in this study was to analyze the Tim-3 expression profile before and after six months of antiretroviral therapy and the impact of Tim-3 and PD-1 blocking on immunity against M. tuberculosis. Materials and methods HIV+ patients naïve to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were followed up for six months. Peripheral immune-cell phenotype (CD38/HLA-DR/galectin-9/Tim-3 and PD-1) was assessed by flow cytometry. Supernatants were analyzed with a multiplex cytokine detection system (human Th1/Th2 cytokine Cytometric Bead Array) by flow cytometry. Control of bacterial growth was evaluated by using an in vitro experimental model in which virulent M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages were cultured with T cells in the presence or absence of Tim-3 and PD-1 blocking antibodies. Interleukin-1 beta treatment of infected macrophages was evaluated by enumerating colony-forming units. Results We showed that HIV+ patients had an increased expression of Tim-3 in T cells and were able to control bacterial growth before ART administration. By blocking Tim-3 and PD-1, macrophages and T cells recovered their functionality and had a higher ability to control bacterial growth; this result was partially dependent on the restitution of cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that increased Tim-3 expression can limit the ability of the immune system to control the infection of intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. The use of ART and the in vitro manipulation of the Tim-3 and PD-1 molecules restored the functionality of T cells and macrophages to restrict bacterial growth. Our results provide a novel immune strategy that may be implemented in the near future in order to improve the immune responses in HIV+ patients. PMID:26486200

  8. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Results Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Conclusion Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent. PMID:25281406

  9. Therapeutic Peptide Vaccine-Induced CD8 T Cells Strongly Modulate Intratumoral Macrophages Required for Tumor Regression.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Tetje C; Sluijter, Marjolein; van Duikeren, Suzanne; West, Brian L; Melief, Cornelis J M; Arens, Ramon; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; van Hall, Thorbald

    2015-09-01

    Abundant macrophage infiltration of solid cancers commonly correlates with poor prognosis. Tumor-promoting functions of macrophages include angiogenesis, metastasis formation, and suppression of Th1-type immune responses. Here, we show that successful treatment of cervical carcinoma in mouse models with synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines induced influx of cytokine-producing CD8 T cells that strongly altered the numbers and phenotype of intratumoral macrophages. On the basis of the expression of CD11b, CD11c, F4/80, Ly6C, Ly6G, and MHC II, we identified four myeloid subpopulations that increased in numbers from 2.0-fold to 8.7-fold in regressing tumors. These changes of the intratumoral myeloid composition coincided with macrophage recruitment by chemokines, including CCL2 and CCL5, and were completely dependent on a vaccine-induced influx of tumor-specific CD8 T cells. CD4 T cells were dispensable. Incubation of tumor cells with T cell-derived IFN? and TNF? recapitulated the chemokine profile observed in vivo, confirming the capacity of antitumor CD8 T cells to mediate macrophage infiltration of tumors. Strikingly, complete regressions of large established tumors depended on the tumor-infiltrating macrophages that were induced by this immunotherapy, because a small-molecule drug inhibitor targeting CSF-1R diminished the number of intratumoral macrophages and abrogated the complete remissions. Survival rates after therapeutic SLP vaccination deteriorated in the presence of CSF-1R blockers. Together, these results show that therapeutic peptide vaccination could induce cytokine-producing T cells with strong macrophage-skewing capacity necessary for tumor shrinkage, and suggest that the development of macrophage-polarizing, rather than macrophage-depleting, agents is warranted. PMID:25888578

  10. Macrophages: development and tissue specialization.

    PubMed

    Varol, Chen; Mildner, Alexander; Jung, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are strategically positioned throughout the body tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, and foreign material and orchestrate inflammatory processes. Here we review two major recent paradigm shifts in our understanding of tissue macrophage biology. The first is the realization that most tissue-resident macrophages are established prenatally and maintained through adulthood by longevity and self-renewal. Their generation and maintenance are thus independent from ongoing hematopoiesis, although the cells can be complemented by adult monocyte-derived macrophages. Second, aside from being immune sentinels, tissue macrophages form integral components of their host tissue. This entails their specialization in response to local environmental cues to contribute to the development and specific function of their tissue of residence. Factors that govern tissue macrophage specialization are emerging. Moreover, tissue specialization is reflected in discrete gene expression profiles of macrophages, as well as epigenetic signatures reporting actual and potential enhancer usage. PMID:25861979

  11. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80 ?g or normal saline 0.4 mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator. PMID:25962819

  12. Engagement of the Mannose Receptor by Tumoral Mucins Activates an Immune Suppressive Phenotype in Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Allavena, P.; Chieppa, M.; Bianchi, G.; Solinas, G.; Fabbri, M.; Laskarin, G.; Mantovani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are abundantly present in the stroma of solid tumors and modulate several important biological processes, such as neoangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and suppression of adaptive immune responses. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) constitute a large family of transmembrane carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize pathogens as well as endogenous glycoproteins. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that some CLRs can inhibit the immune response. In this study we investigated TAM-associated molecules potentially involved in their immune suppressive activity. We found that TAMs isolated from human ovarian carcinoma samples predominantly express the CLRs Dectin-1, MDL-1, MGL, DCIR, and most abundantly the Mannose Receptor (MR). Components of carcinomatous ascites and purified tumoral mucins (CA125 and TAG-72) bound the MR and induced its internalization. MR engagement by tumoral mucins and by an agonist anti-MR antibody modulated cytokine production by TAM toward an immune-suppressive profile: increase of IL-10, absence of IL-12, and decrease of the Th1-attracting chemokine CCL3. This study highlights that tumoral mucin-mediated ligation of the MR on infiltrating TAM may contribute to their immune suppressive phenotype. PMID:21331365

  13. Macrophages – Key Cells in the Response to Wear Debris from Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Nich, Christophe; Takakubo, Yuya; Pajarinen, Jukka; Ainola, Mari; Salem, Abdelhakim; Sillat, Tarvo; Rao, Allison J.; Raska, Milan; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Takagi, Michiaki; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Gallo, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The generation of wear debris is an inevitable result of normal usage of joint replacements. Wear debris particles stimulate local and systemic biological reactions resulting in chronic inflammation, periprosthetic bone destruction, and eventually, implant loosening and revision surgery. The latter may be indicated in up to 15% patients in the decade following the arthroplasty using conventional polyethylene. Macrophages play multiple roles in both inflammation and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. As sentinels of the innate immune system, they are central to the initiation of this inflammatory cascade, characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-osteoclastic factors. Similar to the response to pathogens, wear particles elicit a macrophage response, based on the unique properties of the cells belonging to this lineage, including sensing, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and adaptive stimulation. The biological processes involved are complex, redundant, both local and systemic, and highly adaptive. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are implicated in this phenomenon, ultimately resulting in differentiation and activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts. Simultaneously, other distinct macrophage populations inhibit inflammation and protect the bone-implant interface from osteolysis. Here, the current knowledge about the physiology of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells is reviewed. In addition, the pattern and consequences of their interaction with wear debris and the recent developments in this field are presented. PMID:23568608

  14. Does khat chewing increases the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by macrophage immune modulation?

    PubMed

    Alvi, Ayesha; Rizwan, Mohammed; Sunosi, Rashad A L; Bin Ali Jerah, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Drug abuse is a serious problem associated with different pathological outcomes including modulating the immune system. Drug abuse is rising in Saudi Arabia and so as TB, a disease of worldwide significance, caused by immunological modulation in the host system. Khat chewing is a common practice in Arabian Peninsula which is now gaining momentum in other parts of the world. It is considered as an addiction. It has been associated with different adverse outcomes such as periodontitis, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer and also has shown to promote apoptotic cell death through cysteine proteases. The active ingredient of khat, cathinone is shown to have immunomodulatory effect. In principle, this leads to enhanced susceptibility to various infections. The present study is designed to delineate the mechanism of immunomodulation produced by khat/cathinone in human/mouse macrophage. Further, this activity will be evaluated both in vivo and in vitro in response to infection with Mycobacterium smegmatis to get an insight if there exists a co relation between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and khat chewing. PMID:24661941

  15. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines. PMID:26258152

  16. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines. PMID:26258152

  17. Macrophage-Specific Chemokines Induced via Innate Immunity by Amino Acid Copolymers and Their Role in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchin, Joseph; Krieger, Jeffrey; Genova, Michelle; Kawamoto, Norio; Augustyniak, Michael; Collins, Kathryn; Bloom, Troy; Masci, Allyson; Hittinger, Tara; Dufour, Ingrid; Strominger, Jack L.; Zanelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The random amino acid copolymer poly(Y,E,A,K)n (Copaxone®) is widely used in multiple sclerosis treatment and a second generation copolymer poly(Y,F,A,K)n with enhanced efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice has been described. A major mechanism through which copolymers function to ameliorate disease is the generation of immunosuppressive IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells entering the CNS. In addition, the antigen presenting cell to which these copolymers bind through MHC Class II proteins may have an important role. Here, both CCL22 (a Th2 cell chemoattractant) in large amounts and CXCL13 in much smaller amounts are shown to be secreted after administration of YFAK to mice and to a smaller extent by YEAK parallel to their serum concentrations. Moreover, bone marrow-derived macrophages secrete CCL22 in vitro in response to YFAK and to higher concentrations of YEAK. Strikingly, these chemokines are also secreted into serum of MHC Class II ?/? mice, indicating that an innate immune receptor on these cells also has an important role. Thus, both the innate and the adaptive immune systems are involved in the mechanism of EAE amelioration by YFAK. The enhanced ability of YFAK to stimulate the innate immune system may account for its enhanced efficacy in EAE treatment. PMID:22194778

  18. Selective inhibitory effects of 50-nm gold nanoparticles on mouse macrophage and spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Micah; Pfau, Jean C; Gilmer, John; Brey, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are significant to multiple industrial processes, consumer products and medical applications today. The health effects of many different types of NP, however, are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 50-nm gold NP coated with poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on mouse macrophage and spleen cells with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), testing the hypothesis that the NP would modulate immune responses without being overtly toxic. Gold NP had no effect on macrophage viability and, in the absence of LPS, they had no effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production as measured by ELISA. The presence of LPS significantly increased the release of TNF? from the macrophages above no-treatment controls, but increasing gold NP concentration led to decreasing release of TNF?. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by exposed macrophages were also reduced compared to untreated controls, both with and without LPS, suggesting some kind of oxygen radical scavenging. In splenocyte cultures, gold NP had no effect alone, but significantly reduced the release of interleukin (IL)-17 and TNF? triggered by LPS. These results suggest that the gold NP used here are not cytotoxic to immune cells at these concentrations, but may affect cellular responses to infection or inflammation by altering the balance of cytokines. PMID:25875326

  19. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Banat, G-Andre; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weigert, Andreas; Olesch, Catherine; Ebel, Katharina; Stiewe, Thorsten; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Savai, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+), cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+), T-helper cells (CD4+), B cells (CD20+), macrophages (CD68+), mast cells (CD117+), mononuclear cells (CD11c+), plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+), B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+) and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+) compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells) in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition. PMID:26413839

  20. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  1. Essential Role of Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 in the Induction of Macrophage Polarization in PMA-Treated U937 Cells.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kosuke; Hikiji, Hisako; Okinaga, Toshinori; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2015-12-01

    Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) regulate the diversification of fatty acid composition in biological membranes. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) are members of the LPLATs that play a role in inflammatory responses. M1 macrophages differentiate in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and are pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 macrophages, which differentiate in response to interleukin-4 (IL-4), are anti-inflammatory and involved in homeostasis and wound healing. In the present study, we showed that LPCATs play an important role in M1/M2-macrophage polarization. LPS changed the shape of PMA-treated U937 cells from rounded to spindle shaped and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of the M1 macrophage markers CXCL10, TNF-?, and IL-1?. IL-4 had no effect on the shape of PMA-treated U937 cells and upregulated the M2 macrophage markers CD206, IL-1ra, and TGF-? in PMA-treated U937 cells. These results suggest that LPS and IL-4 promote the differentiation of PMA-treated U937 cells into M1- and M2-polarized macrophages, respectively. LPS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of LPCAT3, one of four LPCAT isoforms, and suppressed its enzymatic activity toward linoleoyl-CoA and arachidonoyl-CoA in PMA-treated U937 cells. LPCAT3 knockdown induced a spindle-shaped morphology typical of M1-polarized macrophages, and increased the secretion of CXCL10 and decreased the levels of CD206 in IL-4-activated U937 cells. This indicates that knockdown of LPCAT3 shifts the differentiation of PMA-treated U937 cells to M1-polarized macrophages. Our findings suggest that LPCAT3 plays an important role in M1/M2-macrophage polarization, providing novel potential therapeutic targets for the regulation of immune and inflammatory disorders. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2840-2848, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25994902

  2. Identification of novel transcriptional regulators involved in macrophage differentiation and activation in U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Young-Sook; Haas, Stefan; Hackstein, Holger; Bein, Gregor; Hernandez-Santana, Maria; Lehrach, Hans; Sauer, Sascha; Seitz, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages play essential role in innate immunity. Understanding the underlying mechanism of macrophage differentiation and the identification of regulatory mechanisms will help to find new strategies to prevent their harmful effects in chronic inflammatory diseases and sepsis. Results Maturation of blood monocytes into tissue macrophages and subsequent inflammatory response was mimicked in U937 cells of human histocytic lymphoma origin. Whole genome array analysis was employed to evaluate gene expression profile to identify underlying transcriptional networks implicated during the processes of differentiation and inflammation. In addition to already known transcription factors (i.e. MAFB, EGR, IRF, BCL6, NFkB, AP1, Nur77), gene expression analysis further revealed novel genes (i.e. MEF2, BRI, HLX, HDAC5, H2AV, TCF7L2, NFIL3) previously uncharacterized to be involved in the differentiation process. A total of 58 selected genes representing cytokines, chemokines, surface antigens, signaling molecules and transcription factors were validated by real time PCR and compared to primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Beside the verification of several new genes, the comparison reveals individual heterogeneity of blood donors. Conclusion Up regulation of MEF2 family, HDACs, and H2AV during cell differentiation and inflammation sheds new lights onto regulation events on transcriptional and epigenetic level controlling these processes. Data generated will serve as a source for further investigation of macrophages differentiation pathways and related biological responses. PMID:19341462

  3. Macrophage characteristics of stem cells revealed by transcriptome profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Charriere, Guillaume M.; Cousin, Beatrice; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Saillan-Barreau, Corinne; Andre, Mireille; Massoudi, Ali; Dani, Christian; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis . E-mail: casteil@toulouse.inserm.fr

    2006-10-15

    We previously showed that the phenotypes of adipocyte progenitors and macrophages were close. Using functional analyses and microarray technology, we first tested whether this intriguing relationship was specific to adipocyte progenitors or could be shared with other progenitors. Measurements of phagocytic activity and gene profiling analysis of different progenitor cells revealed that the latter hypothesis should be retained. These results encouraged us to pursue and to confirm our analysis with a gold-standard stem cell population, embryonic stem cells or ESC. The transcriptomic profiles of ESC and macrophages were clustered together, unlike differentiated ESC. In addition, undifferentiated ESC displayed higher phagocytic activity than other progenitors, and they could phagocytoze apoptotic bodies. These data suggest that progenitors and stem cells share some characteristics of macrophages. This opens new perspectives on understanding stem cell phenotype and functionalities such as a putative role of stem cells in tissue remodeling by discarding dead cells but also their immunomodulation or fusion properties.

  4. Phospholipase C-? in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Xiao, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Great progress has recently been made in structural and functional research of phospholipase C (PLC)-?. We now understand how PLC-? isoforms (?1-?4) are activated by GTP-bound G?q downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Numerous studies indicate that PLC-?s participate in the differentiation and activation of immune cells that control both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The PLC-?3 isoform also interplays with tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathways, to inhibit Stat5 activation by recruiting the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, with which PLC-?3 and Stat5 form a multi-molecular signaling platform, named SPS complex. The SPS complex has important regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and immune cell activation. PMID:23981313

  5. Immunosenescence in Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells: Lessons Learned from the Lung and Heart

    PubMed Central

    Thoman, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an immune challenge, healthy, aged individuals have a significantly higher basal inflammatory state where circulating levels of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-? and IL-1?, are elevated[1]. This progressive pro-inflammatory state, termed “inflamm-aging,” affects the phenotype/function of cells present in the aged as well as renders the older individuals more susceptible to a poor prognosis after systemic insults. Although it is important to understand the mechanisms that underlie the progression of disease, most preclinical analyses of disease therapies are performed in young adult mice that have an intact, functional immune system. Oftentimes, this is not necessarily representative of the immune disposition in the aged, let alone diseased, aged. Herein, two distinct responses that are not only commonly associated with aging but that also have dendritic cells and/or monocytes and macrophages as key players are discussed: pulmonary infection and myocardial infarction. Although studies of pulmonary infection in the aged have progressed significantly, studies of monocytes and macrophages in inflammation and cardiac injury following ischemia in the aged have not been as forthcoming. Nonetheless, several elegant studies have established the dynamic role of monocytes and macrophages post infarction. These will be discussed in light of what is known with aging. PMID:25251662

  6. Apoptotic cells promote their own clearance and immune tolerance through activation of LXR

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Bensinger, Steven J.; Hong, Cynthia; Beceiro, Susana; Bradley, Michelle N.; Zelcer, Noam; Deniz, Jose; Ramirez, Cristina; Díaz, Merci; Gallardo, German; de Galarreta, Carlos Ruiz; Salazar, Jon; Lopez, Felix; Edwards, Peter; Parks, John; Andujar, Miguel; Tontonoz, Peter; Castrillo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Summary Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is essential for immune homeostasis. The transcriptional pathways that allow macrophages to sense and respond to apoptotic cells are poorly defined. We demonstrate here that LXR signaling is important for both apoptotic cell clearance and the maintenance of immune tolerance. Apoptotic cell engulfment activates LXR and thereby induces the expression of Mer, a receptor tyrosine kinase critical for phagocytosis. LXR null macrophages exhibit a selective defect in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and an aberrant pro-inflammatory response to them. As a consequence of these defects, mice lacking LXRs manifest a breakdown in self-tolerance and develop autoantibodies and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Treatment with an LXR agonist ameliorates disease progression in mouse models of Lupus-like autoimmunity. Thus, activation of LXR by apoptotic cells engages a virtuous cycle that promotes their own clearance and couples engulfment to the suppression of inflammatory pathways. PMID:19646905

  7. Memory Antitumor T-Cells Resist Inhibition by Immune Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhua; Whitaker-Dowling, Patricia; Bergman, Ira

    2015-09-01

    Cancer immune therapy is difficult partly because several classes of suppressor cells, including regulatory T-cells and macrophage-derived suppressor cells, inhibit the antitumor T-cell response. We used treatment studies of implanted tumors in mice to demonstrate that the same inhibitory cells that abrogated an acute therapeutic T-cell response to established tumor did not inhibit the therapeutic response produced by memory T-cells. Generating antitumor memory T-cells may be a highly potent strategy against cancer with late developing metastases. PMID:26254347

  8. Induction of Macrophage-Like Immunosuppressive Cells from Mouse ES Cells That Contribute to Prolong Allogeneic Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Hajime; Tsuji, Hyuma; Otsuka, Ryo; Baghdadi, Muhammad; Kojo, Satoshi; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in regenerative medicine has enabled the utilization of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a donor resource for transplantation. However, immune suppression is still needed when the donor-recipient combination is allogeneic. Protection of ESCs-derived grafts from host immune response might be achieved thought the utilization of immunosuppressive cells generated from ESCs. In the present study, we show that a certain fraction of immunosuppressive cells can be generated from ESCs and help to suppress immune response against allogeneic grafts. ESCs-derived suppressor cells (ES-SCs) resembled macrophages in terms of cell surface molecule and gene expressions. Furthermore, gene expression analysis including microarray showed that ES-SCs have M1/M2 hybrid phenotype with high expression of genes correlated to immunosuppression of T cell response. Indeed, ES-SCs were effective to block allogeneic T cell proliferation in a nitric oxide-dependent manner, and prolonged the survival of ESCs-derived embryoid bodies or cardiomyocytes grafts transplanted into mouse kidney capsule. Thus, we consider the potential use of these ESCs-derived macrophage-like immunosuppressive cells as cellular therapies to promote long-term graft survival in future therapies. PMID:25356669

  9. Suppression of Adaptive Immune Cell Activation Does Not Alter Innate Immune Adipose Inflammation or Insulin Resistance in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Ozcan, Lale; Ghorpade, Devram Sampat; Ferrante, Anthony W.; Tabas, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a major contributor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whereas innate immune cells, notably macrophages, contribute to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and insulin resistance, the role of adaptive immunity is less well defined. To address this critical gap, we used a model in which endogenous activation of T cells was suppressed in obese mice by blocking MyD88-mediated maturation of CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. VAT CD11c+ cells from Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control Myd88fl/fl mice were defective in activating T cells in vitro, and VAT T and B cell activation was markedly reduced in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl obese mice. However, neither macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation nor systemic inflammation were altered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl mice, thereby enabling a focused analysis on adaptive immunity. Unexpectedly, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and the glucose response to glucose and insulin were completely unaltered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control obese mice. Thus, CD11c+ cells activate VAT T and B cells in obese mice, but suppression of this process does not have a discernible effect on macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation or systemic glucose homeostasis. PMID:26317499

  10. Strain- and host species-specific inflammasome activation, IL-1? release, and cell death in macrophages infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schaale, K; Peters, K M; Murthy, A M; Fritzsche, A K; Phan, M-D; Totsika, M; Robertson, A A B; Nichols, K B; Cooper, M A; Stacey, K J; Ulett, G C; Schroder, K; Schembri, M A; Sweet, M J

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Little is known about interactions between UPEC and the inflammasome, a key innate immune pathway. Here we show that UPEC strains CFT073 and UTI89 trigger inflammasome activation and lytic cell death in human macrophages. Several other UPEC strains, including two multidrug-resistant ST131 isolates, did not kill macrophages. In mouse macrophages, UTI89 triggered cell death only at a high multiplicity of infection, and CFT073-mediated inflammasome responses were completely NLRP3-dependent. Surprisingly, CFT073- and UTI89-mediated responses only partially depended on NLRP3 in human macrophages. In these cells, NLRP3 was required for interleukin-1? (IL-1?) maturation, but contributed only marginally to cell death. Similarly, caspase-1 inhibition did not block cell death in human macrophages. In keeping with such differences, the pore-forming toxin ?-hemolysin mediated a substantial proportion of CFT073-triggered IL-1? secretion in mouse but not human macrophages. There was also a more substantial ?-hemolysin-independent cell death response in human vs. mouse macrophages. Thus, in mouse macrophages, CFT073-triggered inflammasome responses are completely NLRP3-dependent, and largely ?-hemolysin-dependent. In contrast, UPEC activates an NLRP3-independent cell death pathway and an ?-hemolysin-independent IL-1? secretion pathway in human macrophages. This has important implications for understanding UTI in humans. PMID:25993444

  11. Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Persister Cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Geetika S; Yao, Xiangyu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Bo; Bader, Rebecca A; Ren, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are highly tolerant to antibiotics and cause chronic infections. However, little is known about the interaction between host immune systems with this subpopulation of metabolically inactive cells, and direct effects of host immune factors (in the absence of immune cells) on persister cells have not been studied. Here we report that human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can sensitize the persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to multiple antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin. GM-CSF also sensitized the biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to tobramycin in the presence of biofilm matrix degrading enzymes. The DNA microarray and qPCR results indicated that GM-CSF induced the genes for flagellar motility and pyocin production in the persister cells, but not the normal cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Consistently, the supernatants from GM-CSF treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cell suspensions were found cidal to the pyocin sensitive strain P. aeruginosa PAK. Collectively, these findings suggest that host immune factors and bacterial persisters may directly interact, leading to enhanced susceptibility of persister cells to antibiotics. PMID:26616387

  12. Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Geetika S.; Yao, Xiangyu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Bo; Bader, Rebecca A.; Ren, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are highly tolerant to antibiotics and cause chronic infections. However, little is known about the interaction between host immune systems with this subpopulation of metabolically inactive cells, and direct effects of host immune factors (in the absence of immune cells) on persister cells have not been studied. Here we report that human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can sensitize the persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to multiple antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin. GM-CSF also sensitized the biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to tobramycin in the presence of biofilm matrix degrading enzymes. The DNA microarray and qPCR results indicated that GM-CSF induced the genes for flagellar motility and pyocin production in the persister cells, but not the normal cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Consistently, the supernatants from GM-CSF treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cell suspensions were found cidal to the pyocin sensitive strain P. aeruginosa PAK. Collectively, these findings suggest that host immune factors and bacterial persisters may directly interact, leading to enhanced susceptibility of persister cells to antibiotics. PMID:26616387

  13. Phenotypic and Functional Heterogeneity of Macrophages and Dendritic Cell Subsets in the Healthy and Atherosclerosis-Prone Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Matthew J.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis continues to be the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Development of atherosclerosis depends on chronic inflammation in the aorta and multiple immune cells are involved in this process. Importantly, resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are present within the healthy aorta, but the functions of these cells remain poorly characterized. Local inflammation within the aortic wall promotes the recruitment of monocytes and DC precursors to the aorta and micro-environmental factors direct the differentiation of these emigrated cells into multiple subsets of macrophages and DCs. Recent data suggest that several populations of macrophages and DCs can co-exist within the aorta. Although the functions of M1, M2, Mox, and M4 macrophages are well characterized in vitro, there is a limited set of data on the role of these populations in atherogenesis in vivo. Recent studies on the origin and the potential role of aortic DCs provide novel insights into the biology of aortic DC subsets and prospective mechanisms of the immune response in atherosclerosis. This review integrates the results of experiments analyzing heterogeneity of DCs and macrophage subsets in healthy and diseased vessels and briefly discusses the known and potential functions of these cells in atherogenesis. PMID:22457649

  14. MicroRNAs Transfer from Human Macrophages to Hepato-Carcinoma Cells and Inhibit Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aucher, Anne; Rudnicka, Dominika; Davis, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated a new mode of intercellular communication facilitated by the movement of RNA between cells. There is evidence that RNA can transfer between cells in a multitude of ways, including in complex with proteins, lipids or in vesicles including apoptotic bodies and exosomes. However, there remains little understanding of the function of nucleic acid transfer between human cells. Here, we report that human macrophages transfer microRNAs (miRNAs) to hepato-carcinoma cells (HCCs) in a manner that required intercellular contact and involved gap junctions. Two specific miRNAs efficiently transferred between these cells - miR-142 and miR-223 - both endogenously expressed in macrophages and not HCCs. Transfer of these miRNAs influenced post-transcriptional regulation of proteins in HCCs, including decreased expression of reporter proteins and endogenously expressed stathmin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Importantly, transfer of miRNAs from macrophages functionally inhibited proliferation of these cancerous cells. Thus, these data lead us to propose that intercellular transfer of miRNA from immune cells could serve as a new defense against unwanted cell proliferation or tumor growth. PMID:24227773

  15. Specific mediation of cellular immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in somatic cells of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chinchilla, M; Frenkel, J K

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytes from mice immunized against Toxoplasma gondii protected T. gondii-infected macrophage and kidney cell cultures. After contact with antigens, supernatants of such immune lymphocytes, also contained a factor protective for T. gondii-infected macrophages and kidney cells. Supernatants were protective only when the lymphocytes and kidneys cells were isogeneic. Protection was specific in that supernatants from only T. gondii-immune, but not Besnoitia jellisoni-immune, lymphocytes provided protection against toxoplasmosis. Sixteen to 24 h were required for an appreciable amount of protective factor to be secreted; a similar absorption time was necessary for kidney cells to be protected. Peritoneal lymphocyte lysates, prepared as transfer factor, contained protective substances with a potency similar to that of lymphocyte supernatants, which were also strain restricted in their effect. PMID:6500716

  16. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  17. Oxygen plasma surface modification augments poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) cytocompatibility toward osteoblasts and minimizes immune activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Scislowska-Czarnecka, Anna; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Genet, Michel; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; Pamula, Elzbieta; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta

    2015-12-01

    Here, we report on modification of one of the model biomedical polymers, poly l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA; 85:15), by reactive ion etching (RIE) oxygen plasma treatment. PLGA's major disadvantage is high hydrophobicity which restrains binding of cell-adhesive proteins and host cells. In the current approach, we aimed to answer two questions: (1) will only short (10 s) and moderate (20-200 mTorr, 45-90 W) RIE oxygen plasma treatment, leading to decrease of water contact angle by only up to 10°, sufficiently improve PLGA adherence to cells, and (2) how will this affect osteoblasts and activation of the immune system? All obtained modified PLGAs had improved hydrophilicity but unaltered roughness (as revealed by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy) resulting in significantly improved adhesion of osteoblasts (MG-63) and their low activation. Importantly, macrophages (RAW 264.7), one of the key cells initiating inflammation and bone resorption, responded significantly less vigorously to the modified polymers, expressing/releasing lower amounts of nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12p70, IFN-?, IL-10). We conclude that already slight RIE oxygen plasma modification of PLGA is sufficient to improve its surface properties, and enhance cytocompatibility. Most importantly, this type of modification prevents excessive immune response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3965-3977, 2015. PMID:26014580

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells help protective immunity to Leishmania major infection despite suppressed T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Wânia F; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Guillermo, Landi V Costilla; Vellozo, Natália S; Montalvão, Fabrício; Dosreis, George A; Lopes, Marcela F

    2011-12-01

    Th1/Th2 cytokines play a key role in immune responses to Leishmania major by controlling macrophage activation for NO production and parasite killing. MDSCs, including myeloid precursors and immature monocytes, produce NO and suppress T cell responses in tumor immunity. We hypothesized that NO-producing MDSCs could help immunity to L. major infection. Gr1(hi)(Ly6C(hi)) CD11b(hi) MDSCs elicited by L. major infection suppressed polyclonal and antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Moreover, L. major-induced MDSCs killed intracellular parasites in a NO-dependent manner and reduced parasite burden in vivo. By contrast, treatment with ATRA, which induces MDSCs to differentiate into macrophages, increased development of lesions, parasite load, and T cell proliferation in draining LNs. Altogether, these results indicate that NO-producing MDSCs help protective immunity to L. major infection, despite suppressed T cell proliferation. PMID:21934068

  19. Secreted Factors from Colorectal and Prostate Cancer Cells Skew the Immune Response in Opposite Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Marie; Hägglöf, Christina; Wikberg, Maria L.; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Bergh, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Palmqvist, Richard; Edin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration has been associated with an improved prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), but a poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PC) patients. In this study, the distribution and prognostic value of proinflammatory M1 macrophages (NOS2+) and immunosuppressive M2 macrophages (CD163+) was evaluated in a cohort of 234 PC patients. We found that macrophages infiltrating PC were mainly of an M2 type and correlated with a more aggressive tumor and poor patient prognosis. Furthermore, the M1/M2 ratio was significantly decreased in PC compared to CRC. Using in vitro cell culture experiments, we could show that factors secreted from CRC and PC cells induced macrophages of a proinflammatory or immunosuppressive phenotype, respectively. These macrophages differentially affected autologous T lymphocyte proliferation and activation. Consistent with this, CRC specimens were found to have higher degrees of infiltrating T-helper 1 cells and active cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while PC specimens displayed functionally inactive T cells. In conclusion, our results imply that tumour-secreted factors from cancers of different origin can drive macrophage differentiation in opposite directions and thereby regulate the organization of the anti-tumour immune response. Our findings suggest that reprogramming of macrophages could be an important tool in the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26503803

  20. Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine. PMID:24885781

  1. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad G.; Tsai, Vicky W.W.; Ruitenberg, Marc J.; Hassanpour, Masoud; Li, Hui; Hart, Prue H.; Breit, Samuel N.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Brown, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity. PMID:24569378

  2. Inability of tumour cells to elicit the respiratory burst in cytotoxic, activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, S M; Hill, H R

    1982-01-01

    Activated macrophages from Corynebacterium parvum-treated mice are cytotoxic to non-antibody-coated tumour cells and have an augmented respiratory burst potential when compared to resident macrophages. We have investigated the possible involvement of the respiratory burst as an effector mechanism in this type of tumour killing. Scavengers of toxic metabolites of oxygen such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, ethanol, and cytochrome c did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity in this system. To investigate whether or not neoplastic cells stimulate the macrophage respiratory burst, we exposed activated macrophages to viable tumour cells and monitored macrophage superoxide anion production, chemiluminescence, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity. None of these indicators of the macrophage respiratory burst was stimulated by the tumour cells towards which the macrophages were cytotoxic. The data suggest that the macrophages burst is not utilized as an effector mechanism in the non-antibody-mediated macrophage tumour cytotoxicity reaction. PMID:6277777

  3. Effects of PVA coated nanoparticles on human immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Strehl, Cindy; Gaber, Timo; Maurizi, Lionel; Hahne, Martin; Rauch, Roman; Hoff, Paula; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Poole, A Robin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology provides new opportunities in human medicine, mainly for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often diagnosed after irreversible joint structural damage has occurred. There is an urgent need for a very early diagnosis of RA, which can be achieved by more sensitive imaging methods. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are already used in medicine and therefore represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of RA. The focus of our work was to investigate any potentially negative effects resulting from the interactions of newly developed amino-functionalized amino-polyvinyl alcohol coated (a-PVA) SPION (a-PVA-SPION), that are used for imaging, with human immune cells. We analyzed the influence of a-PVA-SPION with regard to cell survival and cell activation in human whole blood in general, and in human monocytes and macrophages representative of professional phagocytes, using flow cytometry, multiplex suspension array, and transmission electron microscopy. We found no effect of a-PVA-SPION on the viability of human immune cells, but cytokine secretion was affected. We further demonstrated that the percentage of viable macrophages increased on exposure to a-PVA-SPION. This effect was even stronger when a-PVA-SPION were added very early in the differentiation process. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that both monocytes and macrophages are able to endocytose a-PVA-SPION. Our findings demonstrate an interaction between human immune cells and a-PVA-SPION which needs to be taken into account when considering the use of a-PVA-SPION in human medicine. PMID:26056442

  4. Low cost delivery of proteins bioencapsulated in plant cells to human non-immune or immune modulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuhong; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Hoffman, Brad E; Kamesh, Aditya; Jones, Noah T; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2016-02-01

    Targeted oral delivery of GFP fused with a GM1 receptor binding protein (CTB) or human cell penetrating peptide (PTD) or dendritic cell peptide (DCpep) was investigated. Presence of GFP(+) intact plant cells between villi of ileum confirm their protection in the digestive system from acids/enzymes. Efficient delivery of GFP to gut-epithelial cells by PTD or CTB and to M cells by all these fusion tags confirm uptake of GFP in the small intestine. PTD fusion delivered GFP more efficiently to most tissues or organs than the other two tags. GFP was efficiently delivered to the liver by all fusion tags, likely through the gut-liver axis. In confocal imaging studies of human cell lines using purified GFP fused with different tags, GFP signal of DCpep-GFP was only detected within dendritic cells. PTD-GFP was only detected within kidney or pancreatic cells but not in immune modulatory cells (macrophages, dendritic, T, B, or mast cells). In contrast, CTB-GFP was detected in all tested cell types, confirming ubiquitous presence of GM1 receptors. Such low-cost oral delivery of protein drugs to sera, immune system or non-immune cells should dramatically lower their cost by elimination of prohibitively expensive fermentation, protein purification cold storage/transportation and increase patient compliance. PMID:26706477

  5. Counter-regulation of the ligand-receptor pair Leda-1/Pianp and Pilr? during the LPS-mediated immune response of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Siladitta; Adrian, Monica; Evdokimov, Konstantin; Schledzewski, Kai; Weber, Jochen; Winkler, Manuel; Goerdt, Sergij; Géraud, Cyrill

    2015-09-01

    Liver endothelial differentiation-associated protein-1 (Leda-1/Pianp) is a type-I-transmembrane protein that is able to bind and activate immune inhibitory receptor Pilr?. Here we show that Leda-1/Pianp is strain-specifically expressed in lymphoid organs and macrophages of Th2-prone BALB/c mice but not of Th1-prone C57BL/6J mice. LPS stimulation of BALB/c bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells conversely regulated Leda-1/Pianp and Pilr? expression. Pilr? induction was caused by LPS-mediated transcriptional modulation and increased mRNA expression. On the other hand, the LPS-mediated decline of Leda-1/Pianp expression was the result of proteolytic degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, these findings demonstrate that counter-regulation of the ligand-receptor pair Leda-1/Pianp and Pilr? is part of the complex innate immune response of macrophages and its genetically determined strain-specific modulation. PMID:26188512

  6. Polydatin Inhibits Formation of Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Liu, Meixia; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Wengao; Liu, Longtao

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Polydatin, one of the major active ingredients in Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, has been recently shown to possess extensive cardiovascular pharmacological activities. In present study, we examined the effects of Polydatin on the formation of peritoneal macrophage-derived foam cells in Apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice (ApoE?/?) and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from ApoE?/? mice and cultured in vitro. These cells sequentially were divided into four groups: Control group, Model group, Lovastatin group, and Polydatin group. Our results demonstrated that Polydatin significantly inhibits the formation of foam cells derived from peritoneal macrophages. Further studies indicated that Polydatin regulates the metabolism of intracellular lipid and possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which may be regulated through the PPAR-? signaling pathways. PMID:26557864

  7. Targeted prostaglandin E2 inhibition enhances antiviral immunity through induction of type I interferon and apoptosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, François; Jaworska, Joanna; Verway, Mark; Tzelepis, Fanny; Massoud, Amir; Gillard, Joshua; Wong, Gary; Kobinger, Gary; Xing, Zhou; Couture, Christian; Joubert, Philippe; Fritz, Jörg H; Powell, William S; Divangahi, Maziar

    2014-04-17

    Aspirin gained tremendous popularity during the 1918 Spanish Influenza virus pandemic, 50 years prior to the demonstration of their inhibitory action on prostaglandins. Here, we show that during influenza A virus (IAV) infection, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was upregulated, which led to the inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production and apoptosis in macrophages, thereby causing an increase in virus replication. This inhibitory role of PGE2 was not limited to innate immunity, because both antigen presentation and T cell mediated immunity were also suppressed. Targeted PGE2 suppression via genetic ablation of microsomal prostaglandin E-synthase 1 (mPGES-1) or by the pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 substantially improved survival against lethal IAV infection whereas PGE2 administration reversed this phenotype. These data demonstrate that the mPGES-1-PGE2 pathway is targeted by IAV to evade host type I IFN-dependent antiviral immunity. We propose that specific inhibition of PGE2 signaling might serve as a treatment for IAV. PMID:24726877

  8. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Samuel M.; Carpenter, Stephen M.; Booty, Matthew G.; Barber, Daniel L.; Jayaraman, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease – the contagious form of tuberculosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding how the immune system responds to infection, the qualities that define protective immunity against M. tuberculosis remain poorly characterized. The ability to predict who will maintain control over the infection and who will succumb to clinical disease would revolutionize our approach to surveillance, control, and treatment. Here we review the current understanding of pulmonary T cell responses following M. tuberculosis infection. While infection elicits a strong immune response that contains infection, M. tuberculosis evades eradication. Traditionally, its intracellular lifestyle and alteration of macrophage function are viewed as the dominant mechanisms of evasion. Now we appreciate that chronic inflammation leads to T cell dysfunction. While this may arise as the host balances the goals of bacterial sterilization and avoidance of tissue damage, it is becoming clear that T cell dysfunction impairs host resistance. Defining the mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction is crucial as memory T cell responses are likely to be subject to the same subject to the same pressures. Thus, success of T cell based vaccines is predicated on memory T cells avoiding exhaustion while at the same time not promoting overt tissue damage. PMID:25311810

  9. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savion, N.; Disatnik, M.H.; Nevo, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10..mu..g/ml), arteparon (10..mu..g/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 ..mu..g/ml. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage haparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis.

  10. The Metastasis-Promoting Roles of Tumor-Associated Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heath A.; Kang, Yibin

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is driven not only by the accumulation of intrinsic alterations in malignant cells, but also by the interactions of cancer cells with various stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, inflammation and infiltration of the tumor tissue by host immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells have been shown to support tumor growth in addition to invasion and metastasis. Each step of tumor development, from initiation through metastatic spread, is promoted by communication between tumor and immune cells via the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and proteases that remodel the tumor microenvironment. Invasion and metastasis requires neovascularization, breakdown of the basement membrane, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix for tumor cell invasion and extravasation into the blood and lymphatic vessels. The subsequent dissemination of tumor cells to distant organ sites necessitates a treacherous journey through the vasculature, which is fostered by close association with platelets and macrophages. Additionally, the establishment of the pre-metastatic niche and specific metastasis organ tropism is fostered by neutrophils and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic immune progenitor cells and other inflammatory cytokines derived from tumor and immune cells, which alter the local environment of the tissue to promote adhesion of circulating tumor cells. This review focuses on the interactions between tumor cells and immune cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment, and examines the factors allowing these cells to promote each stage of metastasis. PMID:23515621

  11. Single-cell technologies for monitoring interactions between immune cells

    E-print Network

    Yamanaka, Yvonne J. (Yvonne Joy)

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells participate in dynamic cellular interactions that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens and the destruction of malignant cells. The vast heterogeneity of immune cells motivates the study of ...

  12. Recognition of tumor cells by Dectin-1 orchestrates innate immune cells for anti-tumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Shiho; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Ueki, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Hangai, Sho; Nishio, Junko; Negishi, Hideo; Tamura, Tomohiko; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The eradication of tumor cells requires communication to and signaling by cells of the immune system. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential tumor-killing effector cells of the innate immune system; however, little is known about whether or how other immune cells recognize tumor cells to assist NK cells. Here, we show that the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages is critical to NK-mediated killing of tumor cells that express N-glycan structures at high levels. Receptor recognition of these tumor cells causes the activation of the IRF5 transcription factor and downstream gene induction for the full-blown tumoricidal activity of NK cells. Consistent with this, we show exacerbated in vivo tumor growth in mice genetically deficient in either Dectin-1 or IRF5. The critical contribution of Dectin-1 in the recognition of and signaling by tumor cells may offer new insight into the anti-tumor immune system with therapeutic implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04177.001 PMID:25149452

  13. Coagulation and the expression of cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J; Geczy, C

    1987-04-01

    Induction of monocyte/macrophage procoagulants may occur as the result of activation of the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Macrophage procoagulant inducing factor (MPIF), a soluble product of stimulated TDTH lymphocytes, may act together with two monokines, interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha, which induce thromboplastin on endothelial cells, to initiate the fibrin deposition which is a common feature of many diseases in which CMI plays a role. Murine MPIF is chemically distinct from a number of other well characterized lymphokines in that the two major activities, MPIF alpha and MPIF beta are heparin-binding proteins with high isoelectric points. Fractions highly enriched for MPIF induced interstitial fibrin deposition when injected intradermally. In addition, intense infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PWN) and mononuclear cells was seen 4-24 h following intradermal injection. In vitro experiments have confirmed that this lymphokine is a potent chemotactic agent for these cells. These results suggest that MPIF plays a central role in the expression of histopathological features of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Monocyte and macrophage procoagulants induced by MPIF would contribute significantly to the activation of coagulation which not only results in fibrin deposition but also in the production of activated serine proteases and fibrinopeptides which may potentiate an inflammatory response. PMID:3301639

  14. Identification of an immune-regulated phagosomal Rab cascade in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Gang; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-? (IFN-?) has been shown to regulate phagosome trafficking and function in macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we identify Rab20 as part of the machinery by which IFN-? controls phagosome maturation. We found that IFN-? stimulates the association of Rab20 with early phagosomes in macrophages. By using imaging of single phagosomes in live cells, we found that Rab20 induces an early delay in phagosome maturation and extends the time for which Rab5a and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) remain associated with phagosomes. Moreover, Rab20 depletion in macrophages abrogates the delay in phagosome maturation induced by IFN-?. Finally, we demonstrate that Rab20 interacts with the Rab5a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex-5 (also known as RABGEF1) and that Rab20 knockdown impairs the IFN-?-dependent recruitment of Rabex-5 and Rab5a into phagosomes. Taken together, here, we uncover Rab20 as a key player in the Rab cascade by which IFN-? induces a delay in phagosome maturation in macrophages. PMID:24569883

  15. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  16. MyD88 signaling pathway is involved in renal fibrosis by favoring a TH2 immune response and activating alternative M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Guise, Yuri Felipe Souza; Castoldi, Angela; de Oliveira, Cassiano Donizetti; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Muscara, Marcelo Nicolas; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Molecules released by the inflamed injured tissue can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby modulating macrophage and CD4(+) T-cell activity. We propose that in renal fibrogenesis, M2 macrophages are recruited and activated in a T helper subset 2 cell (T(H)2)-prone inflammatory milieu in a MyD88-dependent manner. Mice submitted to unilateral ureteral ligation (UUO) demonstrated an increase in macrophage infiltration with collagen deposition after 7 d. Conversely, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice had an improved renal function together with diminished T(H)2 cytokine production and decreased fibrosis formation. Moreover, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 KO animals exhibited less M2 macrophage infiltration, namely interleukin (IL)-10(+) and CD206(+) CD11b(high) cells, at 7 d after surgery. We evaluated the role of a T(H)2 cytokine in this context, and observed that the absence of IL-4 was associated with better renal function, decreased IL-13 and TGF-? levels, reduced arginase activity and a decrease in fibrosis formation when compared with IL-12 KO and wild-type (WT) animals. Indeed, the better renal outcomes and the decreased fibrosis formation were restricted to the deficiency of IL-4 in the hematopoietic compartment. Finally, macrophage depletion, rather than the absence of T cells, led to reduced lesions of the glomerular filtration barrier and decreased collagen deposition. These results provide evidence that future therapeutic strategies against renal fibrosis should be accompanied by the modulation of the M1:M2 and T(H)1:T(H)2 balance, as T(H)2 and M2 cells are predictive of fibrosis toward mechanisms that are sensed by innate immune response and triggered in a MyD88-dependent pathway. PMID:22777483

  17. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries.

    PubMed

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe?/?Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP + macrophages “dancing on the spot” and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells. PMID:25710308

  18. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  19. Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Avijit; Ju, Hee; Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-03-01

    With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-?, NF-?B p65, and NF-?B p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

  20. Biosensors for immune cell analysis--A perspective Alexander Revzin,1

    E-print Network

    Revzin, Alexander

    Health Care System, Sacramento, California 95655, USA 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Center that the immune system also plays a major role in a diverse set of physiologic and pathologic processes, including: (1) the digestion of a microbial pathogen by an antigen presenting cell (APC) (e.g., macrophage

  1. Molecular mechanism of PDT-induced apoptotic cells stimulation NO production in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Fei-fan; Yang, Si-hua; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that apoptotic cells (AC) participate in immune response. The immune response induced by AC, either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive, have been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of the immunostimulatory effects induced by PDT-treated AC remain unclear. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal transduction molecule and has been implicated in a variety of functions. It has also been found to play an important role not only as a cytotoxic effector but an immune regulatory mediator. In this study, we demonstrate that the PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells stimulate the production of NO in macrophages by up-regulating expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, we show that AC, through toll-like receptors (TLRs), can activate myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), indicating that AC serves as an intercellular signal to induce iNOS expression in immune cells after PDT treatment. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  2. A Novel Method Linking Antigen Presentation by Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to CD8+?T Cell Polyfunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kirsty R.; Grant, Emma J.; Vissers, Marloes; Reading, Patrick C.; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    To understand the interactions between innate and adaptive immunity, and specifically how virally infected macrophages impact T cell function, novel assays examining the ability of macrophages to present antigen to CD8+ T cells are needed. In the present study, we have developed a robust in vitro assay to measure how antigen presentation by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) affects the functional capacity of autologous CD8+ T cells. The assay is based on the polyfunctional characteristics of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, and is thus called a Mac-CD8 Polyfunctionality Assay. Following purification of monocytes and their maturation to MDMs, MDMs were pulsed with an antigenic peptide to be presented to CD8+ T cells. Peptide-pulsed MDMs were then incubated with antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in order to assess the efficacy of antigen presentation to T cells. CD8+ T cell polyfunctionality was assessed by staining with mAbs to IFN-?, TNF-?, and CD107a in a multi-color intracellular cytokine staining assay. To highlight the utility of the Mac-CD8 Polyfunctionality Assay, we assessed the effects of influenza infection on the ability of human macrophages to present antigen to CD8+ T cells. We found that influenza infection of human MDMs can alter the effector efficacy of MDMs to activate more CD8+ T cells with cytotoxic capacity. This has important implications for understanding how the virus-infected macrophages affect adaptive immunity at the site of infection. PMID:24312096

  3. Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Avijit; Ju, Hee; Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Shim, Yumi; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-01-01

    With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-?, NF-?B p65, and NF-?B p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs. Graphical AbstractFigurative representation of the comparison of AgNPs and AgPyNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells in terms of cytotoxicity and immune response. PMID:25852430

  4. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Savion, N; Disatnik, M H; Nevo, Z

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells (B16-BL6 melanoma; ESb T-lymphoma) attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monlayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the [35S]O4 = -labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The macrophages do not store the heparanase intracellularly but it is instead found pericellularly and requires a continuous cell-matrix contact at the optimal pH for maintaining cell growth. The degradation of [35S]O4 = -labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10 micrograms/ml), arteparon (10 micrograms/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 micrograms/ml. In contrast, other glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate as well as the specific inhibitor of exo-beta-glucuronidase D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone failed to inhibit the degradation of sulfated proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. However, the following antiproteases--alpha 2-macroglobulin, antithrombin III, leupeptin, and phenylmethylsulfony fluoride (PMSF)--failed to inhibit this degradation process, and only alpha 1-antitrypsin inhibited the heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage heparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase, inhibited at concentrations of 1 and 3 micrograms/ml, respectively. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis. PMID:3805131

  5. Dendritic Cells and Humoral Immunity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hideki; Schmitt, Nathalie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate the innate and adaptive immune systems to induce tolerance and immunity. DC plasticity and subsets are prominent determinants in the regulation of immune responses. Our recent studies suggest that humoral and cellular immunity is regulated by different myeloid DC subsets with distinct intrinsic properties in humans. While antibody response is preferentially mediated by CD14+ dermal DCs, cytotoxic T cell response is preferentially mediated by Langerhans cells (LCs). Thus, mechanisms whereby DCs induce humoral and cellular immunity appear to be fundamentally distinct. In this review, we will focus on the role of DCs in the development of humoral immunity. We will also discuss the mechanisms whereby DCs induce CD4+ T cells associated with the help of B cell response, including T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and why human LCs lack this ability. PMID:20309010

  6. The impact of macrophage-cancer cell interaction on the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Korbelik, Mladen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are one of the principal host cell populations in solid tumors. They are capable, due to their plasticity, of acquiring phenotypes that either combat (M1 type) or promote (M2 type) neoplastic growth. These cells, known as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), play complex but pivotal roles in the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant lesions. Among the various parenchymal and stromal cell populations found in tumors, TAMs have been shown to have the greatest capacity for the uptake of systemically administered photosensitizers. Both the tumor-localizing property of photosensitizers and their tumor-localized fluorescence could be partly attributed to the activity of TAMs. Since resident TAMs with accumulated high photosensitizer content will sustain high degrees of PDT damage, this population (predominantly M2 in most tumors) is selectively destroyed, and during the ensuing inflammatory reaction is replaced with newly invading macrophages of M1 phenotype. These macrophages are sentinels responding to DAMP signals from PDT-treated tumor cells and in turn are mobilized to generate a variety of inflammatory/immune mediators and opsonins. They have a critical role in contributing to the therapeutic effect of PDT by mediating disposal of killed cancer cells and by processing/presenting tumor antigens to T lymphocytes. However, TAMs accumulating in the later post-PDT phase can acquire the M2 (healing) phenotype, and could have a role in tumor recurrence by releasing factors that promote angiogenesis and the survival/proliferation of remaining cancer cells. Various therapeutic strategies modulating TAM activity in the PDT response have potential for clinical use for improving PDT-mediated tumor control. PMID:25620672

  7. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1?]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  8. Regulatory iNKT cells lack PLZF expression and control Treg cell and macrophage homeostasis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Lydia; Michelet, Xavier; Zhang, Sai; Brennan, Patrick J.; Moseman, Ashley; Lester, Chantel; Besra, Gurdyal; Vomhof-Dekrey, Emilie E.; Tighe, Mike; Koay, Hui-Fern; Godfrey, Dale I.; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.; Sant’Angelo, Derek B.; von Andrian, Ulrich; Brenner, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    iNKT cells are CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing innate T cells that express the transcription factor PLZF. iNKT cells accumulate in adipose tissue, where they are anti-inflammatory, but the factors that contribute to their anti-inflammatory nature, and their targets in adipose tissue are unknown. Here we report that adipose tissue iNKT cells have a unique transcriptional program and produce interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-10. Unlike other iNKT cells, they lack PLZF, but express the transcription factor E4BP4, which controls their IL-10 production. Adipose iNKT cells are a tissue resident population that induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages and, through production of IL-2, controls the number, proliferation and suppressor function of adipose regulatory T (Treg) cells. Thus, adipose tissue iNKT cells are unique regulators of immune homeostasis in this tissue. PMID:25436972

  9. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  10. Macrophage Infection via Selective Capture of HIV-1-Infected CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Amy E.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Moore, Michael D.; Willberg, Christian B.; Pablos, Jose L.; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo. PMID:25467409

  11. Macrophage Contact Dependent and Independent TLR4 Mechanisms Induce ?-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cucak, Helena; Mayer, Christopher; Tonnesen, Morten; Thomsen, Lise Høj; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is evolving into a global disease and patients have a systemic low-grade inflammation, yet the role of this inflammation is still not established. One plausible mechanism is enhanced expression and activity of the innate immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and the function of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on pancreatic ?-cells in primary mouse islets and on the murine ?-cell line MIN6 in the presence or absence of macrophages. Diabetic islets have 40% fewer TLR4 positive ?-cells, but twice the number of TLR4 positive macrophages as compared to healthy islets. Healthy and diabetic islets respond to a TLR4 challenge with enhanced production of cytokines (5–10-fold), while the TLR4 negative ?-cell line MIN6 fails to produce cytokines. TLR4 stimulation induces ?-cell dysfunction in mouse islets, measured as reduced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetic macrophages from 4-months old mice have acquired a transient enhanced capacity to produce cytokines when stimulated with LPS. Interestingly, this is lost in 6-months old diabetic mice. TLR4 activation alone does not induce apoptosis in islets or MIN-6 cells. In contrast, macrophages mediate TLR4-dependent cell-contact dependent (3-fold) as well as cell-contact independent (2-fold) apoptosis of both islets and MIN-6 cells. Importantly, diabetic macrophages have a significantly enhanced capacity to induce ?-cell apoptosis compared to healthy macrophages. Taken together, the TLR4 responsiveness is elevated in the diabetic islets and mainly mediated by newly recruited macrophages. The TLR4 positive macrophages, in both a cell-contact dependent and independent manner, induce apoptosis of ?-cells in a TLR4 dependent fashion and TLR4 activation directly induces ?-cell dysfunction. Thus, targeting either the TLR4 pathway or the macrophages provides a novel attractive treatment regime for T2D. PMID:24594974

  12. Neutralizing activity and cellular immune responses induced in mice after immunization with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Hinkula, Jorma; Walther-Jallow, Lilian; Laurén, Anna; Mäkitalo, Barbro; Oberg, Monica; Wahren, Britta; Fenyö, Eva-Maria; Spetz, Anna-Lena

    2009-10-30

    Dendritic cells present microbial antigens to T cells after uptake of apoptotic vesicles from infected cells. We previously reported that immunizations with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus (MuLV) infected cells lead to induction of both cellular and humoral immune responses as well as resistance to mucosal challenge with live HIV-1/MuLV infected cells. Here we extended those studies and investigated whether apoptotic cells from HIV-1/MuLV infected cells stimulate the production of HIV-1 neutralizing activity. We compared different routes of administration and were able to induce p24- and Nef-specific cellular proliferation after intraperitoneal (i.p.), intranasal (i.n.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies directed against gp160, p24, or Nef were also produced regardless of immunization route used. However, the induction of mucosa-associated IgAs from faeces or vaginal secretions were detected only after either i.p. or i.n. immunizations. We were able to measure neutralizing activity in sera of mice after i.p. and i.n. immunization. Neutralizing reactivity was also detected after s.c. and i.m. immunizations in the presence of the cytokine adjuvant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Conclusively we show induction of cellular and humoral immune responses including neutralizing activity after immunization with apoptotic HIV-1/MuLV infected cells in mice. The results from this study support further evaluations using apoptotic cells as antigen delivery system for vaccination against HIV-1 in other animal models. PMID:19549607

  13. Innate Immunity, Decidual Cells, and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chang-Ching; Chao, Kuan-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) manifested by hypertension and proteinuria complicates 3% to 8% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of fetal–maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may lead to intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and long-term sequelae in women and fetuses, and consequently cause socioeconomic burden to the affected families and society as a whole. Balanced immune responses are required for the maintenance of successful pregnancy. Although not a focus of most studies, decidual cells, the major resident cell type at the fetal–maternal interface, have been shown to modulate the local immune balance by interacting with other cell types, such as bone marrow derived-immune cells, endothelial cells, and invading extravillous trophoblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalanced innate immunity, facilitated by decidual cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. Thus, this review will discuss the role of innate immunity and the potential contribution of decidual cells in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:22814099

  14. Crosstalk between colon cancer cells and macrophages via inflammatory mediators and CD47 promotes tumour cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Juhas, Maria; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-10-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) of the M2 phenotype are present in the stroma of many tumours and are frequently associated with the progression of several types of cancer. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in colon cancer progression and found that human colon cancer tissue had elevated numbers of CD68(+) (macrophage marker) cells and CD206(+) (M2 macrophage marker) cells and increased CD47 expression. To explore potential interplay between colon cancer cells and M2 macrophages, we differentiated the monocyte cell line THP-1 into M1 and M2 macrophages (CD206(high) and Th2 cytokine-secreting cells), respectively. M2 macrophages migrated faster than M1 macrophages towards SW480-conditioned medium. Similarly, M2 macrophage-conditioned medium induced SW480 cell migration and CD47 expression. Factors released by macrophages were involved in this induction. In addition, SW480 cells migrated faster when co-cultured with M2 macrophages. Inhibition of CD47 with blocking antibodies or siRNA significantly reduced the migration of SW480 cells in the presence of M2 macrophages. This effect was further decreased via blocking antibodies against the CD47 ligand signal-regulatory protein ? (SIRP?). Additionally, cancer cells also secreted significant levels of IL-10, thereby promoting M2 macrophage differentiation. These findings indicate that a TAM-enriched tumour microenvironment promotes colon cancer cell migration and metastasis. PMID:23810249

  15. Interleukin-10 from T Cells, but Not Macrophages and Granulocytes, Is Required for Chronic Disease in Leishmania mexicana Infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cutaneous disease of mice caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana requires interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Fc?RIII (an activating IgG receptor). Macrophages readily secrete IL-10 in response to IgG-coated amastigotes, making macrophages a prime candidate as the critical source of IL-10. However, indirect evidence suggested that macrophage IL-10 is not essential for chronic disease. I now show directly that mice lacking IL-10 from macrophages and granulocytes still have chronic disease, like wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, T cell-derived IL-10 is required for chronic disease. CD4-cre IL-10flox/flox mice lack IL-10 from T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+) and heal their L. mexicana lesions, with parasite control. I had previously shown that depletion of CD25+ T cells had no effect on chronic disease, and thus, T cells other than CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells should be the important source of IL-10. Given that conventional T cells do not express Fc?Rs, there is likely to be an indirect pathway by which Fc?RIII on some other cell engaged by IgG1-amastigote immune complexes induces IL-10 from T cells. Further work is needed to delineate these pathways. PMID:25605773

  16. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin ?M (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  17. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandão, Ana S.; Leitão, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Ângela Raquel; Sucena, Élio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells. PMID:24204269

  18. Immune Activity of BCG Infected Mouse Macrophages Treated with a Novel Recombinant Mouse Lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Kelly M; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    Lactoferrin has been investigated for its adjuvant action to boost the BCG vaccine. Previous studies demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF) enhanced efficacy of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to protect mice against the virulent Erdman Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The studies here investigate the hypothesis that a novel CHO-derived recombinant mouse LF can modify cytokine production and antigen presentation molecules on macrophages. The mouse LF (rmLF) was examined for effects on bone marrow derived macrophage (BMM) activities when cultured with BCG. Comparisons were made to CHO-derived recombinant human LF (rhLF). Inflammatory cytokine responses were investigated, as were antigen presentation and associated co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokine responses were subsequently measured when these cells were co-cultured with naïve or BCG sensitized CD4+ lymphocytes. While overall responses were similar between mouse, human, and bovine forms, the homologous rmLF treated infected BMMs showed unique activation patterns of cytokine production. These results indicate that species-specific LF can have different effects on mouse macrophages exposed to BCG, thus potentially affecting adjuvant activity when used in models of vaccination in mice. PMID:26586698

  19. Immune chaperone gp96 drives the contributions of macrophages to inflammatory colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Crystal; Rachidi, Saleh; Hong, Feng; Sun, Shaoli; Ouyang, Xinshou; Wallace, Caroline; Zhang, Yongliang; Garret-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wu, Jennifer; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2014-01-15

    Macrophages are important drivers in the development of inflammation-associated colon cancers, but the mechanistic underpinnings for their contributions are not fully understood. Furthermore, Toll-like receptors have been implicated in colon cancer, but their relevant cellular sites of action are obscure. In this study, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is essential in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) to license their contributions to inflammatory colon tumorigenesis. Mice where gp96 was genetically deleted in a macrophage-specific manner exhibited reduced colitis and inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis. Attenuation of colon cancer in these mice correlated strikingly with reduced mutation rates of ?-catenin, increased efficiency of the DNA repair machinery, and reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 in the tumor microenvironment. The genotoxic nature of TAM-associated inflammation was evident by increased expression of genes in the DNA repair pathway. Our work deepens understanding of how TAM promote oncogenesis by altering the molecular oncogenic program within epithelial cells, and it identifies gp96 as a lynchpin chaperone needed in TAM to license their function and impact on expression of critical inflammatory cytokines in colon tumorigenesis. PMID:24322981

  20. Expression of Fractalkine Receptor CX3CR1 on Cochlear Macrophages Influences Survival of Hair Cells Following Ototoxic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Eisuke; Shick, H. Elizabeth; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of innate immunity and macrophage recruitment to the inner ear after hair cell injury is a subject where little is known. In this paper, we demonstrate recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to the inner ear after kanamycin. We also examined the effect of fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) deletion in kanamycin ototoxicity. We observed more functional and structural damage in CX3CR1 null mice compared to wild-type and heterozygous littermates. In order to determine if increased susceptibility to kanamycin resulted from CX3CR1 deletion from cochlear leukocytes, we created bone marrow chimeras by transplanting CX3CR1-null bone marrow into wild-type mice whose native bone marrow was ablated by lethal irradiation. These mice were then treated with kanamycin sulfate. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR), hair cell counts, and numbers of macrophages recruited to the cochlea were recorded in irradiated mice that received either wild-type, CX3CR1 heterozygous, or CX3CR1 knockout bone marrow. A strong correlation was present between numbers of macrophages and hair cell death in recipients transplanted with CX3CR1 null marrow. No correlation between macrophage number and hair cell loss was present in mice transplanted with wild-type or CX3CR1 heterozygous marrow. We suggest that CX3CR1 plays a role in modulating the detrimental effects of cochlear macrophages after kanamycin ototoxicity. Our data point to the possibility that CX3CR1-deficient cochlear macrophages exacerbate kanamycin ototoxicity while CX3CR1-expressing monocytes do not. PMID:19936834

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells: immune evasive, not immune privileged

    PubMed Central

    Ankrum, James A.; Ong, Joon Faii; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may be exploited for treatment of a multitude of inflammatory conditions. MSCs have long been reported to be hypoimmunogenic or ‘immune privileged’; this property is thought to enable MSC transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers and the creation of off-the-shelf therapies consisting of MSCs grown in culture. However, recent studies describing generation of antibodies against and immune rejection of allogeneic donor MSCs suggest that MSCs may not actually be immune privileged. Nevertheless, whether rejection of donor MSCs influences the efficacy of allogeneic MSC therapies is not known, and no definitive clinical advantage of autologous MSCs over allogeneic MSCs has been demonstrated to date. Although MSCs may exert therapeutic function through a brief ‘hit and run’ mechanism, protecting MSCs from immune detection and prolonging their persistence in vivo may improve clinical outcomes and prevent patient sensitization toward donor antigens. PMID:24561556

  2. Macrophage and Innate Lymphoid Cell Interplay in the Genesis of Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hams, Emily; Bermingham, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic pathological feature of an array of chronic diseases, where development of fibrosis in tissue can lead to marked alterations in the architecture of the affected organs. As a result of this process of sustained attrition to organs, many diseases that involve fibrosis are often progressive conditions and have a poor long-term prognosis. Inflammation is often a prelude to fibrosis, with innate and adaptive immunity involved in both the initiation and regulation of the fibrotic process. In this review, we will focus on the emerging roles of the newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the generation of fibrotic disease with an examination of the potential interplay between ILC and macrophages and the adaptive immune system. PMID:26635811

  3. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  4. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  5. Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis of Tumor Cells by Macrophages: A Potent Effector Mechanism of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gül, Nuray; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, it is impossible to imagine modern cancer treatment without targeted therapies, such as mAbs, that bind to tumor-associated antigens. Subsequently, mAbs can use a wide range of effector functions that mostly engage the immune system. mAbs can bridge immune effector cells with tumor cells, which can result in antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Increasing evidence, however, identified macrophages as prominent effector cells and induction of antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis as one of the primary mechanisms of action mediated by mAbs. Macrophages are extremely effective in eliminating tumor cells from the circulation. Several immunosuppressive mechanisms may, however, hamper their function, particularly in solid malignancies. In this review, we discuss the evolving insight of macrophages as effector cells in mAb therapy and address novel (co)therapeutic strategies that may be used to fully unleash their cytotoxic capacity for the treatment of cancer. Cancer Res; 75(23); 5008-13. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26573795

  6. A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM) Family Member, TLT-6, is Involved in Activation and Proliferation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Seunghoon; Kong, Il-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Eun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family, which is abundantly expressed in myeloid lineage cells, plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by using in silico bioinformatics and to characterize the identified receptor. We thus found the TREM-like transcript (TLT)-6, a new member of TREM family. TLT-6 has a single immunoglobulin domain in the extracellular region and a long cytoplasmic region containing 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like domains. TLT-6 transcript was expressed in HSCs, monocytes and macrophages. TLT-6 protein was up-regulated on the surface of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. TLT-6 exerted anti-proliferative effects in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that TLT-6 may regulate the activation and proliferation of macrophages. PMID:26557807

  7. Modelling and analysis of macrophage activation pathways 

    E-print Network

    Raza, Sobia

    2011-11-25

    Macrophages are present in virtually all tissues and account for approximately 10% of all body mass. Although classically credited as the scavenger cells of innate immune system, ridding a host of pathogenic material and ...

  8. Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Murugesan V.S.; Ni, Bin; Dodd, Claire E.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding macrophage responses to M.tb infection, while pointing out relevant differences in experimental outcomes due to the use of divergent model systems. A brief description of the lung environment is included since there is increasing evidence that the alveolar macrophage (AM) has immunoregulatory properties that can delay optimal protective host immune responses. In this context, this review focuses on selected macrophage immunoregulatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, negative regulators of inflammation, lipid mediators and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:25453226

  9. Effect of lactoferrin protein on red blood cells and macrophages: mechanism of parasite–host interaction

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Namrata; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Vahishta, R K; Sehgal, Rakesh; Verma, Anita K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactoferrin is a natural multifunctional protein known to have antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from its antimicrobial effects, lactoferrin is known to boost the immune response by enhancing antioxidants. Lactoferrin exists in various forms depending on its iron saturation. The present study was done to observe the effect of lactoferrin, isolated from bovine and buffalo colostrum, on red blood cells (RBCs) and macrophages (human monocytic cell line-derived macrophages THP1 cells). Methods Lactoferrin obtained from both species and in different iron saturation forms were used in the present study, and treatment of host cells were given with different forms of lactoferrin at different concentrations. These treated host cells were used for various studies, including morphometric analysis, viability by MTT assay, survivin gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic properties, invasion assay, and Toll-like receptor-4, Toll-like receptor-9, and MDR1 expression, to investigate the interaction between lactoferrin and host cells and the possible mechanism of action with regard to parasitic infections. Results The mechanism of interaction between host cells and lactoferrin have shown various aspects of gene expression and cellular activity depending on the degree of iron saturation of lactoferrin. A significant increase (P<0.05) in production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic activity, and Toll-like receptor expression was observed in host cells incubated with iron-saturated lactoferrin when compared with an untreated control group. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in percentage viability in the different groups of host cells treated, and no downregulation of survivin gene expression was found at 48 hours post-incubation. Upregulation of the Toll-like receptor and downregulation of the P-gp gene confirmed the immunomodulatory potential of lactoferrin protein. Conclusion The present study details the interaction between lactoferrin and parasite host cells, ie, RBCs and macrophages, using various cellular processes and expression studies. The study reveals the possible mechanism of action against various intracellular pathogens such as Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Mycobacterium. The presence of iron in lactoferrin plays an important role in enhancing the various activities taking place inside these cells. This work provides a lot of information about targeting lactoferrin against many parasitic infections which can rule out the exact pathways for inhibition of diseases caused by intracellular microbes mainly targeting RBCs and macrophages for their survival. Therefore, this initial study can serve as a baseline for further evaluation of the mechanism of action of lactoferrin against parasitic diseases, which is not fully understood to date. PMID:26251568

  10. Playing hide-and-seek with host macrophages through the use of mycobacterial cell envelope phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Arbues, Ainhoa; Lugo-Villarino, GeanCarlo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Guilhot, Christophe; Astarie-Dequeker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), have evolved a remarkable ability to evade the immune system in order to survive and to colonize the host. Among the most important evasion strategies is the capacity of these bacilli to parasitize host macrophages, since these are major effector cells against intracellular pathogens that can be used as long-term cellular reservoirs. Mycobacterial pathogens employ an array of virulence factors that manipulate macrophage function to survive and establish infection. Until recently, however, the role of mycobacterial cell envelope lipids as virulence factors in macrophage subversion has remained elusive. Here, we will address exclusively the proposed role for phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) in the modulation of the resident macrophage response and that of phenolic glycolipids (PGL) in the regulation of the recruitment and phenotype of incoming macrophage precursors to the site of infection. We will provide a unique perspective of potential additional functions for these lipids, and highlight obstacles and opportunities to further understand their role in the pathogenesis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases. PMID:25538905

  11. Contributions of cardiomyocyte-cardiac fibroblast-immune cell interactions in heart failure development.

    PubMed

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Nagai, Ryozo

    2013-07-01

    The heart contains various types of cells, including cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, many kinds of immune cells and vascular cells. Initial studies mainly focused on cardiomyocytes, which directly reflect the contractile function of the heart. Recently, pivotal functions of cardiac fibroblasts have been revealed in the maintenance of cardiac function, physiological cardiac remodeling after heart stress and pathological remodeling using genetically engineered mouse models, like the fibroblast-specific gene knockout mouse, bone marrow transplantation and immune cell-specific gene knockout. Moreover, chronic inflammation is considered to be a basic pathological mechanism that underlies various diseases, including heart failure. In the development of heart failure, the contributions of immune cells like T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophage lineage cells have been also reported. Immune cells have diverse and multiple functions in regulating both pro-inflammatory effects and the resolution of heart failure. On the one hand, immune cells have protective effects to compensate for and overcome heart stresses. On the other hand, they also contribute to sustained inflammation and result in the development of heart failure. These observations prompted a shift in the heart-related studies to include the complex communications between cardiomyocytes and other kinds of cardiac cells, including inflammatory cells residing in or recruited to the heart. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding cell-cell interactions during cardiac remodeling and the development of heart failure. We will especially focus on the interactions among cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and immune cells. PMID:23740215

  12. Human amnion epithelial cells do not abrogate pulmonary fibrosis in mice with impaired macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Shiyun, Suzane C; Tan, Jean L; Chan, Siow; Jenkin, Graham; Wallace, Euan M; Lim, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Since current treatments for both acute and chronic lung diseases are less than ideal, there has been recent interest in the use of cell-based therapies for inflammatory lung disease. Specifically, human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have been shown to reduce bleomycin-induced lung injury and prevent subsequent loss of respiratory function, primarily through modulation of the host immune response. The precise mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the potential of hAECs to mitigate bleomycin-induced lung injury in surfactant protein C deficient (Sftpc(?/?)) mice, which are highly susceptible to pulmonary injury as a result of impairment of macrophage function. Primary hAECs were administered to wild-type (Sftpc(+/+)) and Sftpc(?/?) mice 24 h after exposure to bleomycin. Compared to Sftpc(+/+) mice receiving bleomycin alone, Sftpc(+/+) mice administered hAECs 24 h after bleomycin exposure had decreased expression of proinflammatory genes, decreased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, fibrosis, collagen content, and ?-smooth muscle actin as well as a significant improvement in lung function. Compared to Sftpc(?/?) mice given bleomycin alone, Sftpc(?/?) mice administered hAECs 24 h after bleomycin did not have a decrease in inflammatory gene expression or a reduction in macrophage pulmonary infiltration. Subsequently, Sftpc(?/?) mice did not show any decrease in pulmonary fibrosis or improvement of lung function after hAEC administration. The ability of hAECs to mitigate bleomycin-induced lung injury is abolished in Sftpc(?/?) mice, suggesting that hAECs require normal host macrophage function to exert their reparative effects. PMID:22507554

  13. Neutrophil Elastase-Generated Fragment of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Stimulates Macrophage and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kurtagic, Elma; Rich, Celeste B.; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Elastase released from neutrophils as part of the innate immune system has been implicated in chronic diseases such as emphysema and cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that neutrophil elastase targets vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) for partial degradation to generate a fragment of VEGF (VEGFf) that has distinct activities. Namely, VEGFf binds to VEGF receptor 1 but not to VEGF receptor 2 and shows altered signaling compared to intact VEGF. In the present study we investigated the chemotactic function of VEGF and VEGFf released from cells by neutrophil elastase. We found that endothelial cells migrated in response to intact VEGF but not VEGFf whereas RAW 264.7 macrophages/monocytes and embryonic endothelial progenitor cells were stimulated to migrate by either VEGF or VEGFf. To investigate the role of elastase-mediated release of VEGF from cells/extracellular matrices, a co-culture system was established. High or low VEGF producing cells were co-cultured with macrophages, endothelial or endothelial progenitor cells and treated with neutrophil elastase. Elastase treatment stimulated macrophage and endothelial progenitor cell migration with the response being greater with the high VEGF expressing cells. However, elastase treatment led to decreased endothelial cell migration due to VEGF cleavage to VEGF fragment. These findings suggest that the tissue response to NE-mediated injury might involve the generation of diffusible VEGF fragments that stimulate inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:26672607

  14. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  15. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  16. IL-15 protects NKT cells from inhibition by tumor-associated macrophages and enhances antimetastatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Song, Liping; Wei, Jie; Courtney, Amy N.; Gao, Xiuhua; Marinova, Ekaterina; Guo, Linjie; Heczey, Andras; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Kim, Eugene; Dotti, Gianpietro; Metelitsa, Leonid S.

    2012-01-01

    V?24-invariant NKT cells inhibit tumor growth by targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Tumor progression therefore requires that TAMs evade NKT cell activity through yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we report that a subset of cells in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines and primary tumors expresses membrane-bound TNF-? (mbTNF-?). These proinflammatory tumor cells induced production of the chemokine CCL20 from TAMs via activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway, an effect that was amplified in hypoxia. Flow cytometry analyses of human primary NB tumors revealed selective accumulation of CCL20 in TAMs. Neutralization of the chemokine inhibited in vitro migration of NKT cells toward tumor-conditioned hypoxic monocytes and localization of NKT cells to NB grafts in mice. We also found that hypoxia impaired NKT cell viability and function. Thus, CCL20-producing TAMs served as a hypoxic trap for tumor-infiltrating NKT cells. IL-15 protected antigen-activated NKT cells from hypoxia, and transgenic expression of IL-15 in adoptively transferred NKT cells dramatically enhanced their antimetastatic activity in mice. Thus, tumor-induced chemokine production in hypoxic TAMs and consequent chemoattraction and inhibition of NKT cells represents a mechanism of immune escape that can be reversed by adoptive immunotherapy with IL-15–transduced NKT cells. PMID:22565311

  17. Protection Of Alveolar Macrophages And MARC 145 Cells From Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Challenge By Swine Interferon-Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferon beta, a type I IFN, is crucial in initiating the innate immune response and in the generation of the adaptive response. This study demonstrated the capacity of swine interferon beta (swIFN beta) to protect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and MARC145 cells from infection with porcine re...

  18. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong

    2013-11-15

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC.

  19. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-?, and TNF-? expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-? was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. PMID:26297234

  20. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Gillian M.; Nicol, Marlynne Q.; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J.; Nash, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-?, and TNF-? expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-? was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. PMID:26297234

  1. IL-10 Production in Macrophages Is Regulated by a TLR-Driven CREB-Mediated Mechanism That Is Linked to Genes Involved in Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanin, David E.; Prendergast, Catriona T.

    2015-01-01

    IL-10 is produced by macrophages in diverse immune settings and is critical in limiting immune-mediated pathology. In helminth infections, macrophages are an important source of IL-10; however, the molecular mechanism underpinning production of IL-10 by these cells is poorly characterized. In this study, bone marrow–derived macrophages exposed to excretory/secretory products released by Schistosoma mansoni cercariae rapidly produce IL-10 as a result of MyD88-mediated activation of MEK/ERK/RSK and p38. The phosphorylation of these kinases was triggered by TLR2 and TLR4 and converged on activation of the transcription factor CREB. Following phosphorylation, CREB is recruited to a novel regulatory element in the Il10 promoter and is also responsible for regulating a network of genes involved in metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, skin-resident tissue macrophages, which encounter S. mansoni excretory/secretory products during infection, are the first monocytes to produce IL-10 in vivo early postinfection with S. mansoni cercariae. The early and rapid release of IL-10 by these cells has the potential to condition the dermal microenvironment encountered by immune cells recruited to this infection site, and we propose a mechanism by which CREB regulates the production of IL-10 by macrophages in the skin, but also has a major effect on their metabolic state. PMID:26116503

  2. IL-10 Production in Macrophages Is Regulated by a TLR-Driven CREB-Mediated Mechanism That Is Linked to Genes Involved in Cell Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sanin, David E; Prendergast, Catriona T; Mountford, Adrian P

    2015-08-01

    IL-10 is produced by macrophages in diverse immune settings and is critical in limiting immune-mediated pathology. In helminth infections, macrophages are an important source of IL-10; however, the molecular mechanism underpinning production of IL-10 by these cells is poorly characterized. In this study, bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to excretory/secretory products released by Schistosoma mansoni cercariae rapidly produce IL-10 as a result of MyD88-mediated activation of MEK/ERK/RSK and p38. The phosphorylation of these kinases was triggered by TLR2 and TLR4 and converged on activation of the transcription factor CREB. Following phosphorylation, CREB is recruited to a novel regulatory element in the Il10 promoter and is also responsible for regulating a network of genes involved in metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, skin-resident tissue macrophages, which encounter S. mansoni excretory/secretory products during infection, are the first monocytes to produce IL-10 in vivo early postinfection with S. mansoni cercariae. The early and rapid release of IL-10 by these cells has the potential to condition the dermal microenvironment encountered by immune cells recruited to this infection site, and we propose a mechanism by which CREB regulates the production of IL-10 by macrophages in the skin, but also has a major effect on their metabolic state. PMID:26116503

  3. Dickkopf-3 Contributes to the Regulation of Anti-Tumor Immune Responses by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun-Hui; Tounsi, Amel; Shridhar, Naveen; Küblbeck, Günter; Klevenz, Alexandra; Prokosch, Sandra; Bald, Tobias; Tüting, Thomas; Arnold, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to limit immune responses in vivo by multiple soluble factors. Dickkopf-3 (DKK3), a secreted glycoprotein, has recently been identified as a novel immune modulator. Since DKK3 has been reported to be produced by MSCs, we investigated whether DKK3 contributes to the immune suppression of anti-tumor responses by MSCs. Whereas wild-type MSCs inhibited immune responses against two different transplantation tumors, DKK3-deficient MSCs did not affect the rejection process. Increased CD8+ T cell and reduced M2-type macrophages infiltration was observed in tumors inoculated together with DKK3-deficient MSCs. Thus, DKK3 could alter the composition of the tumor stroma, thereby supporting the MSCs-mediated suppression of immune responses against these tumor transplants.

  4. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Immunity and Cell Migration by Legionella pneumophila Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvia; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria trigger host defense and inflammatory processes, such as cytokine production, pyroptosis, and the chemotactic migration of immune cells toward the source of infection. However, a number of pathogens interfere with these immune functions by producing specific so-called “effector” proteins, which are delivered to host cells via dedicated secretion systems. Air-borne Legionella pneumophila bacteria trigger an acute and potential fatal inflammation in the lung termed Legionnaires’ disease. The opportunistic pathogen L. pneumophila is a natural parasite of free-living amoebae, but also replicates in alveolar macrophages and accidentally infects humans. The bacteria employ the intracellular multiplication/defective for organelle trafficking (Icm/Dot) type IV secretion system and as many as 300 different effector proteins to govern host–cell interactions and establish in phagocytes an intracellular replication niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole. Some Icm/Dot-translocated effector proteins target cell-autonomous immunity or cell migration, i.e., they interfere with (i) endocytic, secretory, or retrograde vesicle trafficking pathways, (ii) organelle or cell motility, (iii) the inflammasome and programed cell death, or (iv) the transcription factor NF-?B. Here, we review recent mechanistic insights into the subversion of cellular immune functions by L. pneumophila. PMID:26441958

  5. Effects of lead ion on immune function of rabbit alveolar macrophages: quantitation of immune phagocytosis and rosette formation by V Cr in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Xu, Y.H.; Chang, H.F.

    1985-05-01

    Experiments by a V Cr-labeling technique were performed to investigate the effects of lead (PbS ) on immune phagocytosis and Fc-rosette formation of rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Evidence is presented that PbS at concentrations of 10( T) and 10( and=2$)M could inhibit these functions of PAMs. The degree of inhibition corresponded to the concentration of this heavy metal ion in vitro.

  6. The Majority of In Vitro Macrophage Activation Exhibited by Extracts of Some Immune Enhancing Botanicals is Due to Bacterial Lipoproteins and Lipopolysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacteriall...

  7. Inflammatory features of pancreatic cancer highlighted by monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ T cells with clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takuya; Sakai, Yoshio; Harada, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Takabatake, Hisashi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Wada, Takashi; Honda, Masao; Ohta, Tetsuo; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most fatal of malignancies with an extremely poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to provide a detailed understanding of PDAC pathophysiology in view of the host immune response. We examined the PDAC tissues, sera, and peripheral blood cells of PDAC patients using immunohistochemical staining, the measurement of cytokine/chemokine concentrations, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry. The PDAC tissues were infiltrated by macrophages, especially CD33+CD163+ M2 macrophages and CD4+ T cells that concomitantly express programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-15, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interferon-?-inducible protein-1 in the sera of PDAC patients were significantly elevated. The gene expression profile of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells was discernible between PDAC patients and healthy volunteers, and the differentially expressed genes were related to activated inflammation. Intriguingly, PD-1 was significantly upregulated in the peripheral blood CD4+ T cells of PDAC patients. Correspondingly, the frequency of CD4+PD-1+ T cells was increased in the peripheral blood cells of PDAC patients, and this increase correlated to chemotherapy resistance. In conclusion, inflammatory conditions in both PDAC tissue and peripheral blood cells in PDAC patients were prominent, highlighting monocytes/macrophages as well as CD4+ T cells with influence of the clinical prognosis. PMID:25827621

  8. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  9. Reduced immune cell responses on nano and submicron rough titanium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Current bare metal stents can be improved by nanotechnology to support the simultaneous acceleration of endothelialization and consequent reduction of immune cell responses after implantation. In our prior study, electron beam deposition was utilized to create different scales of roughness on titanium stents including flat (F-Ti), a mixture of nanometer and submicron (S-Ti), and nanometer (N-Ti). Enhanced endothelial responses (adhesion, migration, and nitric acid/endothelin-1 secretion) on nanometer to submicron rough titanium were observed compared to flat titanium. The present study aimed to further investigate the influence of nano and submicron titanium surface features on immune cells. Initial monocyte adhesion was found to be reduced on nano and submicron surface features compared to a flat surface. In a model including both endothelial cells and monocytes, it was proven that the submicron surface gave rise to an endothelial cell monolayer which generated the highest amount of NOx and subsequently led to decreased adhesiveness of endothelial cells to monocytes. The analysis of monocyte morphology gave hints to less differentiated monocytes on a submicron surface. Furthermore, the adhesion of and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages were all reduced on nano and submicron titanium surface features compared to a flat surface. This study, thus, suggests that nano and submicron titanium surfaces should be further studied for improved vascular stent performance. PMID:25660564

  10. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  11. Profiling B cell immune responses by microengraving

    E-print Network

    Papa, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    The ability to monitor an immune response in the course of vaccination or disease progression is highly desirable. Currently, no technique is able to generate a comprehensive profile of the individual cells involved and ...

  12. Reciprocal interactions between endothelial cells and macrophages in angiogenic vascular niches

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Caroline; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; De Palma, Michele

    2013-07-01

    The ability of macrophages to promote vascular growth has been associated with the secretion and local delivery of classic proangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and proteases). More recently, a series of studies have also revealed that physical contact of macrophages with growing blood vessels coordinates vascular fusion of emerging sprouts. Interestingly, the interactions between macrophages and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) appear to be bidirectional, such that activated ECs also support the expansion and differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages from myeloid progenitors. Here, we discuss recent findings suggesting that dynamic angiogenic vascular niches might also exist in vivo, e.g. in tumors, where sprouting blood vessels and immature myeloid cells like monocytes engage in heterotypic interactions that are required for angiogenesis. Finally, we provide an account of emerging mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication that rely on secreted microvesicles, such as exosomes, which can offer a vehicle for the rapid exchange of molecules and genetic information between macrophages and ECs engaged in angiogenesis. -- Highlights: • Macrophages promote angiogenesis by secreting proangiogenic factors. • Macrophages modulate angiogenesis via cell-to-cell contacts with endothelial cells. • Endothelial cells promote the differentiation of proangiogenic macrophages. • Macrophages and endothelial cells may cooperate to form angiogenic vascular niches.

  13. Transfer of extracellular vesicles during immune cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Mittelbrunn, María; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The transfer of molecules between cells during cognate immune cell interactions has been reported, and recently a novel mechanism of transfer of proteins and genetic material such as small RNA between T cells and APCs has been described, involving exchange of extracellular vesicles (EVs) during the formation of the immunological synapse (IS). EVs – a term that encompasses exosomes and microvesicles – have been implicated in cell-cell communication during immune responses associated with tumors, pathogens, allergies and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on EV transfer as a mechanism for the exchange of molecules during immune cell-cell interactions. PMID:23278745

  14. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts to control JD through traditional animal management practices are complicated by MAP’s ability to cause long-term environmental contamination as well as difficulties associated with diagnosis of JD in the pre-clinical stages. As such, there is particular emphasis on the development of an effective vaccine. This is a daunting challenge, in large part due to MAP’s ability to subvert protective host immune responses. Accordingly, there is a priority to understand MAP’s interaction with the bovine host: this may inform rational targets and approaches for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the early host defenses encountered by MAP and the strategies employed by the pathogen to avert or subvert these responses, during the critical period between ingestion and the establishment of persistent infection in macrophages. PMID:24885748

  15. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha: a link between innate immunity and familial Mediterranean fever?

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Omer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer; Akdogan, Ali; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ihsan; Barista, Ibrahim; Calguneri, Meral

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemokines and the inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Forty-nine patients with FMF (41 in remission and 8 in acute attack period) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) were assessed in the patients and the controls, along with other parameters of disease activity, i.e., fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum MIP-1alpha levels of the patients with FMF in acute attack period were significantly higher than the patients in remission and healthy controls (p=0.02 and p=0.038, respectively). MIP-1alpha levels were weakly correlated with CRP (r=0.32, p=0.032) levels. MIP-1alpha may have a role in the pathogenesis of FMF attacks. MIP-1alpha and other chemokines may constitute a link between the innate immune system and FMF. PMID:17270460

  16. Ca2+ Signaling but Not Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Is Required for the Function of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Vaeth, Martin; Zee, Isabelle; Concepcion, Axel R; Maus, Mate; Shaw, Patrick; Portal-Celhay, Cynthia; Zahra, Aleena; Kozhaya, Lina; Weidinger, Carl; Philips, Jennifer; Unutmaz, Derya; Feske, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) through Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels is essential for immunity to infection. CRAC channels are formed by ORAI1 proteins in the plasma membrane and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 and STIM2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections due to impaired T cell function. SOCE has also been observed in cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) and may provide Ca(2+) signals required for their function. The specific role of SOCE in macrophage and DC function, as well as its contribution to innate immunity, however, is not well defined. We found that nonselective inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling strongly impairs many effector functions of bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow-derived DCs, including phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, and priming of T cells. Surprisingly, however, macrophages and DCs from mice with conditional deletion of Stim1 and Stim2 genes, and therefore complete inhibition of SOCE, showed no major functional defects. Their differentiation, FcR-dependent and -independent phagocytosis, phagolysosome fusion, cytokine production, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and their ability to present Ags to activate T cells were preserved. Our findings demonstrate that STIM1, STIM2, and SOCE are dispensable for many critical effector functions of macrophages and DCs, which has important implications for CRAC channel inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to suppress pathogenic T cells while not interfering with myeloid cell functions required for innate immunity. PMID:26109647

  17. The interaction of Aloe pectin microparticles with macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Rainey, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    , allows sustained release, and enables targeting of specific cells and tissues. In addition, by targeting delivery to and stimulating antigen presenting immune cells (such as macrophages) microparticles have the potential to act as adjuvants, enhancing...

  18. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

  19. Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen Presenting Cells, Critical for T cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Miranda; Binnewies, Mikhail; Boldajipour, Bijan; Nelson, Amanda; Pollock, Joshua; Erle, David; Barczak, Andrea; Rosenblum, Michael; Daud, Adil; Barber, Diane; Amigorena, Sebastian; van’t Veer, Laura J.; Sperling, Anne; Wolf, Denise; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APC) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) function, despite engaging them. Across multiple mouse tumor models and human tumor biopsies, we have delineated the intratumoral dendritic-cell (DC) populations as distinct from macrophage populations. Within these, CD103+ DCs are extremely sparse and yet remarkably capable CTL stimulators. These are uniquely dependent upon IRF8, Zbtb46 and Batf3 transcription factors and generated by GM-CSF and Flt3L cytokines. Regressing tumors have higher proportions of these cells, T-cell dependent immune clearance relies upon them, and abundance of their transcripts in human tumors correlates with clinical outcome. This cell type presents opportunities for prognostic and therapeutic approaches across multiple cancer types. PMID:25446897

  20. Pituitary dendritic cells communicate immune pathogenic signals.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Erin; Kaunzner, Ulrike W; Gagnidze, Khatuna; McEwen, Bruce S; Bulloch, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This study reveals the presence of dendritic cells (DCs) in the pituitary gland, which play a role in communicating immune activation to the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Using enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eyfp) expression as a reporter for CD11c, a marker of DCs, we demonstrate anatomically the presence of CD11c/eyfp+ cells throughout the pituitary. Flow cytometric analysis shows that the predominant cellular phenotype of pituitary CD11c/eyfp+ cells resembles that of non-lymphoid DCs. In vivo and in vitro immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates these pituitary CD11c/eyfp+ DCs, but not eyfp(neg) cells, to increase levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?. In vivo analysis of plasma glucocorticoid (GC) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels at this early phase of the immune response to LPS suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs within the pituitary may activate the release of GCs from the adrenals via ACTH. Pituitary CD11c/eyfp+ cells also express annexin A1 (ANXA1), indicating a role in GC signal attenuation. In summary, our data demonstrate that a resident DC population of the pituitary gland coordinates GC release in the early phase of systemic immune activation, thereby providing an essential immune signaling sentinel for the initial shaping of the systemic immune response to LPS. PMID:26188188

  1. Increased malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) is associated with macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely accepted that specific immunological parameters in solid malignancies are associated with patient’s prognosis. Recently a correlation of macrophage polarization with histomorphological parameters could also be shown in oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). The observed tumor derived peripheral immune tolerance could be associated with the macrophage polarization in regional tumor draining lymph nodes. So far there are no studies analyzing the macrophage polarization in cervical lymph nodes of oscc patients. In the present study we aimed to correlate macrophage polarization in different anatomical lymph node compartments of patients diagnosed with oscc with histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor (T-, N-, L-, V-, Pn-status, grading). Methods Tumor free (n?=?37) and metastatic (n?=?17) lymph nodes of T1 and T2 oscc patients were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1 positive cells. Samples were digitized using whole slide imaging and the number of cells expressing the aforementioned markers in the region of interest quantitatively analyzed. Results The malignancy of the primary tumor (defined by T-, L-, Pn-status, grading) correlated with the lymph node macrophage polarization. L1 and Pn1 tumor cases displayed a significantly (p?macrophage polarization. Conclusions The current study revealed for the first time an influence of oscc on the macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes. Markers of malignant behavior in the primary tumor were associated with a shift of macrophage polarization in lymph nodes from the anti-tumoral M1 type to the tumor-promoting M2 type. As tumor free and metastatic lymph nodes did not differ in terms of their macrophage polarization pattern, there must be other factors influencing the location for lymph node metastasis formation. PMID:25042135

  2. Enterococcus faecalis Infection Activates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling To Block Apoptotic Cell Death in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in the host response to microbial infection. Not surprisingly, many pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate this important pathway to benefit their own survival and dissemination in the host during infection. To our knowledge, no attempts have been made to explore the host cell survival signals modulated by the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis. Here, we show for the first time that during early stages of infection, internalized enterococci can prevent host cell (RAW264.7 cells, primary macrophages, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts [MEFs]) apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of proapoptotic stimuli. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were inhibited in E. faecalis-infected cells, indicating that E. faecalis protects macrophages from apoptosis by inhibiting caspase 3 activation. This antiapoptotic activity in E. faecalis-infected cells was dependent on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which resulted in the increased expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and decreased expression of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Further analysis revealed that active E. faecalis physiology was important for inhibition of host cell apoptosis, and this feature seemed to be a strain-independent trait among E. faecalis isolates. Employing a mouse peritonitis model, we also determined that cells collected from the peritoneal lavage fluid of E. faecalis-infected mice showed reduced levels of apoptosis compared to cells from uninfected mice. These results show early modulation of apoptosis during infection and have important implications for enterococcal pathogenesis. PMID:25267834

  3. CD200 Positive Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Suppress TNF-Alpha Secretion from CD200 Receptor Positive Macrophage-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Mika; Lehtonen, Siri; Tuovinen, Elina; Lähteenmäki, Kaarina; Laitinen, Saara; Leskelä, Hannu-Ville; Nätynki, Antti; Pesälä, Juha; Nordström, Katrina; Lehenkari, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) display immunosuppressive properties in vitro and the potential has also been transferred successfully to clinical trials for treatment of autoimmune diseases. OX-2 (CD200), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is widely expressed in several tissues and has recently been found from hMSCs. The CD200 receptor (CD200R) occurs only in myeloid-lineage cells. The CD200-CD200R is involved in down-regulation of several immune cells, especially macrophages. The present study on 20 hMSC lines shows that the CD200 expression pattern varied from high (CD200Hi) to medium (CD200Me) and low (CD200Lo) in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) lines, whereas umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) were constantly negative for CD200. The role of the CD200-CD200R axis in BMMSCs mediated immunosuppression was studied using THP-1 human macrophages. Interestingly, hMSCs showed greater inhibition of TNF-? secretion in co-cultures with IFN-? primed THP-1 macrophages when compared to LPS activated cells. The ability of CD200Hi BMMSCs to suppress TNF-? secretion from IFN-? stimulated THP-1 macrophages was significantly greater when compared to CD200Lo whereas UCBMSCs did not significantly reduce TNF-? secretion. The interference of CD200 binding to the CD200R by anti-CD200 antibody weakened the capability of BMMSCs to inhibit TNF-? secretion from IFN-? activated THP-1 macrophages. This study clearly demonstrated that the efficiency of BMMSCs to suppress TNF-? secretion of THP-1 macrophages was dependent on the type of stimulus. Moreover, the CD200-CD200r axis could have a previously unidentified role in the BMMSC mediated immunosuppression. PMID:22363701

  4. Insights how monocytes and dendritic cells contribute and regulate immune defense against microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bieber, Kristin; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2015-02-01

    The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating invading pathogens. Beside neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) have been recently identified as important sentinels and effectors in combating microbial pathogens. In the steady state mononuclear phagocytes like monocytes and DCs patrol the blood and the tissues. Mammalian monocytes contribute to antimicrobial defense by supplying tissues with macrophage and DC precursors. DCs recognize pathogens and are essential in presenting antigens to initiate antigen-specific adaptive immune responses, thereby bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. Both, monocytes and DCs play distinct roles in the shaping of immune response. In this review we will focus on the contributions of monocytes and lymphoid organ DCs to immune defense against microbial pathogens in the mouse and their dynamic regulation from steady state to infection. PMID:25468558

  5. Tissue-resident macrophages: then and now.

    PubMed

    Davies, Luke C; Taylor, Philip R

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages have been at the heart of immune research for over a century and are an integral component of innate immunity. Macrophages are often viewed as terminally differentiated monocytic phagocytes. They infiltrate tissues during inflammation, and form polarized populations that perform pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory functions. Tissue-resident macrophages were regarded as differentiated monocytes, which seed the tissues to perform immune sentinel and homeostatic functions. However, tissue-resident macrophages are not a homogeneous population, but are in fact a grouping of cells with similar functions and phenotypes. In the last decade, it has been revealed that many of these cells are not terminally differentiated and, in most cases, are not derived from haematopoiesis in the adult. Recent research has highlighted that tissue-resident macrophages cannot be grouped into simple polarized categories, especially in vivo, when they are exposed to complex signalling events. It has now been demonstrated that the tissue environment itself is a major controller of macrophage phenotype, and can influence the expression of many genes regardless of origin. This is consistent with the concept that cells within different tissues have diverse responses in inflammation. There is still a mountain to climb in the field, as it evolves to encompass not only tissue-resident macrophage diversity, but also categorization of specific tissue environments and the plasticity of macrophages themselves. This knowledge provides a new perspective on therapeutic strategies, as macrophage subsets can potentially be manipulated to control the inflammatory environment in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25684236

  6. Thymosin ?1 as a stimulatory agent of innate cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Serafino, Annalucia; Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Pica, Francesca; Andreola, Federica; Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Noemi; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Garaci, Enrico

    2012-10-01

    The innate immune response and its cellular effectors-peripheral blood mononuclear cells and differentiated macrophages-play a crucial role in detection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Chemotherapy and some immunosuppressive drugs used after organ transplantation and for treatment of autoimmune diseases have, as main side effect, bone marrow suppression, which can lead to a reduced response of the innate immune system. Hence, many immune-depressed patients have a higher risk of developing bacterial and invasive fungal infections compared with immune-competent individuals. Thymosin ?1 (T?1) immunomodulatory activity on effector cells of the innate immunity has been extensively described, even if its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we report some of the main knowledge on this topic, focusing on our in vitro and in vivo work in progress that reinforce the validity of T?1 as a stimulatory agent for detection and elimination of pathogens by differentiated macrophages and for restoring immune parameters after chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. PMID:23050812

  7. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry is an Accurate and Rapid Method to Analyze Different Modes of Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Richard; Daumas, Aurélie; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Textoris, Julien

    2013-01-01

    MALDI-TOF is an extensively used mass spectrometry technique in chemistry and biochemistry. It has been also applied in medicine to identify molecules and biomarkers. Recently, it has been used in microbiology for the routine identification of bacteria grown from clinical samples, without preparation or fractionation steps. We and others have applied this whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technique successfully to eukaryotic cells. Current applications range from cell type identification to quality control assessment of cell culture and diagnostic applications. Here, we describe its use to explore the various polarization phenotypes of macrophages in response to cytokines or heat-killed bacteria. It allowed the identification of macrophage-specific fingerprints that are representative of the diversity of proteomic responses of macrophages. This application illustrates the accuracy and simplicity of the method. The protocol we described here may be useful for studying the immune host response in pathological conditions or may be extended to wider diagnostic applications. PMID:24430799

  8. B cells modulate mucosal associated invariant T cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Rezwan, Tasmia; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    A common finding when measuring?T cell immunity to enteric bacterial vaccines in humans is the presence of background responses among individuals before immunization. Yet the nature of these background responses remains largely unknown. Recent findings show the presence in uninfected individuals of mucosal associated invariant?T (MAIT) cells that mount broad spectrum immune responses against a variety of microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Therefore, we investigated whether MAIT immune responses to intestinal bacteria might account for the background responses observed before immunization. Here we measured MAIT immune responses to commensal and enteric pathogenic bacteria in healthy individuals with no history of oral immunization with enteric bacteria. We found that MAIT cells were activated by B cells infected with various bacteria strains (commensals and pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae family), but not by uninfected cells. These responses were restricted by the non-classical MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1) and involved the endocytic pathway. The quality of these responses (i.e., cytokine profile) was dependent on bacterial load but not on the level expression of MR1 or bacterial antigen on B cell surface, suggesting that a threshold level of MR1 expression is required to trigger MAIT activation. These results provide important insights into the role of B cells as a source of antigen-presenting cells to MAIT cells and the gut immune surveillance of commensal microbiota. PMID:24432025

  9. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Response to Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Roux, Christelle M.; Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Dunman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The potent phagocytic and microbicidal activities of neutrophils and macrophages are among the first lines of defense against bacterial infections. Yet Staphylococcus aureus is often resistant to innate immune defense mechanisms, especially when organized as a biofilm. To investigate how S. aureus biofilms respond to macrophages and neutrophils, gene expression patterns were profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The addition of macrophages to S. aureus static biofilms led to a global suppression of the biofilm transcriptome with a wide variety of genes downregulated. Notably, genes involved in metabolism, cell wall synthesis/structure, and transcription/translation/replication were among the most highly downregulated, which was most dramatic at 1 h compared to 24 h following macrophage addition to biofilms. Unexpectedly, few genes were enhanced in biofilms after macrophage challenge. Unlike coculture with macrophages, coculture of S. aureus static biofilms with neutrophils did not greatly influence the biofilm transcriptome. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms differentially modify their gene expression patterns depending on the leukocyte subset encountered. PMID:24042108

  10. Proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects on human vascular endothelial cells of Immune-cell-derived LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective LIGHT (TNFSF 14) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and is expressed by activated T cells as well as various types of antigen presenting cells. LIGHT binds to its cellular receptors TR2 and LTßR and has a co-stimulatory role in T cell activation. Here, we compared the relative expression of LIGHT in different immune cells and the biological activity of immune cell-derived LIGHT on endothelial cells. Methods and Results Surface expression of LIGHT and mRNA production by PBMC and isolated T cells (CD4+ or CD8+) significantly increased after stimulation with PMA (Phorbolester-12-Myristat-13-Acetat) + ionomycin. No LIGHT expression on PMA stimulated monocytes or monocytic-like THP-1 cells could be detected; differentiation of monocytes and THP-1 cells into macrophages, however, resulted in up-regulation of LIGHT. Supernatants of stimulated T cells contained higher concentrations of soluble LIGHT than macrophage supernatants normalized to cell numbers; release of soluble LIGHT was found to be dependent on metalloproteinase activity. Size determination of released soluble LIGHT by size exclusion chromatography revealed a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, suggesting a trimeric form. Released soluble LIGHT induced expression of proinflammatory antigens ICAM-1, tissue factor and IL-8 in human endothelial cells and caused apoptosis of IFN-? pretreated endothelial cells. Soluble LIGHT was detected at low levels in sera of healthy controls and was significantly enhanced in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C and rheumatoid arthritis (24.93 ± 9.41 vs.129.53 ± 49.14 and 172.13 ± 77.64; p < 0.0005). Conclusion These findings suggest that among immune cells activated T lymphocytes are the main source of soluble LIGHT with released amounts of soluble LIGHT markedly higher compared to platelets. Immune cell-derived membrane-bound and soluble trimeric LIGHT is biologically active, inducing proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells. Enhanced plasma levels of soluble LIGHT in patients with chronic infections suggest a role of LIGHT in systemic inflammatory activation. PMID:19380287

  11. Depression of afferent arc of the in vivo cytotoxic T-cell immunity by bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Mizoguchi, K.; Nakashima, I.; Hasegawa, Y.; Isobe, K.; Kato, N.; Shimokata, K.; Kawashima, K.; Nagase, F.; Ando, K.; Yoshida, T.

    1985-10-15

    The afferent arc of the in vivo cytotoxic T-cell immunity assessed by second set rejection of ascitic allogeneic tumors was shown to be depressed by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that was administered simultaneously with or 1 day before injection of allogeneic spleen cells as stimulators. Two different LPSs from Escherichia coli O55 and Klebsiella O3 displayed similar activities whereas dextran sulfate, concanavalin A, or poly A:U was not effective. Stimulator activities of allogeneic cells was not directly modified by LPS. Any definite suppressor activity on afferent or efferent arc of the T-cell response was not demonstrable in mice receiving LPS and allogeneic cells. Further, the LPS effect for immune depression was not diminished by whole body X-ray irradiation to the recipient at 300 R, which ablated the B-cell reactivity to LPS for polyclonal activation, or by treatment of the recipient with carrageenan, a known toxic agent to macrophages. It was suggested from these results that LPS suppresses the cytotoxic T-cell immunity by modulating responder T cells to be temporarily refractory to the allogeneic stimulus rather than by activating suppressor cells such as radiation-sensitive lymphocytes and carrageenan-sensitive macrophages.

  12. Streptococcus sanguinis induces foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages in association with production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Nakata, Masanobu; Nakashima, Keisuke; Shintani, Seikou; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, is a common streptococcal species implicated in infective endocarditis. Herein, we investigated the effects of infection with S. sanguinis on foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages. Infection with S. sanguinis stimulated foam cell formation of THP-1, a human macrophage cell line. At a multiplicity of infection >100, S. sanguinis-induced cell death of the macrophages. Viable bacterial infection was required to trigger cell death because heat-inactivated S. sanguinis did not induce cell death. The production of cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? from macrophages was also stimulated during bacterial infection. Inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in reduced cell death, suggesting an association of ROS with cell death. Furthermore, S. sanguinis-induced cell death appeared to be independent of activation of inflammasomes, because cleavage of procaspase-1 was not evident in infected macrophages. PMID:22092716

  13. Targeting colon cancer cell NF-?B promotes an anti-tumour M1-like macrophage phenotype and inhibits peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A E; Colleran, A; O'Gorman, A; O'Flynn, L; Pindjacova, J; Lohan, P; O'Malley, G; Nosov, M; Mureau, C; Egan, L J

    2015-03-19

    In a model of peritoneal metastasis in immune-competent mice, we show that nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibition in CT26 colon cancer cells prevents metastasis. NF-?B inhibition, by stable overexpression of I?B-? super-repressor, induced differential polarization of co-cultured macrophages to an M1-like anti-tumour phenotype in vitro. NF-?B-deficient cancer cell-conditioned media (CT26/I?B-? SR) induced interleukin (IL)-12 and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (inducible NO synthase (iNOS)) expression in macrophages. Control cell (CT26/EV) conditioned media induced high levels of IL-10 and arginase in macrophages. In vivo, this effect translated to reduction in metastasis in mice injected with CT26/ I?B-? SR cells and was positively associated with increased CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) and CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effector T cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-?B activity induced high levels of NO in infiltrating immune cells and decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, simultaneous with increases in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 within tumours. CT26/I?B-? SR tumours displayed increased pro-inflammatory gene expression, low levels of angiogenesis and extensive intratumoral apoptosis, consistent with the presence of an anti-tumour macrophage phenotype. Macrophage depletion reduced tumour size in CT26/EV-injected animals and increased tumour size in CT26/I?B-? SR cells compared with untreated tumours. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that an important implication of targeting tumour cell NF-?B is skewing of macrophage polarization to an anti-tumour phenotype. This knowledge offers novel therapeutic opportunities for anticancer treatment. PMID:24704833

  14. Functional characterization of IgM+ B cells and adaptive immunity in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.).

    PubMed

    Rønneseth, Anita; Ghebretnsae, Dawit B; Wergeland, Heidrun I; Haugland, Gyri T

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune responses in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) have been shown to be functional, but little is currently known about the B cells, immunoglobulins or adaptive immune responses in this species. We have used anti-IgM antiserum to isolate B cells and compared them morphologically and functionally with other cell types. The fraction of IgM(+) cells among isolated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), head kidney leukocytes (HKL) and spleen leukocytes (SL) was in the range of 40%, 12% and 34%, respectively. The IgM(+) B cells had high phagocytic ability and were the predominant phagocytes in blood with higher capacity than IgM(+) B cells in HKL. Interestingly, among PBL, the most potent phagocytes were, in addition to monocytes, some small agranular uncharacterized IgM(-) cells. The IgM(+) B cells were positive for acid phosphatases (AcP), but negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophils were positive for MPO, while monocytes/macrophages and dendritic-like cells stained negatively. Monocytes/macrophages and the small, agranular IgM(-) cells stained most strongly positive for AcP corresponding to their high phagocytic capacity. Further, the ability to produce specific antibodies upon immunization verified adaptive immunity in the species. The high proportion of phagocytic IgM(+) B cells and their phagocytic ability indicate a significant role of phagocytic B cells in lumpfish innate immunity. The present analyses also give strong indications that vaccination and immunostimulation of farmed lumpfish can be used to prevent disease and mortality caused by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26021455

  15. On the hunt for helminths: Innate immune cells in the recognition and response to helminth parasites

    PubMed Central

    Perrigoue, Jacqueline G.; Marshall, Fraser; Artis, David

    2009-01-01

    The generation of protective immunity to helminth parasites is critically dependent upon the development of a CD4 T helper type 2 cytokine response. However, the host-parasite interactions responsible for initiating this response are poorly understood. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of how helminth-derived products are recognized by innate immune cells. Specifically, interactions between helminth excretory/secretory products and host Toll-like receptors and lectins will be discussed as well as the putative functions of helminth proteases and chitin in activating and recruiting innate immune cells. In addition, the functional significance of pattern recognition by epithelial cells, granulocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages including expression of alarmins, thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and Notch ligands in the development of adaptive anti-parasite Th2 cytokine responses and the future research challenges in this area will be examined. PMID:18505479

  16. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma. PMID:26000310

  17. A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages from normal

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Leah

    A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages head: Phagocytosis and digestion by NOD mice macrophages Corresponding author: Leah Edelstein, thus quantifying kinetics of uptake and digestion of apoptotic cells in both mouse strains (Mar´ee et

  18. Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) capable of spawning more differentiated tumor cell progeny are required for tumorigenesis and neoplastic progression of leukemias and several solid cancers. The mechanisms by which CSC cause tumor initiation and growth are currently unknown. Recent findings that suggest a negative correlation between degrees of host immunocompetence and rates of cancer development raise the possibility that only a restricted minority of malignant cells, namely CSC, may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics to evade host antitumor immunity. In human malignant melanoma, a highly immunogenic cancer, we recently identified malignant melanoma initiating cells (MMIC), a novel type of CSC, based on selective expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5. Here we present evidence of a relative immune privilege of ABCB5+ MMIC, suggesting refractoriness to current immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss our findings in the context of established immunomodulatory functions of physiologic stem cells and in relation to mechanisms responsible for the downregulation of immune responses against tumors. We propose that the MMIC subset might be responsible for melanoma immune evasion and that immunomodulation might represent one mechanism by which CSC advance tumorigenic growth and resistance to immunotherapy. Accordingly, the possibility of an MMIC-driven tumor escape from immune-mediated rejection has important implications for current melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:19796244

  19. Cellular immune responses towards regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Stine Kiær

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results from two published papers identifying spontaneous cellular immune responses against the transcription factors Foxp3 and Foxo3. The tumor microenvironment is infiltrated by cells that hinder effective tumor immunity from developing. Two of these cell types, which have been linked to a bad prognosis for patients, are regulatory T cells (Treg) and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). Tregs inhibit effector T cells from attacking the tumor through various mechanisms, including secreted factors and cell-to-cell contact. Tregs express the transcription factor Foxp3, which is necessary for their development and suppressive activities. Tolerogenic DCs participate in creating an environment in the tumor where effector T cells become tolerant towards the tumor instead of attacking it. The transcription factor Foxo3 was recently described to be highly expressed by tolerogenic DCs and to programme their tolerogenic influence. This thesis describes for the first time the existence of spontaneous cellular immune responses against peptides derived from Foxp3 and Foxo3. We have detected the presence of cytotoxic T cells that recognise these peptides in an HLA-A2 restricted manner in cancer patients and for Foxp3 in healthy donors as well. In addition, we have demonstrated that the Foxp3- and Foxo3-specific CTLs recognize Foxp3- and Foxo3-expressing cancer cell lines and importantly, suppressive immune cells, namely Tregs and in vitro generated DCs. Cancer immunotherapy is recently emerging as an important treatment modality improving the survival of selected patients. The current progress is largely owing to targeting of the immune suppressive milieu that is dominating the tumor microenvironment. This is being done through immune checkpoint blockade with CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and through lymphodepleting conditioning of patients and ex vivo activation of TILs in adoptive cell transfer. Several strategies are being explored for depletion of Tregs and for modulation of Treg and DC suppressive activity, including CD25 antibodies and chemotherapy. The research presented in this thesis offer an alternative approach to targeting suppressive cells subsets, by activating the immune system against proteins expressed by these cell types. PMID:26726907

  20. Interleukin 10 (IL-10)-mediated Immunosuppression: MARCH-I INDUCTION REGULATES ANTIGEN PRESENTATION BY MACROPHAGES BUT NOT DENDRITIC CELLS.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sharad K; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    Efficient immune responses require regulated antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. IL-10 inhibits the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages to stimulate antigen-specific CD4 T cells; however, the mechanisms by which IL-10 suppresses antigen presentation remain poorly understood. We now report that IL-10 stimulates expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I in activated macrophages, thereby down-regulating MHC-II, CD86, and antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. By contrast, IL-10 does not stimulate March-I expression in DCs, does not suppress MHC-II or CD86 expression on either resting or activated DCs, and does not affect antigen presentation by activated DCs. IL-10 does, however, inhibit the process of DC activation itself, thereby reducing the efficiency of antigen presentation in a March-I-independent manner. Thus, IL-10 suppression of antigen presenting cell function in macrophages is March-I-dependent, whereas in DCs, suppression is March- I-independent. PMID:26408197

  1. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune system dysregulation is well-recognized in autism and thought to be part of the etiology of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system is a key regulator of the immune system via the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) which is highly expressed on macrophages and microglial cells. We have previously published significant differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell CB2R gene expression in the autism population. The use of the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), an endogenous glycosylated vitamin D binding protein responsible for macrophage cell activation has demonstrated positive effects in the treatment of autistic children. In this current study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GcMAF treatment on the endocannabinoid system gene expression, as well as cellular activation in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from autistic patients compared to age-matched healthy developing controls. Methods To achieve these goals, we used biomolecular, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. Results GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group. GcMAF also down-regulated the over-activation of BMDMs from autistic children. Conclusions This study presents the first observations of GcMAF effects on the transcriptionomics of the endocannabinoid system and expression of CB2R protein. These data point to a potential nexus between endocannabinoids, vitamin D and its transporter proteins, and the immune dysregulations observed with autism. PMID:24739187

  2. Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Activate Alveolar Macrophages and Mitigate P. Aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Shibichakravarthy; Huang, Huang; Seeger, Drew; Audet, Aaron; Chen, Yaoyu; Huang, Canhua; Gao, Hongwei; Li, Shaoguang; Wu, Min

    2009-01-01

    Although alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) perform substantial roles in the maintenance of alveolar integrity, the extent of their contributions to immune defense is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that AECII activates alveolar macrophages (AM) functions, such as phagocytosis using a conditioned medium from AECII infected by P. aeruginosa. AECII-derived chemokine MCP-1, a monocyte chemoattractant protein, was identified as a main factor in enhancing AM function. We proposed that the enhanced immune potency of AECII may play a critical role in alleviation of bacterial propagation and pneumonia. The ability of phagocytosis and superoxide release by AM was reduced by MCP-1 neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, MCP-1?/? mice showed an increased bacterial burden under PAO1 and PAK infection vs. wt littermates. AM from MCP-1?/? mice also demonstrated less superoxide and impaired phagocytosis over the controls. In addition, AECII conditioned medium increased the host defense of airway in MCP-1?/? mice through the activation of AM function. Mechanistically, we found that Lyn mediated NF?B activation led to increased gene expression and secretion of MCP-1. Consequently Lyn?/? mice had reduced MCP-1 secretion and resulted in a decrease in superoxide and phagocytosis by AM. Collectively, our data indicate that AECII may serve as an immune booster for fighting bacterial infections, particularly in severe immunocompromised conditions. PMID:19305493

  3. Differential Effects of Mycobacterium bovis BCG on Macrophages and Dendritic Cells from Murine Spleen.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengzhong; Meng, Chuang; Qiang, Bin; Gu, Hongyan; Sun, Lin; Yin, Yuelan; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DCs) are both pivotal antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific cellular responses to inhaled mycobacteria, and thus, they may be important in the initiation of early immune responses to mycobacterial infection. In this study, we evaluated and compared the roles of murine splenic DCs and M?s in immunity against Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M.bovis BCG). The number of internalized rBCG-GFP observed was obviously greater in murine splenic M?s compared with DCs, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in M?s were all higher than in DCs. DCs have a stronger capacity for presenting Ag85A peptide to specific T hybridoma and when the murine splenic M?s were infected with BCG and rBCG::Ag85A, low level of antigen presenting activity was detected. These data suggest that murine splenic M?s participate in mycobacteria uptake, killing and inducing inflammatory response, whereas the murine splenic DCs are primarily involved in specific antigen presentation and T cell activation. PMID:26473844

  4. Differential Effects of Mycobacterium bovis BCG on Macrophages and Dendritic Cells from Murine Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengzhong; Meng, Chuang; Qiang, Bin; Gu, Hongyan; Sun, Lin; Yin, Yuelan; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (M?) and dendritic cells (DCs) are both pivotal antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific cellular responses to inhaled mycobacteria, and thus, they may be important in the initiation of early immune responses to mycobacterial infection. In this study, we evaluated and compared the roles of murine splenic DCs and M?s in immunity against Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M.bovis BCG). The number of internalized rBCG-GFP observed was obviously greater in murine splenic M?s compared with DCs, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in M?s were all higher than in DCs. DCs have a stronger capacity for presenting Ag85A peptide to specific T hybridoma and when the murine splenic M?s were infected with BCG and rBCG::Ag85A, low level of antigen presenting activity was detected. These data suggest that murine splenic M?s participate in mycobacteria uptake, killing and inducing inflammatory response, whereas the murine splenic DCs are primarily involved in specific antigen presentation and T cell activation. PMID:26473844

  5. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) as a therapeutic target in immune and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias

    2015-06-30

    The hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a member of the SRC family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (SFKs), and is expressed in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphocyte cell lineages. Excessive HCK activation is associated with several types of leukemia and enhances cell proliferation and survival by physical association with oncogenic fusion proteins, and with functional interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. Elevated HCK activity is also observed in many solid malignancies, including breast and colon cancer, and correlates with decreased patient survival rates. HCK enhances the secretion of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines from myeloid cells, and promotes macrophage polarization towards a wound healing and tumor-promoting alternatively activated phenotype. Within tumor associated macrophages, HCK stimulates the formation of podosomes that facilitate extracellular matrix degradation, which enhance immune and epithelial cell invasion. By virtue of functional cooperation between HCK and bona fide oncogenic tyrosine kinases, excessive HCK activation can also reduce drug efficacy and contribute to chemo-resistance, while genetic ablation of HCK results in minimal physiological consequences in healthy mice. Given its known crystal structure, HCK therefore provides an attractive therapeutic target to both, directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and indirectly curb the source of tumor-promoting changes in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26087188

  6. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) as a therapeutic target in immune and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Ashleigh R.; O'Donoghue, Robert J.J.; Ernst, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a member of the SRC family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (SFKs), and is expressed in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphocyte cell lineages. Excessive HCK activation is associated with several types of leukemia and enhances cell proliferation and survival by physical association with oncogenic fusion proteins, and with functional interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. Elevated HCK activity is also observed in many solid malignancies, including breast and colon cancer, and correlates with decreased patient survival rates. HCK enhances the secretion of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines from myeloid cells, and promotes macrophage polarization towards a wound healing and tumor-promoting alternatively activated phenotype. Within tumor associated macrophages, HCK stimulates the formation of podosomes that facilitate extracellular matrix degradation, which enhance immune and epithelial cell invasion. By virtue of functional cooperation between HCK and bona fide oncogenic tyrosine kinases, excessive HCK activation can also reduce drug efficacy and contribute to chemo-resistance, while genetic ablation of HCK results in minimal physiological consequences in healthy mice. Given its known crystal structure, HCK therefore provides an attractive therapeutic target to both, directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and indirectly curb the source of tumor-promoting changes in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26087188

  7. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60) are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for investigating macrophage biology and highlights the importance of confirming experimental data in primary alveolar macrophages. PMID:23102269

  8. Immune Suppression by Myeloid Cells in HIV Infection: New Targets for Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Vyboh, Kishanda; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Over thirty years of extensive research has not yet solved the complexity of HIV pathogenesis leading to a continued need for a successful cure. Recent immunotherapy-based approaches are aimed at controlling the infection by reverting immune dysfunction. Comparatively less appreciated than the role of T cells in the context of HIV infection, the myeloid cells including macrophages monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils contribute significantly to immune dysfunction. Host restriction factors are cellular proteins expressed in these cells which are circumvented by HIV. Guided by the recent literature, the role of myeloid cells in HIV infection will be discussed highlighting potential targets for immunotherapy. HIV infection, which is mainly characterized by CD4 T cell dysfunction, also manifests in a vicious cycle of events comprising of inflammation and immune activation. Targeting the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1), an important regulator of T cell function; with PD-L1 expressed mainly on myeloid cells could bring promising results. Macrophage functional polarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 and vice versa has significant implications in viral pathogenesis. Neutrophils, recently discovered low density granular cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and yolk sac macrophages provide new avenues of research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence. Recent evidence has also shown significant implications of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), antimicrobial peptides and opsonizing antibodies. Further studies aimed to understand and modify myeloid cell restriction mechanisms have the potential to contribute in the future development of more effective anti-HIV interventions that may pave the way to viral eradication. PMID:25624956

  9. Dermal CD14(+) Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Infection by Dengue Virus Is Stimulated by Interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelyne; Flacher, Vincent; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Decossas, Marion; Fauny, Jean-Daniel; Krämer, Melanie; Mueller, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Events decisive for disease development occur in the skin after virus inoculation by the mosquito. Yet, the role of human dermis-resident immune cells in dengue infection and disease remains elusive. Here we investigated how dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) and macrophages (dMs) react to DENV and impact on immunopathology. We show that both CD1c(+) and CD14(+) dDC subsets were infected, but viral load greatly increased in CD14(+) dDCs upon IL-4 stimulation, which correlated with upregulation of virus-binding lectins Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and mannose receptor (CD206). IL-4 also enhanced T-cell activation by dDCs, which was further increased upon dengue infection. dMs purified from digested dermis were initially poorly infected but actively replicated the virus and produced TNF-? upon lectin upregulation in response to IL-4. DC-SIGN(+) cells are abundant in inflammatory skin with scabies infection or Th2-type dermatitis, suggesting that skin reactions to mosquito bites heighten the risk of infection and subsequent immunopathology. Our data identify dDCs and dMs as primary arbovirus target cells in humans and suggest that dDCs initiate a potent virus-directed T-cell response, whereas dMs fuel the inflammatory cascade characteristic of dengue fever. PMID:25521455

  10. Stress-related changes to immune cells in the skin prior to wounding may impair subsequent healing.

    PubMed

    Koschwanez, Heidi; Vurnek, Maja; Weinman, John; Tarlton, John; Whiting, Christine; Amirapu, Satya; Colgan, Sarah; Long, David; Jarrett, Paul; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Higher psychological stress is associated with slower dermal wound healing, but the immunological mechanisms behind this effect are only partially understood. This paper aims to investigate whether immune cells present in the skin prior to wounding can affect subsequent healing in high-stress and low-stress participants. Two studies are presented in which skin biopsies were analysed using immunohistochemistry for numbers of macrophages and Langerhans cells, and immune cell activation (Study 2 only). Immune cells were related to perceived stress levels and subsequent healing. Study 1 included 19 healthy older adults and showed that higher stress was associated with significantly fewer macrophages in the skin. Study 2 included 22 younger adults and showed that higher stress was associated with significantly lower activation of immune cells in the skin. Furthermore, lower activation of immune cells (as measured by human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression)) and fewer Langerhans cells were associated with slower healing. Together these studies show the first preliminary evidence that the number and activation of immune cells in the skin prior to wounding are affected by stress and can impact healing. Larger studies are needed to confirm these effects. PMID:26102314

  11. Foam Cell Formation In Vivo Converts Macrophages to a Pro-Fibrotic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anita C.; Eijgelaar, Wouter J.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Newby, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of foam cell macrophages, which sequester extracellular modified lipids, is a key event in atherosclerosis. How lipid loading affects macrophage phenotype is controversial, with evidence suggesting either pro- or anti-inflammatory consequences. To investigate this further, we compared the transcriptomes of foamy and non-foamy macrophages that accumulate in the subcutaneous granulomas of fed-fat ApoE null mice and normal chow fed wild-type mice in vivo. Consistent with previous studies, LXR/RXR pathway genes were significantly over-represented among the genes up-regulated in foam cell macrophages. Unexpectedly, the hepatic fibrosis pathway, associated with platelet derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-? action, was also over-represented. Several collagen polypeptides and proteoglycan core proteins as well as connective tissue growth factor and fibrosis-related FOS and JUN transcription factors were up-regulated in foam cell macrophages. Increased expression of several of these genes was confirmed at the protein level in foam cell macrophages from subcutaneous granulomas and in atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD2, which is downstream of several transforming growth factor-? family members, was also detected in foam cell macrophages. We conclude that foam cell formation in vivo leads to a pro-fibrotic macrophage phenotype, which could contribute to plaque stability, especially in early lesions that have few vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:26197235

  12. Analysis of single-cell cytokine secretion reveals a role for paracrine signaling in coordinating macrophage responses to TLR4 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiong; Lu, Yao; Eisele, Markus R; Sulistijo, Endah S; Khan, Nafeesa; Fan, Rong; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-06-16

    Macrophages not only produce multiple cytokines but also respond to multiple cytokines, which likely shapes the ultimate response of the population. To determine the role of paracrine signaling in shaping the profile of inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages in response to stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we combined multiplexed, microwell-based measurements of cytokine secretion by single cells with analysis of cytokine secretion by cell populations. Loss of paracrine signaling as a result of cell isolation reduced the secretion by macrophage-like U937 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of a subset of LPS-stimulated cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Graphical Gaussian modeling (GGM) of the single-cell data defined a regulatory network of paracrine signals, which was validated experimentally in the population through antibody-mediated neutralization of individual cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was the most influential cytokine in the GGM network. Paracrine signaling by TNF-? secreted from a small subpopulation of "high-secreting" cells was necessary, but not sufficient, for the secretion of large amounts of IL-6 and IL-10 by the cell population. Decreased relative IL-10 secretion by isolated MDMs was linked to increased TNF-? secretion, suggesting that inhibition of the inflammatory response also depends on paracrine signaling. Our results reveal a previously uncharacterized role for cell-to-cell communication within a population in coordinating a rapid innate immune response despite underlying cell-to-cell heterogeneity. PMID:26082435

  13. Mice with a selective impairment of IFN-? signaling in macrophage lineage cells demonstrate the critical role of IFN-? activated macrophages for the control of protozoan parasitic infections in vivo1, 2

    PubMed Central

    Lykens, Jennifer E.; Terrell, Catherine E.; Zoller, Erin E.; Divanovic, Senad; Trompette, Aurelien; Karp, Christopher L.; Aliberti, Julio; Flick, Matthew J.; Jordan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    IFN-? has long been recognized as a cytokine with potent and varied effects in the immune response. While its effects on specific cell types have been well studied in vitro, its in vivo effects are less clearly understood because of its diverse actions on many different cell types. While control of multiple protozoan parasites is thought to depend critically on the direct action of IFN-? on macrophages, this premise has never been directly proven in vivo. In order to more directly examine the effects of IFN-? on cells of the macrophage lineage in vivo, we generated mice called the ‘Macrophages Insensitive to Interferon Gamma’ (MIIG) mice, which express a dominant negative mutant IFN-? receptor in CD68+ cells: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Macrophage lineage cells and mast cells from these mice are unable to respond to IFN-? while other cells are able to produce and respond to this cytokine normally. When challenged in vitro, macrophages from MIIG mice were unable produce NO or kill Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania major after priming with IFN-?. Furthermore, MIIG mice demonstrated impaired parasite control and heightened mortality after T. cruzi, L. major, and Toxoplasma gondii infection, despite an appropriate IFN-? response. In contrast, MIIG mice displayed normal control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, despite persistent insensitivity of macrophages to IFN-?. Thus, the MIIG mouse formally demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the specific importance of direct, IFN-? mediated activation of macrophages for controlling infection with multiple protozoan parasites. “This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org.” PMID:20018611

  14. Puerarin Inhibits oxLDL-Induced Macrophage Activation and Foam Cell Formation in Human THP1 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Zhai, Zhenhua; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Yuhan; Li, Weihong; Shi, Yueping; Zhou, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases in China and other Asian countries. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether puerarin inhibited atherogenic lipid oxLDL-mediated macrophage activation and foam cell formation in human THP1 macrophage. Treatment with oxLDL significantly increased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?, 160%) and interleukin (IL) 1? (13 fold) accompanied by upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 165%) and the ratio of phospho-I?B?/I?B? in THP1 macrophage. Puerarin dose-dependently prevented an increase in oxLDL-induced proinflammatory gene expression with downregulation of TLR4 and the ratio of phospho-I?B?/I?B?. Furthermore, puerarin prevented oxLDL-mediated lipid deposition and foam cell formation associated with downregulation of scavenger receptor CD36. Flow cytometry analysis showed that puerarin reduced the number of early apoptotic cells of macrophages induced by oxLDL. Our results show that puerarin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in vitro; the underlying mechanisms may involve the inhibition of TLR4/NF?B pathway and downregulation of CD36 expression. The results from the present study provide scientific evidence and may expand our armamentarium to use puerarin for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:26576421

  15. Recombinant interleukin-16 selectively modulates surface receptor expression and cytokine release in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, E; Darcissac, E; Idziorek, T; Capron, A; Bahr, G M

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16), a natural ligand for the CD4 receptor, has been found to modulate T-lymphocyte function and to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Antigen-presenting cells (APC), including macrophages and dendritic cells, are known to express functional surface CD4 molecules, to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection and to play a critical role in different immune processes. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of recombinant IL-16 (rIL-16) to regulate receptor expression and cytokine release in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). Recombinant IL-16 was found to up-regulate CD25 and CD80 but to down-regulate CD4 and CD86 surface expression in MDM cultures. However, no change could be observed on the level of CD4, CD80 and CD86 expression in IL-16-stimulated MDDC, although a significant up-regulation of CD25 and CD83 was consistently detected. Furthermore, the level of gene expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 was significantly reduced in rIL-16-treated MDM and costimulation with IL-2 did not modify the activity of the recombinant cytokine. The effects on chemokine receptor gene expression were less evident in MDDC and only a transient down-regulation of weak intensity could be detected following stimulation with rIL-16. Analysis of supernatants from rIL-16-stimulatedcultures revealed a different profile of released cytokines/chemokines among the two cell populations studied. These findings establish an important role for IL-16 in modulating the activity of APC and may have relevance regarding the protection of reservoir cells against HIV-1 infection. PMID:10447738

  16. Innate immunity and regulatory T-cells in human Chagas disease: what must be understood?

    PubMed

    Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2009-07-01

    There is a general consensus that during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the host immune system induces complex processes to ensure the control of parasite growth while preserving the potential to mount and maintain a life-long controlled humoral and cellular immune response against the invading pathogen. This review summarises evidence in an attempt to elucidate 'what must be understood' to further clarify the role of innate immunity in the development/maintenance of clinical Chagas disease and the impact of etiological treatment on host immunity, highlighting the contributions of the innate immunity and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, increasing focus on innate immunity suggest that chronic T. cruzi infection may cause morbidity when innate effector functions, or the down-regulation of adaptive regulatory mechanisms are lacking. In this context, stable asymptomatic host-parasite interactions seem to be influenced by the effector/regulatory balance with the participation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells in parallel with the establishment of regulatory mechanisms mediated by NKT and Treg cells. Moreover, a balanced innate immune activation state, apart from Treg cells, may play a role in controlling the adverse events triggered by the massive antigen release induced by trypanosomicidal agents during Chagas disease etiological treatment. PMID:19753480

  17. Studying the role of macrophages in circulating prostate cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-12-01

    Metastasis is a very complicated multi-step process and accounts for the low survival rate of the cancerous patients. To metastasize, the malignant cells must detach from the primary tumor and migrate to secondary sites in the body through either blood or lymph circulation. Macrophages appear to be directly involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of macrophages in affecting cancer metastasis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we have utilized an emerging technique, namely in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) to study the depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells in mice and how depletion of macrophages by the liposome-encapsulated clodronate affects the depletion kinetics. Our results show different depletion kinetics of PC-3 cells between macrophage-deficient group and the control group. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in macrophage-deficient group decreases in a slower manner compared to the control mice group. The differences in depletion kinetics indicate that the absence of macrophages facilitates the stay of prostate cancer cells in circulation. We speculate that macrophages might be able to arrest, phagocytose and digest PC-3 cells. Therefore, the phagocytosis may mainly contribute to the depletion kinetic differences. The developed methods here would be useful to study the relationship between macrophages and tumor metastasis in small animal cancer model.

  18. The flavonoid fisetin attenuates postischemic immune cell infiltration, activation and infarct size after transient cerebral middle artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Leypoldt, Frank; Lewerenz, Jan; Birkenmayer, Gabriel; Orozco, Denise; Ludewig, Peter; Thundyil, John; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Maher, Pamela; Magnus, Tim

    2012-05-01

    The development of the brain tissue damage in ischemic stroke is composed of an immediate component followed by an inflammatory response with secondary tissue damage after reperfusion. Fisetin, a flavonoid, has multiple biological effects, including neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties. We analyzed the effects of fisetin on infarct size and the inflammatory response in a mouse model of stroke, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and on the activation of immune cells, murine primary and N9 microglial and Raw264.7 macrophage cells and human macrophages, in an in vitro model of inflammatory immune cell activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fisetin not only protected brain tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when given before ischemia but also when applied 3 hours after ischemia. Fisetin also prominently inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and dendritic cells into the ischemic hemisphere and suppressed the intracerebral immune cell activation as measured by intracellular tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) production. Fisetin also inhibited LPS-induced TNF? production and neurotoxicity of macrophages and microglia in vitro by suppressing nuclear factor ?B activation and JNK/Jun phosphorylation. Our findings strongly suggest that the fisetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response after stroke is part of the mechanism through which fisetin is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. PMID:22234339

  19. The flavonoid fisetin attenuates postischemic immune cell infiltration, activation and infarct size after transient cerebral middle artery occlusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Leypoldt, Frank; Lewerenz, Jan; Birkenmayer, Gabriel; Orozco, Denise; Ludewig, Peter; Thundyil, John; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Maher, Pamela; Magnus, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The development of the brain tissue damage in ischemic stroke is composed of an immediate component followed by an inflammatory response with secondary tissue damage after reperfusion. Fisetin, a flavonoid, has multiple biological effects, including neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties. We analyzed the effects of fisetin on infarct size and the inflammatory response in a mouse model of stroke, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and on the activation of immune cells, murine primary and N9 microglial and Raw264.7 macrophage cells and human macrophages, in an in vitro model of inflammatory immune cell activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fisetin not only protected brain tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when given before ischemia but also when applied 3 hours after ischemia. Fisetin also prominently inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and dendritic cells into the ischemic hemisphere and suppressed the intracerebral immune cell activation as measured by intracellular tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) production. Fisetin also inhibited LPS-induced TNF? production and neurotoxicity of macrophages and microglia in vitro by suppressing nuclear factor ?B activation and JNK/Jun phosphorylation. Our findings strongly suggest that the fisetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response after stroke is part of the mechanism through which fisetin is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. PMID:22234339

  20. Survival strategies of Entamoeba histolytica: Modulation of cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D; Chadee, K

    1997-05-01

    Tissue invasion and disease associated with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica has long been connected with suppression of host cellular immunity. Dampening of the host's defences may facilitate survival of amoebae in extraintestinal sites and development of the characteristic amoebic abscesses. In recent years, several studies have begun to clarify, at the cellular level, the specific effects E. histolytica has on immune cell accessory and effector cell functions. Here, Darren Campbell and Kris Chadee discuss the parasite's multiple modulatory effects on macrophages and T cells and how this manipulation of immune defences may enable the parasite to remain viable in the host. They suggest the putative amoebic molecules involved and potential modulation by the cytokines: interleukins IL-4 and IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. PMID:15275089

  1. Functional evaluation of gene silencing on macrophages derived from U937 cells using interference RNA (shRNA) in a model of macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Ovalle-Bracho, Clemencia; Londoño-Barbosa, Diana A; Franco-Muñoz, Carlos; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis development is multifactorial; nonetheless, the establishment of the infection, which occurs by the survival and replication of the parasite inside its main host cell, the macrophage, is mandatory. Thus, the importance of studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the Leishmania-macrophage interaction is highlighted. The aim of this study was to characterize a cellular model of macrophages derived from U937 cells that would allow for the identification of infection phenotypes induced by genetic silencing with interference RNA in the context of macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The model was standardized by silencing an exogenous gene (gfp), an endogenous gene (lmna) and a differentially expressed gene between infected and non-infected macrophages (gro-?). The silencing process was successful for the three genes studied, obtaining reductions of 88·9% in the GFP levels, 87·5% in LMNA levels and 74·4% for Gro-? with respect to the corresponding control cell lines. The cell model revealed changes in the infection phenotype of the macrophages in terms of number of amastigotes per infected macrophage, number of amastigotes per sampled macrophage and percentage of infected macrophages as a result of gene silencing. Thus, this cell model constitutes a research platform for the study of parasite-host interactions and for the identification of potentially therapeutic targets. PMID:26443923

  2. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-? production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term detrimental effects on the immune system of the offspring and these effects are to some extent sex-specific. -- Highlights: ? Prenatal exposure to Cd causes no thymocyte phenotype changes in the offspring ? Analysis of the splenocyte phenotype demonstrates a macrophage-specific effect only in male offspring ? The cytokine profiles suggest an effect on peripheral Th1 cells in female and to a lesser degree in male offspring ? There was a marked increase in serum anti-streptococcal antibody levels after immunization in both sexes ? There was a marked decrease in the numbers of splenic CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} cells in both sexes.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sailaja, Gangadhara; Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Compans, Richard W. . E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Kang, Sang-Moo . E-mail: skang2@emory.edu

    2007-06-05

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses.

  4. Characteristics of Suppressor Macrophages Induced by Mycobacterial and Protozoal Infections in relation to Alternatively Activated M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Tatano, Yutaka; Maw, Win Win; Sano, Chiaki; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In the advanced stages of mycobacterial infections, host immune systems tend to change from a Th1-type to Th2-type immune response, resulting in the abrogation of Th1 cell- and macrophage-mediated antimicrobial host protective immunity. Notably, this type of immune conversion is occasionally associated with the generation of certain types of suppressor macrophage populations. During the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections, the generation of macrophages which possess strong suppressor activity against host T- and B-cell functions is frequently encountered. This paper describes the immunological properties of M1- and M2-type macrophages generated in tumor-bearing animals and those generated in hosts with certain microbial infections. In addition, this paper highlights the immunological and molecular biological characteristics of suppressor macrophages generated in hosts with mycobacterial infections, especially MAC infection. PMID:22666284

  5. Role of macrophages in circulating prostate cancer cells studied by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongrong; Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Wei, Xunbin

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages appear to be directly involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the role of macrophages in influencing tumor metastasis has not been fully understood. Here, we have used an emerging technique, namely in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) to study the depletion kinetics of circulating prostate cancer cells in mice and how depletion of macrophages by the liposome-encapsulated clodronate affects the depletion kinetics. Our results show different depletion kinetics of PC-3 prostate cancer cells between macrophage-deficient group and the control group. The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in macrophage-deficient group decreases in a slower manner compared to the control mice group. The differences in depletion kinetics indicate that the absence of macrophages might facilitate the stay of prostate tumor cells in circulation. We speculate that macrophages might be able to arrest, phagocytose and digest PC-3 cancer cells. Therefore, the phagocytosis may mainly contribute to the differences in depletion kinetics. The developed methods here would be useful to study the relationship between macrophages and cancer metastasis in small animal tumor model.

  6. The Human Natural Killer Cell Immune Synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Daniel M.; Chiu, Isaac; Fassett, Marlys; Cohen, George B.; Mandelboim, Ofer; Strominger, Jack L.

    1999-12-01

    Inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) at the surface of natural killer (NK) cells induced clustering of HLA-C at the contacting surface of target cells. In this manner, inhibitory immune synapses were formed as human NK cells surveyed target cells. At target/NK cell synapses, HLA-C/KIR distributed into rings around central patches of intercellular adhesion molecule-1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, the opposite orientation to mature murine T cell-activating synapses. This organization of protein was stable for at least 20 min. Cells could support multiple synapses simultaneously, and clusters of HLA-C moved as NK cells crawled over target cells. Clustering required a divalent metal cation, explaining how metal chelators inhibit KIR function. Surprisingly, however, formation of inhibitory synapses was unaffected by ATP depletion and the cytoskeletal inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalsins B and D. Clearly, supramolecular organization within plasma membranes is critical for NK cell immunosurveillance.

  7. Imaging macrophages with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Pittet, Mikael J.

    2014-02-01

    Nanomaterials have much to offer, not only in deciphering innate immune cell biology and tracking cells, but also in advancing personalized clinical care by providing diagnostic and prognostic information, quantifying treatment efficacy and designing better therapeutics. This Review presents different types of nanomaterial, their biological properties and their applications for imaging macrophages in human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, diabetes and other conditions. We anticipate that future needs will include the development of nanomaterials that are specific for immune cell subsets and can be used as imaging surrogates for nanotherapeutics. New in vivo imaging clinical tools for noninvasive macrophage quantification are thus ultimately expected to become relevant to predicting patients' clinical outcome, defining treatment options and monitoring responses to therapy.

  8. Macrophage recruitment and epithelial repair following hair cell injury in the mouse utricle

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Hirose, Keiko; Rubel, Edwin W.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The sensory organs of the inner ear possess resident populations of macrophages, but the function of those cells is poorly understood. In many tissues, macrophages participate in the removal of cellular debris after injury and can also promote tissue repair. The present study examined injury-evoked macrophage activity in the mouse utricle. Experiments used transgenic mice in which the gene for the human diphtheria toxin receptor (huDTR) was inserted under regulation of the Pou4f3 promoter. Hair cells in such mice can be selectively lesioned by systemic treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT). In order to visualize macrophages, Pou4f3–huDTR mice were crossed with a second transgenic line, in which one or both copies of the gene for the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 were replaced with a gene for GFP. Such mice expressed GFP in all macrophages, and mice that were CX3CR1GFP/GFP lacked the necessary receptor for fractalkine signaling. Treatment with DT resulted in the death of ?70% of utricular hair cells within 7 days, which was accompanied by increased numbers of macrophages within the utricular sensory epithelium. Many of these macrophages appeared to be actively engulfing hair cell debris, indicating that macrophages participate in the process of ‘corpse removal’ in the mammalian vestibular organs. However, we observed no apparent differences in injury-evoked macrophage numbers in the utricles of CX3CR1+/GFP mice vs. CX3CR1GFP/GFP mice, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is not necessary for macrophage recruitment in these sensory organs. Finally, we found that repair of sensory epithelia at short times after DT-induced hair cell lesions was mediated by relatively thin cables of F-actin. After 56 days recovery, however, all cell-cell junctions were characterized by very thick actin cables. PMID:25954156

  9. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Marion; Quillay, Héloïse; Madec, Yoann; El Costa, Hicham; Cannou, Claude; Marlin, Romain; de Truchis, Claire; Rahmati, Mona; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Menu, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-?, whereas only dMs released IL-1?, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface. PMID:25071732

  10. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Marion; Quillay, Héloïse; Madec, Yoann; El Costa, Hicham; Cannou, Claude; Marlin, Romain; de Truchis, Claire; Rahmati, Mona; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Menu, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-?, whereas only dMs released IL-1?, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface. PMID:25071732

  11. Inhibition of NF-?B in Tumor Cells Exacerbates Immune Cell Activation Following Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Mans; Kos, Milan; Jurg, Freek A.; van Beek, Adriaan A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) yields very good outcomes in numerous types of superficial solid cancers, some tumors respond suboptimally to PDT. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to enhance the efficacy in these therapy-resistant tumors. One of these strategies is to combine PDT with inhibitors of PDT-induced survival pathways. In this respect, the transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) has been identified as a potential pharmacological target, albeit inhibition of NF-?B may concurrently dampen the subsequent anti-tumor immune response required for complete tumor eradication and abscopal effects. In contrast to these postulations, this study demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of NF-?B in murine breast carcinoma (EMT-6) cells increased survival signaling in these cells and exacerbated the inflammatory response in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest a pro-death and immunosuppressive role of NF-?B in PDT-treated cells that concurs with a hyperstimulated immune response in innate immune cells. PMID:26307977

  12. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Mosser, David M.; Edwards, Justin P.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. In this Review we suggest a new grouping of macrophage populations based on three different homeostatic activities—host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. We propose that similarly to primary colours, these three basic macrophage populations can blend into various other ‘shades’ of activation. We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations. PMID:19029990

  13. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Mérida, Salvador; Palacios, Elena; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. PMID:26078494

  14. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-derived TGF-? Promotes Maturation of Activated, Neointima Lesion-Like Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ostriker, Allison; Horita, Henrick N.; Poczobutt, Joanna; Weiser-Evans, Mary C.M.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define the contribution of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-derived factors to macrophage phenotypic modulation in the setting of vascular injury. Approach and Results By flow cytometry, macrophages were the predominant myeloid cell type recruited to wire-injured femoral arteries, in mouse, compared to neutrophils or eosinophils. Recruited macrophages from injured vessels exhibited a distinct expression profile relative to circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Increased: Il-6, Il-10, Il-12b, CCR3, CCR7, TNF-?, iNOS, Arg I; decreased: Il-12a, MMP9). This phenotype was recapitulated in vitro by maturing rat bone marrow cells in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 20% conditioned media from cultured rat SMC (sM?), compared to maturation in M-CSF alone (M0). Recombinant TGF-?1 recapitulated the effect of SMC conditioned media. Macrophage maturation studies performed in the presence of a pan-TGF-? neutralizing antibody, a TGF-? receptor inhibitor, or conditioned media from TGF-?-depleted SMCs confirmed the SMC-derived factor responsible for macrophage activation was TGF-?. Finally, the effect of SMC-mediated macrophage activation on SMC biology was assessed. SMCs co-cultured with sM? exhibited increased rates of proliferation relative to SMCs cultured alone or with M0 macrophages. Conclusions SMC-derived TGF-? modulates the phenotype of maturing macrophages in vitro, recapitulating the phenotype found in vascular lesions in vivo. SMC-modulated macrophages induce SMC activation to a greater extent than control macrophages. PMID:24526697

  15. In Vitro Interaction of Zeolite Fibers with Individual Cells (Macrophages NR8383)

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    associated with lung and pleural tumors as well as chronic lung disease.2 Properties of dusts whichIn Vitro Interaction of Zeolite Fibers with Individual Cells (Macrophages NR8383): Measurement these fibers induce disease is an area of active research. Interaction of fibers with lung macrophages leads

  16. Cigarette Smoke Inhibits Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages through Inhibition of Actin Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Minematsu, Naoto; Blumental-Perry, Anna; Shapiro, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) was shown to impair the capacity of macrophages to clear bacteria and apoptotic cells. Here, we show that both the exposure of macrophages to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro and an acute single exposure to CS in vivo impair the macrophage clearance of apoptotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Upon longer periods of exposure to smoke in vivo (4–12 weeks), the impaired capacity of macrophages to clear apoptotic cells persisted after the cessation of smoking, with slow recovery to normality observed 4 weeks later. With respect to the mechanism by which CS impairs the macrophage uptake of apoptotic PMNs, we did not detect altered surface expression of receptors associated with apoptotic cell clearance. We did observe the impaired phosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 and the downstream inhibition of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activation. Consistent with these findings, CS impaired the macrophage cytoskeletal changes observed after stimulation with apoptotic cells. A loss of actin occurred at the leading edge, manifested as impaired ruffling of the cell membrane and a decreased capacity to engulf apoptotic cells. The inability to clear PMNs would lead to a greater release of destructive PMN products, and would diminish the reparative phenotype induced by the macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:20525804

  17. Dendritic Cells Efficiently Induce Protective Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Burkhard; Ehl, Stephan; Karrer, Urs; Odermatt, Bernhard; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1998-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are essential for effective immunity to various viral infections. Because of the high speed of viral replication, control of viral infections imposes demanding functional and qualitative requirements on protective T-cell responses. Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to efficiently acquire, transport, and present antigens to naive CTL in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we assessed the potential of DC, either pulsed with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific peptide GP33-41 or constitutively expressing the respective epitope, to induce LCMV-specific antiviral immunity in vivo. Comparing different application routes, we found that only 100 to 1,000 DC had to reach the spleen to achieve protective levels of CTL activation. The DC-induced antiviral immune response developed rapidly and was long lasting. Already at day 2 after a single intravenous immunization with high doses of DC (1 × 105 to 5 × 105), mice were fully protected against LCMV challenge infection, and direct ex vivo cytotoxicity was detectable at day 4 after DC immunization. At day 60, mice were still protected against LCMV challenge infection. Importantly, priming with DC also conferred protection against infections in which the homing of CTL into peripheral organs is essential: DC-immunized mice rapidly cleared an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus-LCMV from the ovaries and eliminated LCMV from the brain, thereby avoiding lethal choriomeningitis. A comparison of DC constitutively expressing the GP33-41 epitope with exogenously peptide-pulsed DC showed that in vivo CTL priming with peptide-loaded DC is not limited by turnover of peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I complexes. We conclude that the priming of antiviral CTL responses with DC is highly efficient, rapid, and long lasting. Therefore, the use of DC should be considered as an efficient means of immunization for antiviral vaccination strategies. PMID:9557664

  18. Ninjurin1 Enhances the Basal Motility and Transendothelial Migration of Immune Cells by Inducing Protrusive Membrane Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Bum Ju; Le, Hoang; Shin, Min Wook; Bae, Sung-Jin; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Sung Yi; Yang, Ju Hee; Wee, Hee-Jun; Cha, Jong-Ho; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Hye Shin; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Jeon, Sejin; Oh, Goo Taeg; Kim, Woo Jean; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Ninjurin1 is involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, by mediating leukocyte extravasation, a process that depends on homotypic binding. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms of Ninjurin1 during inflammation are largely undefined. We therefore examined the pro-migratory function of Ninjurin1 and its regulatory mechanisms in macrophages. Interestingly, Ninjurin1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages exhibited reduced membrane protrusion formation and dynamics, resulting in the impairment of cell motility. Furthermore, exogenous Ninjurin1 was distributed at the membrane of filopodial structures in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. In Raw264.7 cells, RNA interference of Ninjurin1 reduced the number of filopodial projections, whereas overexpression of Ninjurin1 facilitated their formation and thus promoted cell motility. Ninjurin1-induced filopodial protrusion formation required the activation of Rac1. In Raw264.7 cells penetrating an MBEC4 endothelial cell monolayer, Ninjurin1 was localized to the membrane of protrusions and promoted their formation, suggesting that Ninjurin1-induced protrusive activity contributed to transendothelial migration. Taking these data together, we conclude that Ninjurin1 enhances macrophage motility and consequent extravasation of immune cells through the regulation of protrusive membrane dynamics. We expect these findings to provide insight into the understanding of immune responses mediated by Ninjurin1. PMID:24917672

  19. Paracrine Factors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Recruit Macrophages and Endothelial Lineage Cells and Enhance Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liwen; Tredget, Edward E.; Wu, Philip Y. G.; Wu, Yaojiong

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been shown to enhance wound healing; however, the mechanisms involved are barely understood. In this study, we examined paracrine factors released by BM-MSCs and their effects on the cells participating in wound healing compared to those released by dermal fibroblasts. Analyses of BM-MSCs with Real-Time PCR and of BM-MSC-conditioned medium by antibody-based protein array and ELISA indicated that BM-MSCs secreted distinctively different cytokines and chemokines, such as greater amounts of VEGF-?, IGF-1, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, angiopoietin-1, stromal derived factor-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and beta and erythropoietin, compared to dermal fibroblasts. These molecules are known to be important in normal wound healing. BM-MSC-conditioned medium significantly enhanced migration of macrophages, keratinocytes and endothelial cells and proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells compared to fibroblast-conditioned medium. Moreover, in a mouse model of excisional wound healing, where concentrated BM-MSC-conditioned medium was applied, accelerated wound healing occurred compared to administration of pre-conditioned or fibroblast-conditioned medium. Analysis of cell suspensions derived from the wound by FACS showed that wounds treated with BM-MSC-conditioned medium had increased proportions of CD4/80-postive macrophages and Flk-1-, CD34- or c-kit-positive endothelial (progenitor) cells compared to wounds treated with pre-conditioned medium or fibroblast-conditioned medium. Consistent with the above findings, immunohistochemical analysis of wound sections showed that wounds treated with BM-MSC-conditioned medium had increased abundance of macrophages. Our results suggest that factors released by BM-MSCs recruit macrophages and endothelial lineage cells into the wound thus enhancing wound healing. PMID:18382669

  20. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Malcolm B; Guo, Chunxiao; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F

    2014-09-01

    Production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (hCAP18/LL-37), is regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and is critical in the killing of pathogens by innate immune cells. In addition, secreted LL-37 binds extracellular receptors and modulates the recruitment and activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Evidence suggests that during infections activated immune cells locally produce increased levels of 1,25D3 thus increasing production of hCAP18/LL-37. The relative expression levels of hCAP18/LL-37 among different immune cell types are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in human peripheral blood immune cells and determine to what extent 1,25D3 increased its expression in peripheral blood-derived cells. We show for the first time, a hierarchy of expression of hCAP18 in freshly isolated cells with low levels in lymphocytes, intermediate levels in monocytes and the highest levels found in neutrophils. In peripheral blood-derived cells, the highest levels of hCAP18 following treatment with 1,25D3 were in macrophages, while comparatively lower levels were found in GM-CSF-derived dendritic cells and osteoclasts. We also tested whether treatment with parathyroid hormone in combination with 1,25D3 would enhance hCAP18 induction as has been reported in skin cells, but we did not find enhancement in any immune cells tested. Our results indicate that hCAP18 is expressed at different levels according to cell type and lineage. Furthermore, potent induction of hCAP18 by 1,25D3 in macrophages and dendritic cells may modulate functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells at sites of infection. PMID:24565560

  1. Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Malcolm B.; Guo, Chunxiao; Borregaard, Niels; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2014-01-01

    Production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene (hCAP18/LL-37), is regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and is critical in the killing of pathogens by innate immune cells. In addition, secreted LL-37 binds extracellular receptors and modulates the recruitment and activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. Evidence suggests that during infections activated immune cells locally produce increased levels of 1,25D3 thus increasing production of hCAP18/LL-37. The relative expression levels of hCAP18/LL-37 among different immune cell types are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in human peripheral blood immune cells and determine to what extent 1,25D3 increased its expression in peripheral blood-derived cells. We show for the first time, a hierarchy of expression of hCAP18 in freshly isolated cells with low levels in lymphocytes, intermediate levels in monocytes and the highest levels found in neutrophils. In peripheral blood-derived cells, the highest levels of hCAP18 following treatment with 1,25D3 were in macrophages, while comparatively lower levels were found in GM-CSF-derived dendritic cells and osteoclasts. We also tested whether treatment with parathyroid hormone in combination with 1,25D3 would enhance hCAP18 induction as has been reported in skin cells, but we did not find enhancement in any immune cells tested. Our results indicate that hCAP18 is expressed at different levels according to cell type and lineage. Furthermore, potent induction of hCAP18 by 1,25D3 in macrophages and dendritic cells may modulate functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells at sites of infection. PMID:24565560

  2. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanomaterials in Murine Macrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanomaterials are increasingly used as antimicrobial agents in a variety of products. Although there is considerable potential for human exposure to these nanomaterials, little is known about the health risks associated with their use. Macrophages are prominent immune cell...

  3. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. III. Macrophage resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of hamsters to microwave (MW) energy (2.45 GHz, 25 mW/cm2, 1 h) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages (PM) to a viricidal state restricting the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The PM from MW-exposed hamsters were viricidal as early as 1 day after exposure and remained active for 5 days. Immunization of hamsters with vaccinia virus induced viricidal PM by 3 to 4 days and they remained active for 7 days. To test the hypothesis that thermogenic MW exposure results in the release of endotoxin across the intestinal epithelium which subsequently activates PM, hamsters were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their viricidal activity was studied. Lipopolysaccharide in vitro (0.2 microgram) and in vivo (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages to a viricidal state. When administered in vivo, LPS (0.5 microgram) activated macrophages as early as 1 day and the activity remained for 3 days. While MW exposure of PM in vitro failed to induce viricidal activity, exposure of PM to LPS in vitro induced strong viricidal activity. This suggests that the in vivo response of PM to MW is an indirect one, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MW-induced PM viricidal activity may be mediated via LPS. In preliminary experiments, MW exposure resulted in extended survival time for hamsters challenged with a lethal dose of vesicular stomatitis virus, supporting the concept that MW-activated PM may be a useful therapeutic modality.

  4. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  5. Regulation of macrophage development and function in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Yonit; Mortha, Arthur; Rahman, Adeeb; Merad, Miriam

    2015-11-25

    Macrophages are immune cells of haematopoietic origin that provide crucial innate immune defence and have tissue-specific functions in the regulation and maintenance of organ homeostasis. Recent studies of macrophage ontogeny, as well as transcriptional and epigenetic identity, have started to reveal the decisive role of the tissue stroma in the regulation of macrophage function. These findings suggest that most macrophages seed the tissues during embryonic development and functionally specialize in response to cytokines and metabolites that are released by the stroma and drive the expression of unique transcription factors. In this Review, we discuss how recent insights into macrophage ontogeny and macrophage-stroma interactions contribute to our understanding of the crosstalk that shapes macrophage function and the maintenance of organ integrity. PMID:26603899

  6. Regulation of the Expression of Chaperone gp96 in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Lutz; Fischbeck, Anne; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Wojtal, Kacper A.; Lang, Silvia; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The chaperone function of the ER-residing heat shock protein gp96 plays an important role in protein physiology and has additionally important immunological functions due to its peptide-binding capacity. Low amounts of gp96 stimulate immunity; high quantities induce tolerance by mechanisms not fully understood. A lack of gp96 protein in intestinal macrophages (IMACs) from Crohn`s disease (CD) patients correlates with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora, leading to chronic inflammation. Since gp96 shows dose-dependent direction of immunological reactions, we studied primary IMACs and developed cell models to understand the regulation of gp96 expression. Induction of gp96-expression was higher in in vitro differentiated dendritic cells (i.v.DCs) than in in vitro differentiated macrophages (i.v.MACs), whereas monocytes (MOs) expressed only low gp96 levels. The highest levels of expression were found in IMACs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramyl dipeptide (MDP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and Interleukin (IL)-4 induced gp96-expression, while IL12, IL-17, IL-23 and interferon (IFN)-? were not effective indicating that Th1 and Th17 cells are probably not involved in the induction of gp96. Furthermore, gp96 was able to induce its own expression. The ER-stress inducer tunicamycin increased gp96-expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD patients showed significantly elevated gp96 mRNA levels in intestinal biopsies which correlated positively with the degree of inflammation of the tissue. Since gp96 is highly expressed on the one hand upon stress induction as during inflammation and on the other hand possibly mediating tolerance, these results will help to understand the whether gp96 plays a role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:24146856

  7. Setting the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells co-cultured with canine macrophages infected with Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Ker, Henrique Gama; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Sant'Ana, Rita de Cássia Oliveira; Wardini, Amanda Brito; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2015-07-30

    New methods for evaluating the canine immune system are necessary, not only to monitor immunological disorders, but also to provide insights for vaccine evaluations and therapeutic interventions, reducing the costs of assays using dog models, and provide a more rational way for analyzing the canine immune response. The present study intended to establish an in vitro toll to assess the parasitological/immunological status of dogs, applicable in pre-clinical trials of vaccinology, prognosis follow-up and therapeutics analysis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. We have evaluated the performance of co-culture systems of canine Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages with different cell ratios of total lymphocytes or purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected dogs were used for the system set up. Employing the co-culture systems of L. chagasi-infected macrophages and purified CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell subsets we observed a microenvironment compatible with the expected status of the analyzed dogs. In this context, it was clearly demonstrated that, at this selected T-cell:target ratio, the adaptive immune response of uninfected dogs, composed by L. chagasi-unprimed T-cells was not able to perform the in vitro killing of L. chagasi-infected macrophages. Our data demonstrated that the co-culture system with T-cells from uninfected dogs at 1:5 and 1:2 ratio did not control the infection, yielding to patent in vitro parasitism (? 80%), low NO production (? 5 ?M) and IL-10 modulated (IFN-?/IL-10 ? 2) immunological profile in vitro. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells at 1:5 or 1:2 ratio to L. chagasi-infected macrophages seems to be ideal for in vitro assays. This co-culture system may have great potential as a canine immunological analysis method, as well as in vaccine evaluations, prognosis follow-up and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26095951

  8. Inhibition of NOS-NO System Prevents Autoimmune Orchitis Development in Rats: Relevance of NO Released by Testicular Macrophages in Germ Cell Apoptosis and Testosterone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jarazo Dietrich, Sabrina; Fass, Mónica Irina; Jacobo, Patricia Verónica; Sobarzo, Cristian Marcelo Alejandro; Lustig, Livia; Theas, María Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the testis is considered an immunoprivileged organ it can orchestrate immune responses against pathological insults such as infection and trauma. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of chronic inflammation whose main histopathological features it shares with human orchitis. In EAO an increased number of macrophages infiltrate the interstitium concomitantly with progressive germ cell degeneration and impaired steroidogenesis. Up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO)-NO synthase (NOS) system occurs, macrophages being the main producers of NO. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NO-NOS system in orchitis development and determine the involvement of NO released by testicular macrophages on germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion. Method and Results EAO was induced in rats by immunization with testicular homogenate and adjuvants (E group) and a group of untreated normal rats (N) was also studied. Blockage of NOS by i.p. injection of E rats with a competitive inhibitor of NOS, L-NAME (8mg/kg), significantly reduced the incidence and severity of orchitis and lowered testicular nitrite content. L-NAME reduced germ cell apoptosis and restored intratesticular testosterone levels, without variations in serum LH. Co-culture of N testicular fragments with testicular macrophages obtained from EAO rats significantly increased germ cell apoptosis and testosterone secretion, whereas addition of L-NAME lowered both effects and reduced nitrite content. Incubation of testicular fragments from N rats with a NO donor DETA-NOnoate (DETA-NO) induced germ cell apoptosis through external and internal apoptotic pathways, an effect prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DETA-NO inhibited testosterone released from Leydig cells, whereas NAC (from 2.5 to 15 mM) did not prevent this effect. Conclusions We demonstrated that NO-NOS system is involved in the impairment of testicular function in orchitis. NO secreted mainly by testicular macrophages could promote oxidative stress inducing ST damage and interfering in Leydig cell function. PMID:26046347

  9. Effects of Androgen Treatment on Expression of Macrophage Fc? Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, F.; Ruiz, P.; Lopez, R.; Rivera, C.; Romero, S.; Bernal, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Macrophage Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) play an important role in the host defense against infection and in the pathophysiology of immune cytopenias. Modulation of macrophage Fc?R expression is a potential therapeutic approach to immune disorders. Glucocorticoids and progesterones decrease macrophage Fc?R expression. We assessed the effect of treatment with androgens and antiandrogens on the expression of macrophage Fc?Rs using an experimental guinea pig model. Four androgens (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, mesterolone, and danazol) and five antiandrogens (flutamide, nilutamide, cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and finasteride) were studied. Following in vivo treatment of guinea pigs, we determined the clearance of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-sensitized erythrocytes in vivo, the binding of IgG-sensitized erythrocytes by isolated splenic macrophages, and splenic macrophage Fc?R cell surface expression. All of the androgens impaired the clearance of IgG-sensitized erythrocytes by decreasing splenic macrophage Fc?R expression. Dihydrotestosterone and mesterolone were more effective than testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy with monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that the androgens decreased the cell surface expression of Fc?R1,2 more than that of Fc?R2. Antiandrogens did not significantly alter macrophage Fc?R expression. Nevertheless, antiandrogens counteracted the effects of androgens on macrophage Fc?R expression. These data indicate that androgens impair the clearance of IgG-coated cells by decreasing splenic macrophage Fc?R expression. Thus, androgens other than danazol are candidate drugs for the treatment of immune disorders. PMID:10882672

  10. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-?B was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-?B activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-? secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  11. Macrophages and Kidney Disease: Macrophages and Immunological Inflammation of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Monocyte derived tissue effector cells, macrophages, are present in large numbers in all forms of kidney disease with inflammation. Their roles in inflammation and the molecular effectors of macrophage function have been difficult to decipher. With the advent of modern genetic tools and mouse models of human disease, great insight into monocyte/macrophage biology has been forthcoming. In this review we will place macrophage study in its historical context, define immunological diseases of the kidney, and broaden its definition to encompass current thinking of the immune response to kidney injury, highlight key advances of the study of monocyte/macrophages in kidney diseases, and identify new therapeutic pathways and targets that hinge around macrophage function. Here we advance the case that targeting macrophage activation and phenotype is leading to new therapies in treatment of many acute and chronic kidney diseases. PMID:20620669

  12. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NF?B pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  13. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor Directly Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and uPAR Expression of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Diane R.; Dridi, Sami; Wu, Jason; Jiang, Weihua; Huang, Bin; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Fannon, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth. Its activity, however, has been attributed to indirect mechanisms such as boosting the immune response by activating macrophages and inhibiting the blood vessel growth necessary for the growth of tumors. Methods and Findings In this study we show for the first time that DBP-maf exhibits a direct and potent effect on prostate tumor cells in the absence of macrophages. DBP-maf demonstrated inhibitory activity in proliferation studies of both LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as metastatic clones of these cells. Flow cytometry studies with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that this inhibitory activity is not due to apoptosis or cell death. DBP-maf also had the ability to inhibit migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Finally, DBP-maf was shown to cause a reduction in urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in prostate tumor cells. There is evidence that activation of this receptor correlates with tumor metastasis. Conclusions These studies show strong inhibitory activity of DBP-maf on prostate tumor cells independent of its macrophage activation. PMID:20976141

  14. Morphine Modulates Interleukin-4- or Breast Cancer Cell-induced Pro-metastatic Activation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Khabbazi, Samira; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment play a key role in the control of invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Macrophages display a range of activation states in specific pathological contexts and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages can promote tumour aggressiveness. Opioids are able to modulate tumour growth and metastasis. We tested whether morphine modulates the activation of macrophages induced by (i) interleukin-4 (IL-4), the prototypical M2 polarization-inducing cytokine, or (ii) coculture with breast cancer cells. We showed that IL-4 causes increased MMP-9 production and expression of the alternative activation markers arginase-1 and MRC-1. Morphine prevented IL-4-induced increase in MMP-9 in a naloxone- and methylnaltrexone-reversible fashion. Morphine also prevented IL-4-elicited alternative activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of MMP-9 and arginase-1 were increased when RAW264.7 were subjected to paracrine activation by 4T1 cells, and this effect was prevented by morphine via an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Morphine further decreased 4T1 breast cancer cell invasion elicited by co-culture with RAW264.7. Reduction of MMP-9 expression and alternative activation of macrophages by morphine was confirmed using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that morphine may modulate tumour aggressiveness by regulating macrophage protease production and M2 polarization within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26078009

  15. Regulation of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells by the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Riether, C; Schürch, C M; Ochsenbein, A F

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare, multipotent cells that generate via progenitor and precursor cells of all blood lineages. Similar to normal hematopoiesis, leukemia is also hierarchically organized and a subpopulation of leukemic cells, the leukemic stem cells (LSCs), is responsible for disease initiation and maintenance and gives rise to more differentiated malignant cells. Although genetically abnormal, LSCs share many characteristics with normal HSCs, including quiescence, multipotency and self-renewal. Normal HSCs reside in a specialized microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM), the so-called HSC niche that crucially regulates HSC survival and function. Many cell types including osteoblastic, perivascular, endothelial and mesenchymal cells contribute to the HSC niche. In addition, the BM functions as primary and secondary lymphoid organ and hosts various mature immune cell types, including T and B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages that contribute to the HSC niche. Signals derived from the HSC niche are necessary to regulate demand-adapted responses of HSCs and progenitor cells after BM stress or during infection. LSCs occupy similar niches and depend on signals from the BM microenvironment. However, in addition to the cell types that constitute the HSC niche during homeostasis, in leukemia the BM is infiltrated by activated leukemia-specific immune cells. Leukemic cells express different antigens that are able to activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It is well documented that activated T cells can contribute to the control of leukemic cells and it was hoped that these cells may be able to target and eliminate the therapy-resistant LSCs. However, the actual interaction of leukemia-specific T cells with LSCs remains ill-defined. Paradoxically, many immune mechanisms that evolved to activate emergency hematopoiesis during infection may actually contribute to the expansion and differentiation of LSCs, promoting leukemia progression. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which the immune system regulates HSCs and LSCs. PMID:24992931

  16. IRF3 polymorphisms induce different innate anti-Theiler's virus immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Tyler C.; Al-Salleeh, Fahd M.; Brown, Deborah M.; Petro, Thomas M.

    2011-09-15

    Persistent viral infections can lead to disease such as myocarditis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infects macrophages of SJL/J (H-2s) mice establishing persistent infections leading to demyelinating disease. In contrast macrophages from B10.S (H-2s) mice clear TMEV. Activation of the transcription factor IRF3 induces IFN{beta}, ISG56, and apoptosis for viral clearance, but also inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL6, which contribute to disease. Here we identify polymorphisms in the IRF3 of SJL/J versus B10.S mice that are located in DNA binding, nuclear localization, and autoinhibitory domains. SJL-IRF3 expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells with or without TMEV infection decreased IL-23p19 promoter activity compared with B10S-IRF3. In contrast SJL-IRF3 increased IL-6, ISG56 and IFN{beta} in response to TMEV. B10S-IRF3 expression augmented apoptotic caspase activation and decreased viral RNA in TMEV-infected macrophages while SJL-IRF3 increased viral replication with less caspase activation. Therefore IRF3 polymorphisms contribute to viral persistence and altered cytokine expression.

  17. Imaging macrophages in trehalose with SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, S. A.; Kurczy, M. E.; Fan, X.; Halleck, M. S.; Schlegel, R. A.; Winograd, N.

    2008-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a major component of the animal immune system where apoptotic cellular material, metabolites, and waste are safely processed. Further, efficient phagocytosis by macrophages is key to maintaining healthy vascular systems and preventing atherosclerosis. Single-cell images of macrophage phagocytosis of red blood cells, RBCs, and polystyrene microspheres have been chemically mapped with TOF-SIMS. We demonstrate here cholesterol and phosphocholine localizations as relative to time and activity.

  18. Secretome identification of immune cell factors mediating metastatic cell homing

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Wu, Jia J.; Azarin, Samira M.; Nanavati, Dhaval; Rao, Shreyas S.; Bushnell, Grace G.; Medicherla, Chaitanya B.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cell homing is a complex process mediated in part by diffusible factors secreted from immune cells found at a pre-metastatic niche. We report on connecting secretomics and TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER) data to identify functional paracrine interactions between immune cells and metastatic cells as novel mediators of homing. Metastatic breast cancer mouse models were used to generate a diseased splenocyte conditioned media (D-SCM) containing immune cell secreted factors. MDA-MB-231 metastatic cell activity including cell invasion, migration, transendothelial migration, and proliferation were increased in D-SCM relative to control media. Our D-SCM secretome analysis yielded 144 secreted factor candidates that contribute to increased metastatic cell activity. The functional mediators of homing were identified using MetaCore software to determine interactions between the immune cell secretome and the TRACER-identified active transcription factors within metastatic cells. Among the 5 candidate homing factors identified, haptoglobin was selected and validated in vitro and in vivo as a key mediator of homing. Our studies demonstrate a novel systems biology approach to identify functional signaling factors associated with a cellular phenotype, which provides an enabling tool that complements large-scale protein identification provided by proteomics. PMID:26634905

  19. Secretome identification of immune cell factors mediating metastatic cell homing.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Brian A; Wu, Jia J; Azarin, Samira M; Nanavati, Dhaval; Rao, Shreyas S; Bushnell, Grace G; Medicherla, Chaitanya B; Shea, Lonnie D

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cell homing is a complex process mediated in part by diffusible factors secreted from immune cells found at a pre-metastatic niche. We report on connecting secretomics and TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER) data to identify functional paracrine interactions between immune cells and metastatic cells as novel mediators of homing. Metastatic breast cancer mouse models were used to generate a diseased splenocyte conditioned media (D-SCM) containing immune cell secreted factors. MDA-MB-231 metastatic cell activity including cell invasion, migration, transendothelial migration, and proliferation were increased in D-SCM relative to control media. Our D-SCM secretome analysis yielded 144 secreted factor candidates that contribute to increased metastatic cell activity. The functional mediators of homing were identified using MetaCore software to determine interactions between the immune cell secretome and the TRACER-identified active transcription factors within metastatic cells. Among the 5 candidate homing factors identified, haptoglobin was selected and validated in vitro and in vivo as a key mediator of homing. Our studies demonstrate a novel systems biology approach to identify functional signaling factors associated with a cellular phenotype, which provides an enabling tool that complements large-scale protein identification provided by proteomics. PMID:26634905

  20. De novo Generation of Cells within Human Nurse Macrophages and Consequences following HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gartner, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Nurse cells are defined as those that provide for the development of other cells. We report here, that in vitro, human monocyte-derived macrophages can behave as nurse cells with functional capabilities that include de novo generation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and a previously unknown small cell with monocytoid characteristics. We named these novel cells “self-renewing monocytoid cells” (SRMC), because they could develop into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of SRMC. SRMC were not detectable in blood. Their transition to nurse behavior was characterized by expression of CD10, a marker of thymic epithelium and bone marrow stroma, typically absent on macrophages. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunostaining for cdc6 expression confirmed DNA synthesis within nurse macrophages. T-cell excision circles were detected in macrophages, along with expression of pre-T-cell receptor alpha and recombination activating gene 1, suggesting that genetic recombination events associated with generation of the T-cell receptor were occurring in these cells. SRMC expressed CCR5, the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 isolates, and were highly susceptible to HIV-1 entry leading to productive infection. While expressing HIV-1, SRMC could differentiate into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of HIV-1-expressing SRMC. The infected nurse macrophage/SRMC cycle could continue in vitro for multiple generations, suggesting it might represent a mechanism whereby HIV-1 can maintain persistence in vivo. HIV-1 infection of nurse macrophages led to a decline in CD4+ T-cell production. There was severe, preferential loss of the CCR5+ CD4+ T-cell subpopulation. Confocal microscopy revealed individual HIV-1-expressing nurse macrophages simultaneously producing both HIV-1-expressing SRMC and non-expressing CD3+ cells, suggesting that nurse macrophages might be a source of latently infected CD4+ T-cells. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed this by demonstrating 10-fold more HIV-1-genome-harboring T-cells, than virus-expressing ones. These phenomena have far-reaching implications, and elicit new perspectives regarding HIV pathogenesis and T-cell and hematopoietic cell development. PMID:22911696

  1. Participation of leukemia cells in immune responses.

    PubMed

    Borani?, M; Poljak-Bla?i, M; Rada?i?, M; Gabrilovac, J; Hr?ak, I

    1976-01-01

    Cells of a transplantable lymphoid leukemia of mice were tested in vivo and in vitro to see which features of normal lymphoid cells were retained in spite of malignant transformation and lack of growth control. Leukemia cells phagocytosed, adhered to glass, possessed receptors for immunoglobulin, participated in the immune response against SRBC (probably by amplifying a normal response through attachement of antibodies on their surfaces), became recruited into inflammatory reactions elicited by grafting allogeneic of syngeneic skin, and apparently joined graft-versus-host and host-versus-graft reactions, contributing toward damage of hemopoietic target tissues. PMID:12544

  2. Lipoprotein in the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus is a major inducer of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Joong; Ahn, Ki Bum; Jeon, Jun Ho; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Finlay, B Brett; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes inflammation at infection sites by inducing various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). To identify the staphylococcal virulence factors contributing to NO production, we compared the ability of ethanol-killed wild-type S. aureus and mutant strains lacking lipoteichoic acid (?ltaS), lipoproteins (?lgt), or d-alanine (?dltA) to stimulate NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and the primary macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice. Wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner but this response was not observed when the cells were stimulated with the ?lgt strain. Moreover, purified lipoproteins triggered NO production in macrophages. Coincident with NO induction, the wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) at both mRNA and protein levels whereas ?lgt failed to induce iNOS protein or mRNA. Transient transfection followed by a reporter gene assay and Western blotting experiments demonstrated that wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains, but not the ?lgt strain, induced substantial activation of NF-?B and STAT1 phosphorylation, both of which are known to be crucial for iNOS expression. Moreover, wild-type, ?ltaS, and ?dltA strains increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is known to mediate S. aureus-induced innate immunity, whereas the ?lgt strain did not. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoproteins in the cell wall of S. aureus play a major role in the induction of NO production in murine macrophages through activation of the TLR2 receptor. PMID:25600878

  3. The adjuvant effect of Corynebacterium parvum: T-cell dependence of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Splenic and peritoneal macrophages from mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum enhanced the antibody response in vitro of normal nonadherent spleen cells to SRBC, but not to DNP-POL. This enhancement was dependent on the dose and time of administration of C. parvum and could be abrogated by pretreatment with carrageenan. Macrophages from T-cell-depleted mice failed to enhance the response, but this ability was restored if the mice had been reconstituted with purified T lymphocytes. Macrophages that are activated by C. parvum are a resident nondividing population. It is postulated that activated macrophages, capable of enhancing antibody responses to T-cell- dependent antigens, arise through a cell-mediated reaction to C. parvum. PMID:299769

  4. Adipose tissue macrophages induce PPAR?-high FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Toshiharu; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Jang, Myoung Ho; Shin, Jihoon; Aoi, Keita; Kikuta, Junichi; Otsuki, Michio; Ishii, Masaru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Numerous regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in adipose tissues compared with other lymphoid or non-lymphoid tissues. Adipose Tregs regulate inflammatory state and insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism that maintains Tregs in adipose tissue remains unclear. Here, we revealed the contribution of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to the induction and proliferation of adipose Tregs. ATMs isolated from mice under steady state conditions induced Tregs with high expression of PPAR? compared with splenic dendritic cells in vitro. Furthermore, ATMs from obese mice prompted the differentiation of PPAR? low Tregs. Adoptive transfer of ATMs induced differentiation and proliferation of Tregs, whereas depletion of ATMs by clodronate-liposome resulted in reduction of adipose Tregs, in vivo. Deficiency of anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, Adipoq, resulted in small proportions of ATMs and adipose Tregs without alteration of other immune cells in vivo. Therefore, these data suggest that the abundance of Tregs in adipose tissue could be partly attributed to the ability of ATMs to induce PPAR?-expressing Tregs. PMID:26582486

  5. Platelets and their interactions with other immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fong W.; Vijayan, K. Vinod; Rumbaut, Rolando E.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate blood cells, long known to be critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. In addition to their role in blood clots, increasing evidence reveals significant roles for platelets in inflammation and immunity. However, the notion that platelets represent immune cells is not broadly recognized in the field of Physiology. This manuscript reviews the role of platelets in inflammation and immune responses, and highlights their interactions with other immune cells, including examples of major functional consequences of these interactions. PMID:26140718

  6. Calcium signaling in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Monika; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Resting lymphocytes maintain a low concentration of Ca2+. However, engagement of antigen receptors induces calcium influx from the extracellular space by several routes. A chief mechanism of Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes is through store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The identification of two important molecular components of SOC channels, CRACM1 (the pore-forming subunit) and STIM1 (the sensor of stored calcium), has allowed genetic and molecular manipulation of the SOC entry pathway. In this review, we highlight advances in the understanding of Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes with special emphasis on SOC entry. We also discuss outstanding questions and probable future directions of the field. PMID:19088738

  7. HGFL supports mammary tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell intrinsic survival and influencing macrophage and T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Benight, Nancy M.; Wagh, Purnima K.; Zinser, Glendon M.; Peace, Belinda E.; Stuart, William D.; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Ron receptor is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is associated with heightened metastasis and poor survival. Ron overexpression in the mammary epithelium of mice is sufficient to induce aggressive mammary tumors with a high degree of metastasis. Despite the well-documented role of Ron in breast cancer, few studies have examined the necessity of the endogenous Ron ligand, hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) in mammary tumorigenesis. Herein, mammary tumor growth and metastasis were examined in mice overexpressing Ron in the mammary epithelium with or without HGFL. HGFL ablation decreased oncogenic Ron activation and delayed mammary tumor initiation. HGFL was important for tumor cell proliferation and survival. HGFL loss resulted in increased numbers of macrophages and T-cells within the tumor. T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity dramatically increased in HGFL deficient mice. Biochemical analysis of HGFL proficient tumors showed increased local HGFL production, with HGFL loss decreasing ?-catenin expression and NF-?B activation. Re-expression of HGFL in HGFL deficient tumor cells stimulated cell migration and invasion with coordinate activation of NF-?B and reduced apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate critical in vivo functions for HGFL in promoting breast tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting HGFL may inhibit tumor growth and reactivate anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:25938541

  8. The Effects of Shiga Toxin 1, 2 and Their Subunits on Cytokine and Chemokine Expression by Human Macrophage-Like THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brandelli, Jeremy R.; Griener, Thomas P.; Laing, Austin; Mulvey, George; Armstrong, Glen D.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) results in severe diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and, occasionally, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, many of which are produced by macrophages in the kidneys, indicating that localized host innate immunity likely plays a role in renal pathogenesis. EHEC serotypes may express one or two classes of serologically defined but structurally and functionally-related Shiga toxins called Stx1 and Stx2. Of these, Stx2 appears to be linked to higher rates of HUS than Stx1. To investigate a possible reason for this, we exposed human macrophage-like THP-1 cells to Stx1 or Stx2 and then used the Luminex multiplex system to assess cytokine/chemokine concentrations in culture supernatant solutions. This analysis revealed that, relative to Stx1, Stx2 significantly caused increased expression of GRO, G-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF? in macrophage-like THP-1 cells. This was determined to not be due to a difference in cytotoxicity since both Stx1 and Stx2 displayed similar cytotoxic activities on macrophage-like THP-1 cells. These observations indicate that, in vitro, Stx2 can provoke a greater pro-inflammatory response than Stx1 in macrophages and provides a possible partial explanation for higher rates of HUS in patients infected with EHEC strains expressing Stx2. To begin to determine a mechanism for Shiga toxin-mediated cytokine production, we exposed macrophage-like THP-1 cells to Stx1 or Stx2 A and B subunits. Luminex analysis of cytokines in cell culture supernatant solutions demonstrated that neither subunit alone induced a cytokine response in THP-1 cells. PMID:26473922

  9. Desialylation of dying cells with catalytically active antibodies possessing sialidase activity facilitate their clearance by human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tomin, A; Dumych, T; Tolstyak, Y; Kril, I; Mahorivska, I; Bila, E; Stoika, R; Herrmann, M; Kit, Y; Bilyy, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently we reported the first known incidence of antibodies possessing catalytic sialidase activity (sialidase abzymes) in the serum of patients with multiple myeloma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies desialylate biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, gangliosides and red blood cells. Desialylation of dying cells was demonstrated to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. In this study we assessed the possibility to facilitate dying cell clearance with the use of F(ab)2 fragments of sialidase abzymes. Two sources of sialidase abzymes were used: (i) those isolated from sera of patients with SLE after preliminary screening of a cohort of patients for sialidase activity; and (ii) by creating an induced sialidase abzyme through immunization of a rabbit with synthetic hapten consisting of a non-hydrolysable analogue of sialidase reaction conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Antibodies were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, protein-G affinity chromatography and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-SEC). Effect of desialylation on efferocytosis was studied using human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), both viable and aged, as prey, and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMa). Treatment of apoptotic and viable prey with both disease-associated (purified from blood serum of SLE patients) and immunization-induced (obtained by immunization of rabbits) sialidase abzymes, its F(ab)2 fragment and bacterial neuraminidase (as positive control) have significantly enhanced the clearance of prey by macrophages. We conclude that sialidase abzyme can serve as a protective agent in autoimmune patients and that artificial abzymes may be of potential therapeutic value. PMID:24580640

  10. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, A.; Frankenburg, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine.

  11. Are Platelets Cells? And if Yes, are They Immune Cells?

    PubMed

    Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Small fragments circulating in the blood were formally identified by the end of the nineteenth century, and it was suggested that they assisted coagulation via interactions with vessel endothelia. Wright, at the beginning of the twentieth century, identified their bone-marrow origin. For long, platelets have been considered sticky assistants of hemostasis and pollutants of blood or tissue samples; they were just cell fragments. As such, however, they were acknowledged as immunizing (to specific HPA and HLA markers): the platelet's dark face. The enlightened face showed that besides hemostasis, platelets contained factors involved in healing. As early as 1930s, platelets entered the arsenal of medicines were transfused, and were soon manipulated to become a kind of glue to repair damaged tissues. Some gladly categorized platelets as cells but they were certainly not fully licensed as such for cell physiologists. Actually, platelets possess almost every characteristic of cells, apart from being capable of organizing their genes: they have neither a nucleus nor genes. This view prevailed until it became evident that platelets play a role in homeostasis and interact with cells other than with vascular endothelial cells; then began the era of physiological and also pathological inflammation. Platelets have now entered the field of immunity as inflammatory cells. Does assistance to immune cells itself suffice to license a cell as an "immune cell"? Platelets prove capable of sensing different types of signals and organizing an appropriate response. Many cells can do that. However, platelets can use a complete signalosome (apart from the last transcription step, though it is likely that this step can be circumvented by retrotranscribing RNA messages). The question has also arisen as to whether platelets can present antigen via their abundantly expressed MHC class I molecules. In combination, these properties argue in favor of allowing platelets the title of immune cells. PMID:25750642

  12. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocytosing PLC-LDL. The uptake and degradation of {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL by human macrophages was inhibited >80% by the monoclonal antibody C7 (IgG2b) produced by hybridoma C7, which blocks the ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Similarly, methylation of {sup 125}I-LDL ({sup 125}I-MeLDL) prior to treatment with phospholipase C decreased its subsequent uptake and degradation by human macrophages by >90%. The uptake and degradation of phospholipase C-modified {sup 125}I-MeLDL by macrophages could be restored by incubation of the methylated lipoprotein with apoprotein E, a ligand recognized by the LDL receptor. These results indicate that macrophages internalize PLC-LDL by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis.

  13. Dynamics of Salmonella infection of macrophages at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Gog, Julia R; Murcia, Alicia; Osterman, Natan; Restif, Olivier; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Sheppard, Mark; Achouri, Sarra; Wei, Bin; Mastroeni, Pietro; Wood, James L N; Maskell, Duncan J; Cicuta, Pietro; Bryant, Clare E

    2012-10-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a range of diseases. Salmonellae are intracellular parasites of macrophages, and the control of bacteria within these cells is critical to surviving an infection. The dynamics of the bacteria invading, surviving, proliferating in and killing macrophages are central to disease pathogenesis. Fundamentally important parameters, however, such as the cellular infection rate, have not previously been calculated. We used two independent approaches to calculate the macrophage infection rate: mathematical modelling of Salmonella infection experiments, and analysis of real-time video microscopy of infection events. Cells repeatedly encounter salmonellae, with the bacteria often remain associated with the macrophage for more than ten seconds. Once Salmonella encounters a macrophage, the probability of that bacterium infecting the cell is remarkably low: less than 5%. The macrophage population is heterogeneous in terms of its susceptibility to the first infection event. Once infected, a macrophage can undergo further infection events, but these reinfection events occur at a lower rate than that of the primary infection. PMID:22552918

  14. [Multiplication of Brucella abortus and production of nitric oxide in two macrophage cell lines of different origin].

    PubMed

    Serafino, J; Conde, S; Zabal, O; Samartino, L

    2007-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a bacterium which causes abortions and infertility in cattle and undulant fever in humans. It multiplies intracellularly, evading the mechanisms of cellular death. Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of the immune response. In the present work, we studied the ability of three B. abortus strains to survive intracellularly in two macrophage cell lines. The bacterial multiplication in both cell lines was determined at two different times in UFC/ ml units. Moreover the inoculated cells were also observed under light-field and fluorescence microscopy stained with Giemsa and acridine orange, respectively. The stain of both cellular lines showed similar results with respect to the UFC/ml determination. The presence of B. abortus was confirmed by electronic microscopy. In both macrophage cell lines inoculated with the rough strain RB51, the multiplication diminished and the level of NO was higher, compared with cells inoculated with smooth strains (S19 and 2308). These results suggest that the absence of O-chain of LPS probably affects the intracellular growth of B. abortus. PMID:18390151

  15. Macrophages in Langerhans cell histiocytosis are differentiated toward M2 phenotype: their possible involvement in pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Sakashita, Naomi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Murayama, Toshihiko; Takeya, Motohiro

    2010-01-01

    Although numerous macrophages are found in the lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), their activation phenotypes and their roles in the disease process have not been clarified. Paraffin-embedded LCH samples were examined on immunohistochemistry and it was found that CD163 can be used to distinguish infiltrated macrophages from neoplastic Langerhans cells (LC). The number of CD163-positve macrophages was positively correlated with the number of multinucleated giant cells (MGC), indicating that most MGC are derived from infiltrated macrophages. A significant number of CD163-positive macrophages were positive for interleukin (IL)-10 and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3), an IL-10-induced signal transduction molecule. This indicates that these macrophages are polarized to anti-inflammatory macrophages of M2 phenotype. Tumor-derived macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was considered to responsible for inducing M2 differentiation of infiltrated macrophages. The number of CD163-positive macrophages in different cases of LCH varied, and interestingly the density of CD163-positive macrophages was inversely correlated with the Ki-67-positivity of LC. Although the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated, macrophage-derived IL-10 was considered to be involved in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation via activation of STAT3. PMID:20055949

  16. Re-wiring regulatory cell networks in immunity by galectin-glycan interactions.

    PubMed

    Blidner, Ada G; Méndez-Huergo, Santiago P; Cagnoni, Alejandro J; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2015-11-14

    Programs that control immune cell homeostasis are orchestrated through the coordinated action of a number of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, alternatively-activated macrophages and tolerogenic dendritic cells. These regulatory cell populations can prevent harmful inflammation following completion of protective responses and thwart the development of autoimmune pathology. However, they also have a detrimental role in cancer by favoring escape from immune surveillance. One of the hallmarks of regulatory cells is their remarkable plasticity as they can be positively or negatively modulated by a plethora of cytokines, growth factors and co-stimulatory signals that tailor their differentiation, stability and survival. Here we focus on the emerging roles of galectins, a family of highly conserved glycan-binding proteins in regulating the fate and function of regulatory immune cell populations, both of lymphoid and myeloid origins. Given the broad distribution of circulating and tissue-specific galectins, understanding the relevance of lectin-glycan interactions in shaping regulatory cell compartments will contribute to the design of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating their function in a broad range of immunological disorders. PMID:26352298

  17. Biology of Bony Fish Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Jordan W.; Grayfer, Leon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type), and resolution and repair functions (anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type). The study of inflammatory macrophages in immune defense of teleosts has garnered much attention, and antimicrobial mechanisms of these cells have been extensively studied in various fish models. Intriguingly, both similarities and differences have been documented for the regulation of lower vertebrate macrophage antimicrobial defenses, as compared to what has been described in mammals. Advances in our understanding of the teleost macrophage M2 phenotypes likewise suggest functional conservation through similar and distinct regulatory strategies, compared to their mammalian counterparts. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing teleost macrophage functional heterogeneity, including monopoetic development, classical macrophage inflammatory and antimicrobial responses as well as alternative macrophage polarization towards tissues repair and resolution of inflammation. PMID:26633534

  18. Effect of age on proteasomal activity of T cells and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T cell function is impaired with aging. Proteasome activity in T cells is important for T cell activation and its activity in macrophages is required for processing antigens in order to be presented via class I major histocompatibility complex to CD8+ T cells. Since studies have demonstrated that pr...

  19. Retromer Contributes to Immunity-Associated Cell Death in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Dangl, Jeff

    Retromer Contributes to Immunity-Associated Cell Death in Arabidopsis David Munch,a,1,2 Ooi.H.) Membrane trafficking is required during plant immune responses, but its contribution to the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death (PCD) associated with effector-triggered immunity

  20. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Carthami Flos induces macrophage activation and preferentially potentiates type 1 helper T-cell response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Hwa; Do, Jeong-Su; Seo, Hyo-Jung; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jun-Hee; Song, Eun-Jung; Nam, Sang-Yun

    2007-01-01

    In vivo immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Carthami Flos (AECF) was investigated using a mouse model immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Serum level of Ag-specific IgG2a was significantly elevated by oral administration of AECF but not IgG1. However, no selective B-cell proliferation by AECF was observed in vivo. Ag-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-5 production of draining lymph node T cells also was higher in AECF-treated mice when compared with water-treated control mice. However, AECF failed to enhance nonspecific T-cell response under CD3 stimulation. These results led us to hypothesize that AECF potentiates Ag-specific T-cell response, possibly through activation of antigen presenting cells (APC) other than B cells. Functional assessment of splenic macrophages showed that AECF administration significantly enhances IL-12 production as well as APC activity for IFN-gamma production and STAT-4 activation by T cells. Collectively, these data strongly support that AECF preferentially potentiates immune response polarized toward TH1 and for which increased activation of macrophages is most likely to be responsible. The present data implicate a possible application of AECF to potentiate cellular immunity and, we hope, prevent intracellular infections. PMID:17849267

  1. Role of chicken melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in induction and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bursal disease virus in cultured macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if chicken melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) senses infectious bursal disease virus infection to induce innate immunity that bridges to adaptive immunity. During IBDV infection in HD11 cells, IBDV titers and RNA loads increased up to 3.4 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL and 1114 ng/µL, respectively, at 24 hours postinfection (hpi). IBDV infection in HD11 cells induced significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5 (59-fold), interferon-? (IFN-?) (693-fold), dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) (4-fold), 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) (286-fold), myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) (22-fold), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) (5-fold), IL-6 (146-fold), IL-8 (4-fold), IL-10 (4-fold), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (15-fold), and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) (4-fold). Nitric oxide production in the culture supernatants increased significantly (p < 0.05) up to 6.5 ?M at 24 hpi. The expressed chMDA5 and IBDV-derived dsRNA were localized in the cytoplasm of HD11 cells during IBDV infection. ChMDA5-knockdown HD11 cells had significantly higher (p < 0.05) IBDV RNA loads at 24 hpi and significantly lower (p < 0.05) nitric oxide production and expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-?, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-18, IL-10, iNOS, MHC class I and CD86 at 24 hpi. In addition, chMDA5 overexpression in HD11 cells resulted in significantly reduced (p < 0.05) IBDV titers and RNA loads and significantly increased (p < 0.05) nitric oxide production at 16 and 24 hpi. It also resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05) expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-?, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-10 and iNOS at 2 hpi. In conclusion, the results indicate that chMDA5 senses IBDV infection in chicken macrophages, and this is associated with IBDV-induced expression of IFN-? and initiation of an innate immune response that in turn activates the adaptive immune response and limits IBDV replication. PMID:26392283

  2. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  3. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 modulate innate immunity and mediate bacillary survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the 'PE only' subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  4. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzmann, Andrea; Andersson, Britta; Vogt, Carmen; Feliu, Neus; Ye Fei; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Laurent, Sophie; Vahter, Marie; Krug, Harald; Muhammed, Mamoun; Scheynius, Annika; Fadeel, Bengt

    2011-06-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  5. Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals modulate the production of inflammatory mediators and cell viability of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Gyung; Yeon, Seung-min; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Kim, Heejoong; Park, Jong-Il; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Cha, Eun Ji; Park, Hee-Deung; Kang, Hyo Jung; Park, Tae Won; Jeon, Young-Ho; Park, Young In; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Jung, Yong Woo

    2015-04-01

    Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects by comparing nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (RAW cells), a macrophage cell line. Among the EDCs tested, fenitrothion (FTH) inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), resulting in reduced NO production, while treatment with andostenedione (AD), diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), estriol, or molinate decreased production of NO in an iNOS-independent fashion. In contrast, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) increased the production of NO in RAW cells. In addition, AD, DBP, or FTH inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta. Treatment with 17-?-ethynylestradiol, 17-?-estradiol, 4-n-butyl phenol, or alachlor induced apoptosis of RAW cells, while dicyclohexyl phthalate and B(a)P caused cell death in an apoptosis-independent manner. These data suggest that EDCs can influence the immune response to pathogens by modulating the functions of macrophages. PMID:25059213

  6. Progastrin represses the alternative activation of human macrophages and modulates their influence on colon cancer epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Carlos; Barrachina, María Dolores; Cosín-Roger, Jesús; Ortiz-Masiá, Dolores; Álvarez, Ángeles; Terrádez, Liria; Nicolau, María Jesús; Alós, Rafael; Esplugues, Juan Vicente; Calatayud, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration is a negative prognostic factor for most cancers but gastrointestinal tumors seem to be an exception. The effect of macrophages on cancer progression depends on their phenotype, which may vary between M1 (pro-inflammatory, defensive) to M2 (tolerogenic, pro-tumoral). Gastrointestinal cancers often become an ectopic source of gastrins and macrophages present receptors for these peptides. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether gastrins can affect the pattern of macrophage infiltration in colorectal tumors. We have evaluated the relationship between gastrin expression and the pattern of macrophage infiltration in samples from colorectal cancer and the influence of these peptides on the phenotype of macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in vitro. The total number of macrophages (CD68+ cells) was similar in tumoral and normal surrounding tissue, but the number of M2 macrophages (CD206+ cells) was significantly higher in the tumor. However, the number of these tumor-associated M2 macrophages correlated negatively with the immunoreactivity for gastrin peptides in tumor epithelial cells. Macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in the presence of progastrin showed lower levels of M2-markers (CD206, IL10) with normal amounts of M1-markers (CD86, IL12). Progastrin induced similar effects in mature macrophages treated with IL4 to obtain a M2-phenotype or with LPS plus IFN? to generate M1-macrophages. Macrophages differentiated in the presence of progastrin presented a reduced expression of Wnt ligands and decreased the number and increased cell death of co-cultured colorectal cancer epithelial cells. Our results suggest that progastrin inhibits the acquisition of a M2-phenotype in human macrophages. This effect exerted on tumor associated macrophages may modulate cancer progression and should be taken into account when analyzing the therapeutic value of gastrin immunoneutralization. PMID:24901518

  7. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1998-01-01

    The specific aims of the project were: (1) Application of the NASA bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC). (2) Compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients. (3) Analyze the effectiveness of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in a murine model of experimental fungal disease. Our investigations have provided new insight into DC immunobiology and have led to the development of methodology to evaluate DC in blood of normal donors and patients. Information gained from these studies has broadened our understanding of possible mechanisms involved in the immune dysfunction of space travelers and earth-bound cancer patients, and could contribute to the design of novel therapies to restore/preserve immunity in these individuals. Several new avenues of investigation were also revealed. The results of studies completed during Round 2 are summarized.

  8. Toxicological studies of semiconductor quantum dots on immune cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricken, James Bryce; Rios, Lynette; Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George David; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2008-11-01

    Nanoengineered materials hold a vast promise of enabling revolutionary technologies, but also pose an emerging and potentially serious threat to human and environmental health. While there is increasing knowledge concerning the risks posed by engineered nanomaterials, significant inconsistencies exist within the current data based on the high degree of variability in the materials (e.g., synthesis method, coatings, etc) and biological test systems (e.g., cell lines, whole organism, etc). In this project, we evaluated the uptake and response of two immune cell lines (RAW macrophage and RBL mast cells) to nanocrystal quantum dots (Qdots) with different sizes and surface chemistries, and at different concentrations. The basic experimental design followed a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial model: two Qdot sizes (Qdot 520 and 620), two surface chemistries (amine 'NH{sub 2}' and carboxylic acid 'COOH'), and three concentrations (0, 1 nM, and 1 {micro}M). Based on this design, the following Qdots from Evident Technologies were used for all experiments: Qdot 520-COOH, Qdot 520-NH{sub 2}, Qdot 620-COOH, and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2}. Fluorescence and confocal imaging demonstrated that Qdot 620-COOH and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2} nanoparticles had a greater level of internalization and cell membrane association in RAW and RBL cells, respectively. From these data, a two-way interaction between Qdot size and concentration was observed in relation to the level of cellular uptake in RAW cells, and association with RBL cell membranes. Toxicity of both RBL and RAW cells was also significantly dependent on the interaction of Qdot size and concentration; the 1 {micro}M concentrations of the larger, Qdot 620 nanoparticles induced a greater toxic effect on both cell lines. The RBL data also demonstrate that Qdot exposure can induce significant toxicity independent of cellular uptake. A significant increase in TNF-{alpha} and decrease in IL-10 release was observed in RAW cells, and suggested that Qdot exposure induced a pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, significant decreases in both TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 releases were observed in RBL cells, which is indicative of a suppressed inflammatory response. The changes in cytokine release observed in RAW and RBL cells were primarily dependent on Qdot concentration and independent of size and surface chemistry. Changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase were observed in RAW, but not RBL cells, suggesting that RAW cells were experiencing oxidative stress induced by Qdot exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that the uptake/association and biomolecular response of macrophage and mast cells is primarily driven by an interaction between Qdot size and concentration. Based on these findings, a more detailed understanding of how size directly impacts cellular interactions and response will be critical to developing predictive models of Qdot toxicity.

  9. TRPM2 Channel-Mediated ROS-Sensitive Ca2+ Signaling Mechanisms in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Syed Mortadza, Sharifah Alawieyah; Wang, Lu; Li, Dongliang; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) proteins form Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that are potently activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are produced during immune responses as signaling molecules as well as anti-microbial agents. ROS-sensitive TRPM2 channels are widely expressed in cells of the immune system and located on the cell surface as a Ca2+ influx pathway in macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and microglia but preferentially within the lysosomal membranes as a Ca2+ release mechanism in dendritic cells; ROS activation of the TRPM2 channels, regardless of the subcellular location, results in an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Recent studies have revealed that TRPM2-mediated ROS-sensitive Ca2+ signaling mechanisms play a crucial role in a number of processes and functions in immune cells. This mini-review discusses the recent advances in revelation of the various roles the TRPM2 channels have in immune cell functions and the implications in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26300888

  10. Two biochemically distinct lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum trigger different innate immune responses in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dominant, cell surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is a multifunctional molecule involved in the interaction with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although the role of LPG on infection has been extensively studied, it is not known if LPG interspecies variations contribute to the different immunopathologies of leishmaniases. To investigate the issue of interspecies polymorphisms, two Leishmania species from the New World that express structural variations of side chains of LPG repeat units were examined. In this context, the procyclic form of L. braziliensis LPG (strain M2903), is devoid of side chains, while the L. infantum LPG (strain BH46) has up to three glucoses residues in the repeat units. Methods Mice peritoneal macrophages from Balb/c, C57BL/6 and knock-out (TLR2 ?/?, TLR4 ?/?) were primed with IFN-? and stimulated with purified LPG from both species. Nitric oxide and cytokine production, MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) and NF-kB activation were evaluated. Results Macrophages stimulated with L. braziliensis LPG, had a higher TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and NO production than those stimulated with that of L. infantum. Furthermore, the LPGs from the two species resulted in differential kinetics of signaling via MAPK activation. L. infantum LPG exhibited a gradual activation profile, whereas L. braziliensis LPG showed a sharp but transient activation. L. braziliensis LPG was able to activate NF-kB. Conclusion These data suggest that two biochemically distinct LPGs were able to differentially modulate macrophage functions. PMID:23497381

  11. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  12. Group A Streptococcus emm3 strains induce early macrophage cell death.

    PubMed

    Dinis, Márcia; Plainvert, Céline; Longo, Magalie; Guignot, Julie; Gabriel, Christelle; Poyart, Claire; Fouet, Agnès

    2016-03-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections present high morbidity and mortality rates and consequently remain a significant health problem. The emm3 isolates induce more severe pathologies than all others. In this study, we tested, on a collection of invasive and non-invasive emm3 clinical isolates, whether in that genotype the invasive status of the strains affects the innate immune response. We show that phagocytosis is dependent on the invasiveness of the isolates. Interestingly, all emm3 isolates compromise macrophage integrity, already noticeable 1 h after infection. Inflammatory modulators (IL-6, TNF-? and IFN-?) are nevertheless detected during at least 6 h post-infection. This is a likely consequence of the macrophages not being all infected. The efficient and rapid induction of macrophage death could explain the virulence of the emm3 strains. PMID:26702632

  13. Development and characterization of two porcine monocyte-derived macrophage cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell lines Cdelta2+ and Cdelta2- were developed from monocytes obtained from a 10-month-old, crossbred, female pig. These cells morphologically resembled macrophages, stained positively for a-naphthyl esterase and negatively for peroxidase. The cell lines were bactericidal and highly phagocytic. ...

  14. The Endothelin-Integrin Axis Is Involved in Macrophage-induced Breast Cancer Cell Chemotactic Interactions with Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chi; Chen, Li-Li; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Fan, Chi-Shuan; Huang, Tze-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Elevated macrophage infiltration in tumor tissues is associated with breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cell migration/invasion toward angiogenic microvasculature is a key step in metastatic spread. We therefore studied how macrophages stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with endothelial cells. Macrophages produced cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-?, to stimulate endothelin (ET) and ET receptor (ETR) expression in breast cancer cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). ET-1 was induced to a greater extent from HUVECs than from breast cancer cells, resulting in a density difference that facilitated cancer cell chemotaxis toward HUVECs. Macrophages also stimulated breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and transendothelial migration, which were repressed by ET-1 antibody or ETR inhibitors. The ET axis induced integrins, such as ?V and ?1, and their counterligands, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-2 and P-selectin, in breast cancer cells and HUVECs, and antibodies against these integrins efficiently suppressed macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cell interactions with HUVECs. ET-1 induced Ets-like kinase-1 (Elk-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3), and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) phosphorylation in breast cancer cells. The use of inhibitors to prevent their phosphorylation or ectopic overexpression of dominant-negative I?B? perturbed ET-1-induced integrin ?V and integrin ?1 expression. The physical associations of these three transcriptional factors with the gene promoters of the two integrins were furthermore evidenced by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, our mouse orthotopic tumor model revealed an ET axis-mediated lung metastasis of macrophage-stimulated breast cancer cells, suggesting that the ET axis was involved in macrophage-enhanced breast cancer cell endothelial interactions. PMID:24550382

  15. Dynamics of Immune Cell Types Within the Macaque Corpus Luteum During the Menstrual Cycle: Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cecily V; Xu, Fuhua; Molskness, Theodore A; Stouffer, Richard L; Hennebold, Jon D

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to characterize the immune cell types within the primate corpus luteum (CL). Luteal tissue was collected from rhesus females at discrete intervals during the luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle. Dispersed cells were incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the immune cell surface proteins CD11b (neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages), CD14 (monocytes/macrophages), CD16 (natural killer [NK] cells), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), and CD3epsilon (T-lymphocytes) for analysis by flow cytometry. Numbers of CD11b-positive (CD11b(+)) and CD14(+) cells increased significantly 3 to 4 days after serum progesterone (P4) concentrations declined below 0.3 ng/ml. CD16(+) cells were the most abundant immune cell type in CL during the mid and mid-late luteal phases and were 3-fold increased 3 to 4 days after serum P4 decreased to baseline levels. CD3epsilon(+) cells tended to increase 3 to 4 days after P4 decline. To determine whether immune cells were upregulated by the loss of luteotropic (LH) support or through loss of LH-dependent steroid milieu, monkeys were assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), the GnRH antagonist Antide, Antide plus synthetic progestin (R5020), or Antide plus the estrogen receptor agonists diarylpropionitrile (DPN)/propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) during the mid-late luteal phase. Antide treatment increased the numbers of CD11b(+) and CD14(+) cells, whereas progestin, but not estrogen, replacement suppressed the numbers of CD11b(+), CD14(+), and CD16(+) cells. Neither Antide nor steroid replacement altered numbers of CD3epsilon(+) cells. These data suggest that increased numbers of innate immune cells in primate CL after P4 synthesis declines play a role in onset of structural regression of primate CL. PMID:26400401

  16. Effect of thermolabile toxin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on functions of innate immunity cells.

    PubMed

    Plekhova, N G; Drobot, E I; Timchenko, N F; Somova, L M; Persiyanova, E N

    2014-08-01

    The thermolabile toxin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces a selective dose-dependent stimulating effect on functional activity of innate immunity cells. Prolonged apoptosis-inducing action of the toxin was associated with activation of enzymes of the oxygen-dependent system (LDH and myeloperoxidase) at the early terms of observation (up to 3 h). In turn, increased number of macrophages with apoptotic changes was noted at the early stages of contact with the thermolabile toxin (5 h), and its further growth was observed against the background of activation of mitochondrial enzymes and production of NO metabolites. PMID:25110089

  17. A novel cysteine cathepsin inhibitor yields macrophage cell death and mammary tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Salpeter, S J; Pozniak, Y; Merquiol, E; Ben-Nun, Y; Geiger, T; Blum, G

    2015-12-10

    Although cysteine cathepsins have been identified as key regulators of cancer growth, their specific role in tumor development remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that high activity levels of tumor cathepsins are primarily a result of increased cathepsin activity in cancer-promoting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). To further investigate the role of cysteine cathepsin activity in normal and polarized macrophages, we established in vitro and in vivo models of macrophage differentiation and polarization and used a novel cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, GB111-NH2, to block the activity of cathepsins B, L and S. Here we show that in vitro, cysteine cathepsin inhibition yields both apoptosis and proliferation of macrophages, owing to increased oxidative stress. Proteomic analysis of cathepsin- inhibited macrophages demonstrates inhibition of autophagy, suggesting a likely cause of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In vivo models of mammary cancer further show that cathepsin inhibition yields TAM death owing to increased ROS levels. Strikingly, apoptosis in TAMs yields a seemingly cell non-autonomous death of neighboring cancer cells, and regression of the primary growth. These results show that cysteine cathepsin inhibitors can specifically trigger macrophage cell death and may function as an effective anticancer therapy in tumors with high levels of TAMs. PMID:25798843

  18. Identification of TLR10 as a key mediator of the inflammatory response to Listeria monocytogenes in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tim; Nally, Ken; Carmody, Ruaidhri; Houston, Aileen; Shanahan, Fergus; Macsharry, John; Brint, Elizabeth

    2013-12-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause septicemia and meningitis. TLRs are central receptors of the innate immune system that drive inflammatory responses to invading microbes such as L. monocytogenes. Although intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) represent the initial point of entry used by L. monocytogenes for infection, the innate immune response to L. monocytogenes in these cells has been poorly characterized to date. The aim of this study was to determine which TLRs are involved in mediating the immune response to L. monocytogenes in IECs. We performed an RNA interference screen of TLRs 1-10 in the HT-29 IEC cell line and observed the most significant reduction in chemokine output following silencing of TLR10. This effect was also observed in the macrophage cell line THP-1. The chemokines CCL20, CCL1, and IL-8 were reduced following knockdown of TLR10. Silencing of TLR10 resulted in increased viability of L. monocytogenes in both HT-29 and THP-1 cells. TLR10 was found to be predominantly expressed intracellularly in epithelia, and activation required viable L. monocytogenes. NF-?B activation was seen to require TLR2 in addition to TLR10. Taken together, these data indicate novel roles for TLR10 in sensing pathogenic infection in both the epithelium and macrophages and have identified L. monocytogenes as a source of ligand for the orphan receptor TLR10. PMID:24198280

  19. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  20. Transfer of Immunity Against Listeria monocytogenes by T Cells Purified by a Positive Selection Technique

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D. D.; Crum, E. D.; Jungi, T. W.; Bell, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Affinity columns prepared with rabbit antibody to the F(ab?)2 fragment of rat immunoglobulin were used to separate rat thoracic duct lymphocytes into sub-populations that differ with respect to the density of their surface membrane immunoglobulin. Using this technique, it was shown that lymphocytes in the DNA synthetic (S) phase of the mitotic cycle are added in increased number to the lymph of rats infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The great majority of these S-phase cells lacked a high density of surface immunoglobulin as indicated by their failure to bind to the immunoabsorbent. Cells which can protect recipient rats against a challenge infection with L. monocytogenes also segregated with nonadherent thoracic duct lymphocytes obtained from Listeria-immune donors. These protective cells realized their full immunological potential only in recipients that shared histocompatibility-gene-coded structures with the immune lymphocyte donors. The above findings accord with the view that immunity to L. monocytogenes is mediated in rats by activated T cells which are formed as part of the animal's cell-mediated response to infection. Although Listeria-protective lymphocytes concentrate in the nonadherent, T-cell-enriched fraction, it was consistently observed that the adherent, B-cell-enriched fractions of immune donor thoracic duct lymphocytes also could transfer a low level of antimicrobial resistance. This immunity was restricted in allogeneic recipients, a finding which implies that the protection afforded by the adherent population is related to its content of T cells. Nonadherent S-phase lymphoblasts moved in substantial numbers from the blood into peritoneal inflammatory exudates induced by L. monocytogenes. The above finding encourages the belief that recently activated T cells realize their protective function locally in centers of infection where they have secondary effects on macrophages. PMID:310423

  1. Dynorphin expression, processing and receptors in the alveolar macrophages, cancer cells and bronchial epithelium of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shaaban A; Krajnik, Malgorzata; Sobanski, Piotr; Kowalewski, Janusz; Bloch-Boguslawska, Elzbieta; Zylicz, Zbigniew; Schäfer, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Functional evidence suggests that opioid peptides such as dynorphin are involved in the regulation of airway macrophage functions and of human cancer growth. However, anatomical evidence for components of a putative dynorphin network within lung cancer patients is scarce. Tissue from lung cancer patients was examined immunohistochemically for all components of a local dynorphin (DYN) network. Double immunofluorescence microscopy analysis revealed colocalization of the opioid precursor PDYN with its end-product DYN, and key processing enzymes prohormone convertases 1 and 2 and carboxypeptidase E, as well as the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) within alveolar macrophages and cancerous cells in varying degrees among patients. Moreover, chromograninA-immunoreactive pulmonary neuroendocrine cells expressing DYN were close to substance P- and KOR-immunoreactive sensory nerves. Our findings give a first hint of a neuroanatomical basis for a peripheral DYN network, conceivably regulating pulmonary, immune and cell-proliferative functions within the human lung, most likely in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. PMID:20376782

  2. In vitro effects of GSM modulated radiofrequency fields on human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, Helga; Novak, Waltraud; Molla-Djafari, Hamid

    2006-04-01

    Despite the important role of the immune system in defending the body against infections and cancer, only few investigations on possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on function of human immune cells have been undertaken. Aim of the present investigation was therefore to assess whether GSM modulated RF fields have adverse effects on the functional competence of human immune cells. Within the frame of the multidisciplinary project "Biological effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF)" sponsored by the National Occupation Hazard Insurance Association (AUVA) in vitro investigations were carried out on human blood cells. Exposure was performed at GSM Basic 1950 MHz, an SAR of 1 mW/g in an intermittent mode (5 min "ON", 10 min "OFF") and a maximum Delta T of 0.06 degrees C for the duration of 8 h. The following immune parameters were evaluated: (1) the intracellular production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon (INF) gamma in lymphocytes, and IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in monocytes were evaluated with monoclonal antibodies. (2) The activity of immune-relevant genes (IL 1-alpha and beta, IL-2, IL-2-receptor, IL-4, macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF)-receptor, TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha-receptor) and housekeeping genes was analyzed with real time PCR. (3) The cytotoxicity of lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK cells) against a tumor cell line was determined in a flow cytometric test. For each parameter, blood samples of at least 15 donors were evaluated. No statistically significant effects of exposure were found and there is no indication that emissions from mobile phones are associated with adverse effects on the human immune system. PMID:16342197

  3. Studies on the distribution of immune cells in the uteri of prepubertal and cycling gilts.

    PubMed

    Bischof, R J; Brandon, M R; Lee, C S

    1994-03-01

    To establish the cellular basis for the local immune response in the porcine uterus, immunohistochemical studies using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to pig leukocytes were conducted on uterine tissues from prepubertal and cycling gilts. In prepubertal uteri, neutrophils were the most predominant cell type, while MHC class II+ cells and CD2+ T lymphocytes were also common. At the early-stage of the oestrous cycle, CD2+ T cells were numerous in the endometrium, particularly in the uterine epithelium and subepithelial regions. However, by the mid-stage of the cycle there was a significant and dramatic fall in CD2+ T cells and other lymphocytes expressing the CD4, CD8 and CD1 phenotypes, MHC class II+ cells were predominant throughout the endometrium. During late oestrus there was a dramatic infiltration of neutrophils into the subepithelial stroma. A distinct increase in the CD2+ intraepithelial T lymphocyte population was also observed at this stage of the cycle. It was concluded that in the healthy, non-pregnant pig uterus T lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils were the prominent leukocyte cell types and their migration and distribution in the uterus was strongly influenced by the oestrous cycle. These immune cells may play an important interactive role in the cyclic cellular changes in both the structure and function of the endometrium. Furthermore, the leukocyte phenotypes found in the porcine endometrium indicate that a local cellular immune response could be elicited. PMID:7932388

  4. Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B.; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Urban, Joseph F.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (M?) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by M? in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human M? stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven M?-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing. PMID:25806513

  5. A DNA vaccine against tuberculosis based on the 65 kDa heat-shock protein differentially activates human macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Luís H; Wowk, Pryscilla F; Silva, Célio L; Trombone, Ana PF; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete AM; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria C; Moretto, Edson L; Bonato, Vânia LD

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of reports have demonstrated that rodents immunized with DNA vaccines can produce antibodies and cellular immune responses presenting a long-lasting protective immunity. These findings have attracted considerable interest in the field of DNA vaccination. We have previously described the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a DNA vaccine encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65 kDa heat shock protein (DNA-HSP65) in a murine model of tuberculosis. As DNA vaccines are often less effective in humans, we aimed to find out how the DNA-HSP65 stimulates human immune responses. Methods To address this question, we analysed the activation of both human macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) cultured with DNA-HSP65. Then, these cells stimulated with the DNA vaccine were evaluated regarding the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and microbicidal activity. Results It was observed that DCs and macrophages presented different ability to uptake DNA vaccine. Under DNA stimulation, macrophages, characterized as CD11b+/CD86+/HLA-DR+, produced high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 (pro-inflammatory cytokines), and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine). Besides, they also presented a microbicidal activity higher than that observed in DCs after infection with M. tuberculosis. On the other hand, DCs, characterized as CD11c+/CD86+/CD123-/BDCA-4+/IFN-alpha-, produced high levels of IL-12 and low levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. Finally, the DNA-HSP65 vaccine was able to induce proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusion Our data suggest that the immune response is differently activated by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine in humans. These findings provide important clues to the design of new strategies for using DNA vaccines in human immunotherapy. PMID:18208592

  6. Glucocorticoid effects on immune cell activation by staphylococcal exotoxins and lipopolysaccharide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Kopydlowski, K. M.; Fleming, S. D.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of physiologically elevated corticosterone on the activation of macrophages and T cells. These studies find that the elevation of corticosterone does not affect the expression of membrane receptors on macrophages and does not affect the activation of macrophages to produce cytokines. In contrast, elevated corticosterone levels correlate with enhanced T cell proliferation to both mitogens and superantigens.

  7. Immune regulation of epithelial cell function: Implications for GI pathologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian immune system is a complex and dynamic network that recognizes, responds, and adapts to numerous foreign and self molecules. CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses, and upon stimulation by antigen, naive CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into various T cell subsets...

  8. The pro-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory foam cell macrophage paradox

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anita C.; Eijgelaar, Wouter J.; Daemen, Mat J.A.P.; Newby, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of foamy macrophages by sequestering extracellular modified lipids is a key event in atherosclerosis. However, there is controversy about the effects of lipid loading on macrophage phenotype, with in vitro evidence suggesting either pro- or anti-inflammatory consequences. To investigate this in vivo we compared the transcriptomes of foamy and non-foamy macrophages that accumulate in experimental subcutaneous granulomas in fat-fed ApoE null mice or normal chow-fed wild-type mice, respectively. Consistent with previous studies in peritoneal macrophages from LDL receptor null mice (Spann et al., 2012 [1]), we found that anti-inflammatory LXR/RXR pathway genes were over-represented in the foamy macrophages, but there was no change in M1 or M2 phenotypic markers. Quite unexpectedly, however, we found that genes related to the induction of fibrosis had also been up-regulated (Thomas et al., 2015 [2]). The progression of the foamy macrophages along anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic pathways was confirmed using immunohistochemistry (described fully in our primary research article (Thomas et al., 2015 [2]). Here we provide additional details on production of the macrophages and their transcriptomic comparison, with the raw and processed microarray data deposited in GEO (accession number GSE70126). Our observations on these cells are indeed paradoxical, because foamy macrophages have long been implicated in promoting inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which must be provoked by additional local mediators. Our findings probably explain how very early macrophage-rich lesions maintain their structural integrity.

  9. Splenic red pulp macrophages are intrinsically superparamagnetic and contaminate magnetic cell isolates

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Lars; Klein, Marika; Spasova, Marina; Elsukova, Anna; Wiedwald, Ulf; Welz, Meike; Knolle, Percy; Farle, Michael; Limmer, Andreas; Kurts, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A main function of splenic red pulp macrophages is the degradation of damaged or aged erythrocytes. Here we show that these macrophages accumulate ferrimagnetic iron oxides that render them intrinsically superparamagnetic. Consequently, these cells routinely contaminate splenic cell isolates obtained with the use of MCS, a technique that has been widely used in immunological research for decades. These contaminations can profoundly alter experimental results. In mice deficient for the transcription factor SpiC, which lack red pulp macrophages, liver Kupffer cells take over the task of erythrocyte degradation and become superparamagnetic. We describe a simple additional magnetic separation step that avoids this problem and substantially improves purity of magnetic cell isolates from the spleen. PMID:26260698

  10. Splenic red pulp macrophages are intrinsically superparamagnetic and contaminate magnetic cell isolates.

    PubMed

    Franken, Lars; Klein, Marika; Spasova, Marina; Elsukova, Anna; Wiedwald, Ulf; Welz, Meike; Knolle, Percy; Farle, Michael; Limmer, Andreas; Kurts, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A main function of splenic red pulp macrophages is the degradation of damaged or aged erythrocytes. Here we show that these macrophages accumulate ferrimagnetic iron oxides that render them intrinsically superparamagnetic. Consequently, these cells routinely contaminate splenic cell isolates obtained with the use of MCS, a technique that has been widely used in immunological research for decades. These contaminations can profoundly alter experimental results. In mice deficient for the transcription factor SpiC, which lack red pulp macrophages, liver Kupffer cells take over the task of erythrocyte degradation and become superparamagnetic. We describe a simple additional magnetic separation step that avoids this problem and substantially improves purity of magnetic cell isolates from the spleen. PMID:26260698

  11. IL-33-mediated protection against experimental cerebral malaria is linked to induction of type 2 innate lymphoid cells, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Niedbala, Wanda; Palomo, Jennifer; Reverchon, Flora; Shaw, Tovah N; Couper, Kevin N; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y

    2015-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a complex parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium sp. Failure to establish an appropriate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses is believed to contribute to the development of cerebral pathology. Using the blood-stage PbA (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) model of infection, we show here that administration of the pro-Th2 cytokine, IL-33, prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in C57BL/6 mice and reduces the production of inflammatory mediators IFN-?, IL-12 and TNF-?. IL-33 drives the expansion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) that produce Type-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), leading to the polarization of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, which in turn expand Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs). PbA-infected mice adoptively transferred with ILC2 have elevated frequency of M2 and Tregs and are protected from ECM. Importantly, IL-33-treated mice deleted of Tregs (DEREG mice) are no longer able to resist ECM. Our data therefore provide evidence that IL-33 can prevent the development of ECM by orchestrating a protective immune response via ILC2, M2 macrophages and Tregs. PMID:25659095

  12. IL-33-Mediated Protection against Experimental Cerebral Malaria Is Linked to Induction of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells, M2 Macrophages and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Niedbala, Wanda; Palomo, Jennifer; Reverchon, Flora; Shaw, Tovah N.; Couper, Kevin N.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a complex parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium sp. Failure to establish an appropriate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses is believed to contribute to the development of cerebral pathology. Using the blood-stage PbA (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) model of infection, we show here that administration of the pro-Th2 cytokine, IL-33, prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in C57BL/6 mice and reduces the production of inflammatory mediators IFN-?, IL-12 and TNF-?. IL-33 drives the expansion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) that produce Type-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), leading to the polarization of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, which in turn expand Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs). PbA-infected mice adoptively transferred with ILC2 have elevated frequency of M2 and Tregs and are protected from ECM. Importantly, IL-33-treated mice deleted of Tregs (DEREG mice) are no longer able to resist ECM. Our data therefore provide evidence that IL-33 can prevent the development of ECM by orchestrating a protective immune response via ILC2, M2 macrophages and Tregs. PMID:25659095

  13. Hematopoietic Stem and Immune Cells in Chronic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. PMID:26300920

  14. Macrophages Contribute to the Progression of Infantile Hemangioma by Regulating the Proliferation and Differentiation of Hemangioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhu, Jun-Yi; Cai, Yu; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Jia, Jun; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Macrophage infiltration has been implicated in infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy. However, the exact role of macrophages in IH remains unknown. This study aims to clarify the functional significance of macrophages in the progression of IH. The distribution of macrophages in human IH was analyzed, and our results revealed that polarized macrophages were more prevalent in proliferating IHs than in involuting IHs, which was consistent with the increased macrophage-related cytokines in proliferating IHs. In vitro results further demonstrated that polarized macrophages effectively promoted the proliferation of hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs) and suppressed their adipogenesis in an Akt- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2)-dependent manner. Moreover, M2- but not M1-polarized macrophages promoted the endothelial differentiation of HemSCs. Furthermore, mixing macrophages in a murine hemangioma model elevated microvessel density and postponed fat tissue formation, which was concomitant with the activation of Akt and Erk1/2 signals. Cluster analysis revealed a close correlation among the macrophage markers, Ki67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p-Akt, and p-Erk1/2 in human IH tissues. Collectively, our results suggest that macrophages in IH contribute to tumor progression by promoting the proliferation and endothelial differentiation while suppressing the adipogenesis of HemSCs. These findings indicate that targeting the infiltrating macrophages in IH is a promising therapeutic approach to accelerate IH regression. PMID:26288359

  15. Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Mouse Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered valuable sources for cell therapy because of their immune regulatory function. Here, we investigated the effects of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) on the differentiation, maturation, and function of dendritic cells (DCs). We examined the effect of T-MSCs on differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow- (BM-) derived monocytes into DCs and we found suppressive effect of T-MSCs on DCs via direct contact as well as soluble mediators. Moreover, T cell proliferation, normally increased in the presence of DCs, was inhibited by T-MSCs. Differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets by the DC-T cell interaction also was inhibited by T-MSCs. The soluble mediators suppressed by T-MSCs were granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), RANTES, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, T-MSCs exert immune modulatory function via suppression of the differentiation, maturation, and function of BM-derived DCs. Our data suggests that T-MSCs could be used as a novel source of stem cell therapy as immune modulators. PMID:25784940

  16. Group B streptococci persist inside macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Cornacchione, P; Scaringi, L; Fettucciari, K; Rosati, E; Sabatini, R; Orefici, G; von Hunolstein, C; Modesti, A; Modica, A; Minelli, F; Marconi, P

    1998-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are an important cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. In the early phase of infection, macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) are the first immune cells that interact with GBS. In this in vitro study, to gain insight into GBS-macrophage interaction in the absence of type-specific antibodies, we examined the features of GBS survival in thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages and the effect of GBS on the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent transduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that type Ia GBS, strain 090 (GBS-Ia) and type III GBS strain COH 31r/s (GBS-III), after in vitro phagocytosis survive and persist intracellularly in macrophages for up to 24 and 48 hr, respectively. However, macrophage activation by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPS) caused a significant reduction in the time of intracellular persistence. Macrophage activation by IFN-gamma and LPS seems to be a multifactorial event involving multiple intracellular signal pathways also including PKC. Since PKC is one of the components in the signal network leading to macrophage activation and an important target for several intracellular micro-organisms, we wondered whether PKC could have a role in intracellular GBS survival. Both PKC depletion by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 18 hr and PKC inhibition by Calphostin C rendered macrophages more permissive for the intracellular GBS survival. Furthermore, GBS-infected macrophages were unable to respond to PMA and LPS, activators of PKC, by inducing antimicrobial activity. The ability of GBS to impair PKC-dependent cell signalling was also demonstrated by the reduced c-fos gene expression in GBS-infected macrophages with respect to control macrophages, after LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our results indicate that GBS survive in macrophages and impairment of PKC signal transduction contributes to their intracellular survival. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:9536123

  17. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages drives anti-inflammatory responses and inhibits Th1 polarization of responding T cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Edward T; Shukla, Supriya; Sweet, David R; Wearsch, Pamela A; Tsichlis, Philip N; Boom, W Henry; Harding, Clifford V

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives within macrophages and employs immune evasion mechanisms to persist in the host. Protective T helper type 1 (Th1) responses are induced, and the immune response in most individuals is sufficient to restrict M. tuberculosis to latent infection, but most infections are not completely resolved. As T cells and macrophages respond, a balance is established between protective Th1-associated and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon gamma (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis modulates host responses to promote its survival remain unclear. In these studies, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis induction of IL-10, suppression of IL-12, and inhibition of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules in infected macrophages are all driven by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Elimination of ERK signaling downstream of TLR2 by pharmacologic inhibition with U0126 or genetic deletion of Tpl2 blocks IL-10 secretion and enhances IL-12 p70 secretion. We demonstrate that M. tuberculosis regulation of these pathways in macrophages affects T cell responses to infected macrophages. Thus, genetic blockade of the ERK pathway in Tpl2(-/-) macrophages enhances Th1 polarization and IFN-? production by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells responding to M. tuberculosis infection. These data indicate that M. tuberculosis and its potent TLR2 ligands activate ERK signaling in macrophages to promote anti-inflammatory macrophage responses and blunt Th1 responses against the pathogen. PMID:25776754

  18. Innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Thomas F; Schreiber, Hans; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Most tumor cells express antigens that can mediate recognition by host CD8+ T cells. Cancers that are detected clinically must have evaded antitumor immune responses to grow progressively. Recent work has suggested two broad categories of tumor escape based on cellular and molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. One major subset shows a T cell–inflamed phenotype consisting of infiltrating T cells, a broad chemokine profile and a type I interferon signature indicative of innate immune activation. These tumors appear to resist immune attack through the dominant inhibitory effects of immune system–suppressive pathways. The other major phenotype lacks this T cell–inflamed phenotype and appears to resist immune attack through immune system exclusion or ignorance. These two major phenotypes of tumor microenvironment may require distinct immunotherapeutic interventions for maximal therapeutic effect. PMID:24048123

  19. T cell mediated immunity to influenza: mechanisms of viral control.

    PubMed

    La Gruta, Nicole L; Turner, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Recent findings indicate that T cell immunity is key to limiting severity of disease arising from IAV infection, particularly in instances where antibody immunity is ineffective. As such, there is a need to understand better the mechanisms that mediate effective IAV-specific cellular immunity, especially given that T cell immunity must form an integral part of any vaccine designed to elicit crossreactive immunity against existing and new strains of influenza virus. Here, we review the current understanding of cellular immunity to IAV, highlighting recent findings that demonstrate important roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity in protection from IAV-mediated disease. PMID:25043801

  20. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Timothy; Anthony, Robert M.; Urban, Joseph F.; Gause, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also play a role in the regulation of associated pathologic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that macrophages, conventionally associated with IFN?-dominant Th1-type responses to many bacteria and viruses, also play an essential role in the Th2-type inflammatory response. These macrophages are referred to as alternatively activated macrophages (AAM?s) as they express a characteristic pattern of cell surface and secreted molecules distinct from that of classically activated macrophages (CAM?s) associated with microbe infections. In this review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the role of AAM?s in the development of disease and host protection following helminth infection. PMID:17702561

  1. Human Primary Immune Cells Exhibit Distinct Mechanical Properties that Are Modified by Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bufi, Nathalie; Saitakis, Michael; Dogniaux, Stéphanie; Buschinger, Oscar; Bohineust, Armelle; Richert, Alain; Maurin, Mathieu; Hivroz, Claire; Asnacios, Atef

    2015-05-01

    T lymphocytes are key modulators of the immune response. Their activation requires cell-cell interaction with different myeloid cell populations of the immune system called antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Although T lymphocytes have recently been shown to respond to mechanical cues, in particular to the stiffness of their environment, little is known about the rigidity of APCs. In this study, single-cell microplate assays were performed to measure the viscoelastic moduli of different human myeloid primary APCs, i.e., monocytes (Ms, storage modulus of 520 +90/-80 Pa), dendritic cells (DCs, 440 +110/-90 Pa), and macrophages (MPHs, 900 +110/-100 Pa). Inflammatory conditions modulated these properties, with storage moduli ranging from 190 Pa to 1450 Pa. The effect of inflammation on the mechanical properties was independent of the induction of expression of commonly used APC maturation markers, making myeloid APC rigidity an additional feature of inflammation. In addition, the rigidity of human T lymphocytes was lower than that of all myeloid cells tested and among the lowest reported (Young's modulus of 85 ± 5 Pa). Finally, the viscoelastic properties of myeloid cells were dependent on both their filamentous actin content and myosin IIA activity, although the relative contribution of these parameters varied within cell types. These results indicate that T lymphocytes face different cell rigidities when interacting with myeloid APCs in vivo and that this mechanical landscape changes under inflammation. PMID:25954876

  2. Macrophage diversity in renal injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Sharon D.; van Goor, Harry; Eddy, Allison A.

    2008-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages can determine the outcome of the immune response and whether this response contributes to tissue repair or mediates tissue destruction. In addition to their important role in immune-mediated renal disease and host defense, macrophages play a fundamental role in tissue remodeling during embryonic development, acquired kidney disease, and renal allograft responses. This review summarizes macrophage phenotype and function in the orchestration of kidney repair and replacement of specialized renal cells following injury. Recent advances in our understanding of macrophage heterogeneity in response to their microenvironment raise new and exciting therapeutic possibilities to attenuate or conceivably reverse progressive renal disease in the context of fibrosis. Furthermore, parallels with pathological processes in many other organs also exist. PMID:18982158

  3. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hoppstädter, Jessica; Seif, Michelle; Dembek, Anna; Cavelius, Christian; Huwer, Hanno; Kraegeloh, Annette; Kiemer, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-01

    While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth. We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-? was used to generate primary human M1 cells and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-? and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø26 and 41 nm) and microparticles (Ø1.75 ?m) was quantified. At the concentration used (50 ?g/ml), silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human MDM compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue. In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2 polarized macrophages. PMID:25852557

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cooperates in Zearalenone-Induced Cell Death of RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fenglei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhe; Lin, Pengfei; Lei, Lanjie; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a fungal mycotoxin that causes cell apoptosis and necrosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of ZEA toxicity. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages and to uncover the signaling pathway underlying the cytotoxicity of ZEA in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This study demonstrates that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway cooperated in ZEA-induced cell death of the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results show that ZEA treatment reduced the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) and flow cytometry assay. Western blots analysis revealed that ZEA increased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), two ER stress-related marker genes. Furthermore, treating the cells with the ER stress inhibitors 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or knocking down CHOP, using lentivirus encoded short hairpin interfering RNAs (shRNAs), significantly diminished the ZEA-induced increases in GRP78 and CHOP, and cell death. In summary, our results suggest that ZEA induces the apoptosis and necrosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner via the ER stress pathway in which the activation of CHOP plays a critical role. PMID:26307968

  5. Cholesterol efflux monitoring in macrophage form cells by using fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Sik; Lee, Sang Hak; Park, Byoung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyeok; Hwang, Won Sang; Kim, Dug Young

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and rupture, since they accumulate large amounts of lipid through the uptake of modified lipoproteins which results in foam cell formation. Cholesterol efflux is the process of removing cholesterol from macrophages in the subintima of the vessel wall, and efflux mechanism in a cell is one of the critical issues for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. High density lipoproteins (HDL) stimulate cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in the arterial wall. Radioisotope-labeled cholesterol analysis method is well known conventional method for observing cholesterol efflux. The major drawback of this method is its long and complicated process. Fluorescence intensity imaging schemes are replacing the radioisotope-labeled method in recent years for cholesterol efflux monitoring. Various spectroscopic methods are also adapted for cholesterol efflux imaging. Here we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging method for more quantitative observation of cholesterol efflux process in macrophages, which enables us to observe cholesterol level changes with various conditions. We used J774 macrophage cell and 25-NBD-cholesterol which is a famous cholesterol specific dye. Our lifetime imaging results clearly show cholesterol efflux rate very effectively. We believe that fluorescence lifetime analysis is new and very powerful for cholesterol imaging or monitoring.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO THREE DIFFERENT EIMERIA SPECIES USING CHICKEN CDNA MACROPHAGE MICROARRAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is recognized as the major parasitic disease of poultry and is caused by the apicomplexan protozoa Eimeria. Increasing evidence shows the complexity of the host immune response to Eimeria and microarray technology presents a powerful tool for the study of such an intricate biological pr...

  7. Macrophages and smooth muscle cells express lipoprotein lipase in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Goldberg, I J; Steinberg, D; Witztum, J L

    1991-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL; EC 3.1.1.34) may promote atherogenesis by producing remnant lipoproteins on the endothelial surface and by acting on lipoproteins in the artery wall. In vitro, smooth muscle cells and macrophages synthesize LPL, but in human carotid lesions only a few smooth muscle cells were reported to contain LPL protein. Endothelial cells do not synthesize LPL in vitro, but in normal arteries intense immunostaining for LPL is present on the endothelium. We used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry of human and rabbit arteries to determine cellular distribution and the site of the synthesis of LPL in atherosclerotic lesions. Northern blot analysis showed that LPL mRNA was detectable in macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of "ballooned" cholesterol-fed rabbits. In situ hybridization studies of atherosclerotic lesions with an antisense riboprobe showed a strong hybridization signal for LPL mRNA in some, but not all, lesion macrophages, which were mostly located in the subendothelial and edge areas of the lesions. Also, some smooth muscle cells in lesion areas also expressed LPL mRNA. Immunocytochemistry of frozen sections of rabbit lesions with a monoclonal antibody to human milk LPL showed intense staining for LPL protein in macrophage-rich intimal lesions. The results suggest that lesion macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells express LPL mRNA and protein. Some smooth muscle cells in the lesion areas also synthesize LPL. These data are consistent with an important role for LPL in atherogenesis. Images PMID:1719546

  8. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces Formation of Foamy Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24936860

  9. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  10. Entamoeba histolytica modulates the nitric oxide synthase gene and nitric oxide production by macrophages for cytotoxicity against amoebae and tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Keller, K; Chadee, K

    1994-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the major cytotoxic molecule produced by activated macrophages for cytotoxicity against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. In the present study, we determined whether E. histolytica infection and soluble amoebic proteins affected macrophage cytotoxicity against amoebae and tumour cells by modulating the inducible NO synthase gene (iNOS) and NO (measured as nitrite, NO2-) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Amoebic liver abscess-derived macrophages [days 10, 20, 30 post-infection (p.i.)] stimulated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed increased cytotoxicity against L929 cells (TNF-alpha-sensitive), but were refractory for killing amoebae and P815 cells (both NO-sensitive), concomitant with low NO2- production (< 4 microM/10(6) cells). In contrast, peritoneal and spleen macrophages at 10 and 20 days p.i. activated with IFN-gamma and LPS demonstrated increased killing of amoebae, and L929 and P815 cells concomitant with high NO2- production (> 12 microM/10(6) cells). Pretreatment of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with amoebic proteins suppressed IFN-gamma and LPS-induced amoebicidal (33%) and tumoricidal (44-49%) activities, with a corresponding decrease in TNF-alpha (56%) and NO (41%) production as well as TNF-alpha (41%) and iNOS (27%) mRNA by Northern blot analyses as compared to untreated activated controls. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis in abscess and naive macrophages pretreated with amoebic proteins augmented IFN-gamma- and LPS-induced killing of L929 cells and TNF-alpha production, but failed to increase killing of P815 cells and amoebae as well as iNOS mRNA levels or NO production. These results suggest that E. histolytica selectively induces dysfunction of macrophage cytotoxicity by modulating iNOS mRNA expression and NO production independent from TNF-alpha and PGE2 allowing the parasites to survive within the host by impairing host immune responses. PMID:7533135

  11. The Immune Privileged Retina Mediates an Alternative Activation of J774A.1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chun H.; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have previously found that retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells suppressed endotoxin-stimulated macrophages; moreover, it induced expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. We further assessed the possibility that the RPE is alternatively activating macrophages. Methods J774A.1 cells were stimulated with endotoxin and treated with the conditioned media (CM) of RPE, or neuroretinal eyecups from healthy mouse eyes. The supernatant was assayed for IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and IL-10, and for nitric-oxide generation. The RPE conditioned media (RPE CM) was absorbed of known soluble factors to identify the factor that augments nitric-oxide generation. Results We found the RPE CM suppressed all cytokine production except IL-10, and augmented nitric-oxide generation. The augmented nitric-oxide levels were mediated by RPE derived alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Conclusions Healthy RPE not only suppresses inflammatory activity, it promotes an alternative activation of macrophages that can further promote immune privilege. PMID:20001256

  12. The effect of altered gravity on immune cells (Ground studies: TRIPLE LUX-A BIOLAB experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Astrid; Huber, Kathrin; Kuebler, Ulrich; Briganti, Luca; Baerwalde, Sven; Zander, Vanja; Ullrich, Oliver; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    The experiment TRIPLE LUX A, whose performance on Biolab is foreseen for 2010, aims to increase the information about the functioning of immune cells during space flight. Thus, we investigate the impact of altered gravity -microgravity and hypergravity conditions -on the immune response of mammalian macrophages. Previous studies had already demonstrated that phagocytosis in macrophages, an essential step in the innate immune response, is decreased on a fast rotating clinostat. Now, the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within the oxidative burst reaction, was measured by means of a luminol assay (luminescence + photo-multiplier technique) comparable to the set up which will be used in the TRIPLE LUX flight hardware. The kinetics of the ROS production was investigated a) under 1 g conditions, b) on a clinostat (with one rotation axis) under varied rotational speed c) in short-term real micro-gravity on a parabolic flight and d) in hypergravity (1.8 g) on the Short Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC) at DLR Cologne. By means of a photomultiplier clinostat online kinetic luminescent measurements during clinorotation were possible. Permanent fast clinorotation (60 rpm) leads to a dramatic reduction of the oxidative burst signal by up to 60% compared to the signal at 1 g. Slower rotation (30 rpm to 2 rpm) reduces the signal strength even more by up to 90% of the original strength. 60 rpm clinorotation as well as short-term real microgravity (22 s) during parabolic flight likewise decreases the signal of the oxidative burst to a comparable amount, thus the term "simulated weightlessness" is valid for the chosen experimental condi-tion. In contrast, hypergravity leads to a significant signal increase. The results demonstrate a clear effect of altered gravity on the immune response of the macrophages. In the upcoming ISS experiment the established test system (oxidative burst of macrophages) will be tested in continues microgravity within the Biolab hardware, designed by EADS Astrium. The core of the TRIPLELUX experiment hardware onboard the International Space Station consists of two specifically developed Biolab Advanced Experiment Containers (AECs) that, exploiting Biolab automatic features such as the robotic arm Handling Mechanism, allow for fully-automated life support of sample cells as well as investigations of their behaviour in microgravity through the measurement of luminescence.

  13. Immunoregulation on Mice of Low Immunity and Effects on Five Kinds of Human Cancer Cells of Panax japonicus Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Li; Jing-Ping, Li; Ren, Guo; Hui, Wang; Juan, Pan; Sheng-Lan, Liu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the immunoregulative effects of Panax japonicus polysaccharide (PJPS) on mice of low immunity. An orthogonal experiment was designed to determine the best extraction process for PJPS. By the tests of macrophages swallow chicken red blood cells, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum hemolysin value, we studied the immune adjustment ability of PJPS. MTT was employed to detect the effects of different concentrations of PJPS, respectively, in 24?h, 48?h, and 72?h on five kinds of human cancer cells. The results show that the best extraction process for PJPS was as follows: ratio of solvent consumption to raw material 40, extraction temperature 100°C, re-extracted two times, each extraction time 4 hours. PJPS can significantly improve the immune function of mice processed by cyclophosphamide and PJPS did not work on the above five cancer cells. PMID:26345429

  14. Immunoregulation on Mice of Low Immunity and Effects on Five Kinds of Human Cancer Cells of Panax japonicus Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jie, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Li; Jing-Ping, Li; Ren, Guo; Hui, Wang; Juan, Pan; Sheng-Lan, Liu

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the immunoregulative effects of Panax japonicus polysaccharide (PJPS) on mice of low immunity. An orthogonal experiment was designed to determine the best extraction process for PJPS. By the tests of macrophages swallow chicken red blood cells, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum hemolysin value, we studied the immune adjustment ability of PJPS. MTT was employed to detect the effects of different concentrations of PJPS, respectively, in 24?h, 48?h, and 72?h on five kinds of human cancer cells. The results show that the best extraction process for PJPS was as follows: ratio of solvent consumption to raw material 40, extraction temperature 100°C, re-extracted two times, each extraction time 4 hours. PJPS can significantly improve the immune function of mice processed by cyclophosphamide and PJPS did not work on the above five cancer cells. PMID:26345429

  15. Immune responses to metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors.

  16. Breaking immune tolerance by targeting Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells mitigates Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Rosenzweig, Neta; Kertser, Alexander; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Sharif, Alaa Mohammad; Spinrad, Amit; Tsitsou-Kampeli, Afroditi; Sarel, Ayelet; Cahalon, Liora; Schwartz, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which chronic neuroinflammation contributes to disease escalation. Nevertheless, while immunosuppressive drugs have repeatedly failed in treating this disease, recruitment of myeloid cells to the CNS was shown to play a reparative role in animal models. Here we show, using the 5XFAD AD mouse model, that transient depletion of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), or pharmacological inhibition of their activity, is followed by amyloid-? plaque clearance, mitigation of the neuroinflammatory response and reversal of cognitive decline. We further show that transient Treg depletion affects the brain's choroid plexus, a selective gateway for immune cell trafficking to the CNS, and is associated with subsequent recruitment of immunoregulatory cells, including monocyte-derived macrophages and Tregs, to cerebral sites of plaque pathology. Our findings suggest targeting Treg-mediated systemic immunosuppression for treating AD. PMID:26284939

  17. The Emerging Functions of Long Noncoding RNA in Immune Cells: Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Wang, Yin; Duan, Lihua; Zhang, YanLin

    2015-01-01

    The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA transcripts more than 200 nucleotides in length, which do not encode proteins. The lncRNAs are emerging as an important regulator of biological process, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, protein transport, and trafficking through diverse mechanisms. The lncRNAs play crucial role in various multigenetics human diseases including cancers and neurological diseases and currently its role in autoimmune diseases is attracting many researchers. Recent studies have reported that differentiation and activation of immune cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, and NK cells have correlation with lncRNAs, which have also an essential role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and SLE. Therefore, elucidation of the roles of lncRNAs in autoimmunity could be beneficial to understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this review article we attempt to highlight the recent progress regarding lncRNAs studies and summarize its role in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26090502

  18. Breaking immune tolerance by targeting Foxp3+ regulatory T cells mitigates Alzheimer's disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Rosenzweig, Neta; Kertser, Alexander; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Sharif, Alaa Mohammad; Spinrad, Amit; Tsitsou-Kampeli, Afroditi; Sarel, Ayelet; Cahalon, Liora; Schwartz, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which chronic neuroinflammation contributes to disease escalation. Nevertheless, while immunosuppressive drugs have repeatedly failed in treating this disease, recruitment of myeloid cells to the CNS was shown to play a reparative role in animal models. Here we show, using the 5XFAD AD mouse model, that transient depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), or pharmacological inhibition of their activity, is followed by amyloid-? plaque clearance, mitigation of the neuroinflammatory response and reversal of cognitive decline. We further show that transient Treg depletion affects the brain's choroid plexus, a selective gateway for immune cell trafficking to the CNS, and is associated with subsequent recruitment of immunoregulatory cells, including monocyte-derived macrophages and Tregs, to cerebral sites of plaque pathology. Our findings suggest targeting Treg-mediated systemic immunosuppression for treating AD. PMID:26284939

  19. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Tilburgs, Tamara; Crespo, Ângela C; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L

    2015-06-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA-G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA-G+ EVT and HLA-G- villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA-G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA-G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25(HI)FOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA-G-expressing surrogate cell lines. PMID:26015573

  20. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA?G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA?G+ EVT and HLA?G? villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA?G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA?G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25HIFOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal–fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA?G–expressing surrogate cell lines. PMID:26015573

  1. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, I.J.; Wagner, W.D.; Owens, R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with (35S)sulfate and (3H)serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in (35S)sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of (3H)serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion.

  2. Salmonella typhimurium infection triggers dendritic cells and macrophages to adopt distinct migration patterns in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfang; Wood, Michael W; Galyov, Edouard E; Höpken, Uta E; Lipp, Martin; Bodmer, Helen C; Tough, David F; Carter, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    The presence of an anti-bacterial T cell response and evidence of bacterial products in inflamed joints of reactive arthritis patients suggests an antigen transportation role in this disease for macrophages and dendritic cells. We have investigated the functional properties and in vivo migration of macrophages and DC after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). BM-derived macrophages and DC displayed enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86) and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-12p40) and nitric oxide after infection. Upon adoptive transfer into mice, infected DC migrated to lymphoid tissues and induced an anti-Salmonella T cell response, whereas infected macrophages did not. Infection of DC with S. typhimurium was associated with strong up-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR7 and acquisition of responsiveness to chemokines acting through this receptor. Moreover, S. typhimurium-infected CCR7-deficient DC were unable to migrate to lymph nodes after adoptive transfer, although they did reach the spleen. Our data demonstrate distinct roles for macrophages and DC as antigen transporters after S. typhimurium infection and a dependence on CCR7 for migration of DC to lymph nodes after bacterial infection. PMID:17048271

  3. Monitoring of immune cell response to B cell depletion therapy and nerve root injury using SPIO enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorek, Daniel L.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is a robust platform for non-invasive, high-resolution anatomical imaging. However, MR imaging lacks the requisite sensitivity and contrast for imaging at the cellular level. This represents a clinical impediment to greater diagnostic accuracy. Recent advances have allowed for the in vivo visualization of populations and even of individual cells using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MR contrast agents. These nanoparticles, commonly manifested as a core of a single iron oxide crystal or cluster of crystals coated in a biocompatible shell, function to shorten proton relaxation times. In MR imaging these constructs locally dephase protons, resulting in a decrease in signal (hypointensity) localized to the region of accumulation of SPIO. In the context of immune cell imaging, SPIO can provide insight into the cellular migration patterns, trafficking, temporal dynamics and progression of diseases and their related pathological states. Furthermore, by visualizing the presence and activity of immune cells, SPIO-enabled cellular imaging can help evaluate the efficacy of therapy in immune disorders. This thesis examines the production, modification and application of SPIO in a range of in vitro and in vivo immune-response-relevant cellular systems. The role of different nanoparticle characteristics including diameter, surface charge and concentration are investigated in the labeling of T cells in culture. Following optimization of SPIO loading conditions for lymphocytes, the effect these particles have on the activation of primary B cells are elucidated. B cells are tracked using a variety of modalities, with and without the application of B cell depleting therapy. This is to evaluate the efficacy of SPIO as in vivo marker for B cell distribution. Unmodified SPIO were applied to monitor macrophage infiltration in a transient nerve root compression model, with implications for neck pain diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticle accumulation and MR hypointensity was correlated to the presence of activated macrophage at the site of injury. Taken together, the application of SPIO to study nanoparticle uptake in vitro and visualization of immune cells in vivo provide a basis for advanced study and diagnosis of diverse pathologies.

  4. Immune System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Immune System The immune system is a network of cells, ... and treatment of infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Immune System Overview Features of an Immune Response Immune Cells ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Innate and adaptive type 2 immune cell responses

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Innate and adaptive type 2 immune cell responses in genetically controlled immunity involves IL-4Ra-dependent innate cells including but not limited to a phagocyte population find that resistance correlates not only with the adaptive Th2 response, including IL-10

  6. Effects of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds, Alone or in Combination, on Human Macrophage-Like THP-1 Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Couleau, N.; Falla, J.; Beillerot, A.; Battaglia, E.; D’Innocenzo, M.; Plançon, S.; Laval-Gilly, P.; Bennasroune, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunological effects on human macrophages of four endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) using the differentiated human THP-1 cell line as a model. We studied first the effects of these EDCs, including Bisphenol A (BPA), di-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP), either alone or in combination, on cytokine secretion, and phagocytosis. We then determined whether or not these effects were mediated by estrogen receptors via MAPK pathways. It was found that all four EDCs studied reduced strongly the phagocytosis of the differentiated THP-1 cells and that several of these EDCs disturbed also TNF-?, IL-1 ? and IL-8 cytokine secretions. Furthermore, relative to control treatment, decreased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was always associated with EDCs treatments—either alone or in certain combinations (at 0.1 ?M for each condition). Lastly, as treatments by an estrogen receptor antagonist suppressed the negative effects on ERK 1/2 phosphorylation observed in cells treated either alone with BPA, DEHP, 4-OP or with the combined treatment of BPA and DEHP, we suggested that estrogen receptor-dependent pathway is involved in mediating the effects of EDCs on human immune system. Altogether, these results advocate that EDCs can disturb human immune response at very low concentrations. PMID:26133781

  7. Erythropoietin withdrawal alters interactions between young red blood cells, splenic endothelial cells, and macrophages: an in vitro model of neocytolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trial, J.; Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have described the rapid destruction of young red blood cells (neocytolysis) in astronauts adapting to microgravity, in polycythemic high altitude dwellers who descend to sea level, and in patients with kidney disorders. This destruction results from a decrease in erythropoietin (EPO) production. We hypothesized that such EPO withdrawal could trigger physiological changes in cells other than red cell precursors and possibly lead to the uptake and destruction of young red cells by altering endothelial cell-macrophage interactions, most likely occurring in the spleen. METHODS: We identified EPO receptors on human splenic endothelial cells (HSEC) and investigated the responses of these cells to EPO withdrawal. RESULTS: A monolayer of HSEC, unlike human endothelial cells from aorta, glomerulus, or umbilical vein, demonstrated an increase in permeability upon EPO withdrawal that was accompanied by unique morphological changes. When HSEC were cultured with monocyte-derived macrophages (but not when either cell type was cultured alone), EPO withdrawal induced an increased ingestion of young red cells by macrophages when compared with the constant presence or absence of EPO. CONCLUSIONS: HSEC may represent a unique cell type that is able to respond to EPO withdrawal by increasing permeability and interacting with phagocytic macrophages, which leads to neocytolysis.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Immune Cells Activation and Cytotoxicity upon Exposure Pathogen and Glycoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheb, Entsar; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) including macrophages are key players in the immune responses against pathogens. Any infection could be attenuated if PMNC would be activated and capable to kill pathogen on exposure. It was shown that glycoconjugates (GCs) play an important role in adhesion to, activation, and recognition of pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule released by immune cells against pathogens that include bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, and fungi. NO is a highly reactive and diffusible molecule that controls replication or intracellular killing of pathogens during infection and immune responses against infections caused by pathogens. Avirulent Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores were used as a model in our study. The purpose of this study was two-fold: A) to analyze PMNC activation through NO production and B) to determine the cytotoxicity effect based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) upon exposure to pathogen exerted by GCs. The latter were used "prior to," "during," and "following" PMNC exposure to pathogen in order to modulate immune responses to spores during phagocytosis. Post-phagocytosis study involved the assessment of NO and LDH release by macrophages upon exposure to spores. Results have shown that untreated PMNC released low levels of NO. However, in the presence of GCs, PMNC were activated and produced high levels of NO under all experimental conditions. In addition, the results showed that GC1, GC3 are capable of increasing PMNC activity as evidenced by higher NO levels under the "prior," "during" and "following" to pathogen exposure conditions. On the other hand, GCs were capable of controlling cytotoxicity and decreased LDH levels during phagocytosis of spores. Our findings suggest that GCs stimulate NO production by activating PMNC and decrease cytotoxicity caused by pathogens on PMNC.

  9. Acquisition of repertoires of suppressor T cells under the influence of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Soejima, T.; Nagayama, A.; Sado, T.; Taniguchi, M. )

    1988-01-01

    Acquisition of repertoires and genetic restriction specificities of suppressor T cells (Ts) and their factors were studied by using full allogeneic radiation bone marrow chimera and H-2 congenic pairs, B10.A(3R) and B10.A(5R), which received conventional or cloned macrophages by cell transfer. Suppressor T-cell factor (TsF) from C3H----C57BL/6 or C57BL/6----C3H chimera suppressed only donor but not host-type responses of either C3H or C57BL/6, in an antigen-specific fashion. However, if chimera mice were given conventional or cloned macrophages of the host type, the chimera TsF in turn suppressed both the responses of C3H and C57BL/6 mice but not those of the third party, BALB/c, indicating that macrophages are responsible for the acquisition of host restriction specificity. Similarly, B10.A(5R) mice developed I-Jb restricted Ts or TsF when the B10.A(3R) macrophage cell line was injected at the time of antigen priming. The reverse was also true. B10.A(3R) mice did generate I-Jk restricted Ts when they received the B10.A(5R) macrophage cell line. Thus, the results clearly demonstrated that B10.A(3R) or B10.A(5R) mice potentially possessed their ability to express both I-Jk and I-Jb determinants and that repertoires and genetic restriction specificity of Ts and their TsF were acquired at a macrophage level at the time of antigen-priming.

  10. Niacin Reverses Migratory Macrophage Foam Cell Arrest Mediated by oxLDL In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Koelle, Pirkko; Fendler, Markus; Schroettle, Angelika; Czihal, Michael; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Kuhlencordt, Peter Jan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Niacin reduces vascular oxidative stress and down regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme mediating proatherosclerotic effects in part by increasing oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate whether Niacin reverses the redox sensitive migratory arrest of macrophages in response to oxidised(ox) LDL uptake. Material and Methods Migration of RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line and bone marrow derived macrophages from wildtype and iNOS knockout mice was quantified using a modified Boyden chamber. Unstimulated cells or cells preincubated with oxLDL or non-oxidised (n)LDL were treated with Nicotinic acid or Nicotinamide. Nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and ROS production were assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). Additionally, flow cytometry analysis of apoptosis, fokal adhesion kinase (FAK), phalloidin, CD36, F4/80 macrophage marker and iNOS gene expression (PCR) were assessed. Results Migration of Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide treated cells or unstimulated cells did not differ (P>0.05). oxLDL treatment significantly reduced migration vs. unstimulated cells (p<0.05). In contrast, migratory arrest in response to oxLDL treatment was reversed by co-incubation with Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide. The oxLDL-induced peroxynitrite formation in RAW264.7 cells was abolished by Niacin and glutathion (GSH) oxidation was significantly reduced. However, nitric oxide (NO)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by oxLDL were not affected by Niacin treatment of RAW264.7 cells. In addition, Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide reduced actin polymerization, a marker for migratory arrest. Discussion Our data shows that oxLDL induced inhibition of macrophage migration in vitro can be reversed by Niacin. Furthermore, Niacin reduces peroxynitite formation and improves antioxidant GSH. PMID:25521578

  11. Macrophages exposed in vitro to conduritol B epoxide resemble Gaucher cells.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S; Shea, T B; Yatziv, S; Raghavan, S S; McCluer, R H

    1988-06-01

    In Gaucher disease the genetic lack of acid beta-glucosidase activity causes glucocerebroside to accumulate in the lysosomes of macrophage-derived cells, producing large characteristic Gaucher cells. The formation of Gaucher cells seems to be central to the pathobiology of this lysosomal storage disease. To develop a model simulating this process, cultured murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with conduritol B epoxide, a specific irreversible inhibitor of acid beta-glucosidase, for 6, 15, and 24 days. The conduritol B epoxide-treated macrophages accumulated glucocerebroside as a function of time, progressing to a fivefold elevation over control values after 24 days of treatment. Electron microscopy of the cells treated for 24 days reveals characteristics of Gaucher cells, including striations consisting of oriented fibrils. With conventional staining techniques, these fibrils have an appearance considered highly characteristic of Gaucher disease. Thus, macrophages treated with conduritol B epoxide are a useful model for studying the metabolic consequences and morphologic features associated with glucocerebroside accumulation in Gaucher cells. PMID:3371456

  12. A dendritic-cell brake on antitumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Merad, Miriam; Salmon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Activation of a cellular stress response and the transcription factor XBP1 in dendritic cells has now been shown to limit the cells' ability to stimulate antitumour immune responses in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. PMID:26178959

  13. Generation and Characterization of Mouse Regulatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Hill, Marcelo; Cuturi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, cell therapy has become a promising approach to therapeutically manipulate immune responses in autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation. Several types of lymphoid and myeloid cells origin have been generated in vitro and tested in animal models. Their efficacy to decrease pharmacological treatment has successfully been established. Macrophages play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. They represent an interesting cell population due to their high plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol to differentiate murine regulatory macrophages in vitro from bone marrow precursors. We also describe several methods to assess macrophage classical functions, as their bacterial killing capacity and antigen endocytosis and degradation. Importantly, regulatory macrophages also display suppressive characteristics, which are addressed by the study of their hypostimulatory T lymphocyte capacity and polyclonal T lymphocyte activation suppression. PMID:26530796

  14. A Monte Carlo Approach to Population Dynamics of Cell in an HIV Immune Response Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannion, Rachel; Ruskin, Heather; Pandey, Ras

    2000-03-01

    A direct Monte Carlo method is used to study the growth and decay of celluar elements, macrophages (N_H), helper T-cells (N_H), cytotoxic cells (N_C), and antigens (N_V), with an HIV immune response model. A set of rule-based logical interactions among the cells are considered. Cells divide and decay on a discrete lattice as a result of immune mechanism implemented via the inter- and intra-cellular interactions. Viral mutation is considered probabilistically (P_mut). Cells are mobile with their local motility-bias and the overall mobility is controlled by cellular mobility (P_mob). Computer simulations are performed on different lattice sizes with a number of independent runs for each parameter for averaging. Cellular mobility (P_mob=1) enhances the viral growth and reduces the stimulative T-cell growth. As a function of viral mutation rate, the interplay between the steady- state density of helper T-cells (?_H) and the viruses (?_V), leads to interesting predictions regarding the degree of infection including AIDS. For example, below a mutation threshold, (P_mut <= P_c), while the relative T-cell count (- ?0 = ?_H-?V > 0) is not as alarming, above the threshold, viral population increasingly dominates as a function of the mutation rate with the onset of a continuous transition ? ?0 ? (P_mut - P_c)^? ? ~= 0.574 ± 0.016 as P_mut ? Pc in absence cellular mobility.

  15. A Stochastic Cellular Automata Approach to Population Dynamics of Cells in a HIV Immune Response Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ras B.

    1998-03-01

    A stochastic cellular automata (SCA) approach is introduced to study the growth and decay of cellular population in an immune response model relevant to HIV. Four cell types are considered: macrophages (M), helper cells (H), cytotoxic cells (C), and viral infected cells (V). Mobility of the cells is introduced and viral mutation is considered probabilistically. In absence of mutation, the population of the host cells, helper (N_H) and cytotxic (N_C) cells in particular, dominates over the viral population (N_V), i.e., N_H, NC > N_V, the immune system wins over the viral infection. Variation of cellular population with time exhibits oscillations. The amplitude of oscillations in variation of N_H, NC and NV with time decreases at high mobility even at low viral mutation; the rate of viral growth is nonmonotonic with NV > N_H, NC in the long time regime. The viral population is much higher than that of the host cells at higher mutation rate, a possible cause of AIDS.

  16. The Dynamics of Interactions Among Immune and Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Eder, Katalin; Kalman, Bernadette

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common intracranial malignancy that constitutes about 50 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive, multimodal therapy consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with glioblastoma remains poor with 5-year survival rates of <10 %. Resistance to conventional therapies is most likely caused by several factors. Alterations in the functions of local immune mediators may represent a critical contributor to this resistance. The tumor microenvironment contains innate and adaptive immune cells in addition to the cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. These various cells communicate with each other by means of direct cell-cell contact or by soluble factors including cytokines and chemokines, and act in autocrine and paracrine manners to modulate tumor growth. There are dynamic interactions among the local immune elements and the tumor cells, where primarily the protective immune cells attempt to overcome the malignant cells. However, by developing somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications, the glioblastoma tumor cells acquire the capability of counteracting the local immune responses, and even exploit the immune cells and products for their own growth benefits. In this review, we survey those immune mechanisms that likely contribute to glioblastoma pathogenesis and may serve as a basis for novel treatment strategies. PMID:26224516

  17. Glioma associated cancer-initiating cells induce immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Barr, Jason; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Adam; Sharma, Amit K.; Gumin, Joy; Henry, Verlene; Colman, Howard; Sawaya, Raymond; Lang, Frederick F.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer that responds poorly to therapy. GBM cancer-initiating cells have been shown to mediate resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation; however, it is unknown to what extent these cells contribute to the profound immune suppression in GBM patients and if strategies that alter their differentiation state can reduce this immune suppression. Experimental Design We isolated a subpopulation of cells from GBMs that possessed the capacity for self-renewal, formed neurospheres in vitro, were capable of pluripotent differentiation and could initiate tumors in vivo. These cells immune phenotype was characterized including the elaboration of immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional immunosuppressive properties were characterized based on the inhibition of T cell proliferation and effector responses, triggering of T cell apoptosis and the induction FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Upon altering their differentiation state, the immune suppressive phenotype and functional assays were reevaluated. Results We found that the cancer-initiating cells markedly inhibited T cell proliferation and activation, induced regulatory T cells and triggered T cell apoptosis that were mediated by B7-H1 and soluble Galectin-3. These immunosuppressive properties were diminished upon altering the differentiation of the cancer-initiating cells. Conclusion Cancer-initiating cells contribute to tumor evasion of the immune surveillance and approaches that alter the differentiation state may have immune therapeutic potential. PMID:20068105

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Induces Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages through p38/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and NF-?B Pathways: Impairment in T Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wan-li; Lin, Yue-hao; Xiao, Han; Xing, Shan; Chen, Hao; Chi, Pei-dong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-? and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-?B, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-? and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-?-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-?B pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses. IMPORTANCE CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the control of viral infections and destroy tumor cells. Activation of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cancer tissues facilitates immune escape by the impairment of CTL functions. IDO expression was observed in some macrophages of the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue, and IDO could be induced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). NPC cells and macrophages have been found to produce IDO in a gamma interferon (IFN-?)-dependent manner. Instead, EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-?-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-?B pathways, which suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. This finding provides a new interpretation of the mechanism of immune escape of EBV and shows the immunosuppressive role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC. PMID:24696473

  19. Regulation of intestinal immune system by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young

    2015-02-01

    Innate immune cells survey antigenic materials beneath our body surfaces and provide a front-line response to internal and external danger signals. Dendritic cells (DCs), a subset of innate immune cells, are critical sentinels that perform multiple roles in immune responses, from acting as principal modulators to priming an adaptive immune response through antigen-specific signaling. In the gut, DCs meet exogenous, non-harmful food antigens as well as vast commensal microbes under steady-state conditions. In other instances, they must combat pathogenic microbes to prevent infections. In this review, we focus on the function of intestinal DCs in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Specifically, we describe how intestinal DCs affect IgA production from B cells and influence the generation of unique subsets of T cell. PMID:25713503

  20. Metabolic Pathways In Immune Cell Activation And Quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Erika L.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of immune system metabolism (“immunometabolism”) segregate along two paths. The first investigates the effects of immune cells on organs that regulate whole body metabolism, such as adipose tissue and liver. The second explores the role of metabolic pathways within immune cells and how this regulates immune response outcome. Distinct metabolic pathways diverge and converge at many levels and cells therefore face choices in how to achieve their metabolic goals. There is interest in fully understanding how and why immune cells commit to particular metabolic fates, and in elucidating the immunologic consequences of reaching a metabolic endpoint by one pathway versus another. This is particularly intriguing since metabolic commitment is influenced not only by substrate availability, but also by signaling pathways elicited by metabolites. Thus metabolic choices in cells enforce fate and function and this area will be the subject of this review. PMID:23601682

  1. Aiming to immune elimination of ovarian cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiabo; Duiveman-de Boer, Tjitske; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer accounts for only 3% of all cancers in women, but it causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer. Treatment with chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery shows a good response to the therapy. However, in a large proportion of the patients the tumor grows back within a few years. Cancer stem cells, that are less responsive to these treatments, are blamed for this recurrence of disease. Immune therapy either cellular or humoral is a novel concept to treat cancer. It is based on the notice that immune cells invade the tumor. However, the tumor invest heavily to escape from immune elimination by recruiting several immune suppressive mechanisms. These processes are normally in place to limit excessive immune activation and prevent autoimmune phenomena. Here, we discuss current knowledge about the immune (suppressive) status in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we discuss the immunological targets of ovarian cancer stem cells. PMID:24179603

  2. Aiming to immune elimination of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Di, Jiabo; Duiveman-de Boer, Tjitske; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2013-10-26

    Ovarian cancer accounts for only 3% of all cancers in women, but it causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer. Treatment with chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery shows a good response to the therapy. However, in a large proportion of the patients the tumor grows back within a few years. Cancer stem cells, that are less responsive to these treatments, are blamed for this recurrence of disease. Immune therapy either cellular or humoral is a novel concept to treat cancer. It is based on the notice that immune cells invade the tumor. However, the tumor invest heavily to escape from immune elimination by recruiting several immune suppressive mechanisms. These processes are normally in place to limit excessive immune activation and prevent autoimmune phenomena. Here, we discuss current knowledge about the immune (suppressive) status in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we discuss the immunological targets of ovarian cancer stem cells. PMID:24179603

  3. Efficient internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes by primary human macrophages without impairment of macrophage clearance of apoptotic or antibody-opsonized target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Witasp, Erika; Kupferschmidt, Natalia; Bengtsson, Linnea; Hultenby, Kjell; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-09-15

    Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there is sparse information on the mode of uptake of engineered nanomaterials by primary macrophages. In this study, mesoporous silica particles with cubic pore geometries and covalently fluorescein-grafted particles were synthesized through a novel route, and their interactions with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed. Efficient and active internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes was observed by transmission electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis and studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that uptake occurred through a process of endocytosis. Moreover, uptake of silica particles was independent of serum factors. The silica particles with very high surface areas due to their porous structure did not impair cell viability or function of macrophages, including the ingestion of different classes of apoptotic or opsonized target cells. The current findings are relevant to the development of mesoporous materials for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  4. Mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit murine syngeneic anti-tumor immune responses by attenuating inflammation and reorganizing the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Modiano, Jaime F; Lindborg, Beth A; McElmurry, Ron T; Lewellen, Mitzi; Forster, Colleen L; Zamora, Edward A; Schaack, Jerome; Bellgrau, Donald; O'Brien, Timothy D; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    The potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to inhibit anti-tumor immunity is becoming increasingly well recognized, but the precise steps affected by these cells during the development of an anti-tumor immune response remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined how MSCs affect the steps required to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response following administration of adenovirus Fas ligand (Ad-FasL) in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LL3) model. Administration of bone marrow-derived MSCs with LL3 cells accelerated tumor growth significantly. MSCs inhibited the inflammation induced by Ad-FasL in the primary tumors, precluding their rejection; MSCs also reduced the consequent expansion of tumor-specific T cells in the treated hosts. When immune T cells were transferred to adoptive recipients, MSCs impaired, but did not completely abrogate the ability of these T cells to promote elimination of secondary tumors. This impairment was associated with a modest reduction in tumor-infiltrating T cells, with a significant reduction in tumor-infiltrating macrophages, and with a reorganization of the stromal environment. Our data indicate that MSCs in the tumor environment reduce the efficacy of immunotherapy by creating a functional and anatomic barrier that impairs inflammation, T cell priming and expansion, and T cell function-including recruitment of effector cells. PMID:26250807

  5. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A. J.; Steel, H. C.; Tintinger, G. R.; Gravett, C. M.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1) antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5?-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies. PMID:24971371

  6. Regional differences in the density of Langerhans cells, CD8-positive T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages: a preliminary study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Omine, Yuya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kasahara, Masaaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    To provide a better understanding of the local immune system in the face and external genitalia, i.e., the oral floor, lower lip, palpebral conjunctiva, anus and penis, we examined the distribution and density of CD1a-positve Langerhans cells, CD8-positive suppressor T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages using specimens from 8 male elderly cadavers. The density of Langerhans cells showed an individual difference of more than (or almost) 10-fold in the lip (oral floor). In the oral floor, Langerhans cells were often spherical. Submucosal or subcutaneous suppressor lymphocytes, especially rich in the oral floor and penile skin, migrated into the epithelium at 4 sites, except for the anus. In the conjunctiva, macrophage migration into the epithelium was seen in all 8 specimens. The density of suppressor lymphocytes showed a significant correlation between the oral floor and the lip (r=0.78). In contrast, the anal and penile skins showed no positive correlation in the density of all three types of immunoreactive cells examined. Overall, irrespective of the wide individual differences, the oral floor and conjunctiva seemed to be characterized by a rich content of all three cell types, whereas the penile skin was characterized by an abundance of suppressor lymphocytes. Based on the tables, as mean value, the relative abundance of three different cell types were as follows; CD1a-positive Langerhans cells (anus), CD8-positive lymphocytes (penis), and CD68-positive macrophages (lip). The present observations suggest that the local immune response is highly site-dependent, with a tendency for tolerance rather than rejection. PMID:26417477

  7. Sensing Cytosolic RpsL by Macrophages Induces Lysosomal Cell Death and Termination of Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Marsha L.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Qu, Jie-Ming; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila provokes strong host responses and has proven to be a valuable model for the discovery of novel immunosurveillance pathways. Our previous work revealed that an environmental isolate of L. pneumophila induces a noncanonical form of cell death, leading to restriction of bacterial replication in primary mouse macrophages. Here we show that such restriction also occurs in infections with wild type clinical isolates. Importantly, we found that a lysine to arginine mutation at residue 88 (K88R) in the ribosome protein RpsL that not only confers bacterial resistance to streptomycin, but more importantly, severely attenuated the induction of host cell death and enabled L. pneumophila to replicate in primary mouse macrophages. Although conferring similar resistance to streptomycin, a K43N mutation in RpsL does not allow productive intracellular bacterial replication. Further analysis indicated that RpsL is capable of effectively inducing macrophage death via a pathway involved in lysosomal membrane permeabilization; the K88R mutant elicits similar responses but is less potent. Moreover, cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease that causes cell death after being released into the cytosol upon the loss of membrane integrity, is required for efficient RpsL-induced macrophage death. Furthermore, despite the critical role of cathepsin B in delaying RpsL-induced cell death, macrophages lacking cathepsin B do not support productive intracellular replication of L. pneumophila harboring wild type RpsL. This suggests the involvement of other yet unidentified components in the restriction of bacterial replication. Our results identified RpsL as a regulator in the interactions between bacteria such as L. pneumophila and primary mouse macrophages by triggering unique cellular pathways that restrict intracellular bacterial replication. PMID:25738962

  8. Engrafted human cells generate adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting human fetal liver, thymus, and hematopoietic stem cells in severely immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2R?-/- (NSG) mice, have shown potential to model human immunity to infection. We engrafted HLA-A2-positive fetal tissues into NSG mice transgenically expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 (NSG-A2) to generate NSG-A2-BLT mice and characterized their human immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection to assess the utility of this model for investigating human TB. Results NSG-A2-BLT mice were infected intravenously with BCG and the immune response of engrafted human immune cells was characterized. After ex vivo antigenic stimulation of splenocytes, interferon (IFN)-?-producing cells were detected by ELISPOT from infected, but not uninfected NSG-A2-BLT mice. However, the levels of secreted IFN-?, determined by ELISA, were not significantly elevated by antigenic stimulation. NSG-A2-BLT mice were susceptible to BCG infection as determined by higher lung bacillary load than the non-engrafted control NSG-A2 mice. BCG-infected NSG-A2-BLT mice developed lung lesions composed mostly of human macrophages and few human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The lesions did not resemble granulomas typical of human TB. Conclusions Engrafted human immune cells in NSG-A2-BLT mice showed partial function of innate and adaptive immune systems culminating in antigen-specific T cell responses to mycobacterial infection. The lack of protection was associated with low IFN-? levels and limited numbers of T cells recruited to the lesions. The NSG-A2-BLT mouse is capable of mounting a human immune response to M. tuberculosis in vivo but a quantitatively and possibly qualitatively enhanced effector response will be needed to improve the utility of this model for TB research. PMID:24313934

  9. Uptake of apoptotic cells drives the growth of a pathogenic trypanosome in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Nascimento, Danielle O.; Soares, Milena B. P.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; de Mello, Fernando G.; Dosreis, George A.; Lopes, Marcela F.

    2000-01-01

    After apoptosis, phagocytes prevent inflammation and tissue damage by the uptake and removal of dead cells. In addition, apoptotic cells evoke an anti-inflammatory response through macrophages. We have previously shown that there is intense lymphocyte apoptosis in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, a debilitating cardiac illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we show that the interaction of apoptotic, but not necrotic T lymphocytes with macrophages infected with T. cruzi fuels parasite growth in a manner dependent on prostaglandins, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and polyamine biosynthesis. We show that the vitronectin receptor is critical, in both apoptotic-cell cytoadherence and the induction of prostaglandin E2/TGF-? release and ornithine decarboxylase activity in macrophages. A single injection of apoptotic cells in infected mice increases parasitaemia, whereas treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors almost completely ablates it in vivo. These results suggest that continual lymphocyte apoptosis and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages have a role in parasite persistence in the host, and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have potential therapeutic application in the control of parasite replication and spread in Chagas' disease.

  10. Ionizing Radiation Induces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation and Aggregation Through JNK-Dependent Activation of CD36 Scavenger Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Ikuo; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sumi, Tadateru; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Irradiated arteries of cancer patients can be associated with atherosclerosis-like lesions containing cholesterol-laden macrophages (foam cells). Endothelial cell damage by irradiation does not completely explain the foam cell formation. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced foam cell formation. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood monocytes were activated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then treated with varying doses of IR in vitro in the absence of endothelial cells. Scavenger receptor expression and foam cell formation of IR-treated macrophages were investigated in the presence or absence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We also assessed the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human monocytes (macrophages) for the foam cell formation. Results: We found that IR treatment of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human peripheral blood monocytes resulted in the enhanced expression of CD36 scavenger receptors and that cholesterol accumulated in the irradiated macrophages with resultant foam cell formation in the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, when cultured on collagen gels, human macrophages formed large foam cell aggregates in response to IR. Antibodies against CD36 inhibited the IR-induced foam cell formation and aggregation, indicating that the IR-induced foam cell formation and the subsequent aggregation are dependent on functional CD36. In addition, we found that IR of human macrophages resulted in c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and that c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition suppressed IR-induced CD36 expression and the subsequent foam cell formation and aggregation. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that IR-induced foam cell formation is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent CD36 activation.

  11. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet is associated with increased immune cell entry into the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Laura B.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Flaherty, David K.; Buckman, Christopher T.; Thompson, Misty M.; Matlock, Brittany K.; Weller, Kevin; Ellacott, Kate L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in peripheral tissues caused, in part, by the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into adipose tissue. Studies in rodent models have also shown increased inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) during obesity. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the CNS. To do this we used a bone marrow chimerism model to track the entry of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled peripheral immune cells into the CNS. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the number of GFP+ immune cells recruited into the CNS of mice fed a high-fat diet compared to standard chow fed controls. High-fat feeding resulted in obesity associated with a 30% increase in the number of GFP+ cells in the CNS compared to control mice. Greater than 80% of the GFP+ cells recruited to the CNS were also CD45+ CD11b+ indicating that the GFP+ cells displayed characteristics of microglia/macrophages. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed the increase in GFP+ cells in the CNS of the high-fat fed group and also indicated that 93% of the recruited cells were found in the parenchyma and had a stellate morphology. These findings indicate that peripheral immune cells can be recruited to the CNS in obesity and may contribute to the inflammatory response. PMID:23831150

  12. CD4+ cells, macrophages, MHC-I and C5b-9 involve the pathogenesis of dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xi; Wang, Qian; Chen, Ting; Niu, Junwei; Ban, Rui; Liu, Jiexiao; Mao, Yanling; Pu, Chuanqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dysferlin is a sarcolemmal protein that plays an important role in membrane repair by regulating vesicle fusion with the sarcolemma. Mutations in the dysferlin gene (DYSF) lead to multiple clinical phenotypes, including Miyoshi myopathy (MM), limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD 2B), and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT). Patients with dysferlinopathy also show muscle inflammation, which often leads to a misdiagnosis as inflammatory myopathy. In this study, we examined and analyzed the dyferlinopathy-associated immunological features. Methods: Comparative immunohistochemical analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration, and muscle expression of MHC-I and C5b-9 was performed using muscle biopsy samples from 14 patients with dysferlinopathy, 7 patients with polymyositis, and 8 patients with either Duchenne muscular dystrophy or Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). Results: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for immune response-related CD4+ cells, macrophages, MHC-I and C5b-9 in dysferlinopathy, which is in a different mode of polymyositis and DMD/BMD. Conclusion: These results demonstrated the involvement of immune factors in the pathogenesis of dysferlinopathy. PMID:26045819

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES I